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GNU Readline Library
********************

This document describes the end user interface of the GNU Readline
Library, a utility which aids in the consistency of user interface
across discrete programs which provide a command line interface.  The
Readline home page is <http://www.gnu.org/software/readline/>.

* Menu:

* Command Line Editing::	   GNU Readline User's Manual.
* GNU Free Documentation License::	License for copying this manual.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Command Line Editing,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Command Line Editing
**********************

This chapter describes the basic features of the GNU command line
editing interface.

* Menu:

* Introduction and Notation::	Notation used in this text.
* Readline Interaction::	The minimum set of commands for editing a line.
* Readline Init File::		Customizing Readline from a user's view.
* Bindable Readline Commands::	A description of most of the Readline commands
				available for binding
* Readline vi Mode::		A short description of how to make Readline
				behave like the vi editor.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Introduction and Notation,  Next: Readline Interaction,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.1 Introduction to Line Editing
================================

The following paragraphs describe the notation used to represent
keystrokes.

   The text 'C-k' is read as 'Control-K' and describes the character
produced when the <k> key is pressed while the Control key is depressed.

   The text 'M-k' is read as 'Meta-K' and describes the character
produced when the Meta key (if you have one) is depressed, and the <k>
key is pressed.  The Meta key is labeled <ALT> on many keyboards.  On
keyboards with two keys labeled <ALT> (usually to either side of the
space bar), the <ALT> on the left side is generally set to work as a
Meta key.  The <ALT> key on the right may also be configured to work as
a Meta key or may be configured as some other modifier, such as a
Compose key for typing accented characters.

   If you do not have a Meta or <ALT> key, or another key working as a
Meta key, the identical keystroke can be generated by typing <ESC>
_first_, and then typing <k>.  Either process is known as "metafying"
the <k> key.

   The text 'M-C-k' is read as 'Meta-Control-k' and describes the
character produced by "metafying" 'C-k'.

   In addition, several keys have their own names.  Specifically, <DEL>,
<ESC>, <LFD>, <SPC>, <RET>, and <TAB> all stand for themselves when seen
in this text, or in an init file (*note Readline Init File::).  If your
keyboard lacks a <LFD> key, typing <C-j> will produce the desired
character.  The <RET> key may be labeled <Return> or <Enter> on some
keyboards.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Interaction,  Next: Readline Init File,  Prev: Introduction and Notation,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.2 Readline Interaction
========================

Often during an interactive session you type in a long line of text,
only to notice that the first word on the line is misspelled.  The
Readline library gives you a set of commands for manipulating the text
as you type it in, allowing you to just fix your typo, and not forcing
you to retype the majority of the line.  Using these editing commands,
you move the cursor to the place that needs correction, and delete or
insert the text of the corrections.  Then, when you are satisfied with
the line, you simply press <RET>.  You do not have to be at the end of
the line to press <RET>; the entire line is accepted regardless of the
location of the cursor within the line.

* Menu:

* Readline Bare Essentials::	The least you need to know about Readline.
* Readline Movement Commands::	Moving about the input line.
* Readline Killing Commands::	How to delete text, and how to get it back!
* Readline Arguments::		Giving numeric arguments to commands.
* Searching::			Searching through previous lines.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Bare Essentials,  Next: Readline Movement Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.1 Readline Bare Essentials
------------------------------

In order to enter characters into the line, simply type them.  The typed
character appears where the cursor was, and then the cursor moves one
space to the right.  If you mistype a character, you can use your erase
character to back up and delete the mistyped character.

   Sometimes you may mistype a character, and not notice the error until
you have typed several other characters.  In that case, you can type
'C-b' to move the cursor to the left, and then correct your mistake.
Afterwards, you can move the cursor to the right with 'C-f'.

   When you add text in the middle of a line, you will notice that
characters to the right of the cursor are 'pushed over' to make room for
the text that you have inserted.  Likewise, when you delete text behind
the cursor, characters to the right of the cursor are 'pulled back' to
fill in the blank space created by the removal of the text.  A list of
the bare essentials for editing the text of an input line follows.

'C-b'
     Move back one character.
'C-f'
     Move forward one character.
<DEL> or <Backspace>
     Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
'C-d'
     Delete the character underneath the cursor.
Printing characters
     Insert the character into the line at the cursor.
'C-_' or 'C-x C-u'
     Undo the last editing command.  You can undo all the way back to an
     empty line.

(Depending on your configuration, the <Backspace> key be set to delete
the character to the left of the cursor and the <DEL> key set to delete
the character underneath the cursor, like 'C-d', rather than the
character to the left of the cursor.)

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Movement Commands,  Next: Readline Killing Commands,  Prev: Readline Bare Essentials,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.2 Readline Movement Commands
--------------------------------

The above table describes the most basic keystrokes that you need in
order to do editing of the input line.  For your convenience, many other
commands have been added in addition to 'C-b', 'C-f', 'C-d', and <DEL>.
Here are some commands for moving more rapidly about the line.

'C-a'
     Move to the start of the line.
'C-e'
     Move to the end of the line.
'M-f'
     Move forward a word, where a word is composed of letters and
     digits.
'M-b'
     Move backward a word.
'C-l'
     Clear the screen, reprinting the current line at the top.

   Notice how 'C-f' moves forward a character, while 'M-f' moves forward
a word.  It is a loose convention that control keystrokes operate on
characters while meta keystrokes operate on words.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Killing Commands,  Next: Readline Arguments,  Prev: Readline Movement Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.3 Readline Killing Commands
-------------------------------

"Killing" text means to delete the text from the line, but to save it
away for later use, usually by "yanking" (re-inserting) it back into the
line.  ('Cut' and 'paste' are more recent jargon for 'kill' and 'yank'.)

   If the description for a command says that it 'kills' text, then you
can be sure that you can get the text back in a different (or the same)
place later.

   When you use a kill command, the text is saved in a "kill-ring".  Any
number of consecutive kills save all of the killed text together, so
that when you yank it back, you get it all.  The kill ring is not line
specific; the text that you killed on a previously typed line is
available to be yanked back later, when you are typing another line.

   Here is the list of commands for killing text.

'C-k'
     Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the
     line.

'M-d'
     Kill from the cursor to the end of the current word, or, if between
     words, to the end of the next word.  Word boundaries are the same
     as those used by 'M-f'.

'M-<DEL>'
     Kill from the cursor the start of the current word, or, if between
     words, to the start of the previous word.  Word boundaries are the
     same as those used by 'M-b'.

'C-w'
     Kill from the cursor to the previous whitespace.  This is different
     than 'M-<DEL>' because the word boundaries differ.

   Here is how to "yank" the text back into the line.  Yanking means to
copy the most-recently-killed text from the kill buffer.

'C-y'
     Yank the most recently killed text back into the buffer at the
     cursor.

'M-y'
     Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top.  You can only do this
     if the prior command is 'C-y' or 'M-y'.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Arguments,  Next: Searching,  Prev: Readline Killing Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.4 Readline Arguments
------------------------

You can pass numeric arguments to Readline commands.  Sometimes the
argument acts as a repeat count, other times it is the sign of the
argument that is significant.  If you pass a negative argument to a
command which normally acts in a forward direction, that command will
act in a backward direction.  For example, to kill text back to the
start of the line, you might type 'M-- C-k'.

   The general way to pass numeric arguments to a command is to type
meta digits before the command.  If the first 'digit' typed is a minus
sign ('-'), then the sign of the argument will be negative.  Once you
have typed one meta digit to get the argument started, you can type the
remainder of the digits, and then the command.  For example, to give the
'C-d' command an argument of 10, you could type 'M-1 0 C-d', which will
delete the next ten characters on the input line.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Searching,  Prev: Readline Arguments,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History
-------------------------------------------

Readline provides commands for searching through the command history for
lines containing a specified string.  There are two search modes:
"incremental" and "non-incremental".

   Incremental searches begin before the user has finished typing the
search string.  As each character of the search string is typed,
Readline displays the next entry from the history matching the string
typed so far.  An incremental search requires only as many characters as
needed to find the desired history entry.  To search backward in the
history for a particular string, type 'C-r'.  Typing 'C-s' searches
forward through the history.  The characters present in the value of the
'isearch-terminators' variable are used to terminate an incremental
search.  If that variable has not been assigned a value, the <ESC> and
'C-J' characters will terminate an incremental search.  'C-g' will abort
an incremental search and restore the original line.  When the search is
terminated, the history entry containing the search string becomes the
current line.

   To find other matching entries in the history list, type 'C-r' or
'C-s' as appropriate.  This will search backward or forward in the
history for the next entry matching the search string typed so far.  Any
other key sequence bound to a Readline command will terminate the search
and execute that command.  For instance, a <RET> will terminate the
search and accept the line, thereby executing the command from the
history list.  A movement command will terminate the search, make the
last line found the current line, and begin editing.

   Readline remembers the last incremental search string.  If two 'C-r's
are typed without any intervening characters defining a new search
string, any remembered search string is used.

   Non-incremental searches read the entire search string before
starting to search for matching history lines.  The search string may be
typed by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Init File,  Next: Bindable Readline Commands,  Prev: Readline Interaction,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.3 Readline Init File
======================

Although the Readline library comes with a set of Emacs-like keybindings
installed by default, it is possible to use a different set of
keybindings.  Any user can customize programs that use Readline by
putting commands in an "inputrc" file, conventionally in his home
directory.  The name of this file is taken from the value of the
environment variable 'INPUTRC'.  If that variable is unset, the default
is '~/.inputrc'.  If that file does not exist or cannot be read, the
ultimate default is '/etc/inputrc'.

   When a program which uses the Readline library starts up, the init
file is read, and the key bindings are set.

   In addition, the 'C-x C-r' command re-reads this init file, thus
incorporating any changes that you might have made to it.

* Menu:

* Readline Init File Syntax::	Syntax for the commands in the inputrc file.

* Conditional Init Constructs::	Conditional key bindings in the inputrc file.

* Sample Init File::		An example inputrc file.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Init File Syntax,  Next: Conditional Init Constructs,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.1 Readline Init File Syntax
-------------------------------

There are only a few basic constructs allowed in the Readline init file.
Blank lines are ignored.  Lines beginning with a '#' are comments.
Lines beginning with a '$' indicate conditional constructs (*note
Conditional Init Constructs::).  Other lines denote variable settings
and key bindings.

Variable Settings
     You can modify the run-time behavior of Readline by altering the
     values of variables in Readline using the 'set' command within the
     init file.  The syntax is simple:

          set VARIABLE VALUE

     Here, for example, is how to change from the default Emacs-like key
     binding to use 'vi' line editing commands:

          set editing-mode vi

     Variable names and values, where appropriate, are recognized
     without regard to case.  Unrecognized variable names are ignored.

     Boolean variables (those that can be set to on or off) are set to
     on if the value is null or empty, ON (case-insensitive), or 1.  Any
     other value results in the variable being set to off.

     A great deal of run-time behavior is changeable with the following
     variables.

     'bell-style'
          Controls what happens when Readline wants to ring the terminal
          bell.  If set to 'none', Readline never rings the bell.  If
          set to 'visible', Readline uses a visible bell if one is
          available.  If set to 'audible' (the default), Readline
          attempts to ring the terminal's bell.

     'bind-tty-special-chars'
          If set to 'on' (the default), Readline attempts to bind the
          control characters treated specially by the kernel's terminal
          driver to their Readline equivalents.

     'blink-matching-paren'
          If set to 'on', Readline attempts to briefly move the cursor
          to an opening parenthesis when a closing parenthesis is
          inserted.  The default is 'off'.

     'colored-completion-prefix'
          If set to 'on', when listing completions, Readline displays
          the common prefix of the set of possible completions using a
          different color.  The color definitions are taken from the
          value of the 'LS_COLORS' environment variable.  The default is
          'off'.

     'colored-stats'
          If set to 'on', Readline displays possible completions using
          different colors to indicate their file type.  The color
          definitions are taken from the value of the 'LS_COLORS'
          environment variable.  The default is 'off'.

     'comment-begin'
          The string to insert at the beginning of the line when the
          'insert-comment' command is executed.  The default value is
          '"#"'.

     'completion-display-width'
          The number of screen columns used to display possible matches
          when performing completion.  The value is ignored if it is
          less than 0 or greater than the terminal screen width.  A
          value of 0 will cause matches to be displayed one per line.
          The default value is -1.

     'completion-ignore-case'
          If set to 'on', Readline performs filename matching and
          completion in a case-insensitive fashion.  The default value
          is 'off'.

     'completion-map-case'
          If set to 'on', and COMPLETION-IGNORE-CASE is enabled,
          Readline treats hyphens ('-') and underscores ('_') as
          equivalent when performing case-insensitive filename matching
          and completion.

     'completion-prefix-display-length'
          The length in characters of the common prefix of a list of
          possible completions that is displayed without modification.
          When set to a value greater than zero, common prefixes longer
          than this value are replaced with an ellipsis when displaying
          possible completions.

     'completion-query-items'
          The number of possible completions that determines when the
          user is asked whether the list of possibilities should be
          displayed.  If the number of possible completions is greater
          than this value, Readline will ask the user whether or not he
          wishes to view them; otherwise, they are simply listed.  This
          variable must be set to an integer value greater than or equal
          to 0.  A negative value means Readline should never ask.  The
          default limit is '100'.

     'convert-meta'
          If set to 'on', Readline will convert characters with the
          eighth bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the
          eighth bit and prefixing an <ESC> character, converting them
          to a meta-prefixed key sequence.  The default value is 'on',
          but will be set to 'off' if the locale is one that contains
          eight-bit characters.

     'disable-completion'
          If set to 'On', Readline will inhibit word completion.
          Completion characters will be inserted into the line as if
          they had been mapped to 'self-insert'.  The default is 'off'.

     'echo-control-characters'
          When set to 'on', on operating systems that indicate they
          support it, readline echoes a character corresponding to a
          signal generated from the keyboard.  The default is 'on'.

     'editing-mode'
          The 'editing-mode' variable controls which default set of key
          bindings is used.  By default, Readline starts up in Emacs
          editing mode, where the keystrokes are most similar to Emacs.
          This variable can be set to either 'emacs' or 'vi'.

     'emacs-mode-string'
          This string is displayed immediately before the last line of
          the primary prompt when emacs editing mode is active.  The
          value is expanded like a key binding, so the standard set of
          meta- and control prefixes and backslash escape sequences is
          available.  Use the '\1' and '\2' escapes to begin and end
          sequences of non-printing characters, which can be used to
          embed a terminal control sequence into the mode string.  The
          default is '@'.

     'enable-bracketed-paste'
          When set to 'On', Readline will configure the terminal in a
          way that will enable it to insert each paste into the editing
          buffer as a single string of characters, instead of treating
          each character as if it had been read from the keyboard.  This
          can prevent pasted characters from being interpreted as
          editing commands.  The default is 'off'.

     'enable-keypad'
          When set to 'on', Readline will try to enable the application
          keypad when it is called.  Some systems need this to enable
          the arrow keys.  The default is 'off'.

     'enable-meta-key'
          When set to 'on', Readline will try to enable any meta
          modifier key the terminal claims to support when it is called.
          On many terminals, the meta key is used to send eight-bit
          characters.  The default is 'on'.

     'expand-tilde'
          If set to 'on', tilde expansion is performed when Readline
          attempts word completion.  The default is 'off'.

     'history-preserve-point'
          If set to 'on', the history code attempts to place the point
          (the current cursor position) at the same location on each
          history line retrieved with 'previous-history' or
          'next-history'.  The default is 'off'.

     'history-size'
          Set the maximum number of history entries saved in the history
          list.  If set to zero, any existing history entries are
          deleted and no new entries are saved.  If set to a value less
          than zero, the number of history entries is not limited.  By
          default, the number of history entries is not limited.  If an
          attempt is made to set HISTORY-SIZE to a non-numeric value,
          the maximum number of history entries will be set to 500.

     'horizontal-scroll-mode'
          This variable can be set to either 'on' or 'off'.  Setting it
          to 'on' means that the text of the lines being edited will
          scroll horizontally on a single screen line when they are
          longer than the width of the screen, instead of wrapping onto
          a new screen line.  By default, this variable is set to 'off'.

     'input-meta'
          If set to 'on', Readline will enable eight-bit input (it will
          not clear the eighth bit in the characters it reads),
          regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The
          default value is 'off', but Readline will set it to 'on' if
          the locale contains eight-bit characters.  The name
          'meta-flag' is a synonym for this variable.

     'isearch-terminators'
          The string of characters that should terminate an incremental
          search without subsequently executing the character as a
          command (*note Searching::).  If this variable has not been
          given a value, the characters <ESC> and 'C-J' will terminate
          an incremental search.

     'keymap'
          Sets Readline's idea of the current keymap for key binding
          commands.  Acceptable 'keymap' names are 'emacs',
          'emacs-standard', 'emacs-meta', 'emacs-ctlx', 'vi', 'vi-move',
          'vi-command', and 'vi-insert'.  'vi' is equivalent to
          'vi-command' ('vi-move' is also a synonym); 'emacs' is
          equivalent to 'emacs-standard'.  The default value is 'emacs'.
          The value of the 'editing-mode' variable also affects the
          default keymap.

     'keyseq-timeout'
          Specifies the duration Readline will wait for a character when
          reading an ambiguous key sequence (one that can form a
          complete key sequence using the input read so far, or can take
          additional input to complete a longer key sequence).  If no
          input is received within the timeout, Readline will use the
          shorter but complete key sequence.  Readline uses this value
          to determine whether or not input is available on the current
          input source ('rl_instream' by default).  The value is
          specified in milliseconds, so a value of 1000 means that
          Readline will wait one second for additional input.  If this
          variable is set to a value less than or equal to zero, or to a
          non-numeric value, Readline will wait until another key is
          pressed to decide which key sequence to complete.  The default
          value is '500'.

     'mark-directories'
          If set to 'on', completed directory names have a slash
          appended.  The default is 'on'.

     'mark-modified-lines'
          This variable, when set to 'on', causes Readline to display an
          asterisk ('*') at the start of history lines which have been
          modified.  This variable is 'off' by default.

     'mark-symlinked-directories'
          If set to 'on', completed names which are symbolic links to
          directories have a slash appended (subject to the value of
          'mark-directories').  The default is 'off'.

     'match-hidden-files'
          This variable, when set to 'on', causes Readline to match
          files whose names begin with a '.' (hidden files) when
          performing filename completion.  If set to 'off', the leading
          '.' must be supplied by the user in the filename to be
          completed.  This variable is 'on' by default.

     'menu-complete-display-prefix'
          If set to 'on', menu completion displays the common prefix of
          the list of possible completions (which may be empty) before
          cycling through the list.  The default is 'off'.

     'output-meta'
          If set to 'on', Readline will display characters with the
          eighth bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape
          sequence.  The default is 'off', but Readline will set it to
          'on' if the locale contains eight-bit characters.

     'page-completions'
          If set to 'on', Readline uses an internal 'more'-like pager to
          display a screenful of possible completions at a time.  This
          variable is 'on' by default.

     'print-completions-horizontally'
          If set to 'on', Readline will display completions with matches
          sorted horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down
          the screen.  The default is 'off'.

     'revert-all-at-newline'
          If set to 'on', Readline will undo all changes to history
          lines before returning when 'accept-line' is executed.  By
          default, history lines may be modified and retain individual
          undo lists across calls to 'readline'.  The default is 'off'.

     'show-all-if-ambiguous'
          This alters the default behavior of the completion functions.
          If set to 'on', words which have more than one possible
          completion cause the matches to be listed immediately instead
          of ringing the bell.  The default value is 'off'.

     'show-all-if-unmodified'
          This alters the default behavior of the completion functions
          in a fashion similar to SHOW-ALL-IF-AMBIGUOUS.  If set to
          'on', words which have more than one possible completion
          without any possible partial completion (the possible
          completions don't share a common prefix) cause the matches to
          be listed immediately instead of ringing the bell.  The
          default value is 'off'.

     'show-mode-in-prompt'
          If set to 'on', add a character to the beginning of the prompt
          indicating the editing mode: emacs, vi command, or vi
          insertion.  The mode strings are user-settable.  The default
          value is 'off'.

     'skip-completed-text'
          If set to 'on', this alters the default completion behavior
          when inserting a single match into the line.  It's only active
          when performing completion in the middle of a word.  If
          enabled, readline does not insert characters from the
          completion that match characters after point in the word being
          completed, so portions of the word following the cursor are
          not duplicated.  For instance, if this is enabled, attempting
          completion when the cursor is after the 'e' in 'Makefile' will
          result in 'Makefile' rather than 'Makefilefile', assuming
          there is a single possible completion.  The default value is
          'off'.

     'vi-cmd-mode-string'
          This string is displayed immediately before the last line of
          the primary prompt when vi editing mode is active and in
          command mode.  The value is expanded like a key binding, so
          the standard set of meta- and control prefixes and backslash
          escape sequences is available.  Use the '\1' and '\2' escapes
          to begin and end sequences of non-printing characters, which
          can be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the mode
          string.  The default is '(cmd)'.

     'vi-ins-mode-string'
          This string is displayed immediately before the last line of
          the primary prompt when vi editing mode is active and in
          insertion mode.  The value is expanded like a key binding, so
          the standard set of meta- and control prefixes and backslash
          escape sequences is available.  Use the '\1' and '\2' escapes
          to begin and end sequences of non-printing characters, which
          can be used to embed a terminal control sequence into the mode
          string.  The default is '(ins)'.

     'visible-stats'
          If set to 'on', a character denoting a file's type is appended
          to the filename when listing possible completions.  The
          default is 'off'.

Key Bindings
     The syntax for controlling key bindings in the init file is simple.
     First you need to find the name of the command that you want to
     change.  The following sections contain tables of the command name,
     the default keybinding, if any, and a short description of what the
     command does.

     Once you know the name of the command, simply place on a line in
     the init file the name of the key you wish to bind the command to,
     a colon, and then the name of the command.  There can be no space
     between the key name and the colon - that will be interpreted as
     part of the key name.  The name of the key can be expressed in
     different ways, depending on what you find most comfortable.

     In addition to command names, readline allows keys to be bound to a
     string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a MACRO).

     KEYNAME: FUNCTION-NAME or MACRO
          KEYNAME is the name of a key spelled out in English.  For
          example:
               Control-u: universal-argument
               Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
               Control-o: "> output"

          In the above example, 'C-u' is bound to the function
          'universal-argument', 'M-DEL' is bound to the function
          'backward-kill-word', and 'C-o' is bound to run the macro
          expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the text
          '> output' into the line).

          A number of symbolic character names are recognized while
          processing this key binding syntax: DEL, ESC, ESCAPE, LFD,
          NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, RUBOUT, SPACE, SPC, and TAB.

     "KEYSEQ": FUNCTION-NAME or MACRO
          KEYSEQ differs from KEYNAME above in that strings denoting an
          entire key sequence can be specified, by placing the key
          sequence in double quotes.  Some GNU Emacs style key escapes
          can be used, as in the following example, but the special
          character names are not recognized.

               "\C-u": universal-argument
               "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
               "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

          In the above example, 'C-u' is again bound to the function
          'universal-argument' (just as it was in the first example),
          ''C-x' 'C-r'' is bound to the function 're-read-init-file',
          and '<ESC> <[> <1> <1> <~>' is bound to insert the text
          'Function Key 1'.

     The following GNU Emacs style escape sequences are available when
     specifying key sequences:

     '\C-'
          control prefix
     '\M-'
          meta prefix
     '\e'
          an escape character
     '\\'
          backslash
     '\"'
          <">, a double quotation mark
     '\''
          <'>, a single quote or apostrophe

     In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a second set
     of backslash escapes is available:

     '\a'
          alert (bell)
     '\b'
          backspace
     '\d'
          delete
     '\f'
          form feed
     '\n'
          newline
     '\r'
          carriage return
     '\t'
          horizontal tab
     '\v'
          vertical tab
     '\NNN'
          the eight-bit character whose value is the octal value NNN
          (one to three digits)
     '\xHH'
          the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value
          HH (one or two hex digits)

     When entering the text of a macro, single or double quotes must be
     used to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to
     be a function name.  In the macro body, the backslash escapes
     described above are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other
     character in the macro text, including '"' and '''.  For example,
     the following binding will make ''C-x' \' insert a single '\' into
     the line:
          "\C-x\\": "\\"

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Conditional Init Constructs,  Next: Sample Init File,  Prev: Readline Init File Syntax,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs
---------------------------------

Readline implements a facility similar in spirit to the conditional
compilation features of the C preprocessor which allows key bindings and
variable settings to be performed as the result of tests.  There are
four parser directives used.

'$if'
     The '$if' construct allows bindings to be made based on the editing
     mode, the terminal being used, or the application using Readline.
     The text of the test extends to the end of the line; no characters
     are required to isolate it.

     'mode'
          The 'mode=' form of the '$if' directive is used to test
          whether Readline is in 'emacs' or 'vi' mode.  This may be used
          in conjunction with the 'set keymap' command, for instance, to
          set bindings in the 'emacs-standard' and 'emacs-ctlx' keymaps
          only if Readline is starting out in 'emacs' mode.

     'term'
          The 'term=' form may be used to include terminal-specific key
          bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by the
          terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side of the
          '=' is tested against both the full name of the terminal and
          the portion of the terminal name before the first '-'.  This
          allows 'sun' to match both 'sun' and 'sun-cmd', for instance.

     'application'
          The APPLICATION construct is used to include
          application-specific settings.  Each program using the
          Readline library sets the APPLICATION NAME, and you can test
          for a particular value.  This could be used to bind key
          sequences to functions useful for a specific program.  For
          instance, the following command adds a key sequence that
          quotes the current or previous word in Bash:
               $if Bash
               # Quote the current or previous word
               "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
               $endif

'$endif'
     This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an '$if'
     command.

'$else'
     Commands in this branch of the '$if' directive are executed if the
     test fails.

'$include'
     This directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads
     commands and bindings from that file.  For example, the following
     directive reads from '/etc/inputrc':
          $include /etc/inputrc

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Sample Init File,  Prev: Conditional Init Constructs,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.3 Sample Init File
----------------------

Here is an example of an INPUTRC file.  This illustrates key binding,
variable assignment, and conditional syntax.

     # This file controls the behaviour of line input editing for
     # programs that use the GNU Readline library.  Existing
     # programs include FTP, Bash, and GDB.
     #
     # You can re-read the inputrc file with C-x C-r.
     # Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
     #
     # First, include any system-wide bindings and variable
     # assignments from /etc/Inputrc
     $include /etc/Inputrc

     #
     # Set various bindings for emacs mode.

     set editing-mode emacs

     $if mode=emacs

     Meta-Control-h:	backward-kill-word	Text after the function name is ignored

     #
     # Arrow keys in keypad mode
     #
     #"\M-OD":        backward-char
     #"\M-OC":        forward-char
     #"\M-OA":        previous-history
     #"\M-OB":        next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in ANSI mode
     #
     "\M-[D":        backward-char
     "\M-[C":        forward-char
     "\M-[A":        previous-history
     "\M-[B":        next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in 8 bit keypad mode
     #
     #"\M-\C-OD":       backward-char
     #"\M-\C-OC":       forward-char
     #"\M-\C-OA":       previous-history
     #"\M-\C-OB":       next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in 8 bit ANSI mode
     #
     #"\M-\C-[D":       backward-char
     #"\M-\C-[C":       forward-char
     #"\M-\C-[A":       previous-history
     #"\M-\C-[B":       next-history

     C-q: quoted-insert

     $endif

     # An old-style binding.  This happens to be the default.
     TAB: complete

     # Macros that are convenient for shell interaction
     $if Bash
     # edit the path
     "\C-xp": "PATH=${PATH}\e\C-e\C-a\ef\C-f"
     # prepare to type a quoted word --
     # insert open and close double quotes
     # and move to just after the open quote
     "\C-x\"": "\"\"\C-b"
     # insert a backslash (testing backslash escapes
     # in sequences and macros)
     "\C-x\\": "\\"
     # Quote the current or previous word
     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
     # Add a binding to refresh the line, which is unbound
     "\C-xr": redraw-current-line
     # Edit variable on current line.
     "\M-\C-v": "\C-a\C-k$\C-y\M-\C-e\C-a\C-y="
     $endif

     # use a visible bell if one is available
     set bell-style visible

     # don't strip characters to 7 bits when reading
     set input-meta on

     # allow iso-latin1 characters to be inserted rather
     # than converted to prefix-meta sequences
     set convert-meta off

     # display characters with the eighth bit set directly
     # rather than as meta-prefixed characters
     set output-meta on

     # if there are more than 150 possible completions for
     # a word, ask the user if he wants to see all of them
     set completion-query-items 150

     # For FTP
     $if Ftp
     "\C-xg": "get \M-?"
     "\C-xt": "put \M-?"
     "\M-.": yank-last-arg
     $endif

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Bindable Readline Commands,  Next: Readline vi Mode,  Prev: Readline Init File,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.4 Bindable Readline Commands
==============================

* Menu:

* Commands For Moving::		Moving about the line.
* Commands For History::	Getting at previous lines.
* Commands For Text::		Commands for changing text.
* Commands For Killing::	Commands for killing and yanking.
* Numeric Arguments::		Specifying numeric arguments, repeat counts.
* Commands For Completion::	Getting Readline to do the typing for you.
* Keyboard Macros::		Saving and re-executing typed characters
* Miscellaneous Commands::	Other miscellaneous commands.

This section describes Readline commands that may be bound to key
sequences.  Command names without an accompanying key sequence are
unbound by default.

   In the following descriptions, "point" refers to the current cursor
position, and "mark" refers to a cursor position saved by the 'set-mark'
command.  The text between the point and mark is referred to as the
"region".

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Moving,  Next: Commands For History,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.1 Commands For Moving
-------------------------

'beginning-of-line (C-a)'
     Move to the start of the current line.

'end-of-line (C-e)'
     Move to the end of the line.

'forward-char (C-f)'
     Move forward a character.

'backward-char (C-b)'
     Move back a character.

'forward-word (M-f)'
     Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
     letters and digits.

'backward-word (M-b)'
     Move back to the start of the current or previous word.  Words are
     composed of letters and digits.

'clear-screen (C-l)'
     Clear the screen and redraw the current line, leaving the current
     line at the top of the screen.

'redraw-current-line ()'
     Refresh the current line.  By default, this is unbound.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For History,  Next: Commands For Text,  Prev: Commands For Moving,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.2 Commands For Manipulating The History
-------------------------------------------

'accept-line (Newline or Return)'
     Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line is
     non-empty, it may be added to the history list for future recall
     with 'add_history()'.  If this line is a modified history line, the
     history line is restored to its original state.

'previous-history (C-p)'
     Move 'back' through the history list, fetching the previous
     command.

'next-history (C-n)'
     Move 'forward' through the history list, fetching the next command.

'beginning-of-history (M-<)'
     Move to the first line in the history.

'end-of-history (M->)'
     Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently
     being entered.

'reverse-search-history (C-r)'
     Search backward starting at the current line and moving 'up'
     through the history as necessary.  This is an incremental search.

'forward-search-history (C-s)'
     Search forward starting at the current line and moving 'down'
     through the history as necessary.  This is an incremental search.

'non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)'
     Search backward starting at the current line and moving 'up'
     through the history as necessary using a non-incremental search for
     a string supplied by the user.  The search string may match
     anywhere in a history line.

'non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)'
     Search forward starting at the current line and moving 'down'
     through the history as necessary using a non-incremental search for
     a string supplied by the user.  The search string may match
     anywhere in a history line.

'history-search-forward ()'
     Search forward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
     string must match at the beginning of a history line.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

'history-search-backward ()'
     Search backward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
     string must match at the beginning of a history line.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

'history-substr-search-forward ()'
     Search forward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
     string may match anywhere in a history line.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

'history-substr-search-backward ()'
     Search backward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  The search
     string may match anywhere in a history line.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

'yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)'
     Insert the first argument to the previous command (usually the
     second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument N,
     insert the Nth word from the previous command (the words in the
     previous command begin with word 0).  A negative argument inserts
     the Nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once the
     argument N is computed, the argument is extracted as if the '!N'
     history expansion had been specified.

'yank-last-arg (M-. or M-_)'
     Insert last argument to the previous command (the last word of the
     previous history entry).  With a numeric argument, behave exactly
     like 'yank-nth-arg'.  Successive calls to 'yank-last-arg' move back
     through the history list, inserting the last word (or the word
     specified by the argument to the first call) of each line in turn.
     Any numeric argument supplied to these successive calls determines
     the direction to move through the history.  A negative argument
     switches the direction through the history (back or forward).  The
     history expansion facilities are used to extract the last argument,
     as if the '!$' history expansion had been specified.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Text,  Next: Commands For Killing,  Prev: Commands For History,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.3 Commands For Changing Text
--------------------------------

'end-of-file (usually C-d)'
     The character indicating end-of-file as set, for example, by
     'stty'.  If this character is read when there are no characters on
     the line, and point is at the beginning of the line, Readline
     interprets it as the end of input and returns EOF.

'delete-char (C-d)'
     Delete the character at point.  If this function is bound to the
     same character as the tty EOF character, as 'C-d' commonly is, see
     above for the effects.

'backward-delete-char (Rubout)'
     Delete the character behind the cursor.  A numeric argument means
     to kill the characters instead of deleting them.

'forward-backward-delete-char ()'
     Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor is at the
     end of the line, in which case the character behind the cursor is
     deleted.  By default, this is not bound to a key.

'quoted-insert (C-q or C-v)'
     Add the next character typed to the line verbatim.  This is how to
     insert key sequences like 'C-q', for example.

'tab-insert (M-<TAB>)'
     Insert a tab character.

'self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)'
     Insert yourself.

'bracketed-paste-begin ()'
     This function is intended to be bound to the "bracketed paste"
     escape sequence sent by some terminals, and such a binding is
     assigned by default.  It allows Readline to insert the pasted text
     as a single unit without treating each character as if it had been
     read from the keyboard.  The characters are inserted as if each one
     was bound to 'self-insert') instead of executing any editing
     commands.

'transpose-chars (C-t)'
     Drag the character before the cursor forward over the character at
     the cursor, moving the cursor forward as well.  If the insertion
     point is at the end of the line, then this transposes the last two
     characters of the line.  Negative arguments have no effect.

'transpose-words (M-t)'
     Drag the word before point past the word after point, moving point
     past that word as well.  If the insertion point is at the end of
     the line, this transposes the last two words on the line.

'upcase-word (M-u)'
     Uppercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

'downcase-word (M-l)'
     Lowercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

'capitalize-word (M-c)'
     Capitalize the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

'overwrite-mode ()'
     Toggle overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric argument,
     switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive numeric
     argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects only
     'emacs' mode; 'vi' mode does overwrite differently.  Each call to
     'readline()' starts in insert mode.

     In overwrite mode, characters bound to 'self-insert' replace the
     text at point rather than pushing the text to the right.
     Characters bound to 'backward-delete-char' replace the character
     before point with a space.

     By default, this command is unbound.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Killing,  Next: Numeric Arguments,  Prev: Commands For Text,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.4 Killing And Yanking
-------------------------

'kill-line (C-k)'
     Kill the text from point to the end of the line.

'backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)'
     Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the current line.

'unix-line-discard (C-u)'
     Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the current line.

'kill-whole-line ()'
     Kill all characters on the current line, no matter where point is.
     By default, this is unbound.

'kill-word (M-d)'
     Kill from point to the end of the current word, or if between
     words, to the end of the next word.  Word boundaries are the same
     as 'forward-word'.

'backward-kill-word (M-<DEL>)'
     Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries are the same as
     'backward-word'.

'unix-word-rubout (C-w)'
     Kill the word behind point, using white space as a word boundary.
     The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.

'unix-filename-rubout ()'
     Kill the word behind point, using white space and the slash
     character as the word boundaries.  The killed text is saved on the
     kill-ring.

'delete-horizontal-space ()'
     Delete all spaces and tabs around point.  By default, this is
     unbound.

'kill-region ()'
     Kill the text in the current region.  By default, this command is
     unbound.

'copy-region-as-kill ()'
     Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer, so it can be yanked
     right away.  By default, this command is unbound.

'copy-backward-word ()'
     Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word boundaries
     are the same as 'backward-word'.  By default, this command is
     unbound.

'copy-forward-word ()'
     Copy the word following point to the kill buffer.  The word
     boundaries are the same as 'forward-word'.  By default, this
     command is unbound.

'yank (C-y)'
     Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.

'yank-pop (M-y)'
     Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top.  You can only do this
     if the prior command is 'yank' or 'yank-pop'.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Numeric Arguments,  Next: Commands For Completion,  Prev: Commands For Killing,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.5 Specifying Numeric Arguments
----------------------------------

'digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ... M--)'
     Add this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a new
     argument.  'M--' starts a negative argument.

'universal-argument ()'
     This is another way to specify an argument.  If this command is
     followed by one or more digits, optionally with a leading minus
     sign, those digits define the argument.  If the command is followed
     by digits, executing 'universal-argument' again ends the numeric
     argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special case, if this
     command is immediately followed by a character that is neither a
     digit nor minus sign, the argument count for the next command is
     multiplied by four.  The argument count is initially one, so
     executing this function the first time makes the argument count
     four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen, and so on.
     By default, this is not bound to a key.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Completion,  Next: Keyboard Macros,  Prev: Numeric Arguments,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.6 Letting Readline Type For You
-----------------------------------

'complete (<TAB>)'
     Attempt to perform completion on the text before point.  The actual
     completion performed is application-specific.  The default is
     filename completion.

'possible-completions (M-?)'
     List the possible completions of the text before point.  When
     displaying completions, Readline sets the number of columns used
     for display to the value of 'completion-display-width', the value
     of the environment variable 'COLUMNS', or the screen width, in that
     order.

'insert-completions (M-*)'
     Insert all completions of the text before point that would have
     been generated by 'possible-completions'.

'menu-complete ()'
     Similar to 'complete', but replaces the word to be completed with a
     single match from the list of possible completions.  Repeated
     execution of 'menu-complete' steps through the list of possible
     completions, inserting each match in turn.  At the end of the list
     of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
     'bell-style') and the original text is restored.  An argument of N
     moves N positions forward in the list of matches; a negative
     argument may be used to move backward through the list.  This
     command is intended to be bound to <TAB>, but is unbound by
     default.

'menu-complete-backward ()'
     Identical to 'menu-complete', but moves backward through the list
     of possible completions, as if 'menu-complete' had been given a
     negative argument.

'delete-char-or-list ()'
     Deletes the character under the cursor if not at the beginning or
     end of the line (like 'delete-char').  If at the end of the line,
     behaves identically to 'possible-completions'.  This command is
     unbound by default.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Keyboard Macros,  Next: Miscellaneous Commands,  Prev: Commands For Completion,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.7 Keyboard Macros
---------------------

'start-kbd-macro (C-x ()'
     Begin saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro.

'end-kbd-macro (C-x ))'
     Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
     and save the definition.

'call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)'
     Re-execute the last keyboard macro defined, by making the
     characters in the macro appear as if typed at the keyboard.

'print-last-kbd-macro ()'
     Print the last keboard macro defined in a format suitable for the
     INPUTRC file.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Miscellaneous Commands,  Prev: Keyboard Macros,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.8 Some Miscellaneous Commands
---------------------------------

're-read-init-file (C-x C-r)'
     Read in the contents of the INPUTRC file, and incorporate any
     bindings or variable assignments found there.

'abort (C-g)'
     Abort the current editing command and ring the terminal's bell
     (subject to the setting of 'bell-style').

'do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-X, ...)'
     If the metafied character X is lowercase, run the command that is
     bound to the corresponding uppercase character.

'prefix-meta (<ESC>)'
     Metafy the next character typed.  This is for keyboards without a
     meta key.  Typing '<ESC> f' is equivalent to typing 'M-f'.

'undo (C-_ or C-x C-u)'
     Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.

'revert-line (M-r)'
     Undo all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the
     'undo' command enough times to get back to the beginning.

'tilde-expand (M-~)'
     Perform tilde expansion on the current word.

'set-mark (C-@)'
     Set the mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the
     mark is set to that position.

'exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)'
     Swap the point with the mark.  The current cursor position is set
     to the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved as the
     mark.

'character-search (C-])'
     A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of
     that character.  A negative count searches for previous
     occurrences.

'character-search-backward (M-C-])'
     A character is read and point is moved to the previous occurrence
     of that character.  A negative count searches for subsequent
     occurrences.

'skip-csi-sequence ()'
     Read enough characters to consume a multi-key sequence such as
     those defined for keys like Home and End.  Such sequences begin
     with a Control Sequence Indicator (CSI), usually ESC-[.  If this
     sequence is bound to "\e[", keys producing such sequences will have
     no effect unless explicitly bound to a readline command, instead of
     inserting stray characters into the editing buffer.  This is
     unbound by default, but usually bound to ESC-[.

'insert-comment (M-#)'
     Without a numeric argument, the value of the 'comment-begin'
     variable is inserted at the beginning of the current line.  If a
     numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a toggle: if the
     characters at the beginning of the line do not match the value of
     'comment-begin', the value is inserted, otherwise the characters in
     'comment-begin' are deleted from the beginning of the line.  In
     either case, the line is accepted as if a newline had been typed.

'dump-functions ()'
     Print all of the functions and their key bindings to the Readline
     output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the output is
     formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an INPUTRC
     file.  This command is unbound by default.

'dump-variables ()'
     Print all of the settable variables and their values to the
     Readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the
     output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
     INPUTRC file.  This command is unbound by default.

'dump-macros ()'
     Print all of the Readline key sequences bound to macros and the
     strings they output.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the output
     is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an INPUTRC
     file.  This command is unbound by default.

'emacs-editing-mode (C-e)'
     When in 'vi' command mode, this causes a switch to 'emacs' editing
     mode.

'vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)'
     When in 'emacs' editing mode, this causes a switch to 'vi' editing
     mode.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline vi Mode,  Prev: Bindable Readline Commands,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.5 Readline vi Mode
====================

While the Readline library does not have a full set of 'vi' editing
functions, it does contain enough to allow simple editing of the line.
The Readline 'vi' mode behaves as specified in the POSIX standard.

   In order to switch interactively between 'emacs' and 'vi' editing
modes, use the command 'M-C-j' (bound to emacs-editing-mode when in 'vi'
mode and to vi-editing-mode in 'emacs' mode).  The Readline default is
'emacs' mode.

   When you enter a line in 'vi' mode, you are already placed in
'insertion' mode, as if you had typed an 'i'.  Pressing <ESC> switches
you into 'command' mode, where you can edit the text of the line with
the standard 'vi' movement keys, move to previous history lines with 'k'
and subsequent lines with 'j', and so forth.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Command Line Editing,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     <http://fsf.org/>

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
     recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
     be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept
     the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
     requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
     notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
     If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
     is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
     contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
     any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
     of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
     available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
     formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
     suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
     Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
     been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
     readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
     used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
     "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
     simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
     Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.
     Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
     edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
     the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
     the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
     conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
     equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
     covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
     long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
     conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
     Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
     each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
     network-using public has access to download using public-standard
     network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
     of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
     reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
     copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
     remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
     year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
     through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
     to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
     Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
     Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
     distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
     possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
     the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
          versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
          History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
          as a previous version if the original publisher of that
          version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
          Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the
          Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
          publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add
          an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
          previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
          "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
          that was published at least four years before the Document
          itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
          to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section
          all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
          in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
          equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
     some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
     titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
     license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other
     section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
     the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
     of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
     through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
     already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
     by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on
     behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
     one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
     the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
     of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
     in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
     License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
     document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
     storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
     finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you
     under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not
     permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the
     same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/>.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the
     Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
     choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
     Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy can
     decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts."  line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.



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