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GNU `shar' utilities
********************

   GNU `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files,
preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services, while
`unshar' helps unpacking shell archives after reception.  Other tools
help using `shar' with the electronic mail system, and even allow
synchronization of remote directory trees.  This is release 4.15.2.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Introduction to this toolset
* Basic::                       The basic `shar' utilities
* GNU Free Documentation License:: GNU Free Documentation License

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The basic `shar' utilities

* shar Invocation::             Invoking the `shar' program
* unshar Invocation::           Invoking the `unshar' program
* uuencode Invocation::         Invoking the `uuencode' program
* uudecode Invocation::         Invoking the `uudecode' program

File: sharutils.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Basic,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction to this toolset
******************************

GNU `uuencode' and `uudecode' have an history which roots are lost in
ages, and we will not even try to trace it.  The current versions were
brought into GNU by Ian Lance Taylor, and later modernized by Ulrich
Drepper.  GNU `shar' surely has a long history, too.  All along this
long road, numerous users contributed various improvements.  The file
`THANKS' in the distribution, as far as we know, contain the names of
all contributors we could identify, and for which email addresses are
seemingly valid.

   Please help us getting the history straight, for the following
information is somewhat approximative.  James Gosling wrote the public
domain `shar 1.x'.  William Davidsen rewrote it as `shar 2.x'.  Warren
Tucker implemented modifications and called it `shar 3.x'.  Richard
Gumpertz maintained it until 1990.  Franc,ois Pinard, from the public
domain `shar 3.49', made `GNU shar 4.x', in 1994.  Some modules and
other code sections were freely borrowed from other GNU distributions,
bringing this `shar' under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

   Your feedback helps us to make a better and more portable product.
Mail suggestions and bug reports (including documentation errors) for
these programs to `bug-gnu-utils AT prep.edu'.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: Basic,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 The basic `shar' utilities
****************************

GNU `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing
them for transmission by electronic mail services.  A "shell archive"
is a collection of files that can be unpacked by `/bin/sh'.  A wide
range of features provide extensive flexibility in manufacturing shars
and in specifying shar _smartness_.  For example, `shar' may compress
files, uuencode binary files, split long files and construct multi-part
mailings, ensure correct unsharing order, and provide simplistic
checksums.  *Note shar Invocation::.

   GNU `unshar' scans a set of mail messages looking for the start of
shell archives.  It will automatically strip off the mail headers and
other introductory text.  The archive bodies are then unpacked by a
copy of the shell.  `unshar' may also process files containing
concatenated shell archives.  *Note unshar Invocation::.

* Menu:

* shar Invocation::             Invoking the `shar' program
* unshar Invocation::           Invoking the `unshar' program
* uuencode Invocation::         Invoking the `uuencode' program
* uudecode Invocation::         Invoking the `uudecode' program

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar Invocation,  Next: unshar Invocation,  Up: Basic

2.1 Invoking shar
=================

If no `file's are specified, the list of input files is read from
standard input.  Standard input must not be a terminal.  `shar' creates
"shell archives" (or shar files) which are in text format and can be
emailed.  These files may be unpacked later by executing them with
`/bin/sh'.  The resulting archive is sent to standard out unless the
`-o' option is given.  A wide range of features provide extensive
flexibility in manufacturing shars and in specifying `shar'
"smartness".  Archives may be fairly simple (`--vanilla-operation') or
essentially a mailable `tar' archive.

   Options may be specified in any order until a `file' argument is
recognized.  If the `--intermix-type' option has been specified, more
compression and encoding options will be recognized between the `file'
arguments.

   Though this program supports `uuencode'-d files, they are
deprecated.  If you are emailing files, please consider mime-encoded
files.  If you do `uuencode', base64 is the preferred encoding method.

   This section was generated by *AutoGen*, using the `agtexi-cmd'
template and the option descriptions for the `shar' program.  This
software is released under the GNU General Public License, version 3 or
later.

* Menu:

* shar usage::                  shar help/usage (`--help')
* shar compression::            compression options
* shar encoding::               encoding options
* shar in-out::                 in-out options
* shar headers::                headers options
* shar xmit-defenses::          xmit-defenses options
* shar shar-flavors::           shar-flavors options
* shar internationalization::   internationalization options
* shar feedback::               feedback options
* shar config::                 presetting/configuring shar
* shar exit status::            exit status
* shar Authors::                Authors
* shar Bugs::                   Bugs
* shar Examples::               Examples
* shar Warnings::               Warnings
* shar See Also::               See Also

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar usage,  Next: shar compression,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.1 shar help/usage (`--help')
--------------------------------

This is the automatically generated usage text for shar.

   The text printed is the same whether selected with the `help' option
(`--help') or the `more-help' option (`--more-help').  `more-help' will
print the usage text by passing it through a pager program.
`more-help' is disabled on platforms without a working `fork(2)'
function.  The `PAGER' environment variable is used to select the
program, defaulting to `more'.  Both will exit with a status code of 0.

shar (GNU sharutils) - create a shell archive
Usage:  shar [ -<flag> [<val>] | --<name>[{=| }<val>] ]... [<file>...]

Specify compression:
   -p, --intermix-type        specify compression for input files
                                - prohibits the option 'vanilla-operation'
   -C, --compactor=PROG       specify compaction (compression) program PROG
                                - prohibits the option 'vanilla-operation'
                                - may appear multiple times
                                - it must be known to shar: xz gzip bzip2
   -g, --level-of-compression=LEVEL
                              pass LEVEL for compression
                                - it must be in the range: 1 to 9

Specify file encoding methodology:
   -M, --mixed-uuencode       decide uuencoding for each file
   -B, --uuencode             treat all files as binary
                                - an alternate for mixed-uuencode
   -T, --text-files           treat all files as text
                                - an alternate for mixed-uuencode

Specifying file selection and output modes:
   -o, --output-prefix=str    print output to file PREFIX.nn
   -l, --whole-size-limit=SIZE
                              split archive, not files, to SIZE
                                - requires the option 'output-prefix'
                                - is scalable with a suffix: k/K/m/M/g/G/t/T
                                - it must lie in one of the ranges:
                                  8 to 1023, or 8192 to 4194304
   -L, --split-size-limit=SIZE
                              split archive or files to SIZE
                                - requires the option 'output-prefix'
                                - is scalable with a suffix: k/K/m/M/g/G/t/T
                                - it must lie in one of the ranges:
                                  8 to 1023, or 8192 to 4194304
                                - an alternate for 'whole-size-limit'
   -I, --input-file-list=FILE read file list from FILE

Controlling the shar headers:
   -n, --archive-name=NAME    use NAME to document the archive
   -s, --submitter=NAME       override the submitter name with NAME
   -a, --net-headers          output Submitted-by: & Archive-name: headers
                                - requires the option 'archive-name'
   -c, --cut-mark             start the shar with a cut line
   -t, --translate            translate messages in the script

Protecting against transmission issues:
       --no-character-count   do not use `wc -c' to check size
   -D, --no-md5-digest        do not use md5sum digest to verify
   -F, --force-prefix         apply the prefix character on every line
   -d, --here-delimiter=DELIM use DELIM to delimit the files

Producing different kinds of shars:
   -V, --vanilla-operation    produce very simple shars
   -P, --no-piping            use temporary files between programs
   -x, --no-check-existing    blindly overwrite existing files
   -X, --query-user           ask user before overwriting files
                                - prohibits the option 'vanilla-operation'
   -m, --no-timestamp         do not restore modification times
   -Q, --quiet-unshar         avoid verbose messages at unshar time
   -f, --basename             restore in one directory, despite hierarchy

Internationalization options:
       --no-i18n              do not internationalize
       --print-text-domain-dir  print directory with shar messages

User feedback/entertainment:
   -q, --quiet                do not output verbose messages
       --silent               an alias for the 'quiet' option

Version, usage and configuration options:
   -v, --version[=MODE]       output version information and exit
   -h, --help                 display extended usage information and exit
   -!, --more-help            extended usage information passed thru pager
   -R, --save-opts[=FILE]     save the option state to a config file FILE
   -r, --load-opts=FILE       load options from the config file FILE
                                - disabled with '--no-load-opts'
                                - may appear multiple times

Options are specified by doubled hyphens and their name or by a single
hyphen and the flag character.
If no 'file's are specified, the list of input files is read from a
standard input.  Standard input must not be a terminal.

The following option preset mechanisms are supported:
 - reading file $HOME/.sharrc

'shar' creates "shell archives" (or shar files) which are in text format
and can be emailed.  These files may be unpacked later by executing them
with '/bin/sh'.  The resulting archive is sent to standard out unless the
'-o' option is given.  A wide range of features provide extensive
flexibility in manufacturing shars and in specifying 'shar' "smartness".
Archives may be fairly simple ('--vanilla-operation') or essentially a
mailable 'tar' archive.

Options may be specified in any order until a 'file' argument is
recognized.  If the '--intermix-type' option has been specified, more
compression and encoding options will be recognized between the 'file'
arguments.

Though this program supports 'uuencode'-d files, they are deprecated.  If
you are emailing files, please consider mime-encoded files.  If you do
'uuencode', base64 is the preferred encoding method.

Please send bug reports to:  <bug-gnu-utils AT gnu.org>

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar compression,  Next: shar encoding,  Prev: shar usage,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.2 compression options
-------------------------

Specifying compression.

intermix-type option (-p).
..........................

This is the "specify compression for input files" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * must not appear in combination with any of the following options:
     vanilla-operation.

   Allow positional parameter options.  The compression method and
encoding method options may be intermixed with file names.  Files named
after these options will be processed in the specified way.

compactor option (-C).
......................

This is the "specify compaction (compression) program" option.  This
option takes a string argument `PROGRAM'.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * may appear an unlimited number of times.

   * must not appear in combination with any of the following options:
     vanilla-operation.

   The `gzip', `bzip2' and `compress' compactor commands may be
specified by the program name as the option name, e.g. `--gzip'.  Those
options, however, are being deprecated.  There is also the `xz'
compactor now.  Specify `xz' with `-C xz' or `--compactor=xz'.

   Specifying the compactor "`none'" will disable file compression.
Compressed files are never processed as plain text.  They are always
uuencoded and the recipient must have `uudecode' to unpack them.

   Specifying the compactor `compress' is deprecated.

level-of-compression option (-g).
.................................

This is the "pass `level' for compression" option.  This option takes a
number argument `LEVEL'.  Some compression programs allow for a level
of compression.  The default is `9', but this option allows you to
specify something else.  This value is used by `gzip', `bzip2' and
`xz', but not `compress'.

bzip2 option (-j).
..................

This is the "`bzip2' and `uuencode' files" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * may appear an unlimited number of times.

   `bzip2' compress and `uuencode' all files prior to packing.  The
recipient must have `uudecode' `bzip2' in order to unpack.

   *NOTE**: THIS OPTION IS DEPRECATED*

gzip option (-z).
.................

This is the "`gzip' and `uuencode' files" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * may appear an unlimited number of times.

   `gzip' compress and `uuencode' all files prior to packing.  The
recipient must have `uudecode' and `gzip' in order to unpack.

   *NOTE**: THIS OPTION IS DEPRECATED*

compress option (-Z).
.....................

This is the "`compress' and `uuencode' files" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * may appear an unlimited number of times.

   * must be compiled in by defining `HAVE_COMPRESS' during the
     compilation.

   `compress' and `uuencode' all files prior to packing.  The recipient
must have `uudecode' and `compress' in order to unpack.

   *NOTE**: THIS OPTION IS DEPRECATED*

level-for-gzip option.
......................

This is an alias for the `level-of-compression' option, *note the
level-of-compression option documentation: shar level-of-compression.

bits-per-code option (-b).
..........................

This is the "pass `bits' (default 12) to compress" option.  This option
takes a string argument `BITS'.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * must be compiled in by defining `HAVE_COMPRESS' during the
     compilation.

   This is the compression factor used by the `compress' program.

   *NOTE**: THIS OPTION IS DEPRECATED*

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar encoding,  Next: shar in-out,  Prev: shar compression,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.3 encoding options
----------------------

Specifying file encoding methodology.  Files may be stored in the shar
either as plain text or uuencoded.  By default, the program selects
which by examining the file.  You may force the selection for all
files.  In intermixed option/file mode, this setting may be changed
during processing.

mixed-uuencode option (-M).
...........................

This is the "decide uuencoding for each file" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * is a member of the mixed-uuencode class of options.

   Automatically determine if the files are text or binary and archive
correctly.  Files found to be binary are uuencoded prior to packing.
This is the default behavior for `shar'.

   For a file to be considered a text file instead of a binary file,
all the following should be true:
  1. The file does not contain any ASCII control character besides <BS>
     (backspace), <HT> (horizontal tab), <LF> (new line) or <FF> (form
     feed).

  2. The file contains no character with its eighth-bit set.

  3. The file contains no line beginning with the five letters "`from
     '", capitalized or not.  (Mail handling programs will often
     gratuitously insert a `>' character before it.)

  4. The file is either empty or ends with a <LF> (newline) byte.

  5. No line in the file contains more than 200 characters.  For
     counting purpose, lines are separated by a <LF> (newline).

uuencode option (-B).
.....................

This is the "treat all files as binary" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * is a member of the mixed-uuencode class of options.

   Use `uuencode' prior to packing all files.  This increases the size
of the archive.  The recipient must have `uudecode' in order to unpack.
Compressed files are always encoded.

text-files option (-T).
.......................

This is the "treat all files as text" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * is a member of the mixed-uuencode class of options.

   If you have files with non-ascii bytes or text that some mail
handling programs do not like, you may find difficulties.  However, if
you are using FTP or SSH/SCP, the non-conforming text files should be
okay.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar in-out,  Next: shar headers,  Prev: shar encoding,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.4 in-out options
--------------------

Specifying file selection and output modes.

output-prefix option (-o).
..........................

This is the "print output to file prefix.nn" option.  This option takes
a string argument `PREFIX'.  Save the archive to files `prefix.01' thru
`prefix.nn' instead of sending all output to standard out.  Must be
specified when the `--whole-size-limit' or `--split-size-limit' options
are specified.

   When PREFIX contains a `%' character, PREFIX is then interpreted as
a `sprintf' format, which should be able to display a single decimal
number.  When PREFIX does not contain such a `%' character, the string
`.%02d' is internally appended.

whole-size-limit option (-l).
.............................

This is the "split archive, not files, to size" option.  This option
takes a number argument `SIZE'.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * is a member of the whole-size-limit class of options.

   * must appear in combination with the following options:
     output-prefix.

   Limit the output file size to `size' bytes, but don't split input
files.  If `size' is less than 1024, then it will be multiplied by
1024.  The value may also be specified with a k, K, m or M suffix.  The
number is then multiplied by 1000, 1024, 1000000, or 1048576,
respectively.  4M (4194304) is the maximum allowed.

   Unlike the `split-size-limit' option, this allows the recipient of
the shar files to unpack them in any order.

split-size-limit option (-L).
.............................

This is the "split archive or files to size" option.  This option takes
a number argument `SIZE'.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * is a member of the whole-size-limit class of options.

   * must appear in combination with the following options:
     output-prefix.

   Limit output file size to `size' bytes, splitting files if
necessary.  The allowed values are specified as with the
`--whole-size-limit' option.

   The archive parts created with this option must be unpacked in the
correct order.  If the recipient of the shell archives wants to put all
of them in a single email folder (file), they will have to be saved in
the correct order for `unshar' to unpack them all at once (using one of
the split archive options).  *Note unshar Invocation::.

input-file-list option (-I).
............................

This is the "read file list from a file" option.  This option takes a
string argument `FILE'.  This option causes `file' to be reopened as
standard input.  If no files are found on the input line, then standard
input is read for input file names.  Use of this option will prohibit
input files from being listed on the command line.

   Input must be in a form similar to that generated by `find', one
filename per line.  This switch is especially useful when the command
line will not hold the list of files to be archived.

   If the `--intermix-type' option is specified on the command line,
then the compression options may be included in the standard input on
lines by themselves and no file name may begin with a hyphen.

   For example:
    { echo --compact xz
       find . -type f -print | sort
    } | shar -S -p -L50K -o /somewhere/big

stdin-file-list option (-S).
............................

This is the "read file list from standard input" option.  This option
is actually a no-op.  It is a wrapper for `--input-file-list=-'.

   *NOTE**: THIS OPTION IS DEPRECATED*

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar headers,  Next: shar xmit-defenses,  Prev: shar in-out,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.5 headers options
---------------------

Controlling the shar headers.

archive-name option (-n).
.........................

This is the "use `name' to document the archive" option.  This option
takes a string argument `NAME'.  Name of archive to be included in the
subject header of the shar files.  See the `--net-headers' option.

submitter option (-s).
......................

This is the "override the submitter name" option.  This option takes a
string argument `WHO@WHERE'.  `shar' will normally determine the
submitter name by querying the system.  Use this option if it is being
done on behalf of another.

net-headers option (-a).
........................

This is the "output submitted-by: & archive-name: headers" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * must appear in combination with the following options:
     archive-name.

   Adds specialized email headers:
    Submitted-by: who@where
    Archive-name: name/part##
   The who@where is normally derived, but can be specified with the
`--submitter' option.  The name must be provided with the
`--archive-name' option.  If the archive name includes a slash (`/')
character, then the `/part##' is omitted.  Thus `-n xyzzy' produces:
    xyzzy/part01
    xyzzy/part02

while `-n xyzzy/patch' produces:
    xyzzy/patch01
    xyzzy/patch02

and `-n xyzzy/patch01.' produces:
    xyzzy/patch01.01
    xyzzy/patch01.02

cut-mark option (-c).
.....................

This is the "start the shar with a cut line" option.  A line saying
'Cut here' is placed at the start of each output file.

translate option (-t).
......................

This is the "translate messages in the script" option.  Translate
messages in the script.  If you have set the `LANG' environment
variable, messages printed by `shar' will be in the specified language.
The produced script will still be emitted using messages in the lingua
franca of the computer world: English.  This option will cause the
script messages to appear in the languages specified by the `LANG'
environment variable set when the script is produced.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar xmit-defenses,  Next: shar shar-flavors,  Prev: shar headers,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.6 xmit-defenses options
---------------------------

Protecting against transmission issues.

no-character-count option.
..........................

This is the "do not use `wc -c' to check size" option.  Do NOT check
each file with 'wc -c' after unpack.  The default is to check.

no-md5-digest option (-D).
..........................

This is the "do not use `md5sum' digest to verify" option.  Do _not_
use `md5sum' digest to verify the unpacked files.  The default is to
check.

force-prefix option (-F).
.........................

This is the "apply the prefix character on every line" option.  Forces
the prefix character to be prepended to every line, even if not
required.  This option may slightly increase the size of the archive,
especially if `--uuencode' or a compression option is used.

here-delimiter option (-d).
...........................

This is the "use delim to delimit the files" option.  This option takes
a string argument `DELIM'.  Use DELIM to delimit the files in the shar
instead of SHAR_EOF.  This is for those who want to personalize their
shar files.  The delimiter will always be prefixed and suffixed with
underscores.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar shar-flavors,  Next: shar internationalization,  Prev: shar xmit-defenses,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.7 shar-flavors options
--------------------------

Producing different kinds of shars.

vanilla-operation option (-V).
..............................

This is the "produce very simple shars" option.  This option produces
`vanilla' shars which rely only upon the existence of `echo', `test'
and `sed' in the unpacking environment.

   It changes the default behavior from mixed mode (`--mixed-uuencode')
to text mode (`--text-files').  Warnings are produced if options are
specified that will require decompression or decoding in the unpacking
environment.

no-piping option (-P).
......................

This is the "use temporary files between programs" option.  In the
`shar' file, use a temporary file to hold file contents between
unpacking stages instead of using pipes.  This option is mandatory when
you know the unpacking will happen on systems that do not support pipes.

no-check-existing option (-x).
..............................

This is the "blindly overwrite existing files" option.  Create the
archive so that when processed it will overwrite existing files without
checking first.  If neither this option nor the `--query-user' option
is specified, the unpack will not overwrite pre-existing files.  In all
cases, however, if `--cut-mark' is passed as a parameter to the script
when unpacking, then existing files will be overwritten unconditionally.

    sh shar-archive-file -c

query-user option (-X).
.......................

This is the "ask user before overwriting files" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * must not appear in combination with any of the following options:
     vanilla-operation.

   When unpacking, interactively ask the user if files should be
overwritten.  Do not use for shars submitted to the net.

   Use of this option produces shars which _will_ cause problems with
some unshar-style procedures, particularly when used together with
vanilla mode (`--vanilla-operation').  Use this feature mainly for
archives to be passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, `-X' is
_not_ for shell archives which are to be submitted to Usenet or other
public networks.

   The problem is that `unshar' programs or procedures often feed
`/bin/sh' from its standard input, thus putting `/bin/sh' and the shell
archive script in competition for input lines.  As an attempt to
alleviate this problem, `shar' will try to detect if `/dev/tty' exists
at the receiving site and will use it to read user replies.  But this
does not work in all cases, it may happen that the receiving user will
have to avoid using `unshar' programs or procedures, and call `/bin/sh'
directly.  In vanilla mode, using `/dev/tty' is not even attempted.

no-timestamp option (-m).
.........................

This is the "do not restore modification times" option.  Avoid
generating 'touch' commands to restore the file modification dates when
unpacking files from the archive.

   When file modification times are not preserved, project build
programs like "make" will see built files older than the files they get
built from.  This is why, when this option is not used, a special
effort is made to restore timestamps.

quiet-unshar option (-Q).
.........................

This is the "avoid verbose messages at unshar time" option.  Verbose
OFF.  Disables the inclusion of comments to be output when the archive
is unpacked.

basename option (-f).
.....................

This is the "restore in one directory, despite hierarchy" option.
Restore by the base file name only, rather than path.  This option
causes only file names to be used, which is useful when building a shar
from several directories, or another directory.  Note that if a
directory name is passed to shar, the substructure of that directory
will be restored whether this option is specified or not.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar internationalization,  Next: shar feedback,  Prev: shar shar-flavors,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.8 internationalization options
----------------------------------

Internationalization options.

no-i18n option.
...............

This is the "do not internationalize" option.  Do not produce
internationalized shell archives, use default English messages.  By
default, shar produces archives that will try to output messages in the
unpackers preferred language (as determined by the LANG/LC_MESSAGES
environmental variables) when they are unpacked.  If no message file
for the unpackers language is found at unpack time, messages will be in
English.

print-text-domain-dir option.
.............................

This is the "print directory with shar messages" option.  Prints the
directory shar looks in to find messages files for different languages,
then immediately exits.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar feedback,  Next: shar config,  Prev: shar internationalization,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.9 feedback options
----------------------

User feedback/entertainment.

quiet option (-q).
..................

This is the "do not output verbose messages" option.  omit progress
messages.

silent option.
..............

This is an alias for the `quiet' option, *note the quiet option
documentation: shar quiet.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar config,  Next: shar exit status,  Prev: shar feedback,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.10 presetting/configuring shar
----------------------------------

Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by
loading values from configuration ("rc" or "ini") files.

`libopts' will search in `$HOME' for configuration (option) data.  The
environment variable `HOME, ' is expanded and replaced when the program
runs If this is a plain file, it is simply processed.  If it is a
directory, then a file named `.sharrc' is searched for within that
directory.

   Configuration files may be in a wide variety of formats.  The basic
format is an option name followed by a value (argument) on the same
line.  Values may be separated from the option name with a colon, equal
sign or simply white space.  Values may be continued across multiple
lines by escaping the newline with a backslash.

   Multiple programs may also share the same initialization file.
Common options are collected at the top, followed by program specific
segments.  The segments are separated by lines like:
    [SHAR]
   or by
    <?program shar>
   Do not mix these styles within one configuration file.

   Compound values and carefully constructed string values may also be
specified using XML syntax:
    <option-name>
       <sub-opt>...&lt;...&gt;...</sub-opt>
    </option-name>
   yielding an `option-name.sub-opt' string value of
    "...<...>..."
   `AutoOpts' does not track suboptions.  You simply note that it is a
hierarchicly valued option.  `AutoOpts' does provide a means for
searching the associated name/value pair list (see: optionFindValue).

   The command line options relating to configuration and/or usage help
are:

version (-v)
............

Print the program version to standard out, optionally with licensing
information, then exit 0.  The optional argument specifies how much
licensing detail to provide.  The default is to print the license name
with the version.  The licensing infomation may be selected with an
option argument.  Only the first letter of the argument is examined:

`version'
     Only print the version.

`copyright'
     Name the copyright usage licensing terms.  This is the default.

`verbose'
     Print the full copyright usage licensing terms.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar exit status,  Next: shar Authors,  Prev: shar config,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.11 shar exit status
-----------------------

One of the following exit values will be returned:
`0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)'
     Successful program execution.

`1 (EXIT_OPTION_ERROR)'
     The command options were misconfigured.

`2 (EXIT_FILE_NOT_FOUND)'
     a specified input could not be found

`3 (EXIT_CANNOT_OPENDIR)'
     open/close of specified directory failed

`4 (EXIT_FAILED)'
     Resource limit/miscelleaneous shar command failure

`63 (EXIT_BUG)'
     There is a shar command bug.  Please report it.

`66 (EX_NOINPUT)'
     A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

`70 (EX_SOFTWARE)'
     libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
     autogen-users AT lists.net.  Thank you.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar Authors,  Next: shar Bugs,  Prev: shar exit status,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.12 shar Authors
-------------------

The `shar' and `unshar' programs is the collective work of many
authors.  Many people contributed by reporting problems, suggesting
various improvements or submitting actual code.  A list of these people
is in the `THANKS' file in the sharutils distribution.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar Bugs,  Next: shar Examples,  Prev: shar Authors,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.13 shar Bugs
----------------

Please put `sharutils' in the subject line for emailed bug reports.  It
helps to spot the message.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar Examples,  Next: shar Warnings,  Prev: shar Bugs,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.14 shar Examples
--------------------

The first shows how to make a shell archive out of all C program
sources.  The second produces a shell archive with all `.c' and `.h'
files, which unpacks silently.  The third gives a shell archive of all
uuencoded `.arc' files, into numbered files starting from `arc.sh.01'.
The last example gives a shell archive which will use only the file
names at unpack time.

    shar *.c > cprog.shar
    shar -Q *.[ch] > cprog.shar
    shar -B -l28 -oarc.sh *.arc
    shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c > u.sh

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar Warnings,  Next: shar See Also,  Prev: shar Examples,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.15 shar Warnings
--------------------

No attempt is made to restore the protection and modification dates for
directories, even if this is done by default for files.  Thus, if a
directory is given to `shar', the protection and modification dates of
corresponding unpacked directory may not match those of the original.

   If a directory is passed to shar, it may be scanned more than once,
to conserve memory.  Therefore, do not change the directory contents
while shar is running.

   Be careful that the output file(s) are not included in the inputs or
shar may loop until the disk fills up.  Be particularly careful when a
directory is passed to shar that the output files are not in that
directory or a subdirectory of it.

   Use of the compression and encoding options will slow the archive
process, perhaps considerably.

   Use of the `--query-user' produces shars which _will_ cause problems
with many unshar procedures.  Use this feature only for archives to be
passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, `query-user' is NOT for
shell archives which are to be distributed across the net.  The use of
compression in net shars will cause you to be flamed off the earth.
Not using the `--no-timestamp' or `--force-prefix' options may also get
you occasional complaints.  Put these options into your `~/.sharrc'
file.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: shar See Also,  Prev: shar Warnings,  Up: shar Invocation

2.1.16 shar See Also
--------------------

unshar(1)

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar Invocation,  Next: uuencode Invocation,  Prev: shar Invocation,  Up: Basic

2.2 Invoking unshar
===================

Unshar scans the input files (typically email messages) looking for the
start of a shell archive.  If no files are given, then standard input
is processed instead.  It then passes each archive discovered through
an invocation of the shell program to unpack it.

   This section was generated by *AutoGen*, using the `agtexi-cmd'
template and the option descriptions for the `unshar' program.  This
software is released under the GNU General Public License, version 3 or
later.

* Menu:

* unshar usage::                  unshar help/usage (`--help')
* unshar directory::              directory option (-d)
* unshar overwrite::              overwrite option (-c)
* unshar force::                  force option (-f)
* unshar split-at::               split-at option (-E)
* unshar exit-0::                 exit-0 option (-e)
* unshar debug::                  debug option (-D)
* unshar config::                 presetting/configuring unshar
* unshar exit status::            exit status
* unshar Authors::                Authors
* unshar Bugs::                   Bugs
* unshar See Also::               See Also

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar usage,  Next: unshar directory,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.1 unshar help/usage (`--help')
----------------------------------

This is the automatically generated usage text for unshar.

   The text printed is the same whether selected with the `help' option
(`--help') or the `more-help' option (`--more-help').  `more-help' will
print the usage text by passing it through a pager program.
`more-help' is disabled on platforms without a working `fork(2)'
function.  The `PAGER' environment variable is used to select the
program, defaulting to `more'.  Both will exit with a status code of 0.

unshar (GNU sharutils) - unpack a shar archive
Usage:  unshar [ -<flag> [<val>] | --<name>[{=| }<val>] ]... [<file>...]

   -d, --directory=DIR        unpack into the directory DIR
   -c, --overwrite            overwrite any pre-existing files
   -f, --force                an alias for the 'overwrite' option
   -E, --split-at=SPLIT-PAT   split input on SPLIT-PAT lines
   -e, --exit-0               split input on "exit 0" lines
                                - prohibits the option 'split-at'
   -D, --debug                debug the shell code
   -v, --version[=MODE]       output version information and exit
   -h, --help                 display extended usage information and exit
   -!, --more-help            extended usage information passed thru pager
   -R, --save-opts[=FILE]     save the option state to the config file FILE
   -r, --load-opts=FILE       load options from the config file FILE
                                - disabled as '--no-load-opts'
                                - may appear multiple times

Options are specified by doubled hyphens and their name or by a single
hyphen and the flag character.

If no arguments are provided, input arguments are read from stdin,
one per line; blank and '#'-prefixed lines are comments.
'stdin' may not be a terminal (tty).

The following option preset mechanisms are supported:
 - reading file $HOME/.sharrc

'unshar' scans the input files (typically email messages) looking for the
start of a shell archive.  If no files are given, then standard input is
processed instead.  It then passes each archive discovered through an
invocation of the shell program to unpack it.

Please send bug reports to:  <bug-gnu-utils AT gnu.org>

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar directory,  Next: unshar overwrite,  Prev: unshar usage,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.2 directory option (-d)
---------------------------

This is the "unpack into the directory `dir'" option.  This option
takes a string argument `dir'.  The input file names are relative to
the current directory when the program was started.  This option tells
`unshar' to insert a `cd <dir>' commad at the start of the `shar' text
written to the shell.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar overwrite,  Next: unshar force,  Prev: unshar directory,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.3 overwrite option (-c)
---------------------------

This is the "overwrite any pre-existing files" option.  This option is
passed through as an option to the shar file.  Many shell archive
scripts accept a `-c' argument to indicate that existing files should
be overwritten.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar force,  Next: unshar split-at,  Prev: unshar overwrite,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.4 force option (-f)
-----------------------

This is an alias for the `overwrite' option, *note the overwrite option
documentation: unshar overwrite.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar split-at,  Next: unshar exit-0,  Prev: unshar force,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.5 split-at option (-E)
--------------------------

This is the "split input on SPLIT-MARK lines" option.  This option
takes a string argument `split-mark'.  With this option, `unshar'
isolates each different shell archive from the others which have been
placed in the same file, unpacking each in turn, from the beginning of
the file to the end.  Its proper operation relies on the fact that many
shar files are terminated by a readily identifiable string at the start
of the last line.

   For example, noticing that most `.signatures' have a double hyphen
("-") on a line right before them, one can then sometimes use
`--split-at=--'.  The signature will then be skipped, along with the
headers of the following message.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar exit-0,  Next: unshar debug,  Prev: unshar split-at,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.6 exit-0 option (-e)
------------------------

This is the "split input on "exit 0" lines" option.

This option has some usage constraints.  It:
   * must not appear in combination with any of the following options:
     split-at.

   Most shell archives end with a line consisting of simply "exit 0".
This option is equivalent to (and conflicts with) `--split-at="exit 0"'.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar debug,  Next: unshar config,  Prev: unshar exit-0,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.7 debug option (-D)
-----------------------

This is the "debug the shell code" option.  "set -x" will be emitted
into the code the shell interprets.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar config,  Next: unshar exit status,  Prev: unshar debug,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.8 presetting/configuring unshar
-----------------------------------

Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by
loading values from configuration ("rc" or "ini") files.

`libopts' will search in `$HOME' for configuration (option) data.  The
environment variable `HOME, ' is expanded and replaced when the program
runs If this is a plain file, it is simply processed.  If it is a
directory, then a file named `.sharrc' is searched for within that
directory.

   Configuration files may be in a wide variety of formats.  The basic
format is an option name followed by a value (argument) on the same
line.  Values may be separated from the option name with a colon, equal
sign or simply white space.  Values may be continued across multiple
lines by escaping the newline with a backslash.

   Multiple programs may also share the same initialization file.
Common options are collected at the top, followed by program specific
segments.  The segments are separated by lines like:
    [UNSHAR]
   or by
    <?program unshar>
   Do not mix these styles within one configuration file.

   Compound values and carefully constructed string values may also be
specified using XML syntax:
    <option-name>
       <sub-opt>...&lt;...&gt;...</sub-opt>
    </option-name>
   yielding an `option-name.sub-opt' string value of
    "...<...>..."
   `AutoOpts' does not track suboptions.  You simply note that it is a
hierarchicly valued option.  `AutoOpts' does provide a means for
searching the associated name/value pair list (see: optionFindValue).

   The command line options relating to configuration and/or usage help
are:

version (-v)
............

Print the program version to standard out, optionally with licensing
information, then exit 0.  The optional argument specifies how much
licensing detail to provide.  The default is to print the license name
with the version.  The licensing infomation may be selected with an
option argument.  Only the first letter of the argument is examined:

`version'
     Only print the version.

`copyright'
     Name the copyright usage licensing terms.  This is the default.

`verbose'
     Print the full copyright usage licensing terms.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar exit status,  Next: unshar Authors,  Prev: unshar config,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.9 unshar exit status
------------------------

One of the following exit values will be returned:
`0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)'
     Successful program execution.

`1 (EXIT_FAILURE)'
     There was an error in command usage.

`2 (EXIT_POPEN_PROBLEM)'
     cannot spawn or write to a shell process

`3 (EXIT_CANNOT_CREATE)'
     cannot create output file

`4 (EXIT_BAD_DIRECTORY)'
     the working directory structure is invalid

`5 (EXIT_NOMEM)'
     memory allocation failure

`6 (EXIT_INVALID)'
     invalid input, does not contain a shar file

`66 (EX_NOINPUT)'
     A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

`70 (EX_SOFTWARE)'
     libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
     autogen-users AT lists.net.  Thank you.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar Authors,  Next: unshar Bugs,  Prev: unshar exit status,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.10 unshar Authors
---------------------

The `shar' and `unshar' programs is the collective work of many
authors.  Many people contributed by reporting problems, suggesting
various improvements or submitting actual code.  A list of these people
is in the `THANKS' file in the sharutils distribution.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar Bugs,  Next: unshar See Also,  Prev: unshar Authors,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.11 unshar Bugs
------------------

Please put `sharutils' in the subject line for emailed bug reports.  It
helps to spot the message.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: unshar See Also,  Prev: unshar Bugs,  Up: unshar Invocation

2.2.12 unshar See Also
----------------------

shar(1)

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode Invocation,  Next: uudecode Invocation,  Prev: unshar Invocation,  Up: Basic

2.3 Invoking uuencode
=====================

`uuencode' is used to create an ASCII representation of a file that can
be sent over channels that may otherwise corrupt the data.
Specifically, email cannot handle binary data and will often even
insert a character when the six character sequence "\nFrom " is seen.

   `uuencode' will read `in-file' if provided and otherwise read data
from standard in and write the encoded form to standard out.  The
output will begin with a header line for use by `uudecode' giving it
the resulting suggested file `output-name' and access mode.  If the
`output-name' is specifically `/dev/stdout', then `uudecode' will emit
the decoded file to standard out.

   *Note*: `uuencode' uses buffered input and assumes that it is not
hand typed from a tty.  The consequence is that at a tty, you may need
to hit Ctl-D several times to terminate input.

   This section was generated by *AutoGen*, using the `agtexi-cmd'
template and the option descriptions for the `uuencode' program.  This
software is released under the GNU General Public License, version 3 or
later.

* Menu:

* uuencode usage::                  uuencode help/usage (`--help')
* uuencode base64::                 base64 option (-m)
* uuencode encode-file-name::       encode-file-name option (-e)
* uuencode config::                 presetting/configuring uuencode
* uuencode exit status::            exit status
* uuencode Bugs::                   Bugs
* uuencode Standards::              Standards
* uuencode History::                History
* uuencode See Also::               See Also

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode usage,  Next: uuencode base64,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.1 uuencode help/usage (`--help')
------------------------------------

This is the automatically generated usage text for uuencode.

   The text printed is the same whether selected with the `help' option
(`--help') or the `more-help' option (`--more-help').  `more-help' will
print the usage text by passing it through a pager program.
`more-help' is disabled on platforms without a working `fork(2)'
function.  The `PAGER' environment variable is used to select the
program, defaulting to `more'.  Both will exit with a status code of 0.

uuencode (GNU sharutils) - encode a file into email friendly text
Usage:  uuencode [ -<flag> | --<name> ]... [<in-file>] <output-name>

   -m, --base64               convert using base64
   -e, --encode-file-name     encode the output file name
   -v, --version[=MODE]       output version information and exit
   -h, --help                 display extended usage information and exit
   -!, --more-help            extended usage information passed thru pager
   -R, --save-opts[=FILE]     save the option state to a config file FILE
   -r, --load-opts=FILE       load options from the config file FILE
                                - disabled with '--no-load-opts'
                                - may appear multiple times

Options are specified by doubled hyphens and their name or by a single
hyphen and the flag character.

The following option preset mechanisms are supported:
 - reading file $HOME/.sharrc

'uuencode' is used to create an ASCII representation of a file that can be
sent over channels that may otherwise corrupt the data.  Specifically,
email cannot handle binary data and will often even insert a character when
the six character sequence "\nFrom " is seen.

'uuencode' will read 'in-file' if provided and otherwise read data from
standard in and write the encoded form to standard out.  The output will
begin with a header line for use by 'uudecode' giving it the resulting
suggested file 'output-name' and access mode.  If the 'output-name' is
specifically '/dev/stdout', then 'uudecode' will emit the decoded file to
standard out.

'Note': 'uuencode' uses buffered input and assumes that it is not hand
typed from a tty.  The consequence is that at a tty, you may need to hit
Ctl-D several times to terminate input.

Please send bug reports to:  <bug-gnu-utils AT gnu.org>

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode base64,  Next: uuencode encode-file-name,  Prev: uuencode usage,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.2 base64 option (-m)
------------------------

This is the "convert using base64" option.  By default, `uuencode' will
encode using the traditional conversion.  It is slower and less compact
than base64.  The encoded form of the file is expanded by 37% for UU
encoding and by 35% for base64 encoding (3 bytes become 4 plus control
information).

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode encode-file-name,  Next: uuencode config,  Prev: uuencode base64,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.3 encode-file-name option (-e)
----------------------------------

This is the "encode the output file name" option.  Since output file
names may contain characters that are not handled well by various
transmission modes, you may specify that the `output-name' be base64
encoded as well.  (Traditional uuencoding of the file name is not
supported.)

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode config,  Next: uuencode exit status,  Prev: uuencode encode-file-name,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.4 presetting/configuring uuencode
-------------------------------------

Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by
loading values from configuration ("rc" or "ini") files.

`libopts' will search in `$HOME' for configuration (option) data.  The
environment variable `HOME, ' is expanded and replaced when the program
runs If this is a plain file, it is simply processed.  If it is a
directory, then a file named `.sharrc' is searched for within that
directory.

   Configuration files may be in a wide variety of formats.  The basic
format is an option name followed by a value (argument) on the same
line.  Values may be separated from the option name with a colon, equal
sign or simply white space.  Values may be continued across multiple
lines by escaping the newline with a backslash.

   Multiple programs may also share the same initialization file.
Common options are collected at the top, followed by program specific
segments.  The segments are separated by lines like:
    [UUENCODE]
   or by
    <?program uuencode>
   Do not mix these styles within one configuration file.

   Compound values and carefully constructed string values may also be
specified using XML syntax:
    <option-name>
       <sub-opt>...&lt;...&gt;...</sub-opt>
    </option-name>
   yielding an `option-name.sub-opt' string value of
    "...<...>..."
   `AutoOpts' does not track suboptions.  You simply note that it is a
hierarchicly valued option.  `AutoOpts' does provide a means for
searching the associated name/value pair list (see: optionFindValue).

   The command line options relating to configuration and/or usage help
are:

version (-v)
............

Print the program version to standard out, optionally with licensing
information, then exit 0.  The optional argument specifies how much
licensing detail to provide.  The default is to print the license name
with the version.  The licensing infomation may be selected with an
option argument.  Only the first letter of the argument is examined:

`version'
     Only print the version.

`copyright'
     Name the copyright usage licensing terms.  This is the default.

`verbose'
     Print the full copyright usage licensing terms.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode exit status,  Next: uuencode Bugs,  Prev: uuencode config,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.5 uuencode exit status
--------------------------

One of the following exit values will be returned:
`0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)'
     Successful program execution.

`1 (EXIT_FAILURE)'
     The operation failed or the command syntax was not valid.

`66 (EX_NOINPUT)'
     A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

`70 (EX_SOFTWARE)'
     libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
     autogen-users AT lists.net.  Thank you.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode Bugs,  Next: uuencode Standards,  Prev: uuencode exit status,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.6 uuencode Bugs
-------------------

Please put `sharutils' in the subject line for emailed bug reports.  It
helps to spot the message.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode Standards,  Next: uuencode History,  Prev: uuencode Bugs,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.7 uuencode Standards
------------------------

This implementation is compliant with P1003.2b/D11.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode History,  Next: uuencode See Also,  Prev: uuencode Standards,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.8 uuencode History
----------------------

The `uuencode' command first appeared in BSD 4.0.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uuencode See Also,  Prev: uuencode History,  Up: uuencode Invocation

2.3.9 uuencode See Also
-----------------------

uudecode(1), uuencode(5)

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode Invocation,  Prev: uuencode Invocation,  Up: Basic

2.4 Invoking uudecode
=====================

If no `file'(s) are provided, then standard input is decoded.
`uudecode' transforms uuencoded files into their original form.

   The encoded file(s) may be specified on the command line, or one may
be read from standard input.  The output file name is specified in the
encoded file, but may be overridden with the `-o' option.  It will have
the mode of the original file, except that setuid and execute bits are
not retained.  If the output file is specified to be `/dev/stdout' or
`-', the result will be written to standard output. If there are
multiple input files and the second or subsquent file specifies
standard output, the decoded data will be written to the same file as
the previous output.  Don't do that.

   `uudecode' ignores any leading and trailing lines.  It looks for a
line that starts with "`begin'" and proceeds until the end-of-encoding
marker is found.  The program determines from the header line of the
encoded file which of the two supported encoding schemes was used and
whether or not the output file name has been encoded with base64
encoding.  See `uuencode(5)'.

   This section was generated by *AutoGen*, using the `agtexi-cmd'
template and the option descriptions for the `uudecode' program.  This
software is released under the GNU General Public License, version 3 or
later.

* Menu:

* uudecode usage::                  uudecode help/usage (`--help')
* uudecode output-file::            output-file option (-o)
* uudecode ignore-chmod::           ignore-chmod option (-c)
* uudecode config::                 presetting/configuring uudecode
* uudecode exit status::            exit status
* uudecode Bugs::                   Bugs
* uudecode Standards::              Standards
* uudecode See Also::               See Also

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode usage,  Next: uudecode output-file,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.1 uudecode help/usage (`--help')
------------------------------------

This is the automatically generated usage text for uudecode.

   The text printed is the same whether selected with the `help' option
(`--help') or the `more-help' option (`--more-help').  `more-help' will
print the usage text by passing it through a pager program.
`more-help' is disabled on platforms without a working `fork(2)'
function.  The `PAGER' environment variable is used to select the
program, defaulting to `more'.  Both will exit with a status code of 0.

uudecode (GNU sharutils) - decode an encoded file
Usage:  uudecode [ -<flag> [<val>] | --<name>[{=| }<val>] ]... [<file>...]

   -o, --output-file=str      direct output to file
   -c, --ignore-chmod         ignore fchmod(3P) errors
   -v, --version[=MODE]       output version information and exit
   -h, --help                 display extended usage information and exit
   -!, --more-help            extended usage information passed thru pager
   -R, --save-opts[=FILE]     save the option state to a config file FILE
   -r, --load-opts=FILE       load options from the config file FILE
                                - disabled with '--no-load-opts'
                                - may appear multiple times

Options are specified by doubled hyphens and their name or by a single
hyphen and the flag character.
If no 'file'(s) are provided, then standard input is decoded.

The following option preset mechanisms are supported:
 - reading file $HOME/.sharrc

'uudecode' transforms uuencoded files into their original form.

The encoded file(s) may be specified on the command line, or one may be
read from standard input.  The output file name is specified in the encoded
file, but may be overridden with the '-o' option.  It will have the mode of
the original file, except that setuid and execute bits are not retained.  If
the output file is specified to be '/dev/stdout' or '-', the result will be
written to standard output.  If there are multiple input files and the
second or subsquent file specifies standard output, the decoded data will
be written to the same file as the previous output.  Don't do that.

'uudecode' ignores any leading and trailing lines.  It looks for a line
that starts with "'begin'" and proceeds until the end-of-encoding marker is
found.  The program determines from the header line of the encoded file
which of the two supported encoding schemes was used and whether or not the
output file name has been encoded with base64 encoding.  See 'uuencode(5)'.

Please send bug reports to:  <bug-gnu-utils AT gnu.org>

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode output-file,  Next: uudecode ignore-chmod,  Prev: uudecode usage,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.2 output-file option (-o)
-----------------------------

This is the "direct output to `file'" option.  This option takes a
string argument `file'.  If specified, decoded data are written to this
file.  When multiple inputs are specified on the command line, this
option cannot be specified.  All decoded data must be written to the
file name encoded in the data.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode ignore-chmod,  Next: uudecode config,  Prev: uudecode output-file,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.3 ignore-chmod option (-c)
------------------------------

This is the "ignore `fchmod(3p)' errors" option.  By default, if the
output file permissions cannot be changed to the permissions specified
in the encoded data, the file will not be written out and execution
stops.  This option will cause that error to be ignored.  The resulting
file will have all the data, but the incorrect mode settings.

   `fchmod()' errors are also ignored if `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set in
the environment.  RE: <http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=635>

   A warning is always emitted when `fchmod()' fails.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode config,  Next: uudecode exit status,  Prev: uudecode ignore-chmod,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.4 presetting/configuring uudecode
-------------------------------------

Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by
loading values from configuration ("rc" or "ini") files.

`libopts' will search in `$HOME' for configuration (option) data.  The
environment variable `HOME, ' is expanded and replaced when the program
runs If this is a plain file, it is simply processed.  If it is a
directory, then a file named `.sharrc' is searched for within that
directory.

   Configuration files may be in a wide variety of formats.  The basic
format is an option name followed by a value (argument) on the same
line.  Values may be separated from the option name with a colon, equal
sign or simply white space.  Values may be continued across multiple
lines by escaping the newline with a backslash.

   Multiple programs may also share the same initialization file.
Common options are collected at the top, followed by program specific
segments.  The segments are separated by lines like:
    [UUDECODE]
   or by
    <?program uudecode>
   Do not mix these styles within one configuration file.

   Compound values and carefully constructed string values may also be
specified using XML syntax:
    <option-name>
       <sub-opt>...&lt;...&gt;...</sub-opt>
    </option-name>
   yielding an `option-name.sub-opt' string value of
    "...<...>..."
   `AutoOpts' does not track suboptions.  You simply note that it is a
hierarchicly valued option.  `AutoOpts' does provide a means for
searching the associated name/value pair list (see: optionFindValue).

   The command line options relating to configuration and/or usage help
are:

version (-v)
............

Print the program version to standard out, optionally with licensing
information, then exit 0.  The optional argument specifies how much
licensing detail to provide.  The default is to print the license name
with the version.  The licensing infomation may be selected with an
option argument.  Only the first letter of the argument is examined:

`version'
     Only print the version.

`copyright'
     Name the copyright usage licensing terms.  This is the default.

`verbose'
     Print the full copyright usage licensing terms.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode exit status,  Next: uudecode Bugs,  Prev: uudecode config,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.5 uudecode exit status
--------------------------

One of the following exit values will be returned:
`0 (EXIT_SUCCESS)'
     Successful program execution.

`1 (EXIT_OPTION_ERROR)'
     The command options were misconfigured.

`2 (EXIT_INVALID)'
     (warning) One or more input files contained no valid data

`4 (EXIT_NO_INPUT)'
     (warning) The specified input file was not found

`8 (EXIT_NO_OUTPUT)'
     The specified output file could not be created (error); or else
     one of the output files could not be written or its access mode
     could not be changed (warnings).  The accompanying message(s) will
     distinguish.

`9 (EXIT_NO_MEM)'
     No process memory available

`66 (EX_NOINPUT)'
     A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

`70 (EX_SOFTWARE)'
     libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
     autogen-users AT lists.net.  Thank you.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode Bugs,  Next: uudecode Standards,  Prev: uudecode exit status,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.6 uudecode Bugs
-------------------

Please put `sharutils' in the subject line for emailed bug reports.  It
helps to spot the message.

   If more than one `name' in the encoded files are the same, or if the
second or following input files specifies standard output for the
output file, then the result is probably not what is expected.
Specifically, standard output will be appended to and named output
files will be replaced.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode Standards,  Next: uudecode See Also,  Prev: uudecode Bugs,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.7 uudecode Standards
------------------------

This implementation is compliant with P1003.2b/D11.

File: sharutils.info,  Node: uudecode See Also,  Prev: uudecode Standards,  Up: uudecode Invocation

2.4.8 uudecode See Also
-----------------------

uuencode(1), uuencode(5)

File: sharutils.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Basic,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

    Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    `http://fsf.org/'

    Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
    of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

      Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
      under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
      or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
      with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
      Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
      Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

        with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
        the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
        being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.



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