numfmt - phpMan

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File: coreutils.info,  Node: numfmt invocation,  Next: seq invocation,  Prev: factor invocation,  Up: Numeric operations

26.2 'numfmt': Reformat numbers
===============================

'numfmt' reads numbers in various representations and reformats them as
requested.  The most common usage is converting numbers to/from _human_
representation (e.g.  '4G' ==> '4,000,000,000').

     numfmt [OPTION]... [NUMBER]

   'numfmt' converts each NUMBER on the command-line according to the
specified options (see below).  If no NUMBERs are given, it reads
numbers from standard input.  'numfmt' can optionally extract numbers
from specific columns, maintaining proper line padding and alignment.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   See '--invalid' for additional information regarding exit status.

26.2.1 General options
----------------------

The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'--debug'
     Print (to standard error) warning messages about possible erroneous
     usage.

'-d D'
'--delimiter=D'
     Use the character D as input field separator (default: whitespace).
     _Note_: Using non-default delimiter turns off automatic padding.

'--field=FIELDS'
     Convert the number in input field FIELDS (default: 1).  FIELDS
     supports 'cut' style field ranges:

          N    N'th field, counted from 1
          N-   from N'th field, to end of line
          N-M  from N'th to M'th field (inclusive)
          -M   from first to M'th field (inclusive)
          -    all fields

'--format=FORMAT'
     Use printf-style floating FORMAT string.  The FORMAT string must
     contain one '%f' directive, optionally with ''', '-', '0', width or
     precision modifiers.  The ''' modifier will enable '--grouping',
     the '-' modifier will enable left-aligned '--padding' and the width
     modifier will enable right-aligned '--padding'.  The '0' width
     modifier (without the '-' modifier) will generate leading zeros on
     the number, up to the specified width.  A precision specification
     like '%.1f' will override the precision determined from the input
     data or set due to '--to' option auto scaling.

'--from=UNIT'
     Auto-scales input numbers according to UNIT.  See UNITS below.  The
     default is no scaling, meaning suffixes (e.g.  'M', 'G') will
     trigger an error.

'--from-unit=N'
     Specify the input unit size (instead of the default 1).  Use this
     option when the input numbers represent other units (e.g.  if the
     input number '10' represents 10 units of 512 bytes, use
     '--from-unit=512').  Suffixes are handled as with '--from=auto'.

'--grouping'
     Group digits in output numbers according to the current locale's
     grouping rules (e.g _Thousands Separator_ character, commonly '.'
     (dot) or ',' comma).  This option has no effect in 'POSIX/C'
     locale.

'--header[=N]'
     Print the first N (default: 1) lines without any conversion.

'--invalid=MODE'
     The default action on input errors is to exit immediately with
     status code 2.  '--invalid='abort'' explicitly specifies this
     default mode.  With a MODE of 'fail', print a warning for _each_
     conversion error, and exit with status 2.  With a MODE of 'warn',
     exit with status 0, even in the presence of conversion errors, and
     with a MODE of 'ignore' do not even print diagnostics.

'--padding=N'
     Pad the output numbers to N characters, by adding spaces.  If N is
     a positive number, numbers will be right-aligned.  If N is a
     negative number, numbers will be left-aligned.  By default, numbers
     are automatically aligned based on the input line's width (only
     with the default delimiter).

'--round=METHOD'
     When converting number representations, round the number according
     to METHOD, which can be 'up', 'down', 'from-zero' (the default),
     'towards-zero', 'nearest'.

'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Add 'SUFFIX' to the output numbers, and accept optional 'SUFFIX' in
     input numbers.

'--to=UNIT'
     Auto-scales output numbers according to UNIT.  See _Units_ below.
     The default is no scaling, meaning all the digits of the number are
     printed.

'--to-unit=N'
     Specify the output unit size (instead of the default 1).  Use this
     option when the output numbers represent other units (e.g.  to
     represent '4,000,000' bytes in blocks of 1KB, use '--to=si
     --to-unit=1000').  Suffixes are handled as with '--from=auto'.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).  Note with
     '-z' the newline character is treated as a field separator.

26.2.2 Possible UNITs:
----------------------

The following are the possible UNIT options with '--from=UNITS' and
'--to=UNITS':

NONE
     No scaling is performed.  For input numbers, no suffixes are
     accepted, and any trailing characters following the number will
     trigger an error.  For output numbers, all digits of the numbers
     will be printed.

SI
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International System of Units
     (SI)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the following
     suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1000 will be
     rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'K'  =>  1000^1 = 10^3 (Kilo)
          'M'  =>  1000^2 = 10^6 (Mega)
          'G'  =>  1000^3 = 10^9 (Giga)
          'T'  =>  1000^4 = 10^{12} (Tera)
          'P'  =>  1000^5 = 10^{15} (Peta)
          'E'  =>  1000^6 = 10^{18} (Exa)
          'Z'  =>  1000^7 = 10^{21} (Zetta)
          'Y'  =>  1000^8 = 10^{24} (Yotta)

IEC
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International Electrotechnical
     Commission (IEC)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the
     following suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1024
     will be rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'K'  =>  1024^1 = 2^{10} (Kibi)
          'M'  =>  1024^2 = 2^{20} (Mebi)
          'G'  =>  1024^3 = 2^{30} (Gibi)
          'T'  =>  1024^4 = 2^{40} (Tebi)
          'P'  =>  1024^5 = 2^{50} (Pebi)
          'E'  =>  1024^6 = 2^{60} (Exbi)
          'Z'  =>  1024^7 = 2^{70} (Zebi)
          'Y'  =>  1024^8 = 2^{80} (Yobi)

     The 'iec' option uses a single letter suffix (e.g.  'G'), which is
     not fully standard, as the _iec_ standard recommends a two-letter
     symbol (e.g 'Gi') - but in practice, this method common.  Compare
     with the 'iec-i' option.

IEC-I
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International Electrotechnical
     Commission (IEC)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the
     following suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1024
     will be rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'Ki'  =>  1024^1 = 2^{10} (Kibi)
          'Mi'  =>  1024^2 = 2^{20} (Mebi)
          'Gi'  =>  1024^3 = 2^{30} (Gibi)
          'Ti'  =>  1024^4 = 2^{40} (Tebi)
          'Pi'  =>  1024^5 = 2^{50} (Pebi)
          'Ei'  =>  1024^6 = 2^{60} (Exbi)
          'Zi'  =>  1024^7 = 2^{70} (Zebi)
          'Yi'  =>  1024^8 = 2^{80} (Yobi)

     The 'iec-i' option uses a two-letter suffix symbol (e.g.  'Gi'), as
     the _iec_ standard recommends, but this is not always common in
     practice.  Compare with the 'iec' option.

AUTO
     'auto' can only be used with '--from'.  With this method, numbers
     with 'K','M','G','T','P','E','Z','Y' suffixes are interpreted as
     _SI_ values, and numbers with 'Ki',
     'Mi','Gi','Ti','Pi','Ei','Zi','Yi' suffixes are interpreted as
     _IEC_ values.

26.2.3 Examples of using 'numfmt'
---------------------------------

Converting a single number from/to _human_ representation:
     $ numfmt --to=si 500000
     500K

     $ numfmt --to=iec 500000
     489K

     $ numfmt --to=iec-i 500000
     489Ki

     $ numfmt --from=si 1M
     1000000

     $ numfmt --from=iec 1M
     1048576

     # with '--from=auto', M=Mega, Mi=Mebi
     $ numfmt --from=auto 1M
     1000000
     $ numfmt --from=auto 1Mi
     1048576

   Converting from 'SI' to 'IEC' scales (e.g.  when a harddisk capacity
is advertised as '1TB', while checking the drive's capacity gives lower
values):

     $ numfmt --from=si --to=iec 1T
     932G

   Converting a single field from an input file / piped input (these
contrived examples are for demonstration purposes only, as both 'ls' and
'df' support the '--human-readable' option to output sizes in
human-readable format):

     # Third field (file size) will be shown in SI representation
     $ ls -log | numfmt --field 3 --header --to=si | head -n4
     -rw-r--r--  1     94K Aug 23  2011 ABOUT-NLS
     -rw-r--r--  1    3.7K Jan  7 16:15 AUTHORS
     -rw-r--r--  1     36K Jun  1  2011 COPYING
     -rw-r--r--  1       0 Jan  7 15:15 ChangeLog

     # Second field (size) will be shown in IEC representation
     $ df --block-size=1 | numfmt --field 2 --header --to=iec | head -n4
     File system   1B-blocks        Used  Available Use% Mounted on
     rootfs             132G   104741408   26554036  80% /
     tmpfs              794M        7580     804960   1% /run/shm
     /dev/sdb1          694G   651424756   46074696  94% /home

   Output can be tweaked using '--padding' or '--format':

     # Pad to 10 characters, right-aligned
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding=10
           2.5K config.log
            108 config.status
           1.7K configure
             20 configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding=-10
     2.5K       config.log
     108        config.status
     1.7K       configure
     20         configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned, using 'format'
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --format="%10f"
           2.5K config.log
            108 config.status
           1.7K configure
             20 configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned, using 'format'
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding="%-10f"
     2.5K       config.log
     108        config.status
     1.7K       configure
     20         configure.ac

   With locales that support grouping digits, using '--grouping' or
'--format' enables grouping.  In 'POSIX' locale, grouping is silently
ignored:

     $ LC_ALL=C numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2147483648

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2,147,483,648

     $ LC_ALL=ta_IN numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2,14,74,83,648

     $ LC_ALL=C ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     ==     2147483648==

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     ==  2,147,483,648==

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'-15f==" 2G
     ==2,147,483,648  ==

     $ LC_ALL=ta_IN ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     == 2,14,74,83,648==


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