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SEND(1mh)                                                                               SEND(1mh)

NAME
       send - send an nmh message

SYNOPSIS
       send [-help] [-version] [-alias aliasfile] [-draft] [-draftfolder +folder] [-draftmessage
            msg] [-nodraftfolder] [-filter filterfile] [-nofilter] [-format | -noformat] [-for-
            ward | -noforward] [-mime | -nomime] [-msgid | -nomsgid] [-messageid localname | ran-
            dom] [-push | -nopush] [-split seconds] [-verbose | -noverbose] [-watch | -nowatch]
            [-mts smtp | sendmail/smtp | sendmail/pipe] [-sendmail program] [-server servername]
            [-port port-name/number] [-sasl] [-nosasl] [-saslmech mechanism] [-authservice ser-
            vice] [-snoop] [-user username] [-tls] [-initialtls] [-notls] [-certverify] [-no-
            certverify] [-width columns] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       send will cause each of the specified files to be delivered to each of the destinations in
       the  "To:",  "cc:",  "Bcc:", "Dcc:", and "Fcc:" fields of the message.  If send is re-dis-
       tributing a message, as invoked from dist, then the corresponding "Resent-xxx" fields  are
       examined instead.

       By default, send uses the program post to do the actual delivery of the messages, although
       this can be changed by defining the postproc profile component.  Most of the features  at-
       tributed to send are actually performed by post.

       Before send gives the message to post for delivery, the message is processed by mhbuild to
       perform any necessary MIME encoding of the outgoing message.  This can be changed  by  the
       buildmimeproc profile component.  mhbuild is invoked with the -auto switch, so mhbuild di-
       rectives are not processed by default.  See mhbuild(1) for more information.

       mhbuild will scan the message draft for a header named Attach.  The draft is converted  to
       a  MIME message if one or more matches are found.  This conversion occurs before all other
       processing.  The whatnow(1) man page describes the user interface for  managing  MIME  at-
       tachments via this mechanism.

       The  first  part of the MIME message is the draft body if that body contains any non-blank
       characters.  The body of each Attach header field is interpreted as a file name, and  each
       file named is included as a separate part in the MIME message.

       Determination of the content MIME type inserted into the Content-Type header for each part
       depends on how the nmh installation was configured.  If a program, such  as  file  with  a
       --mime  or -i option, was found that can specify the type of a file as a MIME type string,
       then that will be used.  To determine if your nmh was so configured, run mhparam mimetype-
       proc and see if a non-empty string is displayed.

       If  your  nmh  was  not configured with a program to specify a file type as a MIME string,
       then a different method is used to determine the content-type string.  For file names with
       dot suffixes, the profile is scanned for a mhshow-suffix- entry for that suffix.  The con-
       tent-type for the part is taken from that profile entry if a match is found.  If  a  match
       is  not  found in the user profile, the mhn.defaults profile is scanned next.  If no match
       is found or the file does not have a dot suffix, the content-type  is  text/plain  if  the
       file  contains only ASCII characters or application/octet-stream if it contains characters
       outside of the ASCII range.  See mhshow(1) for more details and example syntax.

       Each attached MIME part contains a "Content-Description" header that  includes  the  file-
       name,  and  adds  a "Content-Disposition" header.  Here is an example of MIME part headers
       for an attachment:

       Content-Type: text/plain; name="VERSION"; charset="us-ascii"
       Content-Description: VERSION
       Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="VERSION"

       See mhbuild(1) for explanation of how the Content-Disposition value is selected.

       If -push is specified, send will detach itself from the user's terminal  and  perform  its
       actions  in  the background.  If push'd and the draft can't be sent, then an error message
       will be sent (using the mailproc) back to the user.  If -forward is given, then a copy  of
       the  draft will be attached to this failure notice.  Using -push differs from putting send
       in the background because the output is trapped and analyzed by nmh.

       If -verbose is specified, send will indicate the interactions occurring with the transport
       system,  prior  to actual delivery.  If -watch is specified send will monitor the delivery
       of local and network mail.  Hence, by specifying both switches, a large detail of informa-
       tion can be gathered about each step of the message's entry into the transport system.

       The -draftfolder +folder and -draftmessage msg switches invoke the nmh draft folder facil-
       ity.  This is an advanced (and highly useful) feature.  Consult the mh-draft(5)  man  page
       for more information.

       If  -split is specified, send will split the draft into one or more partial messages prior
       to sending.  This makes use of the MIME features in nmh.  Note however that if send is in-
       voked  under dist, then this switch is ignored -- it makes no sense to redistribute a mes-
       sage in this fashion.  Sometimes you want send to pause after posting a  partial  message.
       This  is  usually  the  case when you are running sendmail and expect to generate a lot of
       partial messages.  The argument to -split tells it how long to pause between postings.

       send with no file argument will query whether the draft  is  the  intended  file,  whereas
       -draft  will  suppress this question.  Once the transport system has successfully accepted
       custody of the message, the file will be renamed with a site-dependent prefix  (usually  a
       comma),  which  allows  it to be retrieved until the next draft message is sent.  If there
       are errors in the formatting of the message, send will abort with  a  (hopefully)  helpful
       error message.

       If  a "Bcc:" field is encountered, its addresses will be used for delivery, and the "Bcc:"
       field will be removed from the message sent to sighted recipients.  The  blind  recipients
       will  receive  an entirely new message with a minimal set of headers. The body of this new
       message will contain a copy of the message sent to the sighted recipients,  either  marked
       up with the indicator text "Blind-Carbon-Copy" or encapsulated as a MIME digest.

       If  a  "Dcc:"  field  is encountered and the sendmail/pipe mail transport method is not in
       use, its addresses will be used for delivery, and the "Dcc:" field will  be  removed  from
       the  message.   The  blind recipients will receive exactly the same message as the sighted
       recipients.  *WARNING* Recipients listed in the "Dcc:" field receive no  explicit  indica-
       tion  that they have received a "blind copy".  This can cause blind recipients to inadver-
       tently reply to all of the sighted recipients of the original message, revealing that they
       received  a  blind  copy.  On the other hand, since a normal reply to a message sent via a
       "Bcc:" field will generate a reply only to the sender of the original  message,  it  takes
       extra  effort  in most mailers to reply to the included message, and so would usually only
       be done deliberately, rather than by accident.

       If the sendmail/pipe mail transport method is used,  then  messages  containing  a  "Dcc:"
       field are rejected.

       If -filter filterfile is specified, then this copy is filtered (re-formatted) by mhl prior
       to being sent to the blind recipients.  Alternately, if you specify the -mime switch, then
       send will use the MIME rules for encapsulation.

       Prior to sending the message, the "Date: now" field will be appended to the headers in the
       message.  If -msgid is specified, then a "Message-ID:" field will also  be  added  to  the
       message.

       The  -messageid  switch selects the style used for the part appearing after the @ in "Mes-
       sage-ID:", "Resent-Message-ID:", and "Content-ID:" header fields.  The two acceptable  op-
       tions  are  localname (which is the default), and random.  With localname, the local host-
       name is used.  With random, a random sequence of characters is used  instead.   Note  that
       the -msgid switch must be enabled for this switch to have any effect.

       If  send  is  re-distributing  a  message  (when  invoked by dist), then "Resent-" will be
       prepended to each of these fields: "From:", "Date:", and "Message-ID:".

       A "From:" field is required for all outgoing messages.  Multiple addresses  are  permitted
       in  the  "From:"  field,  but  a  "Sender:"  field  is required in this case.  Otherwise a
       "Sender:" field is optional.

       If a message with multiple "From:" addresses does not include a "Sender:" field  but  does
       include  an "Envelope-From:" field, the "Envelope-From:" field will be used to construct a
       "Sender:" field.

       When using SMTP for mail submission, the envelope-from used for the  SMTP  transaction  is
       derived  from  the  "Envelope-From:"  field.  If no "Envelope-From:" field is present, the
       "Sender:" field is used.  If neither the  "Envelope-From:"  nor  the  "Sender:"  field  is
       present, the "From:" field is used.  When "Envelope-From:" appears in a message it will be
       removed from the final outgoing message.

       By using the -format switch, each of the entries in the "To:" and "cc:" fields will be re-
       placed  with  "standard" format entries.  This standard format is designed to be usable by
       all of the message handlers on the various systems around the Internet.  If  -noformat  is
       given, then headers are output exactly as they appear in the message draft.

       If an "Fcc: folder" is encountered, the message will be copied to the specified folder for
       the sender in the format in which it will appear to any non-Bcc receivers of the  message.
       That  is, it will have the appended fields and field reformatting.  The "Fcc:" fields will
       be removed from all outgoing copies of the message.

       Beware that if an "Fcc:" with one or more folders is present but none of the  folders  ex-
       ist, and the default fileproc and postproc are in use, then refile will prompt the user to
       create the folder(s) if -push is not specified.  If all responses are  negative,  or  cre-
       ation  of  each folder fails, or -push is specified, the message will not be copied to any
       folder and will be removed by post.  With the default refile switches, the  message  draft
       will be renamed according to the specification of its -nolink switch.

       By using the -width columns switch, the user can direct send as to how long it should make
       header lines containing addresses.

       The mail transport system default is provided in /etc/nmh/mts.conf but can  be  overridden
       here with the -mts switch.

       If  nmh  is  using as its mail transport system sendmail/pipe, the -sendmail switch can be
       used to override the default sendmail program.

       If nmh is using the SMTP MTA, the -server and the -port switches can be used  to  override
       the  default  mail  server  (defined  by the /etc/nmh/mts.conf servers entry).  The -snoop
       switch can be used to view the SMTP transaction.  (Beware that the  SMTP  transaction  may
       contain  authentication  information  either  in  plaintext or easily decoded base64.)  If
       -sasl -saslmech xoauth2 is used, the HTTP transaction is also shown.

       If nmh has been compiled with SASL support, the -sasl and -nosasl switches will enable and
       disable the use of SASL authentication with the SMTP MTA.  Depending on the SASL mechanism
       used, this may require an additional password prompt from the user (but the netrc file can
       be  used  to  store  this  password,  as  described  in  the mh-profile(5) man page).  The
       -saslmech switch can be used to select a particular SASL mechanism, and the  -user  switch
       can  be  used  to select a authorization userid to provide to SASL other than the default.
       The credentials profile entry in the mh-profile(5) man page describes the ways to supply a
       username and password.

       If  SASL  authentication is successful, nmh will attempt to negotiate a security layer for
       session encryption.  Encrypted data is labelled with `(encrypted)' and `(decrypted)'  when
       viewing  the SMTP transaction with the -snoop switch; see the post man page description of
       -snoop for its other features.

       If nmh has been compiled with OAuth support, the -sasl and -saslmech xoauth2 switches will
       enable  OAuth  authentication.  The -user switch must be used, and the username must be an
       email address the user has for the service, which must be specified with the  -authservice
       service switch.  Before using OAuth authentication, the user must authorize nmh by running
       mhlogin and grant authorization to that account.  See the mhlogin(1) man page for more de-
       tails.

       If  nmh has been compiled with TLS support, the -tls and -initialtls switches will require
       the negotiation of TLS when connecting to the SMTP MTA.  The -tls  switch  will  negotiate
       TLS  as part of the normal SMTP protocol using the STARTTLS command.  The -initialtls will
       negotiate TLS immediately after the connection has taken place, before any  SMTP  commands
       are  sent  or  received.   Encrypted data is labelled with `(tls-encrypted)' and `(tls-de-
       crypted)' when viewing the SMTP transaction with the -snoop switch; see the post man  page
       description of -snoop for its other features.  The -notls switch will disable all attempts
       to negotiate TLS.

       If port 465 is specified and none of the TLS switches were enabled,  -initialtls  will  be
       implied  if  TLS  support  was compiled in.  Though port 465 for SMTPS (SMTP over SSL) was
       deregistered by IANA in 1998, it is still used for that service.

       When using TLS the default is to verify the remote certificate and SubjectName against the
       local  trusted  certificate  store.   This  can  be controlled by the -certverify and -no-
       certverify switches.  See your OpenSSL documentation for more information  on  certificate
       verification.

       The files specified by the profile entry "Aliasfile:" and any additional alias files given
       by the -alias aliasfile switch will be read (more than one file, each preceded by  -alias,
       can be named).  See mh-alias(5) for more information.

   Selection based on sender address: sendfrom
       One  or more sendfrom profile components can be used to select a mail server address, mail
       server port, or any other switch that can be supplied to post.  It works by first  looking
       at  the  sender address and domain name in the message draft, as described below.  It then
       looks for a corresponding profile entry, which contains the post switches.  To enable, add
       profile entries of the form:

            sendfrom-address/domain name: post switches

       The  email address is extracted from the Envelope-From:  header, if not blank, the Sender:
       header, or the From: header line in the message draft.   Multiple  profile  entries,  with
       different  email addresses or domain names, are supported.  This allows different switches
       to post, such as -user, to be associated with different email addresses.  If a domain name
       is used, it matches all users in that domain.

       Here is an example profile entry using OAuth for an account hosted by gmail:

            sendfrom-gmail_address AT example.com: -sasl -saslmech xoauth2
                 -authservice gmail -tls -server smtp.gmail.com
                 -user gmail_login AT example.com

       (Indentation  indicates a continued line, as supported in MH profiles.)  The username need
       not be the same as the sender address, which was extracted  from  the  appropriate  header
       line as noted above.

       Here are example profile entries that use an nmh credentials file:

            credentials: file:nmhcreds
            sendfrom-sendgrid_address AT example.com: -sasl -tls
                 -server smtp.sendgrid.net
            sendfrom-outbound.att.net: -sasl -initialtls
                 -server outbound.att.net -port 465
            sendfrom-fastmail.com: -initialtls -sasl -saslmech LOGIN
                 -server smtps-proxy.messagingengine.com -port 80

       where  nmhcreds  is in the user's nmh directory (from the Path profile component) and con-
       tains:

            machine smtp.sendgrid.net
                 login sendgrid_login AT example.com
                 password ********
            machine outbound.att.net
                 login att_login AT example.com
                 password ********
            machine smtps-proxy.messagingengine.com
                 login fastmail_login AT example.com
                 password ********

       For more information on authentication to mail servers, see the mhlogin(1)  man  page  for
       OAuth services, and mh-profile(5) man page for login credentials.

FILES
       $HOME/.mh_profile          The user profile

PROFILE COMPONENTS
       Path:                To determine the user's nmh directory
       Draft-Folder:        To find the default draft-folder
       Aliasfile:           For a default alias file
       Signature:           To determine the user's mail signature
       mailproc:            Program to post failure notices
       postproc:            Program to post the message
       sendfrom-address:    Switches to post for sender address
       sendfrom-domain:     Switches to post for sender domain name

SEE ALSO
       comp(1),   dist(1),  file(1),  forw(1),  mhbuild(1),  mhparam(1),  mhlogin(1),  refile(1),
       repl(1), whatnow(1), mh-alias(5), mh-profile(5), mh-tailor(5), post(8)

DEFAULTS
       `file' defaults to <mh-dir>/draft
       `-alias' defaults to /etc/nmh/MailAliases
       `-nodraftfolder'
       `-nofilter'
       `-format'
       `-forward'
       `-nomime'
       `-nomsgid'
       `-messageid localname'
       `-nopush'
       `-noverbose'
       `-nowatch'
       `-width 72'
       `-certverify'

CONTEXT
       None

BUGS
       Under some configurations, it is not possible to monitor the  mail  delivery  transaction;
       -watch is a no-op on those systems.

       Using -split 0 doesn't work correctly.

nmh-1.7.1                                   2017-05-11                                  SEND(1mh)

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