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A Directory Structure for TeX Files

Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004 TeX Users

   Permission to use, copy, and distribute this document _without
modification_ for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
provided that this notice appears in all copies.  It is provided "as
is" without expressed or implied warranty.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that
the modifications are clearly marked and the document is not
represented as the official one.

   This document is available on any CTAN host (see Appendix *Note
Related references::).  Please send questions or suggestions by email to
<tds AT>.  We welcome all comments.   This is version 1.1.

* Menu:

* Introduction::
* General::
* Top-level directories::
* Summary::
* Unspecified pieces::
* Implementation issues::
* Is there a better way?::
* Related references::
* Contributors::

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---


* History::
* The role of the TDS::
* Conventions::


* Subdirectory searching::
* Rooting the tree::
* Local additions::
* Duplicate filenames::

Top-level directories

* Macros::
* Fonts::
* Non-font Metafont files::
* MetaPost::
* BibTeX::
* Scripts::
* Documentation::


* Extensions::


* Font bitmaps::
* Valid font bitmaps::


* Documentation tree summary::

Unspecified pieces

* Portable filenames::

Implementation issues

* Adoption of the TDS::
* More on subdirectory searching::
* Example implementation-specific trees::

Example implementation-specific trees

* AmiWeb2c 2.0::
* Public DECUS TeX::
* Web2c 7::

Is there a better way?

* Macro structure::
* Font structure::
* Documentation structure::

Font structure

* Font file type location::
* Mode and resolution location::
* Modeless bitmaps::

File:,  Node: Introduction,  Next: General,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

TeX is a powerful, flexible typesetting system used by many people
around the world.  It is extremely portable and runs on virtually all
operating systems.  One unfortunate side effect of TeX's flexibility,
however, is that there has been no single "right" way to install it.
This has resulted in many sites having different installed arrangements.

   The primary purpose of this document is to describe a standard TeX
Directory Structure (TDS): a directory hierarchy for macros, fonts, and
the other implementation-independent TeX system files.  As a matter of
practicality, this document also suggests ways to incorporate the rest
of the TeX files into a single structure.  The TDS has been designed to
work on all modern systems.  In particular, the Technical Working Group
(TWG) believes it is usable under MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2, Unix, VMS, and
Windows NT.  We hope that administrators and developers of both free
and commercial TeX implementations will adopt this standard.

   This document is intended both for the TeX system administrator at a
site and for people preparing TeX distributions--everything from a
complete runnable system to a single macro or style file. It may also
help TeX users find their way around systems organized this way.  It is
not a tutorial: we necessarily assume knowledge of the many parts of a
working TeX system. If you are unfamiliar with any of the programs or
file formats we refer to, consult the references in Appendix *Note
Related references::.

* Menu:

* History::
* The role of the TDS::
* Conventions::

File:,  Node: History,  Next: The role of the TDS,  Up: Introduction

1.1 History

Version 1.0 of the TDS was released in February 2003.

   Version 1.1 was released in June 2004, with the following
non-editorial changes:

   * Inputs for TeX extensions included under `tex', instead       of
     in their own top-level directories (Section *Note Extensions::)

   * New top-level directory `scripts' (Section *Note Scripts::).

   * New subdirectories `lig', `opentype',       `truetype', and
     `type3' under `fonts'       (Section *Note Fonts::).

   * `enc', `lig', and `map' all use       `SYNTAX/PACKAGE'
     subdirectories       (Section *Note Fonts::).

   * `pfm' files specified to go under `type1', and       `inf' files
     under `afm' (Section *Note Fonts::).

File:,  Node: The role of the TDS,  Next: Conventions,  Prev: History,  Up: Introduction

1.2 The role of the TDS

The role of the TDS is to stabilize the organization of TeX-related
software packages that are installed and in use, possibly on multiple
platforms simultaneously.

   At first glance, it may seem that the Comprehensive TeX Archive
Network (CTAN) fulfills at least part of this role, but this is not the
case.  The role of CTAN is to simplify archiving and distribution, not
installation and use.

   In fact, the roles of the TDS and CTAN are frequently in conflict,
as we will see.  For distribution, many different types of files must
be combined into a single unit; for use, it is traditional to segregate
files (even similar files) from a single package into separate,
occasionally distant, directories.

File:,  Node: Conventions,  Prev: The role of the TDS,  Up: Introduction

1.3 Conventions

In this document, `/' is used to separate filename components; for
example, `texmf/fonts'.  This is the Unix convention but the ideas are
in no way Unix-specific.

   In this document, "TeX" generally means the TeX system, including
Metafont, DVI drivers, utilities, etc., not just the TeX program itself.

   The word "package" in this document has its usual meaning: a set of
related files distributed, installed, and maintained as a unit.  This is
_not_ a LaTeX2e package, which is a style file supplementing a document

   We use the following typographic conventions:

   * `literal' Literal text such as `filename' is typeset in typewriter

   * `REPLACEABLE' Replaceable text such as `PACKAGE', identifying a
     class of things, is typeset in italics inside angle brackets.

File:,  Node: General,  Next: Top-level directories,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 General

This section describes common properties throughout the TDS tree.

* Menu:

* Subdirectory searching::
* Rooting the tree::
* Local additions::
* Duplicate filenames::

File:,  Node: Subdirectory searching,  Next: Rooting the tree,  Up: General

2.1 Subdirectory searching

Older TeX installations store large numbers of related files in single
directories, for example, all `TFM' files and/or all TeX input files.

   This monolithic arrangement hinders maintenance of a TeX system: it
is difficult to determine what files are used by what packages, what
files need to be updated when a new version is installed, or what files
should be deleted if a package is removed.  It is also a source of error
if two or more packages happen to have input files with the same name.

   Therefore, the TWG felt each package should be in a separate
directory. But we recognized that explicitly listing all directories to
be searched would be unbearable.  A site may wish to install dozens of
packages.  Aside from anything else, listing that many directories would
produce search paths many thousands of characters long, overflowing the
available space on some systems.

   Also, if all directories are explicitly listed, installing or
removing a new package would mean changing a path as well as installing
or removing the actual files.  This would be a time-consuming and
error-prone operation, even with implementations that provide some way
to specify the directories to search at runtime.  On systems without
runtime configuration, it would require recompiling software, an
intolerable burden.

   As a result, the TWG concluded that a comprehensive TDS requires
implementations to support some form of implicit subdirectory
searching.  More precisely, implementations must make it possible to
specify that TeX, Metafont, and their companion utilities search in both
a specified directory and recursively through all subdirectories of that
directory when looking for an input file.  Other forms of subdirectory
searching, for example recursive-to-one-level searches, may also be
provided.  We encourage implementors to provide subdirectory searching
at the option of the installer and user for all paths.

   The TDS does not specify a syntax for specifying recursive
searching, but we encourage implementors to provide interoperability
(see Section *Note More on subdirectory searching::).

File:,  Node: Rooting the tree,  Next: Local additions,  Prev: Subdirectory searching,  Up: General

2.2 Rooting the tree

In this document, we shall designate the root TDS directory by `texmf'
(for "TeX and Metafont"). We recommend using that name where possible,
but the actual name of the directory is up to the installer. On PC
networks, for example, this could map to a logical drive specification
such as `T:'.

   Similarly, the location of this directory on the system is
site-dependent.  It may be at the root of the file system; on Unix
systems, `/usr/local/share', `/usr/local', `/usr/local/lib', and `/opt'
are common choices.

   The name `texmf' was chosen for several reasons: it reflects the fact
that the directory contains files pertaining to an entire TeX system
(including Metafont, MetaPost, BibTeX, etc.), not just TeX itself; and
it is descriptive of a generic installation rather than a particular

   A site may choose to have more than one TDS hierarchy installed (for
example, when installing an upgrade). This is perfectly legitimate.

File:,  Node: Local additions,  Next: Duplicate filenames,  Prev: Rooting the tree,  Up: General

2.3 Local additions

The TDS cannot specify precisely when a package is or is not a "local
addition". Each site must determine this according to its own
conventions.  At the two extremes, one site might wish to consider
"nonlocal" all files not acquired as part of the installed TeX
distribution; another site might consider "local" only those files that
were actually developed at the local site and not distributed elsewhere.

   We recognize two common methods for local additions to a distributed
`texmf' tree. Both have their place; in fact, some sites employ both

  1. A completely separate tree which is a TDS structure itself; for
     example, `/usr/local/umbtex' at the University of Massachusetts at
     Boston. This is another example of the multiple `texmf'
     hierarchies mentioned in the previous section.

  2. A directory named `local' at any appropriate level, for example,
     in the `FORMAT', `PACKAGE', and `SUPPLIER' directories discussed
     in the following sections.  The TDS reserves the directory name
     `local' for this purpose.

     We recommend using `local' for site-adapted configuration files,
     such as `language.dat' for the Babel package or `graphics.cfg' for
     the graphics package.  Unmodified configuration files from a
     package should remain in the package directory. The intent is to
     separate locally modified or created files from distribution
     files, to ease installing new releases.

   One common case of local additions is dynamically generated files,
e.g., PK fonts by the `mktexpk' script (which originated in Dvips as
`MakeTeXPK').  A site may store the generated files directly in any of:
   * their standard location in the main TDS tree (if it can be made
     globally writable);

   * an alternative location in the main TDS tree (for example, under

   * a second complete TDS tree (as outlined above);

   * any other convenient directory (perhaps under `/var', for example

   No one solution will be appropriate for all sites.

File:,  Node: Duplicate filenames,  Prev: Local additions,  Up: General

2.4 Duplicate filenames

Different files by the same name may exist in a TDS tree. The TDS
generally leaves unspecified which of two files by the same name in a
search path will be found, so generally the only way to reliably find a
given file is for it to have a unique name.  However, the TDS requires
implementations to support the following exceptions:

   * Names of TeX input files must be unique within each first-level
     subdirectory of `texmf/tex' and `texmf/tex/generic', but not
     within all of `texmf/tex'; i.e., different TeX formats may have
     files by the same name. (Section *Note Macros:: discusses this
     further.)  Thus, no single format-independent path specification,
     such as a recursive search beginning at `texmf/tex' specifying no
     other directories, suffices.  So implementations must provide
     format-dependent path specifications, for example via wrapper
     scripts or configuration files.

   * Many font files will have the same name (e.g., `'), as
     discussed in Section *Note Valid font bitmaps::.  Implementations
     must distinguish these files by mode and resolution.

   All implementations we know of already have these capabilities.

   One place where duplicate names are likely to occur is not an

   * Names of Metafont input files (as opposed to bitmaps) must be
     unique within all of `texmf/fonts'. In practice, this is a problem
     with some variants of Computer Modern which contain slightly
     modified files named `', `', and so on. We
     believe the only feasible solution is to rename the derivative
     files to be unique.

File:,  Node: Top-level directories,  Next: Summary,  Prev: General,  Up: Top

3 Top-level directories

The directories under the `texmf' root identify the major components of
a TeX system (see Section *Note Summary:: for a summary).  A site may
omit any unneeded directories.

   Although the TDS by its nature can specify precise locations only
for implementation-independent files, we recognize that installers may
well wish to place other files under `texmf' to simplify administration
of the TeX tree, especially if it is maintained by someone other than
the system administrator.  Therefore, additional top-level directories
may be present.

   The top-level directories specified by the TDS are:

   * `tex' for TeX files (Section *Note Macros::).

   * `fonts' for font-related files (Section *Note Fonts::).

   * `metafont' for Metafont files which are not fonts (Section *Note
     Non-font Metafont files::).

   * `metapost' for MetaPost files (Section *Note MetaPost::).

   * `bibtex' for BibTeX files (Section *Note BibTeX::).

   * `scripts' for platform-independent executables (Section *Note

   * `doc' for user documentation (Section *Note Documentation::).

   * `source' for sources.  This includes both traditional program
     sources (for example, Web2C sources go in `texmf/source/web2c')
     and, e.g., LaTeX `dtx' sources (which go in `texmf/source/latex').
     The TDS leaves unspecified any structure under `source'.

     `source' is intended for files which are not needed at runtime by
     any TeX program; it should not be included in any search path. For
     example, `plain.tex' does not belong under `texmf/source', even
     though it is a "source file" in the sense of not being derived
     from another file. (It goes in `texmf/tex/plain/base', as explained
     in Section *Note Macros::).

   * `IMPLEMENTATION' for implementations (examples: `emtex', `vtex',
     `web2c'), to be used for whatever purpose deemed suitable by the
     implementor or TeX administrator.  That is, files that cannot be
     shared between implementations, such as pool files (`tex.pool')
     and memory dump files (`plain.fmt') go here, in addition to
     implementation-wide configuration files.  See Section *Note
     Example implementation-specific trees:: for examples of real
     `IMPLEMENTATION' trees.

     Such implementation-specific configuration files should _not_ be
     located using the main TeX input search path (e.g., `TEXINPUTS').
     This must be reserved for files actually read by a TeX engine.
     See Section *Note Extensions::.

   * `PROGRAM' for program-specific input and configuration files for
     any TeX-related programs (examples: `mft', `dvips').  In fact, the
     `tex', `metafont', `metapost', and `bibtex' items above may all be
     seen as instances of this case.

* Menu:

* Macros::
* Fonts::
* Non-font Metafont files::
* MetaPost::
* BibTeX::
* Scripts::
* Documentation::

File:,  Node: Macros,  Next: Fonts,  Up: Top-level directories

3.1 Macros

TeX macro files shall be stored in separate directories, segregated by
TeX format and package name (we use `format' in its traditional TeX
sense to mean a usefully `\dump'-able package):

   * `FORMAT' is a format name (examples: `amstex', `latex', `plain',

     The TDS allows distributions that can be used as either formats or
     packages (e.g., Texinfo, Eplain) to be stored at either level, at
     the option of the format author or TeX administrator. We recommend
     that packages used as formats at a particular site be stored at the
     `FORMAT' level: by adjusting the TeX inputs search path, it will
     be straightforward to use them as macro packages under another
     format, whereas placing them in another tree completely obscures
     their use as a format.

     The TDS reserves the following `FORMAT' names:

        * `generic', for input files that are useful across a wide
          range of formats (examples: `null.tex', `path.sty').
          Generally, this means any format that uses the category codes
          of Plain TeX and does not rely on any particular format.
          This is in contrast to those files which are useful only with
          Plain TeX (which go under `texmf/tex/plain'), e.g.,
          `testfont.tex' and `plain.tex' itself.

        * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local

     Thus, for almost every format, it is necessary to search at least
     the `FORMAT' directory and then the `generic' directory (in that
     order).  Other directories may need to be searched as well,
     depending on the format.  When using AMS-TeX, for example, the
     `amstex', `plain', and `generic' directories should be searched,
     because AMS-TeX is compatible with Plain.

   * `PACKAGE' is a TeX package name (examples: `babel', `texdraw').

     In the case where a format consists of only a single file and has
     no auxiliary packages, that file can simply be placed in the
     `FORMAT' directory, instead of `FORMAT/base'.  For example,
     Texinfo may go in `texmf/tex/texinfo/texinfo.tex', not

     The TDS reserves the following `PACKAGE' names:

        * `base', for the base distribution of each format, including
          files used by INITEX when dumping format files.  For example,
          in the standard LaTeX distribution, the `ltx' files created
          during the build process.  Another example: the `.ini' driver
          files for formats used by TeX Live and other distributions.

        * `hyphen', for hyphenation patterns, including the original
          American English `hyphen.tex'.  These are typically used only
          by INITEX.  In most situations, this directory need exist
          only under the `generic' format.

        * `images', for image input files, such as Encapsulated
          PostScript figures. Although it is somewhat non-intuitive for
          these to be under a directory named `tex', TeX needs to read
          these files to glean bounding box or other information.  A
          mechanism for sharing image inputs between TeX and other
          typesetting programs (e.g., Interleaf, FrameMaker) is beyond
          the scope of the TDS. In most situations, this directory need
          exist only under the `generic' format.

        * `local', for local additions and configuration files. See
          Section *Note Local additions::.

        * `misc', for packages that consist of a single file.  An
          administrator or package maintainer may create directories for
          single-file packages at their discretion, instead of using

* Menu:

* Extensions::

File:,  Node: Extensions,  Up: Macros

3.1.1 Extensions

TeX has spawned many companion and successor programs ("engines"), such
as PDFTeX, Omega, and others.  The TDS specifies that the input files
for such programs (using a TeX-like syntax) be placed within the
top-level `tex' directory, either at the top level or within a format
subdirectory, even though the original TeX program may not be able to
read them.  For example:


   This is a change from TDS 1.0, which specified top-level `EXTENSION'
directories for each such program.  We felt the new approach is
preferable, because:

   * Authors of relevant packages typically make their code detect the
     engine being used, and issue error messages or adapt to
     circumstances appropriately.  Furthermore, as a package matures,
     it may support multiple engines.  Thus, a package could
     conceivably be placed in any of several top-level directories, at
     different times.  Putting all packages under the top-level `tex'
     directory provides a stable location over time.

   * Users need to be able to switch between engines, and configuring
     different search paths for each engine is difficult and

   Thus, in practice, having different top-level directories caused
difficulties for everyone involved--users, package authors, site
administrators, and system distributors.

   Please contrast this approach with the `IMPLEMENTATION' top-level
subdirectory (Section *Note Top-level directories::), which is to be
used for configuration files that (presumably) do not use TeX syntax
and in any case should not be found along the main TeX input search

File:,  Node: Fonts,  Next: Non-font Metafont files,  Prev: Macros,  Up: Top-level directories

3.2 Fonts

Font files are stored in separate directories, segregated by file type,
and then (in most cases) font supplier and typeface.  PK and GF files
need additional structure, as detailed in the next section.


   * `TYPE' is the type of font file. The TDS reserves the following
     `TYPE' names for common TeX file types:

        * `afm', for Adobe font metrics, and `inf' files.

        * `gf', for generic font bitmap files.

        * `opentype', for OpenType fonts.

        * `pk', for packed bitmap files.

        * `source', for font sources (Metafont files, property lists,

        * `tfm', for TeX font metric files.

        * `truetype', for TrueType fonts.

        * `type1', for PostScript Type 1 fonts (in `pfa',       `pfb',
          or any other format), and `pfm' files.

        * `type3', for PostScript Type 3 fonts.

        * `vf', for virtual fonts.

     The TDS also reserves the names `enc', `lig', and `map' for font
     encoding, ligature, and mapping files, respectively.  All of these
     directories are structured the same way, with `SYNTAX'
     subdirectories, and then `PACKAGE' subsubdirectories.  Each of
     these file types is intended to be searched along its own
     recursively-searched path.  The names of the actual files must be
     unique within their subtree, as usual.  Examples:

     The Fontname and Dvips packages have more examples of the `enc' and
     `map' types.  The `afm2pl' program uses `lig' files.

     `pfm' files are included in the `type1' directory, instead of
     being given their own directory, for two reasons: 1) a `.pfm' file
     is always an adjunct to a given `.pfb' file; 2) they must be
     installed from the same directory for Windows programs other than
     TeX to use them.

     `inf' files are included in the `afm' directory, since an `inf'
     and `afm' file can be used to generate a `pfm'.  (Unfortunately,
     Adobe Type Manager and perhaps other software requires that the
     `pfb' be in the same directory as `afm' and `inf' for

     As usual, a site may omit any of these directories that are
     unnecessary.  `gf' is a particularly likely candidate for omission.

   * `SUPPLIER' is a name identifying font source (examples: `adobe',
     `ams', `public'). The TDS reserves the following `SUPPLIER' names:

        * `ams', for the American Mathematical Society's AMS-fonts

        * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local

        * `public', for freely redistributable fonts where the supplier
          neither (1) requested their own directory (e.g., `ams'), nor
          (2) also made proprietary fonts (e.g., `adobe').  It does not
          contain all extant freely distributable fonts, nor are all
          files therein necessarily strictly public domain.

        * `tmp', for dynamically-generated fonts, as is traditional on
          some systems. It may be omitted if unnecessary, as usual.

   * `TYPEFACE' is the name of a typeface family (examples: `cm',
     `euler', `times'). The TDS reserves the following `TYPEFACE' names:

        * `cm' (within `public'), for the 75 fonts defined in
          `Computers and Typesetting, Volume E'.

        * `latex' (within `public'), for those fonts distributed with
          LaTeX in the base distribution.

        * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local

   Some concrete examples:

   For complete supplier and typeface name lists, consult `Filenames
for TeX fonts' (see Appendix *Note Related references::).

* Menu:

* Font bitmaps::
* Valid font bitmaps::

File:,  Node: Font bitmaps,  Next: Valid font bitmaps,  Up: Fonts

3.2.1 Font bitmaps

Font bitmap files require two characteristics in addition to the above
to be uniquely identifiable: (1) the type of device (i.e., mode) for
which the font was created; (2) the resolution of the bitmap.

   Following common practice, the TDS segregates fonts with different
device types into separate directories.  See `' in
Appendix *Note Related references:: for recommended mode names.

   Some printers operate at more than one resolution (e.g., at 300dpi
and 600dpi), but each such resolution will necessarily have a different
mode name. Nothing further is needed, since implicit in the TeX system
is the assumption of a single target resolution.

   Two naming strategies are commonly used to identify the resolution of
bitmap font files.  On systems that allow long filenames (and in the
original Metafont program itself), the resolution is included in the
filename (e.g., `cmr10.300pk').  On systems which do not support long
filenames, fonts are generally segregated into directories by
resolution (e.g., `dpi300/').

   Because the TDS cannot require long filenames, we must use the
latter scheme for naming fonts. So we have two more subdirectory levels
under `pk' and `gf':


   * `MODE' is a name which identifies the device type (examples: `cx',
     `ljfour', `modeless').  Usually, this is the name of the Metafont
     mode used to build the PK file.  For fonts rendered as bitmaps by
     a program that does not distinguish between different output
     devices, the `MODE' name shall be simply `modeless'.  The `MODE'
     level shall not be omitted, even if only a single mode happens to
     be in use.

   * `dpiNNN' specifies the resolution of the font (examples: `dpi300',
     `dpi329').  `dpi' stands for dots per inch, i.e., pixels per inch.
     We recognize that pixels per millimeter is used in many parts of
     the world, but dpi is too traditional in the TeX world to consider
     changing now.

     The integer `NNN' is to be calculated as if using Metafont
     arithmetic and then rounded; i.e., it is the integer Metafont uses
     in its output `gf' filename.  We recognize small differences in the
     resolution are a common cause of frustration among users, however,
     and recommend implementors follow the level 0 DVI driver standard
     (see Appendix *Note Related references::) in bitmap font searches
     by allowing a fuzz of +-0.2% (with a minimum of 1) in the `DPI'.

   Implementations may provide extensions to the basic naming scheme,
such as long filenames (as in the original Metafont) and font library
files (as in emTeX's `.fli' files), provided that the basic scheme is
also supported.

File:,  Node: Valid font bitmaps,  Prev: Font bitmaps,  Up: Fonts

3.2.2 Valid font bitmaps

The TWG recognizes that the use of short filenames has many
disadvantages.  The most vexing is that it results in the creation of
dozens of different files with the same name.  At a typical site,
`' will be the filename for Computer Modern Roman 10pt at 5-10
magnifications for 2-3 modes. (Section *Note Duplicate filenames::
discusses duplicate filenames in general.)

   To minimize this problem, we strongly recommend that PK files
contain enough information to identify precisely how they were created:
at least the mode, base resolution, and magnification used to create the

   This information is easy to supply: a simple addition to the local
modes used for building the fonts with Metafont will automatically
provide the required information.  If you have been using a local modes
file derived from (or that is simply) `' (see Appendix *Note
Related references::), the required information is already in your PK
files.  If not, a simple addition based on the code found in `'
can be made to your local modes file and the PK files rebuilt.

File:,  Node: Non-font Metafont files,  Next: MetaPost,  Prev: Fonts,  Up: Top-level directories

3.3 Non-font Metafont files

Most Metafont input files are font programs or parts of font programs
and are thus covered by the previous section. However, a few non-font
input files do exist. Such files shall be stored in:


   `PACKAGE' is the name of a Metafont package (for example, `mfpic').

   The TDS reserves the following `PACKAGE' names:

   * `base', for the standard Metafont macro files as described in `The
     Metafontbook', such as `' and `'.

   * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local additions::.

   * `misc', for Metafont packages consisting of only a single file
     (for example, `').  An administrator or package maintainer
     may create directories for single-file packages at their
     discretion, instead of using `misc'.

File:,  Node: MetaPost,  Next: BibTeX,  Prev: Non-font Metafont files,  Up: Top-level directories

3.4 MetaPost

MetaPost is a picture-drawing language developed by John Hobby, derived
from Knuth's Metafont. Its primary purpose is to output Encapsulated
PostScript instead of bitmaps.

   MetaPost input files and the support files for MetaPost-related
utilities shall be stored in:


   `PACKAGE' is the name of a MetaPost package.  At the present writing
none exist, but the TWG thought it prudent to leave room for
contributed packages that might be written in the future.

   The TDS reserves the following `PACKAGE' names:

   * `base', for the standard MetaPost macro files, such as `',
     `', `', and `'.  This includes files
     used by INIMP when dumping mem files containing preloaded macro

   * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local additions::.

   * `misc', for MetaPost packages consisting of only a single file.
     An administrator or package maintainer may create directories for
     single-file packages at their discretion, instead of using `misc'.

   * `support', for additional input files required by MetaPost utility
     programs, including a font map, a character adjustment table, and
     a subdirectory containing low-level MetaPost programs for rendering
     some special characters.

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3.5 BibTeX

BibTeX-related files shall be stored in:


   The `bib' directory is for BibTeX database (`.bib') files, the `bst'
directory for style (`.bst') files.

   `PACKAGE' is the name of a BibTeX package.  The TDS reserves the
following `PACKAGE' names (the same names are reserved under both `bib'
and `bst'):

   * `base', for the standard BibTeX databases and styles, such as
     `xampl.bib', `plain.bst'.

   * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local additions::.

   * `misc', for BibTeX packages consisting of only a single file.  An
     administrator or package maintainer may create directories for
     single-file packages at their discretion, instead of using `misc'.

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3.6 Scripts

The top-level `scripts' directory is for platform-independent
executables, such as Perl, Python, and shell scripts, and Java class
files.  Subdirectories under `scripts' are package names.  This eases
creating distributions, by providing a common place for such
platform-independent programs.

   The intent is not for all such directories to be added to a user's
command search path, which would be quite impractical.  Rather, these
executables are primarily for the benefit of wrapper scripts in whatever
executable directory a distribution may provide (which is not specified
by the TDS).

   Truly auxiliary scripts which are invoked directly by other programs,
rather than wrapper scripts, may also be placed here.  That is,
`scripts' also serves as a platform-independent analog of the standard
Unix `libexec' directory.

   We recommend using extensions specifying the language (such as
`.pl', `.py', `.sh') on these files, to help uniquely identify the
name.  Since the intent of the TDS is for programs in `scripts' not to
be invoked directly by users, this poses no inconvenience.

   For example, in the TeX Live distribution, the ConTeXt user-level
program `texexec' can exist as a small wrapper script in each
`bin/PLATFORM/texexec' (which is outside the `texmf' tree), which
merely finds and calls `texmf/scripts/context/perl/'.


   The TDS does not specify a location for platform-dependent binary
executables, whether auxiliary or user-level.

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3.7 Documentation

Most packages come with some form of documentation: user manuals,
example files, programming guides, etc.  In addition, many independent
files not part of any macro or other package have been created to
describe various aspects of the TeX system.

   The TDS specifies that these additional documentation files shall be
stored in a structure that parallels to some extent the `fonts' and
`tex' directories, as follows:


   `CATEGORY' identifies the general topic of documentation that
resides below it; for example, a TeX format name (`latex'), program
name (`bibtex', `tex'), language (`french', `german'), a file format
(`info', `man'), or other system components (`web', `fonts').

   One possible arrangement is to organize `doc' by language, with all
the other category types below that.  This helps users find
documentation in the language(s) in which they are fluent.  Neither this
nor any other particular arrangement is required, however.

   Within each `CATEGORY' tree for a TeX format, the directory `base'
is reserved for base documentation distributed by the format's

   The TDS reserves the following category names:

   * `general', for standalone documents not specific to any particular
     program (for example, Joachim Schrod's `Components of TeX').

   * `help', for meta-information, such as FAQ's, the TeX Catalogue,

   * `info', for processed Texinfo documents.  (Info files, like
     anything else, may also be stored outside the TDS, at the
     installer's option.)

   * `local', for local additions. See Section *Note Local additions::.

   The `doc' directory is intended for implementation-independent and
operating system-independent documentation files.
Implementation-dependent files are best stored elsewhere, as provided
for by the implementation and/or TeX administrator (for example, VMS
help files under `texmf/vms/help').

   The documentation directories may contain TeX sources, DVI files,
PostScript files, text files, example input files, or any other useful
documentation format(s).

   See Section *Note Documentation tree summary:: for a summary.

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4 Summary

A skeleton of a TDS `texmf' directory tree.  This is not to imply these
are the only entries allowed.  For example, `local' may occur at any

       bibtex/           BibTeX input files
         bib/            BibTeX databases
           base/         base distribution (e.g., `xampl.bib')
           misc/         single-file databases
         <package>/      name of a package
         bst/            BibTeX style files
           base/         base distribution (e.g., `plain.bst', `acm.bst')
           misc/         single-file styles
         <package>/      name of a package
       doc/              see Section *Note Documentation:: and the summary below
       fonts/            font-related files
         <type>/         file type (e.g., `pk')
           <mode>/       type of output device (for `pk' and `gf' only)
             <supplier>/     name of a font supplier (e.g., `public')
               <typeface>/   name of a typeface (e.g., `cm')
                 dpi<nnn>/   font resolution (for `pk' and `gf' only)
       <implementation>/ TeX implementations, by name (e.g., `emtex')
       local/            files created or modified at the local site
       metafont/         Metafont (non-font) input files
         base/           base distribution (e.g., `')
         misc/           single-file packages (e.g., `')
         <package>/      name of a package (e.g., `mfpic')
       metapost/         MetaPost input and support files
         base/           base distribution (e.g., `')
         misc/           single-file packages
         <package>/      name of a package
         support/        support files for MetaPost-related utilities
       mft/              `MFT' inputs (e.g., `plain.mft')
       <program>/        TeX-related programs, by name (e.g., `dvips')
       source/           program source code by name (e.g., `latex', `web2c')
       tex/              TeX input files
         <engine>/       name of an engine (e.g., `aleph'); can also be lower
         <format>/       name of a format (e.g., `plain')
           base/         base distribution for format (e.g., `plain.tex')
           misc/         single-file packages (e.g., `webmac.tex')
           local/        local additions to or local configuration files for `FORMAT'
           <package>/    name of a package (e.g., `graphics', `mfnfss')
         generic/        format-independent packages
           hyphen/       hyphenation patterns (e.g., `hyphen.tex')
           images/       image input files (e.g., Encapsulated PostScript)
           misc/         single-file format-independent packages (e.g., `null.tex').
           <package>/    name of a package (e.g., `babel')

* Menu:

* Documentation tree summary::

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4.1 Documentation tree summary

An example skeleton of a TDS directory tree under `texmf/doc'.  This is
not to imply these are the only entries allowed, or that this structure
must be followed precisely for the entries listed.

   As mentioned, the `texmf/doc' tree may be organized by language, so
that all documentation in French, say, is in a `french' subdirectory.
In that case, the example structure here would be in a given language

         amsfonts/       `amsfonts.faq', `amfndoc'
         amslatex/       `amslatex.faq', `amsldoc'
         amstex/         `amsguide', `joyerr'
       bibtex/           BibTeX
         base/           `btxdoc.tex'
         fontname/       `Filenames for TeX fonts'
         oldgerm/        `corkpapr'
       <format>/         name of a TeX format (e.g., `generic', `latex')
         base/           for the base distribution
         misc/           for contributed single-file package documentation
         <package>/      for _package_
       general/          across programs, generalities
         errata/         `errata', `errata[1-8]'
         texcomp/        `Components of TeX'
       help/             meta-information
         ctan/           info about CTAN mirror sites
         faq/            FAQs of `comp.text.tex', etc.
       info/             GNU Info files, made from Texinfo sources
       latex/            example of `FORMAT'
         base/           `ltnews*', `*guide', etc.
         graphics/       `grfguide'
       local/            site-specific documentation
       man/              Unix man pages
       <program>/        TeX-related programs, by name (examples follow)
       metafont/         `mfbook.tex', `metafont-for-beginners', etc.
       metapost/         `mpman', `manfig', etc.
       tex/              `texbook.tex', `A Gentle Introduction to TeX', etc.
       web/              `webman', `cwebman'

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Appendix A Unspecified pieces

The TDS cannot address the following aspects of a functioning TeX

  1. The location of executable programs: this is too site-dependent
     even to recommend a location, let alone require one. A site may
     place executables outside the `texmf' tree altogether (e.g.,
     `/usr/local/bin'), in a platform-dependent directory within
     `texmf', or elsewhere.

  2. Upgrading packages when new releases are made: we could find no
     way of introducing version specifiers into `texmf' that would do
     more good than harm, or that would be practical for even a
     plurality of installations.

  3. The location of implementation-specific files (e.g., TeX `.fmt'
     files): by their nature, these must be left to the implementor or
     TeX maintainer. See Section *Note Example implementation-specific

  4. Precisely when a package or file should be considered "local", and
     where such local files are installed.  See Section *Note Local
     additions:: for more discussion.

* Menu:

* Portable filenames::

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A.1 Portable filenames

The TDS cannot require any particular restriction on filenames in the
tree, since the names of many existing TeX files conform to no standard
scheme. For the benefit of people who wish to make a portable TeX
distribution or installation, however, we outline here the necessary
restrictions. The TDS specifications themselves are compatible with

   ISO-9660 is the only universally acceptable file system format for
CD-ROMs.  A subset thereof meets the stringent limitations of all
operating systems in use today. It specifies the following:

   * File and directory names, not including any directory path or
     extension part, may not exceed eight characters.

   * Filenames may have a single extension.  Extensions may not exceed
     three characters. Directory names may not have an extension.

   * Names and extensions may consist of _only_ the characters `A'-`Z',
     `0'-`9', and underscore.  Lowercase letters are excluded.

   * A period separates the filename from the extension and is always
     present, even if the name or extension is missing (e.g.,
     `FILENAME.' or `.EXT').

   * A version number, ranging from 1-32767, is appended to the file
     extension, separated by a semicolon (e.g., `FILENAME.EXT;1').

   * Only eight directory levels are allowed, including the top-level
     (mounted) directory (see Section *Note Rooting the tree::).  Thus,
     the deepest valid ISO-9660 path is:
          1     2  3  4  5  6  7  8
     The deepest TDS path needs only seven levels:
          1     2     3  4  5      6  7

   Some systems display a modified format of ISO-9660 names, mapping
alphabetic characters to lowercase, removing version numbers and
trailing periods, etc.

   Before the December 1996 release, LaTeX used mixed-case names for
font descriptor files.  Fortunately, it never relied on case alone to
distinguish among the files.  Nowadays, it uses only monocase names.

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Appendix B Implementation issues

We believe that the TDS can bring a great deal of order to the current
anarchic state of many TeX installations.  In addition, by providing a
common frame of reference, it will ease the burden of documenting
administrative tasks.  Finally, it is a necessary part of any
reasonable system of true "drop-in" distribution packages for TeX.

* Menu:

* Adoption of the TDS::
* More on subdirectory searching::
* Example implementation-specific trees::

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B.1 Adoption of the TDS

[This section is retained for historical purposes; the TDS is now quite
firmly entrenched in most TeX distributions.]

   We recognize that adoption of the TDS will not be immediate or
universal.  Most TeX administrators will not be inclined to make the
final switch until:

   * Clear and demonstrable benefits can be shown for the TDS.

   * TDS-compliant versions of all key programs are available in
     ported, well-tested forms.

   * A "settling" period has taken place, to flush out problems.  The
     public release of the first draft of this document was the first
     step in this process.

   Consequently, most of the first trials of the TDS will be made by
members of the TDS committee and/or developers of TeX-related software.
This has already taken place during the course of our deliberations
(see Appendix *Note Related references:: for a sample tree available
electronically).  They will certainly result in the production of a
substantial number of TDS-compliant packages.  Indeed, the teTeX and
TeX Live distributions are TDS-compliant and in use now at many sites.

   Once installable forms of key TDS-compliant packages are more
widespread, some TeX administrators will set up TDS-compliant trees,
possibly in parallel to existing production directories.  This testing
will likely flush out problems that were not obvious in the confined
settings of the developers' sites; for example, it should help to
resolve system and package dependencies, package interdependencies, and
other details not addressed by this TDS version.

   After most of the dust has settled, hopefully even conservative TeX
administrators will begin to adopt the TDS.  Eventually, most TeX sites
will have adopted the common structure, and most packages will be
readily available in TDS-compliant form.

   We believe that this process will occur relatively quickly.  The TDS
committee spans a wide range of interests in the TeX community.
Consequently, we believe that most of the key issues involved in
defining a workable TDS definition have been covered, often in detail.
TeX developers have been consulted about implementation issues, and
have been trying out the TDS arrangement.  Thus, we hope for few
surprises as implementations mature.

   Finally, there are several (current or prospective) publishers of TeX
CD-ROMs.  These publishers are highly motivated to work out details of
TDS implementation, and their products will provide inexpensive and
convenient ways for experimentally-minded TeX administrators to
experiment with the TDS.

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B.2 More on subdirectory searching

Recursive subdirectory searching is the ability to specify a search not
only of a specified directory `D', but recursively of all directories
below `D'.

   Since the TDS specifies precise locations for most files, with no
extra levels of subdirectories allowed, true recursive searching is not
actually required for a TDS-compliant implementation. We do, however,
strongly recommend recursive searching as the most user-friendly and
natural approach to the problem, rather than convoluted methods to
specify paths without recursion.

   This feature is already supported by many implementations of TeX and
companion utilities, for example DECUS TeX for VMS, Dvips(k), emTeX
(and its drivers), PubliC TeX, Web2C, Xdvi(k), and Y&YTeX.  The
Kpathsea library is a reusable implementation of subdirectory searching
for TeX, used in a number of the above programs.

   Even if your TeX implementation does not directly support
subdirectory searching, you may find it useful to adopt the structure if
you do not use many fonts or packages. For instance, if you only use
Computer Modern and AMS fonts, it would be feasible to store them in
the TDS layout and list the directories individually in configuration
files or environment variables.

   The TWG recognizes that subdirectory searching places an extra
burden on the system and may be the source of performance bottlenecks,
particularly on slower machines.  Nevertheless, we feel that
subdirectory searching is imperative for a well-organized TDS, for the
reasons stated in Section *Note Subdirectory searching::.  Implementors
are encouraged to provide enhancements to the basic principle of
subdirectory searching to avoid performance problems, e.g., the use of
a filename cache (this can be as simple as a recursive directory
listing) that is consulted before disk searching begins.  If a match is
found in the database, subdirectory searching is not required, and
performance is thus independent of the number of subdirectories present
on the system.

   Different implementations specify subdirectory searching differently.
In the interest of typographic clarity, the examples here do not use the

   * Dvips: via a separate `TEXFONTS_SUBDIR' environment variable.

   * emTeX: `t:\subdir!!'; `t:\subdir!' for a single level of searching.

   * Kpathsea: `texmf/subdir//'

   * VMS: `texmf:[subdir...]'

   * Xdvi (patchlevel 20): `texmf/subdir/**'; `texmf/subdir/*' for a
     single level of searching.  Version 20.50 and above support the
     `//' notation.

   * Y&Y TeX: `t:/subdir//' or `t:\subdir\\'.

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B.3 Example implementation-specific trees

The TDS cannot specify a precise location for implementation-specific
files, such as `texmf/ini', because a site may have multiple TeX

   Nevertheless, for informative purposes, we provide here the default
locations for some implementations. Please contact us with additions or
corrections. These paths are not definitive, may not match anything at
your site, and may change without warning.

   We recommend all implementations have default search paths that start
with the current directory (e.g., `.').  Allowing users to include the
parent directory (e.g., `..') is also helpful.

* Menu:

* AmiWeb2c 2.0::
* Public DECUS TeX::
* Web2c 7::

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B.3.1 AmiWeb2c 2.0

(Email <scherer AT> to contact the maintainer of
this implementation.)

   AmiWeb2c 2 is compatible with Web2c 7 to the greatest possible
extent, so only the very few differences are described in this section.
Detailed information about the basic concepts is given in the section
for Web2c 7 below.

   Thanks to the `SELFAUTO' mechanism of Kpathsea 3.0 no specific
location for the installation of AmiWeb2c is required as long as the
general structure of the distribution is preserved.

   In addition to Kpathsea's `//' notation recursive path search may
also be started by `DEVICE:/', e.g., `TeXMF:/' will scan this specific
device completely.

   Binaries coming with the AmiWeb2c distribution are installed in the
directory `bin/amiweb2c/' outside the common TDS tree `share/texmf/'.
In addition to the set of AmiWeb2c binaries you will find two
subdirectories `local/' and `pastex/' with auxiliary programs.

   A stripped version of the PasTeX system (used by kind permission of
Georg Hessmann) is coming with AmiWeb2c, pre-installed in its own
`share/texmf/amiweb2c/pastex/' directory.  If you want to use PasTeX
you have to `assign' the name `TeX:' to this place.

   Documentation files in AmigaGuide format should be stored at
`doc/guide/' similar to `doc/info/'.

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B.3.2 Public DECUS TeX

If another VMS implementation besides Public DECUS TeX appears, the top
level implementation directory name will be modified to something more
specific (e.g., `vms_decus').

         vms/            VMS implementation specific files
           exe/          end-user commands
             common/     command procedures, command definition files, etc.
             axp/        binary executables for Alpha AXP
             vax/        binary executables for VAX
           formats/      pool files, formats, bases
           help/         VMS help library, and miscellaneous help sources
           mgr/          command procedures, programs, docs, etc., for system management

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B.3.3 Web2c 7

All implementation-dependent TeX system files (`.pool', `.fmt',
`.base', `.mem') are stored by default directly in `texmf/web2c'.  The
configuration file `texmf.cnf' and various subsidiary `MakeTeX...'
scripts used as subroutines are also stored there.

   Non-TeX specific files are stored following the GNU coding
standards.  Given a root directory `PREFIX' (`/usr/local' by default),
we have default locations as follows:

       <prefix>/         installation root (`/usr/local' by default)
         bin/            executables
         man/            man pages
         info/           info files
         lib/            libraries (`libkpathsea.*')
         share/          architecture-independent files
           texmf/        TDS root
             web2c/      implementation-dependent files (`.pool', `.fmt', `texmf.cnf', etc.)

   See `' for the rationale
behind and descriptions of this arrangement. A site may of course
override these defaults; for example, it may put everything under a
single directory such as `/usr/local/texmf'.

File:,  Node: Is there a better way?,  Next: Related references,  Prev: Implementation issues,  Up: Top

Appendix C Is there a better way?

Defining the TDS required many compromises.  Both the overall structure
and the details of the individual directories were arrived at by
finding common ground among many opinions.  The driving forces were
feasibility (in terms of what could technically be done and what could
reasonably be expected from developers) and regularity (files grouped
together in an arrangement that "made sense").

   Some interesting ideas could not be applied due to implementations
lacking the necessary support:

   * Path searching control at the TeX level. If documents could
     restrict subdirectory searching to a subdirectory via some portable
     syntax in file names, restrictions on uniqueness of filenames
     could be relaxed considerably (with the cooperation of the
     formats), and the TeX search path would not need to depend on the

   * Multiple logical `texmf' trees. For example, a site might have one
     (read-only) location for stable files, and a different (writable)
     location for dynamically-created fonts or other files. It would be
     reasonable for two such trees to be logically merged when
     searching.  See Michael Downes' article in the references for how
     this can work in practice with Web2C.

* Menu:

* Macro structure::
* Font structure::
* Documentation structure::

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C.1 Macro structure

The TWG settled on the `FORMAT/PACKAGE' arrangement after long
discussion about how best to arrange the files.

   The primary alternative to this arrangement was a scheme which
reversed the order of these directories: `PACKAGE/FORMAT'.  This
reversed arrangement has a strong appeal: it keeps all of the files
related to a particular package in a single place.  The arrangement
actually adopted tends to spread files out into two or three places
(macros, documentation, and fonts, for example, are spread into
different sections of the tree right at the top level).

   Nevertheless, the `FORMAT/PACKAGE' structure won for a couple of

   * It is closer to current practice; in fact, several members of the
     TWG have already implemented the TDS hierarchy.  The alternative
     is not in use at any known site, and the TWG felt it wrong to
     mandate something with which there is no practical experience.

   * The alternative arrangement increases the number of top-level
     directories, so the files that must be found using subdirectory
     searching are spread out in a wide, shallow tree.  This could have
     a profound impact on the efficiency of subdirectory searching.

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C.2 Font structure

The TWG struggled more with the font directory structure than anything
else. This is not surprising; the need to use the proliferation of
PostScript fonts with TeX is what made the previous arrangement with
all files in a single directory untenable, and therefore what initiated
the TDS effort.

* Menu:

* Font file type location::
* Mode and resolution location::
* Modeless bitmaps::

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C.2.1 Font file type location

We considered the supplier-first arrangement in use at many sites:


   This improves the maintainability of the font tree, since all files
comprising a given typeface are in one place, but unless all the
programs that search this tree employ some form of caching, there are
serious performance concerns.  For example, in order to find a `TFM'
file, the simplest implementation would require TeX to search through
all the directories that contain PK files in all modes and at all

   In the end, a poll of developers revealed considerable resistance to
implementing sufficient caching mechanisms, so this arrangement was
abandoned.  The TDS arrangement allows the search tree to be restricted
to the correct type of file, at least.  Concerns about efficiency
remain, but there seems to be no more we can do without abandoning
subdirectory searching entirely.

   We also considered segregating all font-related files strictly by
file type, so that Metafont sources would be in a directory
`texmf/fonts/mf', property list files in `texmf/fonts/pl', the various
forms of Type 1 fonts separated, and so on. Although more blindly
consistent, we felt that the drawback of more complicated path
constructions outweighed this. The TDS merges file types (`mf' and `pl'
under `source', `pfa' and `pfb' and `gsf' under `type1') where we felt
this was beneficial.

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C.2.2 Mode and resolution location

We considered having the `mode' at the bottom of the font tree:

   In this case, however, it is difficult to limit subdirectory
searching to the mode required for a particular device.

   We then considered moving the `dpiNNN' up to below the mode:

   But then it is not feasible to omit the `dpiNNN' level altogether on
systems which can and do choose to use long filenames.

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C.2.3 Modeless bitmaps

The TDS specifies using a single directory `modeless/' as the mode name
for those utilities which generate bitmaps, e.g.,
`texmf/fonts/modeless/times/'.  This has the considerable advantage of
not requiring each such directory name to be listed in a search path.

   An alternative was to use the utility name below which all such
directories could be gathered.  That has the advantage of separating,
say, `gsftopk'-generated bitmaps from `ps2pk'-generated ones.  However,
we decided this was not necessary; most sites will use only one program
for the purpose.  Also, PK and GF fonts generally identify their
creator in the font comment following the `PK_ID' byte.

   We are making an implicit assumption that Metafont is the only
program producing mode-dependent bitmaps. If this becomes false we
could add an abbreviation for the program to mode names, as in `mfcx'
vs.  `xyzcx' for a hypothetical program Xyz, or we could at that time
add an additional program name level uniformly to the tree.  It seemed
more important to concisely represent the current situation than to
worry about hypothetical possibilities that may never happen.

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C.3 Documentation structure

We considered placing additional documentation files in the same
directory as the source files for the packages, but we felt that users
should be able to find documentation separately from sources, since most
users have no interest in sources.

   We hope that a separate, but parallel, structure for documentation
would (1) keep the documentation together and (2) make it as
straightforward as possible for users to find the particular
documentation they were after.

File:,  Node: Related references,  Next: Contributors,  Prev: Is there a better way?,  Up: Top

Appendix D Related references

This appendix gives pointers to related files and other documents.  For
CTAN references, we use `' as the top-level domain
only to make the links be live in this document.  See
`' for a complete list of
CTAN sites; there are mirrors worldwide.

   * This document, in many formats (tex, dvi, info, pdf):

   * The TDS mailing list archives:

   * The level 0 DVI driver standard:

   * `Filenames for TeX fonts', with lists of recommended supplier and
     typeface names:

   * ISO-9660 CD-ROM file system standard:

   * `Components of TeX', a paper by Joachim Schrod:

   * `Managing Multiple TDS trees', an article by Michael Downes:

   * A complete set of Metafont modes:

   * A large collection of BibTeX databases and styles:

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Appendix E Contributors

The TWG has had no physical meetings; electronic mail was the
communication medium.

   Sebastian Rahtz is the TeX Users Group Technical Council liaison.
Norman Walsh was the original committee chair.  Karl Berry is the
current editor.

   The list of contributors has grown too large to fairly include, as
some would surely be inadvertently omitted.  Please consider the
archives of the <tds AT> and <tex-live AT> mailing lists as
the record of contributions.

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