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GNU RCS
*******

This manual is for GNU RCS (version 5.9.4, 18 January 2015).

   Copyright (C) 2010-2015 Thien-Thi Nguyen

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
     and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in
     the appendix entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

* Menu:

* Overview::            General purpose and information.
* Usage::               How to use RCS.
* Hacking::             With source, you can help improve things.
* GNU FDL::             Copying and sharing this documentation.
* Index::

-- The Detailed Node Listing --

Overview
* Credits::             Who did what, and when.
* Concepts::            What is a revision?  How can RCS help?
* Quick tour::          A hands-on introduction to using RCS.

Usage
* Common elements::
* ci::
* co::
* ident::
* merge::
* rcs::
* rcsclean::
* rcsdiff::
* rcsmerge::
* rlog::

Common elements
* Revision options::
* Date option::
* Description option::
* Substitution mode option::
* Misc common options::
* Environment::

Hacking
* File format::
* Still missing::
* Reporting bugs::

File: rcs.info,  Node: Overview,  Next: Usage,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Overview
**********

GNU RCS (Revision Control System) manages multiple revisions of files.
RCS can store, retrieve, log, identify, and merge revisions.  It is
useful for files that are revised frequently, e.g.  programs,
documentation, graphics, and papers.  It can handle text as well as
binary files, although functionality is reduced for the latter.

   A normal installation includes the commands: ci, co, ident, merge,
rcs, rcsclean, rcsdiff, rcsmerge and rlog (*note Usage::).  These are
small and fast programs (amenable to scripting) and indeed the
distribution also includes the script rcsfreeze showing some of the
possibilities.

   RCS works with versions stored on a single filesystem or machine,
edited by one person at a time.  Other version control systems, such as
Bazaar (<http:///www.gnu.org/software/bazaar>), CVS, Subversion, and
Git, support distributed access in various ways.  Which is more
appropriate depends on the task at hand.

* Menu:

* Credits::             Who did what, and when.
* Concepts::            What is a revision?  How can RCS help?
* Quick tour::          A hands-on introduction to using RCS.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Credits,  Next: Concepts,  Up: Overview

1.1 Credits
===========

RCS was designed and built by Walter F. Tichy of Purdue University.  RCS
version 3 was released in 1983.

   Adam Hammer, Thomas Narten, and Daniel Trinkle of Purdue supported
RCS through version 4.3, released in 1990.  Guy Harris of Sun
contributed many porting fixes.  Paul Eggert of System Development
Corporation contributed bug fixes and tuneups.  Jay Lepreau contributed
4.3BSD support.

   Paul Eggert of Twin Sun wrote the changes for RCS versions 5.5 and
5.6 (1991).  Rich Braun of Kronos and Andy Glew of Intel contributed
ideas for new options.  Bill Hahn of Stratus contributed ideas for
setuid support.  Ideas for piece tables came from Joe Berkovitz of
Stratus and Walter F. Tichy.  Matt Cross of Stratus contributed test
case ideas.  Adam Hammer of Purdue QAed.

   Paul Eggert wrote most of the changes for RCS 5.7.  K. Richard Pixley
of Cygnus Support contributed several bug fixes.  Robert Lupton of
Princeton and Daniel Trinkle contributed ideas for '$Name' expansion.
Brendan Kehoe of Cygnus Support suggested rlog's '-N' option.  Paul
D. Smith of Data General suggested improvements in option and error
processing.  Adam Hammer of Purdue QAed.

   Thien-Thi Nguyen is responsibile for RCS 5.8.  He modernized the code
base, build system, and manual pages, fixing some bugs on the way.  He
added standard '--help', '--version' processing, and wrote the
documentation you are reading (gladly taking inspiration from the
paper(1) and manpages originally written by Walter F. Tichy).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Source (troff) and several output formats are available from the
RCS homepage (http://www.gnu.org/software/rcs/).

File: rcs.info,  Node: Concepts,  Next: Quick tour,  Prev: Credits,  Up: Overview

1.2 Concepts
============

1.2.1 Interaction model
-----------------------

The interaction model is straightforward.  For each working file, you
initialize its RCS file once, then enter a cycle of checkout,
modification, and checkin operations.  Along the way, you can tweak some
of the RCS file's metadata, as well.  All of this is done through RCS
commands; you need not modify the RCS file directly (and in fact you
should probably avoid doing so lest RCS become confused).  This model is
somewhat analogous to using a library (of books).  With a library, you
sign up for a library card (initialize), then enter a cycle of taking a
book home (checkout), enjoying it (NB: *without* modification, one
hopes), and returning it to the library (checkin).

   Furthermore, you can compare revisions in the RCS file against each
other, examine the user- (hopefully high) quality descriptions of the
changes each revision embodies, merge selected revisions, and so forth.

1.2.2 Working file
------------------

RCS commands operate on one pair of files at a time.  The "working file"
is what you normally view and edit (e.g., a file of C programming
language source code named 'a.c').  Because the working file's contents
can be extracted from the RCS file (called "instantiating a working
file"), it can be safely deleted to regain some disk space.

1.2.3 RCS file
--------------

The "RCS file" is a separate file, conventionally placed in the
subdirectory 'RCS', wherein RCS commands organize the initial and
subsequent "revisions" of the working file, associating with each
revision a unique revision number along with the remembered particulars
of the checkin that produced it.  It also contains a "description" of
the working file and various other metadata, described below.

   The RCS file is also known (colloquially) as the "comma-v file", due
to its name often ending in ',v' (e.g., 'a.c,v').

   A "revision number" is a branch number followed by a dot followed by
an integer, and a "branch number" is an odd number of integers separated
by dot.  A revision number with one dot (implying a branch number
without any dots) is said to be "on the trunk".  All integers are
positive.  For example:

     1.1         -- revision number for initial checkin (typically);
                    branch number: 1

     9.4.1.42    -- more complicated (perhaps after much gnarly hacking);
                    branch number: 9.4.1

     333.333.333 -- not a valid revision number;
                    however, a perfectly valid branch number

The "branch point" of a non-trunk branch is the revision number formed
by removing the branch's trailing integer.  To compute the "next higher"
branch or revision number, add one to the trailing integer.  The
highest-numbered revision on a branch is called the "tip" of the branch
(or "branch tip").  Continuing the example:

     1.1         -- on trunk; no branch point;
                    next higher branch number:   2
                    next higher revision number: 1.2

     9.4.1.42    -- not on trunk; branch point:  9.4
                    next higher branch number:   9.4.2
                    next higher revision number: 9.4.1.43

     333.333.333 -- not on trunk; branch point:  333.333
                    next higher branch number:   333.333.334
                    next higher revision number: 333.333.333.1

In addition to this "tree" of thus-linked revisions, the RCS file keeps
track of the "default branch", i.e., the branch whose tip corresponds to
the most recent checkin; as well as the "symbolic names", a list of
associations between a user-supplied (and presumably meaningful) symbol
and an underlying branch or revision number.

   The RCS file contains two pieces of information used to implement its
"access control policy".  The first is a list of usernames.  If
non-empty, only those users listed can modify the RCS file (via RCS
commands).  The second is a list of "locks", i.e., association between a
username and a revision number.  If a lock 'USERNAME:REVNO' exists, that
means only USERNAME may modify REVNO (that is, do a checkin operation to
deposit the next higher revision, or a higher revision number on the
same branch as REVNO).

1.2.4 Fundamental operations
----------------------------

The "checkin" operation records the contents of the working file in the
RCS file, assigning it a new (normally the next higher) revision number
and recording the username, timestamp, "state" (a short symbol), and
user-supplied "log message" (a textual description of the changes
leading to that revision).  It uses diff to find the differences between
the tip of the default branch and the working file, thereby writing the
minimal amount of information needed to be able to recreate the contents
of the previous tip.

   The "checkout" operation identifies a specific revision from the RCS
file and either displays the content to standard output or instantiates
a working file, overwriting any current instantiation with the selected
revision.  In either case, the content may undergo "keyword expansion",
which replaces text of the form '$Keyword$' with (possibly) different
text comprising the keyword and its "value", depending on the current
keyword expansion mode (*note Substitution mode option::).

1.2.5 Keywords
--------------

The keywords and their values are:

'Author'
     The login name of the user who checked in the revision.

'Date'
     The date and time the revision was checked in.  May include an
     appended timezone offset.

'Header'
     A standard header containing the absolute RCS filename, the
     revision number, the date and time, the author, the state, and the
     locker (if locked).  May include an appended timezone offset.

'Id'
     Same as 'Header', except that only the basename appears (no
     directory components).

'Locker'
     The login name of the user who locked the revision (empty if not
     locked).

'Log'
     The log message supplied during checkin, preceded by a header
     containing the RCS filename, the revision number, the author, and
     the date and time.  May include an appended timezone offset.

     Existing log messages are not replaced.  Instead, the new log
     message is inserted after '$Log:...$'.  This is useful for
     accumulating a complete change log in a source file.

     Each inserted line is prefixed by the string that prefixes the
     '$Log$' line.  For example, if the '$Log$' line is

          // $Log: tan.cc $

     then RCS prefixes each line of the log with '// ' (slash, slash,
     space).  This is useful for languages with comments that go to the
     end of the line.

     The convention for other languages is to use a ' * ' (space,
     asterisk, space) prefix inside a multiline comment.  For example,
     the initial log comment of a C program conventionally is of the
     following form:

           /*
            * $Log$
            */

     For backwards compatibility with older versions of RCS, if the log
     prefix is '/*' or '(*' surrounded by optional white space, inserted
     log lines contain a space instead of '/' or '('; however, this
     usage is obsolescent and should not be relied on.

'Name'
     The symbolic name used to check out the revision, if any.  For
     example, 'co -rJoe' generates '$Name: Joe $'.  Plain co generates
     just '$Name: $'.

'RCSfile'
     The basename of the RCS file.

'Revision'
     The revision number assigned to the revision.

'Source'
     The absolute RCS filename.

'State'
     The state assigned to the revision with the '-s' option of rcs or
     ci.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Quick tour,  Prev: Concepts,  Up: Overview

1.3 Quick tour
==============

This section complements the preceding section (*note Concepts::),
presenting a handful of RCS commands in quick succession.  For details
on individual RCS commands, *Note Usage::.

   Suppose you have a file 'f.c' that you wish to put under control of
RCS. If you have not already done so, make an 'RCS' directory with the
command:

     mkdir RCS

Then invoke the checkin command:

     ci f.c

This command creates an RCS file in directory 'RCS', stores 'f.c' into
it as revision 1.1, and deletes 'f.c'.  It also asks you for a
description.  The description should be a synopsis of the contents of
the file.  All later checkin commands will ask you for a log entry,
which should summarize the changes that you made.

   To get back the working file 'f.c' in the previous example, use the
checkout command:

     co f.c

This command extracts the latest revision from the RCS file and writes
it into 'f.c'.  If you want to edit 'f.c', you must lock it as you check
it out, with the command:

     co -l f.c

You can now edit 'f.c'.  Suppose after some editing you want to know
what changes that you have made.  The command:

     rcsdiff f.c

tells you the difference between the most recently checked-in version
and the working file.  You can check the file back in by invoking:

     ci f.c

This increments the revision number properly.  If ci complains with the
message:

     ci error: no lock set by your name

then you have tried to check in a file even though you did not lock it
when you checked it out.  Of course, it is too late now to do the
checkout with locking, because another checkout would overwrite your
modifications.  Instead, invoke:

     rcs -l f.c

This command will lock the latest revision for you, unless somebody else
got ahead of you already.  In this case, you'll have to negotiate with
that person.

   Locking assures that you, and only you, can check in the next update,
and avoids nasty problems if several people work on the same file.  Even
if a revision is locked, it can still be checked out for reading,
compiling, etc.  All that locking prevents is a checkin by anybody but
the locker.

   If your RCS file is private, i.e., if you are the only person who is
going to deposit revisions into it, strict locking is not needed and you
can turn it off.  If strict locking is turned off, the owner of the RCS
file need not have a lock for checkin; all others still do.  Turning
strict locking off and on is done with the commands:

     rcs -U f.c    # disable strict locking
     rcs -L f.c    # enable strict locking

   If you don't want to clutter your working directory with RCS files,
create a subdirectory called 'RCS' in your working directory, and move
all your RCS files there.  RCS commands will look first into that
directory to find needed files.  All the commands discussed above will
still work, without any modification.  *Note Common elements::.

   To avoid the deletion of the working file during checkin (in case you
want to continue editing or compiling), invoke one of:

     ci -l f.c     # checkin + locked checkout
     ci -u f.c     # checkin + unlocked checkout

These commands check in 'f.c' as usual, then perform an implicit
checkout.  The first form also locks the checked in revision, the second
one doesn't.  Thus, these options save you one checkout operation.  The
first form is useful if you want to continue editing, the second one if
you just want to read the file.  Both update the keyword substitutions
in your working file *note Concepts::.

   You can give ci the number you want assigned to a checked-in
revision.  Assume all your revisions were numbered 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc.,
and you would like to start release 2.  Either of the commands:

     ci -r2 f.c
     ci -r2.1 f.c

assigns the number 2.1 to the new revision.  From then on, ci will
number the subsequent revisions with 2.2, 2.3, etc.  The corresponding
co commands:

     co -r2 f.c
     co -r2.1 f.c

retrieve the latest revision numbered 2.x and the revision 2.1,
respectively.  co without a revision number selects the latest revision
on the trunk, i.e.  the highest revision with a number consisting of two
fields.  Numbers with more than two fields are needed for branches.  For
example, to start a branch at revision 1.3, invoke:

     ci -r1.3.1 f.c

This command starts a branch numbered 1 at revision 1.3, and assigns the
number 1.3.1.1 to the new revision.  Here is a diagram showing the new
revision in relation to its branch and the trunk.

     1.1  --  1.2  --  1.3  --  1.4  --  1.5
                        |
                     [1.3.1]  --  1.3.1.1

For more information about branches, *Note Concepts::.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Usage,  Next: Hacking,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Top

2 Usage
*******

This chapter describes how to invoke RCS commands, including common
command-line elements, as well options specific to each command.

* Menu:

* Common elements::
* ci::
* co::
* ident::
* merge::
* rcs::
* rcsclean::
* rcsdiff::
* rcsmerge::
* rlog::

File: rcs.info,  Node: Common elements,  Next: ci,  Up: Usage

2.1 Common elements
===================

All RCS commands accept '--help' and '--version'.  *Note
(standards)Command-Line Interfaces::.

   Aside from '--help' and '--version', RCS commands take the form
'-LETTER[ARG]', i.e., a hyphen followed by a single letter, optionally
followed by extra information.  The square braces mean that the extra
information is optional.  (No square braces means that the extra
information is required.)  In any case, when specified, the extra
information *must* abut the letter; there can be no intervening
whitespace.

     co -u 1.4 foo   # wrong, space between -u and 1.4
     co -u1.4  foo   # ok

Furthermore, options must appear before file names (if any) on the
command line.

     ident foo -q    # wrong, option after file name
     ident -q foo    # ok

Lastly, pairs of RCS and working files can be specified in three ways:
(a) both are given, (b) only the working file is given, (c) only the RCS
file is given.  For (a), both RCS and working files may have arbitrary
directory components; RCS commands pair them up intelligently.  For (b),
RCS commands will look first into the directory './RCS', if it exists,
to find the associated RCS file.

* Menu:

* Revision options::
* Date option::
* Description option::
* Substitution mode option::
* Log message option::
* Misc common options::
* Environment::

File: rcs.info,  Node: Revision options,  Next: Date option,  Up: Common elements

2.1.1 Revision options
----------------------

As to be expected in a revision control system, many options are of the
form '-FLAG[REV]', where FLAG is a single letter (e.g., 'r').  If
ommitted, REV defaults to the latest revision on the default branch.  A
revision can be specified in many ways:

BR.N
     Straightforward dot-notation, where BR specifies the branch.

.N
     Like BR.N, using the default branch.

BR
     Like BR.N, using the a command-specific computation of N, given the
     current tip I.  For ci (*note ci::), N would be 'I + 1', while for
     other commands N would be simply I.

NAME
     This is the symbolic name of a revision, as assigned previously by
     a 'ci -n' or 'ci -N' command.

'$'
     The command computes the effective revision by examining the values
     of keyword expansions in the working file.

For commands that accept a range of revisions, the syntax is generally
'REV1:REV2', i.e., two revisions (specified as described above)
separated by a colon.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Date option,  Next: Description option,  Prev: Revision options,  Up: Common elements

2.1.2 Date option
-----------------

Some commands accept an option of the form '-dDATE' to specify a "date",
an absolute point in time (to second resolution), expressed in a "date
format".  These also accept '-zZONE' to specify the timezone.  The
special value 'LT' stands for the "local time zone".  RCS recognizes
many date formats and time zones.  For example, the following dates are
equivalent if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time,
eight hours west of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

     8:00 pm lt
     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990           default is UTC
     1990-01-12 04:00:00+00           ISO 8601 (UTC)
     1990-01-11 20:00:00-08           ISO 8601 (local time)
     1990/01/12 04:00:00              traditional RCS format
     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
     12-January-1990, 04:00 WET

Most fields in the date and time can be defaulted.  The default time
zone is normally UTC, but this can be overridden by the '-z' option.
The other defaults are determined in the order year, month, day, hour,
minute, and second (most to least significant).  At least one of these
fields must be provided.  For omitted fields that are of higher
significance than the highest provided field, the time zone's current
values are assumed.  For all other omitted fields, the lowest possible
values are assumed.  For example, without '-z', the date '20, 10:30'
defaults to '10:30:00 UTC' of the 20th of the UTC time zone's current
month and year.  Note that for the shell, the date/time must be quoted
if it contains spaces.

   RCS also accepts some other formats which specify only the date
portion (omitting the time portion):

'YYYY-DDD'
     DDD is the day of year, 1-366.

'YYYY-wWW-D'
     WW is the ISO week number, 0-53 (actually, ISO week numbers are
     1-53; week 0 is a GNU RCS extension); and D is the ISO day number,
     1-7 (Monday through Sunday).

File: rcs.info,  Node: Description option,  Next: Substitution mode option,  Prev: Date option,  Up: Common elements

2.1.3 Description option
------------------------

Some commands accept an option of the form '-t-TEXT' or '-tFILE-NAME'.
This option is to set or update the RCS file description text.  In the
first form, TEXT is used directly, excluding the leading hyphen ('-')
that distinguishes the two forms.  In the second form, the description
text is taken from the contents of FILE-NAME.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Substitution mode option,  Next: Log message option,  Prev: Description option,  Up: Common elements

2.1.4 Substitution mode option
------------------------------

Some commands accept an option of the form '-kSUBST', used to control
how keywords (*note Concepts::) are expanded in the working file.  In
the following table of SUBST values, the example keyword is 'Revision'
and its value is '5.13'.

'kv'
     Generate '$Revision: 5.13 $' (dollar-sign, keyword, colon, space,
     value, space, dollar-sign).  A locker's name is inserted in the
     value of the 'Header', 'Id' and 'Locker' keyword strings only as a
     file is being locked, i.e., by 'ci -l' and 'co -l'.  This is the
     default substitution mode.

'kvl'
     Like '-kkv', except that a locker's name is always inserted if the
     given revision is currently locked.

'k'
     Generate '$Revision$' (dollar-sign, keyword, dollar-sign).  This is
     useful when comparing different revisions of a file.  Log messages
     are inserted after 'Log' keywords even if '-kk' is specified, since
     this tends to be more useful when merging changes.

'o'
     Like '-kkv', but use the old value present in the working file just
     before it was checked in.  This can be useful for file formats that
     cannot tolerate any changes to substrings that happen to take the
     form of keyword strings.

'b'
     Like '-ko', but do all file i/o in binary mode.  This makes little
     difference on POSIX and Unix hosts, but on DOS-like hosts one
     should use 'rcs -i -kb' to initialize an RCS file intended to be
     used for binary files.  Also, on all hosts, rcsmerge normally
     refuses to merge files when '-kb' is in effect.

'v'
     Generate '5.13' (value only).  Further keyword substitution cannot
     be performed once the keyword names are removed, so this should be
     used with care.  Because of this danger of losing keywords, '-kv'
     cannot be combined with '-l', and the owner write permission of the
     working file is turned off; to edit the file later, check it out
     again without '-kv'.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Log message option,  Next: Misc common options,  Prev: Substitution mode option,  Up: Common elements

2.1.5 Log message option
------------------------

Both 'ci' and 'rcs' allow a log message to be specified with the '-m'
option.  If the MSG argument to this option is empty, RCS uses the
default '*** empty log message ***'.  This particular message is handled
specially (i.e., filtered out) by 'rlog'.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Misc common options,  Next: Environment,  Prev: Log message option,  Up: Common elements

2.1.6 Misc common options
-------------------------

Other common options are '-I', '-q', '-s', '-T', '-V', '-w', '-x'.

'-I'
     This option enables "interactive mode".  More precisely, it
     *forces* interactive mode, whereby RCS commands believe that their
     standard input is a terminal, normally a precondition for
     displaying a prompt to receive input (such as a log message on
     checkin).  The intention of '-I' is for scripting situations where
     standard input is actually not a terminal but you know beforehand
     (without prompting) that input is needed and you are ready to
     provide it on standard input anyway.

'-q'
     This option enables "quiet mode".  Commands work silently (unless
     there is an error condition), and suppress warnings and prompts.

'-sSTATE'
     Specify the state to be STATE.

'-T'
     This option controls how commands timestamp the RCS file.
     Normally, RCS commands set the RCS file's timestamp when modifying
     it in the "natural" way (without taking any particular care).  With
     '-T', on the other hand, the commands either preserve the timestamp
     (for standalone lock/unlock operations), or use the timestamp of
     the working file (for ci).

     This can be useful if the RCS file is found in a makefile target's
     list of prerequisites (*note (make)Rule Syntax::), that is, if some
     target should be rebuilt if the RCS file is newer than it.  In that
     case, you can do 'rcs -u -T', for example, to unlock a revision in
     the RCS file without triggering a recompilation.

'-V'
     Behave like '--version', i.e., display command version information
     and exit successfully.  *NB*: This option is obsolete and its
     *support will be removed* in some future release.

'-VN'
     N specifies the RCS (major) version to emulate.  Valid values for N
     are: 3, 4, 5.  Version 5 is the current version, so '-V5' does
     nothing special.

     In versions prior to 5, RCS outputs '\t' (tab, U+09) between the
     ':' (colon) and the value (for keyword substitution) instead of
     space, uses the RCS file 'comment' string to prefix each line in
     the 'Log' expansion instead of computing it on the fly from the
     input text, writes/reads localtime instead of UTC, and displays
     slightly different output for rlog.

     For version 4, the 'Header' expansion unconditionally includes
     'Locker: LOCKER', as if the 'kvl' substitution mode were specified
     (*note Substitution mode option::).

     For version 3, the 'Header' expansion omits the directories from
     the filename and says only 'Locked' instead of the state.

'-wLOGIN'
     Some commands accept an option of the form '-wLOGIN' to specify the
     login name of the author of a revision, i.e., "who" is responsible.

'-xSUFF'
     Specify SUFF as the slash-separated list of file name suffixes used
     to recognize an RCS file.  The default value is ',v/', that is,
     first try with ',v' then try with an empty suffix.

     This "basename search" occurs within (i.e., starting from the
     beginning) the larger "directory search" loop, which comprises two
     candidates: 'd/RCS' and 'd', where D is the directory component of
     the working file name.  For example, given the working file 'a.c'
     in the current directory, RCS tries, in order, these candidates:

          ./RCS/a.c,v
          ./RCS/a.c
          ./a.c,v
          ./a.c

     Note that the last candidate is impossible (and is in fact
     discarded), because the working and RCS files cannot have the same
     name.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Environment,  Prev: Misc common options,  Up: Common elements

2.1.7 Environment
-----------------

Various environment variables influence how RCS works.

 -- Environment Variable: RCSINIT
     Another way to set common options is with the 'RCSINIT' environment
     variable.  This is a space-separated list of options.  Use '\'
     (backslash) to escape significant space.  For example:

          # Set the value; make it available to subsequent commands.
          RCSINIT="-q -x/,v -zLT"
          export RCSINIT

          # Use it (implicitly).
          rlog -L foo

     This example, in Bourne shell syntax, arranges for RCS commands to
     operate as if each command-line had prepended '-q -x/,v -zLT' to
     the rest of the command-line.  The effective command-line that rlog
     sees is thus '-q -x/,v -zLT -L foo'.

 -- Environment Variable: RCS_MEM_LIMIT
     Normally, for speed, commands either memory map or copy into memory
     the RCS file if its size is less than the "memory limit", currently
     defaulting to "unlimited".  Otherwise (or if the initially-tried
     speedy ways fail), the commands fall back to using standard i/o
     routines.

     You can adjust the memory limit by setting the 'RCS_MEM_LIMIT'
     environment variable to a numeric value (measured in kilobytes).
     An empty value is silently ignored.

     As a side effect, specifying the memory limit inhibits fall-back to
     slower routines.  (This env var is mostly intended for testing RCS;
     normally, you can leave it unset.  Probably it will be removed in a
     future release.)

 -- Environment Variable: TMPDIR
 -- Environment Variable: TMP
 -- Environment Variable: TEMP
     Commands sometimes create temporary files, normally in a
     system-dependent directory, such as '/tmp'.  You can override this
     directory by specifying another one as the value of one of the
     environment variables 'TMPDIR', 'TMP', or 'TEMP' (checked in that
     order).

 -- Environment Variable: LOGNAME
 -- Environment Variable: USER
     Absent '-wLOGIN', or when LOGIN is omitted (*note Misc common
     options::), commands check environment variables 'LOGNAME' and
     'USER' (in that order).  If neither of these are set, RCS queries
     the host for, and uses, your login.

File: rcs.info,  Node: ci,  Next: co,  Prev: Common elements,  Up: Usage

2.2 Invoking ci
===============

     rcs ci [options] file ...
     (or "ci" instead of "rcs ci")

The ci command adds a revision to the RCS file reflecting the current
state of the working file.  This operation is also known as "checkin".

'-f[REV]'
     Force new entry, even if no content changed.

'-I[REV]'
'-q[REV]'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-i[REV]'
     Initial checkin; error if the RCS file already exists.

'-j[REV]'
     Just checkin, don't initialize; error if the RCS file does not
     exist.

'-k[REV]'
     Compute revision from working file keywords.

'-r'
     Release lock and delete working file.

'-rREV'
     Do normal checkin.

'-l[REV]'
     Like '-r', but immediately checkout locked ('co -l') afterwards.

'-u[REV]'
     Like '-l', but checkout unlocked ('co -u').

'-M[REV]'
     Reset working file mtime (relevant for '-l', '-u').

Multiple flags in '-{fiIjklMqru}' may be given, except for '-r', '-l',
'-u', which are mutually exclusive.  For a fully specified revision of
the form 'BR.N', N must be greater than any existing on BR, or BR must
be new.  If REV is omitted, compute it from the last lock ('co -l'),
perhaps starting a new branch.  If there is no lock, use 'DEFBR.(L+1)'.
*Note Revision options::.

'-d[DATE]'
'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.  If no DATE specified, use the working file
     modification time.

'-m[MSG]'
     Use MSG as the log message.  *Note Log message option::.

'-nNAME'
'-NNAME'
     Assign symbolic NAME to the entry.  For '-n', NAME must be new (no
     previous assignment).  For '-N', overwrite any previous assignment.

'-sSTATE'
     *Note Misc common options::.  Set the state.

'-t-TEXT'
'-tFILE-NAME'
     *Note Description option::.

'-T'
     Set the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time if
     the former precedes the latter and there is a new revision;
     preserve the RCS file's modification time otherwise.

'-wWHO'
     Use WHO as the author.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

File: rcs.info,  Node: co,  Next: ident,  Prev: ci,  Up: Usage

2.3 Invoking co
===============

     rcs co [options] file ...
     (or "co" instead of "rcs co")

The co command retrieves a revision from the RCS file, writing a new
working file.  This operation is also known as "checkout".

'-f[REV]'
     Force overwrite of working file.

'-I[REV]'
'-q[REV]'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-p[REV]'
     Write to stdout instead of the working file.

'-r[REV]'
     Normal checkout.

'-l[REV]'
     Like '-r', but also lock.

'-u[REV]'
     Like '-l', but unlock.

'-M[REV]'
     Reset working file mtime (relevant for '-l', '-u').

Multiple flags in '-{fIlMpqru}' may be given, except for '-r', '-l',
'-u', which are mutually exclusive.  *Note Revision options::.

'-kSUBST'
     *Note Substitution mode option::.

'-dDATE'
'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.  Select latest before or on DATE.

'-jJOINS'
     Merge using JOINS, a list of 'REV:REV' pairs.  *NB*: This option is
     obsolete (*note rcsmerge::).

'-sSTATE'
     *Note Misc common options::.  Select matching state.

'-S'
     Enable "self-same" mode.  In this mode, the owner of a lock is
     unimportant, just that it exists.  Effectively, this prevents you
     from checking out the same revision twice.

          $ whoami
          ttn

          $ co -l -f z
          RCS/z,v  -->  z
          revision 1.1 (locked)
          done

          $ co -S -l -f z
          RCS/z,v  -->  z
          co: RCS/z,v: Revision 1.1 is already locked by ttn.

'-T'
     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file even if it changes
     because a lock is added or removed.

'-wWHO'
     Select matching login WHO.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

File: rcs.info,  Node: ident,  Next: merge,  Prev: co,  Up: Usage

2.4 Invoking ident
==================

     ident [options] [file ...]

If no FILE is specified, scan standard input.  The ident command scans
its input for keywords (*note Concepts::), displaying to standard output
what it finds.

'-q'
     Normally, if no patterns are found for a file, ident emits a
     warning.  This option suppresses the warning.

'-V'
     Note that '-VN' is _not_ a valid option for ident, in contrast to
     most other RCS commands (*note Misc common options::).

   In addition to the normal keyword pattern, for Subversion 1.2 (and
later) compatibility(1), ident also recognizes patterns having one of
the forms:

     $KEYWORD:: TEXT $
     ;; two colons and space after keyword
     ;; space before ending $

     $KEYWORD:: TEXT#$
     ;; two colons and space after keyword
     ;; hash before ending $

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The "fixed-length keyword syntax" is described in detail in
Version Control with Subversion, chapter "Advanced Topics", section
"Keyword Substitution".

File: rcs.info,  Node: merge,  Next: rcs,  Prev: ident,  Up: Usage

2.5 Invoking merge
==================

     merge [options] receiving-sibling parent other-sibling

The merge command combines the differences between a the parent and the
other sibling, and the differences between the parent and the receiving
sibling.  It writes the result to the receiving sibling.

'-A'
'-E'
'-e'
     Use 'diff3' '-A', '-E' (default), or '-e', respectively.

'-p'
     Write to stdout instead of overwriting RECEIVING-SIBLING.

'-q'
     *Note Misc common options::.  Suppress conflict warnings.

'-LLABEL'
     (up to three times) Specify the conflict labels for
     RECEIVING-SIBLING, PARENT and OTHER-SIBLING, respectively.

'-V'
     Note that '-VN' is _not_ a valid option for merge, in contrast to
     most other RCS commands (*note Misc common options::).

File: rcs.info,  Node: rcs,  Next: rcsclean,  Prev: merge,  Up: Usage

2.6 Invoking rcs
================

The rcs command is unique in the set of RCS programs in that it has two
usages, the modern (for RCS 5.9.0 and later) and the legacy.

2.6.1 modern
------------

     rcs [options] command [command-arg ...]

This rcs usage dispatches to COMMAND, passing along COMMAND-ARG... without
interpretation.

'--commands'
     Display a list of available commands, including a one-line
     description, and exit successfully.

'--aliases'
     Display a list of command aliases and exit successfully.

'--help COMMAND'
     Display help for a particular COMMAND and exit successfully.  For
     example, to display help for the legacy interface, use:
          --help frob

2.6.2 legacy
------------

     rcs frob [options] file ...
     (or "rcs" instead of "rcs frob")

This rcs usage performs various administrative operations on the RCS
file, depending on the options given.

'-i'
     Create and initialize a new RCS file.

'-L'
     Set strict locking.

'-U'
     Set non-strict locking.

'-M'
     Don't send mail when breaking someone else's lock.

'-T'
     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file unless a revision is
     removed.

'-I'
'-q'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-aLOGINS'
     Append LOGINS (comma-separated list of usernames) to access-list.

'-e[LOGINS]'
     Erase LOGINS (comma-separated list of usernames) from access-list.
     If LOGINS is omitted, clear the access-list.

'-AFILE-NAME'
     Append access-list of FILE-NAME to current access-list.

'-b[REV]'
     Set default branch to that of REV or highest branch on trunk if REV
     is omitted.

'-l[REV]'
     Lock a revision.

'-u[REV]'
     Unlock a revision.

'-cSTRING'
     Set comment leader to STRING.  *NB*: Don't use; obsolete.

'-kSUBST'
     *Note Substitution mode option::.

'-mREV:[MSG]'
     Replace log message with MSG.  *Note Log message option::.

'-nNAME[:[REV]]'
     If :REV is omitted, delete symbolic NAME.  Otherwise, associate
     NAME with REV; NAME must be new.

'-NNAME[:[REV]]'
     Like '-n', but overwrite any previous assignment.

'-oRANGE'
     Delete (also known as "outdate") revisions in RANGE:

     REV
          single revision

     BR
          latest revision on branch BR

     'REV1:REV2'
          REV1 to REV2 on same branch, inclusive

     ':REV'
          beginning of branch to REV

     'REV:'
          REV to end of branch

'-sSTATE[:REV]'
     *Note Misc common options::.  Set state.

'-t-TEXT'
'-tFILE-NAME'
     *Note Description option::.  Replace description.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

These options have no effect, and are included solely for consistency
with other comamnds (*note Environment::): '-zZONE'.

File: rcs.info,  Node: rcsclean,  Next: rcsdiff,  Prev: rcs,  Up: Usage

2.7 Invoking rcsclean
=====================

     rcs clean [options] [file ...]
     (or "rcsclean" instead of "rcs clean")

The rcsclean command removes working files that are not being worked on.
If given '-u', it also unlocks and removes working files that are being
worked on but have not changed.  If no FILE is specified, operate on all
the working files in the current directory.

'-r[REV]'
     Specify revision.

'-u[REV]'
     Unlock if is locked and no differences found.

'-n[REV]'
     Dry run (no act, don't operate).

'-q[REV]'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-kSUBST'
     *Note Substitution mode option::.

'-T'
     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file even it changes
     because a lock is removed.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.

File: rcs.info,  Node: rcsdiff,  Next: rcsmerge,  Prev: rcsclean,  Up: Usage

2.8 Invoking rcsdiff
====================

     rcs diff [options] file ...
     (or "rcsdiff" instead of "rcs diff")

The rcsdiff command runs diff to compare two revisions in an RCS file.
*Note (diff)Invoking diff::.

'-rREV'
     (zero, one, or two times) Name a revision.  If given two revisions
     ('-rREV1 -rREV2'), compare those revisions.  If given only one
     revision ('-rREV'), compare the working file with it.  If given no
     revisions, compare the working file with the latest revision on the
     default branch.

'-kSUBST'
     *Note Substitution mode option::.

'-q'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.

These options have no effect, and are included solely for consistency
with other comamnds (*note Environment::): '-T'.

Additionally, the following options (and their argument, if any) are
passed to the underlying diff command:

     -0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -B, -C, -D, -F, -H, -I,
     -L, -U, -W, -a, -b, -c, -d, -e, -f, -h, -i, -n, -p, -t, -u, -w, -y,
     long options (that start with "--")

(Not all of these options are meaningful.)

File: rcs.info,  Node: rcsmerge,  Next: rlog,  Prev: rcsdiff,  Up: Usage

2.9 Invoking rcsmerge
=====================

     rcs merge [options] file
     (or "rcsmerge" instead of "rcs merge")

The rcsmerge command incorporates the changes between two revisions of
an RCS file into the corresponding working file.

'-A'
'-E'
'-e'
     Passed to the diff3 command.  The default if none are specified is
     '-E'.  With '-e', suppress warnings on conflict.  The '-A' style
     generates the most verbose output.  *Note (diff)Invoking diff3::.

'-p[REV]'
     Write to stdout instead of overwriting the working file.

'-q[REV]'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-rREV'
     (one or two times) specify a revision.

One or two revisions must be specified (using '-p', '-q', '-r').  If
only one is specified, the second revision defaults to the latest
revision on the default branch.

'-kSUBST'
     *Note Substitution mode option::.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.

These options have no effect, and are included solely for consistency
with other comamnds (*note Environment::): '-T'.

File: rcs.info,  Node: rlog,  Prev: rcsmerge,  Up: Usage

2.10 Invoking rlog
==================

     rcs log [options] file ...
     (or "rlog" instead of "rcs log")

The rlog command displays information about RCS files.

'-L'
     Ignore RCS files with no locks set.

'-R'
     Print only the name of the RCS file.

'-h'
     Print only the "header" information.

'-t'
     Like '-h', but also include the description.

'-N'
     Omit symbolic names.

'-b'
     Select the default branch.

'-dDATES'
     *Note Date option::.  Select revisions based on timestamp, in the
     range DATES, with spec:

     D
          single revision D or earlier

     'D1<D2'
     'D2>D1'
          between D1 and D2, exclusive

     '<D'
     'D>'
          before D

     '>D'
     'D<'
          after D

     Instead of '<' or '>', you can use '<=' or '>=', respectively, to
     specify inclusive ranges.  DATES may also be a list of
     semicolon-separated specs.

'-l[WHO]'
     Select revisions locked by WHO (comma-separated list of usernames)
     only, or by anyone if WHO is omitted.

'-r[REVS]'
     Select revisions in REVS, a comma-separated list of range specs,
     one of: REV, 'REV:', ':REV', 'REV1:REV2'.

'-sSTATES'
     *Note Misc common options::.  STATES can also be a comma-separated
     list of states.  Select revisions with specified state(s).

'-w[WHO]'
     Select revisions checked in by WHO (comma-separated list of
     usernames), or by the user if WHO is omitted.

'-V'
'-VN'
'-xSUFF'
     *Note Misc common options::.

'-zZONE'
     *Note Date option::.

These options have no effect, and are included solely for consistency
with other comamnds (*note Environment::): '-q', '-T'.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Hacking,  Next: GNU FDL,  Prev: Usage,  Up: Top

3 Hacking
*********

This chapter, in contrast to the previous (*note Usage::), is
introspective.  It describes an important aspect of RCS interop with
other programs, and development ideas and methods.

* Menu:

* File format::         What is stored on disk.
* Still missing::       What RCS lacks, perhaps perpetually.
* Reporting bugs::      Sending bug reports and feature suggestions.

File: rcs.info,  Node: File format,  Next: Still missing,  Up: Hacking

3.1 File format
===============

An RCS file's contents are described by the grammar below(1).  Overall,
the format is free-format text.  In most environments RCS uses the ISO
8859/1 encoding: visible graphic characters are (octal) codes 041-176
and 240-377, and whitespace characters are codes 010-015 and 040.
*TODO:*  Discuss or point to encoding compatibility issues.

* Menu:

* comma-v grammar::
* comma-v particulars::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This section is adapted from the 'rcsfile(5)' manpage, written by
Walter F. Tichy.

File: rcs.info,  Node: comma-v grammar,  Next: comma-v particulars,  Up: File format

3.1.1 File format grammar
-------------------------

The meta syntax in this section uses the following conventions: '|'
(U+7C) separates alternatives; '{' (U+7B) and '}' (U+7D) enclose
optional phrases; '{' and '}*' (trailing U+2A) enclose phrases that can
be repeated zero or more times; '{' and '}+' (trailing U+2B) enclose
phrases that must appear at least once and can be repeated; terminal
symbols are in '""' (two U+22).

     rcstext   ::=  admin {delta}* desc {deltatext}*

     admin     ::=  "head"         {num} ";"
                    { "branch"     {num} ";" }
                    "access"       {id}* ";"
                    "symbols"      { sym ":" num }* ";"
                    "locks"        { id ":" num }* ";"
                    { "strict" ";" }
                    { "integrity " {intstring} ";" }
                    { "comment"    {string} ";" }
                    { "expand"     {string} ";" }

     delta     ::=  num
                    "date"       num ";"
                    "author"     id ";"
                    "state"      {id} ";"
                    "branches"   {num}* ";"
                    "next"       {num} ";"
                    { "commitid" sym ";" }

     desc      ::=  "desc"  string

     deltatext ::=  num
                    "log"   string
                    "text"  string

     num       ::=  { digit | "." }+

     digit     ::=  "0" through "9"

     id        ::=  { idchar | "." }+

     sym       ::=  {idchar}+

     idchar    ::=  any visible graphic character except special

     special   ::=  "$" | "," | "." | ":" | ";" | "@"

     string    ::=  "@" { any character, with @ doubled }* "@"

     word      ::=  id | num | string | ":"

     intchar   ::=  any character, except @

     thirdp    ::=  "^L" {intchar}*

     intstring ::= "@" {intchar}* {thirdp}* "@"

File: rcs.info,  Node: comma-v particulars,  Prev: comma-v grammar,  Up: File format

3.1.2 Additional particulars of the file format
-----------------------------------------------

   * In releases prior to 5.8 (2011-08-30), the grammar included the
     production:

          newphrase ::= id word* ";"

     and used it in the 'admin', 'delta' and 'deltatext' productions.
     This allowed third-party programs to interoperate with RCS by
     storing opaque (to RCS) data in the file.

     As of 5.8, in the name of progress (towards more systematic file
     integrity support), the only area reserved for third-party interop
     is in the (string) value of the 'integrity' field, specifically
     after the first formfeed (U+0C).  A further restriction (for all
     programs) is that the 'integrity' value must not contain '@'.

   * Whitespace has no significance except in strings.  However,
     whitespace cannot appear within an 'id', 'num', or 'sym', and an
     RCS file must end with newline (U+0A).  Strings are enclosed by '@'
     (U+40).  If a string contains a '@', it must be doubled; otherwise,
     strings can contain arbitrary binary data.

   * Identifiers are case sensitive.  Keywords are in lower case only.
     The sets of keywords and identifiers can overlap.

   * Dates, which appear after the 'date' keyword, are of the form
     'Y.mm.dd.hh.mm.ss', where 'Y' is the year, 'mm' the month (01-12),
     'dd' the day (01-31), 'hh' the hour (00-23), 'mm' the minute
     (00-59), and 'ss' the second (00-60).  'Y' contains just the last
     two digits of the year for years from 1900 through 1999, and all
     the digits of years thereafter.  Dates use the Gregorian calendar;
     times use UTC.

   * The 'delta' nodes form a tree.  All nodes whose numbers consist of
     a single pair (e.g., 2.3, 2.1, 1.3) are on the trunk, and are
     linked through the 'next' field in order of decreasing numbers.
     The 'head' field in the 'admin' node points to the head of that
     sequence (i.e., contains the highest pair).  The 'branch' node in
     the 'admin' node indicates the default branch (or revision) for
     most RCS operations.  If empty, the default branch is the highest
     branch on the trunk.

     All 'delta' nodes whose numbers consist of 2N fields (N ??? 2) (e.g.,
     3.1.1.1, 2.1.2.2) are linked as follows.  All nodes whose first
     2N-1 number fields are identical are linked through the 'next'
     field in order of increasing numbers.  For each such sequence, the
     'delta' node whose number is identical to the first 2N-2 number
     fields of the 'delta' nodes on that sequence is called the
     "branchpoint".  The 'branches' field of a node contains a list of
     the numbers of the first nodes of all sequences for which it is a
     branchpoint.  This list is ordered in increasing numbers.  *Note
     Figure 3.1: Example RCS File Organization.

                                     Head
                                       |
                                       |
                                       v                        / \
                                   ---------                   /   \
             / \          / \      |       |      / \         /     \
            /   \        /   \     |  2.1  |     /   \       /       \
           /     \      /     \    |       |    /     \     /         \
          /1.2.1.3\    /1.3.1.1\   |       |   /1.2.2.2\   /1.2.2.1.1.1\
          ---------    ---------   ---------   ---------   -------------
              ^            ^           |           ^             ^
              |            |           |           |             |
              |            |           v           |             |
             / \           |       ---------      / \            |
            /   \          |       \  1.3  /     /   \           |
           /     \         ---------\     /     /     \-----------
          /1.2.1.1\      1.3.1       \   /     /1.2.2.1\     1.2.2.1.1
          ---------                   \ /      ---------
              ^                        |           ^
              |                        |           |
              |                        v           |
              |                    ---------       |
              |                    \  1.2  /       |
              ----------------------\     /---------
            1.2.1                    \   /       1.2.2
                                      \ /
                                       |
                                       |
                                       v
                                   ---------
                                   \  1.1  /
                                    \     /
                                     \   /
                                      \ /

     Figure 3.1: The organization of an example RCS file.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Still missing,  Next: Reporting bugs,  Prev: File format,  Up: Hacking

3.2 Still missing
=================

RCS is still missing some features.  The following is an unordered list
of "to-do musings" kept by the RCS maintainers.  If you would like to
hack on an item, *Note Reporting bugs::.

   * Add an option to rcsmerge so that it can use an arbitrary program
     to do the 3-way merge, instead of the default merge.  Likewise for
     rcsdiff and diff.  It should be possible to pass arbitrary options
     to these programs, and to the subsidiary co invocations.

   * Add format options for finer control over the output of ident and
     rlog.  E.g.  there should be an easy way for rlog to output lines
     like 'src/main.c 2.4 wft', one for each locked revision.  rlog
     options should have three orthogonal types: selecting files,
     selecting revisions, and selecting rlog format.

   * Add format options for finer control over the output of keyword
     strings.  E.g.  there should be some way to prepend '@(#)', and
     there should be some way to change '$' to some other character to
     disable further substitution.  These options should make the
     resulting files uneditable, like '-kv'.

   * Add long options, e.g.  '--keyword-substitution'.  Unfortunately
     RCS's option syntax is incompatible with getopt.  Perhaps the best
     way is to overload rcs, e.g., 'rcs diff --keyword-substitution=old
     file' instead of 'rcsdiff -ko file'.

   * 'rlog -rM:N' should work even if M and N have different numbers of
     fields, so long as M is an ancestor of N or vice versa.

   * rcs should evaluate options in order; this allows 'rcs -oS -nS'.

   * Be able to redo your most recent checkin with minor changes.

   * 'co -u' shouldn't complain about a '+w' working file if contents
     don't change.

   * Add a '-' option to take the list of file names from standard
     input.  Perhaps the file names should be null-terminated, not
     newline-terminated, so that those that contain newlines are handled
     properly.

   * Permit multiple option-filename pairs, e.g., 'co -r1.4 a -r1.5 b'.

   * Add an option to break a symbolic link to an RCS file, instead of
     breaking the hard link that it points to.

   * Add ways to specify the earliest revision, the most recent
     revision, the earliest or latest revision on a particular branch,
     and the parent or child of some other revision.

   * If a user has multiple locks, perhaps ci should fall back on the
     method of 'ci -k' to figure out which revision to use.

   * Add an option to rcsclean to clean directories recursively.

   * Write an rcsck program that repairs corrupted RCS files, much as
     fsck repairs corrupted file systems.  For example, it should remove
     stale lock files.

   * Update the date parser to use the more modern 'getdate.y' by
     Bellovin, Salz, and Berets, or the even more modern 'getdate' by
     Moraes.  None of these getdate implementations are as robust as
     RCS's old warhorse in avoiding problems like arithmetic overflow,
     so they'll have to be fixed first.  (Perhaps we can use gnulib
     module 'getdate'.)

   * Break up the code into a library so that it's easier to write new
     programs that manipulate RCS files, and so that useless code is
     removed from the existing programs.  For example, the rcs command
     contains unnecessary keyword substitution baggage, and the merge
     command can be greatly pruned.

   * Make it easier to use your favorite text editor to edit log
     messages, etc., instead of having to type them in irretrievably at
     the terminal.

   * Let the user specify a search path for default branches, e.g., to
     use L as the default branch if it works, and M otherwise.  Let the
     user require that at least one entry in the search path works.  Let
     the user say that later entries in the search path are read only,
     i.e.  one cannot check in changes to them.  This should be an
     option settable by 'RCSINIT'.

   * Add a way for a user to see which revisions affected which lines.

   * Have 'rlog -nN F' print just the revision number that N translates
     to.  E.g., 'rlog -nB. F' would print the highest revision on the
     branch B. Use this to add an option '-bB' to rcsbranch, to freeze
     the named branch.  This should interact well with default branches.

   * Add a co option that prints the revision number before each line,
     as SCCS's 'get -m' does.  [I implemented this for Emacs 22 as a
     subroutine of 'vc-annotate', q.v.  --ttn]

File: rcs.info,  Node: Reporting bugs,  Prev: Still missing,  Up: Hacking

3.3 Reporting bugs
==================

To report bugs or suggest enhancements for GNU RCS, please visit its
homepage (<http://www.gnu.org/software/rcs/>) to find directions on how
to "file a bug report" online, or send electronic mail to
<help-rcs AT gnu.org>.  (If you use the web interface, you don't need to
also send email, since that is done automatically.)

   For bug reports, please include enough information for the
maintainers to reproduce the problem.  Generally speaking, that means:

   * The RCS version, command(s) and manual section(s) involved.
   * Hardware and operating system names and versions.
   * The contents of any input files necessary to reproduce the bug.
   * The expected behavior and/or output.
   * A description of the problem and samples of any erroneous output.
   * Options you gave to 'configure' other than specifying installation
     directories.
   * Anything else that you think would be helpful.

   When in doubt whether something is needed or not, include it.  It's
better to include too much than to leave out something important.

   Patches are welcome; if possible, please make them with 'git
format-patch' and include 'ChangeLog' entries (*note (emacs)Change
Log::).  Please follow the existing coding style.

File: rcs.info,  Node: GNU FDL,  Next: Index,  Prev: Hacking,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     <http://fsf.org/>

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
     recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
     be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept
     the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
     requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
     notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
     If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
     is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
     contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
     any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
     of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
     available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
     formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
     suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
     Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
     been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
     readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
     used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
     "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
     simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
     Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.
     Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
     edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
     the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
     the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
     conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
     equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
     covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
     long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
     conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
     Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
     each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
     network-using public has access to download using public-standard
     network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
     of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
     reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
     copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
     remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
     year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
     through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
     to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
     Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
     Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
     distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
     possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
     the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
          versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
          History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
          as a previous version if the original publisher of that
          version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
          Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the
          Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
          publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add
          an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
          previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
          "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
          that was published at least four years before the Document
          itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
          to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section
          all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
          in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
          equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
     some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
     titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
     license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other
     section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of
     a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
     the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
     of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
     through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
     already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
     by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on
     behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
     one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
     the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
     of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
     in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
     License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
     document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
     storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
     finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you
     under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not
     permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the
     same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/>.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the
     Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
     choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
     Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy can
     decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.

File: rcs.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU FDL,  Up: Top

Index
*****


* Menu:

* access control policy:                 Concepts.            (line  85)
* Author:                                Concepts.            (line 119)
* author, specifying:                    Misc common options. (line  63)
* behavior prior to version 5:           Misc common options. (line  49)
* behavior, version 3:                   Misc common options. (line  60)
* behavior, version 4:                   Misc common options. (line  56)
* binary-old-keyword-value substitution mode: Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  34)
* branch growth:                         Revision options.    (line  19)
* branch number:                         Concepts.            (line  46)
* branch tip:                            Concepts.            (line  61)
* branch, default:                       Concepts.            (line  79)
* bug reporting:                         Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* case sensitivity, file format:         comma-v particulars. (line  27)
* checkin:                               Concepts.            (line  97)
* checklist for bug reports:             Reporting bugs.      (line  12)
* checkout:                              Concepts.            (line 106)
* checkout, implicit:                    Quick tour.          (line  84)
* ci invocation:                         ci.                  (line   6)
* co invocation:                         co.                  (line   6)
* comma-v file format:                   Overview.            (line   6)
* command help:                          Common elements.     (line   6)
* command version:                       Common elements.     (line   6)
* command-line option to specify a revision: Revision options.
                                                              (line   6)
* credits:                               Credits.             (line   6)
* Date:                                  Concepts.            (line 122)
* date formats:                          Date option.         (line   6)
* date, specifying:                      Date option.         (line   6)
* dates, file format:                    comma-v particulars. (line  30)
* default branch:                        Concepts.            (line  79)
* default branch, setting:               rcs.                 (line  68)
* deleting revisions:                    rcs.                 (line  94)
* description of working file:           Concepts.            (line  36)
* description text, specifying:          Description option.  (line   6)
* empty log message:                     Log message option.  (line   7)
* emulation, previous RCS versions:      Misc common options. (line  44)
* encoding, file format:                 File format.         (line   6)
* environment variables:                 Environment.         (line   6)
* features, still missing:               Still missing.       (line   6)
* file names on the command-line:        Common elements.     (line  26)
* format, RCSfile:                       File format.         (line   6)
* grammar, file format:                  comma-v grammar.     (line   6)
* Header:                                Concepts.            (line 126)
* history:                               Credits.             (line   6)
* Id:                                    Concepts.            (line 131)
* ident invocation:                      ident.               (line   6)
* implicit checkout, circumstance:       Quick tour.          (line  84)
* implicit checkout, locked:             ci.                  (line  35)
* implicit checkout, unlocked:           ci.                  (line  38)
* instantiating a working file:          Concepts.            (line  27)
* interaction model:                     Concepts.            (line   9)
* interaction model <1>:                 Concepts.            (line   9)
* interactive mode:                      Misc common options. (line   8)
* invocation, ci:                        ci.                  (line   6)
* invocation, co:                        co.                  (line   6)
* invocation, ident:                     ident.               (line   6)
* invocation, merge:                     merge.               (line   6)
* invocation, rcs:                       rcs.                 (line  12)
* invocation, rcs <1>:                   rcs.                 (line  32)
* invocation, rcsclean:                  rcsclean.            (line   6)
* invocation, rcsdiff:                   rcsdiff.             (line   6)
* invocation, rcsmerge:                  rcsmerge.            (line   6)
* invocation, rlog:                      rlog.                (line   6)
* keyword-only substitution mode:        Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  22)
* keyword-value substitution mode:       Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  11)
* keyword-value-locker substitution mode: Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  18)
* keywords, table of:                    Concepts.            (line 119)
* layout of nodes, file format:          comma-v particulars. (line  38)
* license:                               Overview.            (line   6)
* Locker:                                Concepts.            (line 135)
* locking a revision:                    rcs.                 (line  72)
* locking on implicit checkout:          ci.                  (line  35)
* locking, non-strict:                   Quick tour.          (line  69)
* locking, set non-strict:               rcs.                 (line  44)
* locking, set strict:                   rcs.                 (line  41)
* locking, strict:                       Quick tour.          (line  69)
* locks in RCS file:                     Concepts.            (line  85)
* Log:                                   Concepts.            (line 139)
* log message, empty:                    Log message option.  (line   7)
* LOGNAME:                               Environment.         (line  50)
* memory limit:                          Environment.         (line  26)
* merge invocation:                      merge.               (line   6)
* model, interaction:                    Concepts.            (line   9)
* Name:                                  Concepts.            (line 171)
* names, symbolic:                       Concepts.            (line  79)
* node layout, file format:              comma-v particulars. (line  38)
* non-strict locking:                    Quick tour.          (line  69)
* number, branch:                        Concepts.            (line  46)
* number, revision:                      Concepts.            (line  46)
* old-keyword-value substitution mode:   Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  28)
* order of options and file names:       Common elements.     (line  20)
* outdating revisions:                   rcs.                 (line  94)
* overview:                              Overview.            (line   6)
* pairing RCS and working files:         Common elements.     (line  26)
* patches, contributing:                 Reporting bugs.      (line  27)
* problems:                              Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* projects, related:                     Overview.            (line  18)
* quiet mode:                            Misc common options. (line  18)
* range of revisions, specifying:        Revision options.    (line  30)
* RCS file:                              Concepts.            (line  36)
* rcs invocation:                        rcs.                 (line  12)
* rcs invocation <1>:                    rcs.                 (line  32)
* RCS version emulation:                 Misc common options. (line  44)
* rcsclean invocation:                   rcsclean.            (line   6)
* rcsdiff invocation:                    rcsdiff.             (line   6)
* RCSfile:                               Concepts.            (line 176)
* RCSfile format:                        File format.         (line   6)
* RCSINIT:                               Environment.         (line   8)
* rcsmerge invocation:                   rcsmerge.            (line   6)
* RCS_MEM_LIMIT:                         Environment.         (line  25)
* removing revisions:                    rcs.                 (line  94)
* reporting bugs:                        Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* Revision:                              Concepts.            (line 179)
* revision number:                       Concepts.            (line  46)
* revision range, specifying:            Revision options.    (line  30)
* revision, specifying:                  Revision options.    (line   6)
* revisions, tree of:                    Concepts.            (line  79)
* rlog invocation:                       rlog.                (line   6)
* Source:                                Concepts.            (line 182)
* specifying a date:                     Date option.         (line   6)
* specifying a range of revisions:       Revision options.    (line  30)
* specifying a revision:                 Revision options.    (line   6)
* specifying a state:                    Misc common options. (line  22)
* specifying a suffix list:              Misc common options. (line  67)
* specifying a time/date:                Date option.         (line   6)
* specifying author:                     Misc common options. (line  63)
* specifying description text:           Description option.  (line   6)
* specifying substitution mode:          Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line   6)
* State:                                 Concepts.            (line 185)
* state, specifying:                     Misc common options. (line  22)
* strict locking:                        Quick tour.          (line  69)
* substitution mode, default:            Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  11)
* substitution mode, specifying:         Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line   6)
* suffix list, specifying:               Misc common options. (line  67)
* symbolic names:                        Concepts.            (line  79)
* TEMP:                                  Environment.         (line  43)
* third-party interop, file format:      comma-v particulars. (line   6)
* Tichy, Walter F.:                      Credits.             (line   6)
* time zone:                             Date option.         (line   6)
* time/date, specifying:                 Date option.         (line   6)
* tip:                                   Concepts.            (line  61)
* tip increment:                         Revision options.    (line  19)
* TMP:                                   Environment.         (line  42)
* TMPDIR:                                Environment.         (line  41)
* tree of revisions:                     Concepts.            (line  79)
* unlocking a revision:                  rcs.                 (line  75)
* USER:                                  Environment.         (line  51)
* value-only substitution mode:          Substitution mode option.
                                                              (line  41)
* whitespace, file format:               comma-v particulars. (line  21)
* working file, description:             Concepts.            (line  36)
* working file, instantiation:           Concepts.            (line  27)



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