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   Note!!! This document is nolonger maintained.  See jed/doc/*.txt
   for more current documentation.

   Copyright (C) 1992, 1993 John E. Davis

* Menu:

* Introduction::
* Installing JED::
* Startup Files::
* Starting JED::
* Emulating Other Editors::  Emacs, EDT, and Wordstar emulation
* File Types and Sizes::
* Backup and Autosave Files::
* Status line and Windows::
* MiniBuffer::
* Basic Editing::
* Modes::
* Keyboard Macros::
* Shells and Shell Commands::
* Getting Help::
* Editing Binary Files::
* Dired::  Using JED to maintain directories
* Mail::
* Customization::
* Eight Bit Clean Issues::
* Miscellaneous::

File:,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Installing JED,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top


   This document presents some basic information that users should know
in order to use JED effectively.  Any questions, comments, or bug
reports, should be emailed to the author. Please be sure to include the
version number.  To be notified of future releases of JED, email to the
address below and your email address will be placed on the announcement
list.  The email address is:

                        davis AT  (internet)
                        davis@ohstpy (BITNET)

File:,  Node: Installing JED,  Next: Startup Files,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

Installing JED

   Building JED from its sources requires the use of a C compiler that
understands function prototypes.  JED has been successfully built with
`cc' on the ULTRIX, VMS, and IRIX operating systems.  In addition, it
has been created using `gcc' under SunOS and Borland's BCC 3.0 for the

   Detailed installation instructions are in separate, operating system
dependent files.  They are:

            UNIX:   install.unx
             VMS:   install.vms
           IBMPC:   install.pc

   When JED starts up, it will first try to load a site initialization
file called `'.  Site specific commands are placed here.  Most
likely, `' will define some functions, default hooks, etc...
What goes in it is left to the discretion of the user or system
manager. See the file `' for examples.

     If you intend to use characters with ASCII codes greater than 127,
     it is important to read the section on "Eight Bit Clean Issues" in
     order to install JED in an 8 bit clean manner.

   When loading `' as well as other `S-Lang' files (the user's
personal initialization file, `.jedrc' or `jed.rc', is a special case,
see below), JED searches all directories specified by the environment
variable `JED_LIBRARY', and if the file is not found, JED will look for
it in the default directory. The environment variable `JED_LIBRARY' is
a comma separated list of directories.  Here are some examples of
setting this variable for different systems:

            VMS:   define/job JED_LIBRARY  dev$lib:[jedfiles]
           UNIX:   setenv JED_LIBRARY '/usr/local/lib/jed,~/jed'
          IBMPC:   set JED_LIBRARY = c:\editors\jed\lib

You will probably want to put define `JED_LIBRARY' in your login
startup file, e.g., `autoexec.bat', `', or `.cshrc'.

   JED versions 0.92 and later allow the value of `JED_LIBRARY' to be
specified at compile time an it may only be necessary to define
`JED_LIBRARY' as an environment variable to override its pre-compiled

File:,  Node: Startup Files,  Next: Starting JED,  Prev: Installing JED,  Up: Top

Startup Files

   Once JED has loaded the startup file `', it will try to load
the user's personal initialization file.  It first looks in the
directory pointed to by the environment variable `JED_HOME'. If that
fails, it then searches the `HOME' directory and upon failure simply
loads the one supplied in `JED_LIBRARY'.

   The name of the user initialization file varies according to the
operating system.  On Unix systems this file must be called `.jedrc'
while on VMS and MSDOS, it goes by the name `jed.rc'.  For VMS systems,
the `HOME' directory corresponds to the `SYS$LOGIN' logical name while
for the other two systems, it corresponds to the `HOME' environment

   The purpose of this file is to allow an individual user to taylor
JED to his or her personal taste.  Most likely, this will involve
choosing an initial set of keybindings, setting some variables, and so

File:,  Node: Starting JED,  Next: Emulating Other Editors,  Prev: Startup Files,  Up: Top

Starting JED

   Normally, JED is started as

         jed FILENAME
         jed FILE_LIST.
   However, JED also takes the following switches:

     run JED in batch mode.  This is a non-interactive mode.

     do not load `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') file.

`-g N'
     goto line N in buffer

`-l FILE'
     load FILE as `S-Lang' code.

     execute S-Lang function named FUNCTION

     search forward for STRING

     split window

`-i FILE'
     insert FILE into current buffer.

For example, the command line:
                     jed slang.c -g 1012 -s error -2 file.c -f eob

will start up JED, read in the file `slang.c', goto line 1012 of
`slang.c' and start searching for the string `error', split the window,
read in `file.c' and goto the end of the file.

   If the `-batch' parameter is used, it must be the first parameter.
Similarly, if `-n' is used, it must also be the first parameter unless
used with the `-batch' parameter in which case it must the second.  JED
should only be run in batch mode when non-interactive operation is
desired.  For example, JED is distributed with a file, `', that
contains S-Lang code to produce a help file for functions and
variables.  In fact, the help file `jed_funs.hlp' was created by

                     jed -batch -n -l

   at the command line.

   Now suppose that you want to read in a file with the name of one of
the switches, say `-2'.  How can this be done?  The answer depends upon
the operating system.  For unix, instead of `jed -2', use `jed ./-2';
for VMS, use `jed []-2'.  The case for MSDOS is similar to unix except
that one must use the backslash.

   It is possible to completely change JED's command line syntax
through the use of the user defined function `command_line_hook'. In
fact, the behavior described above is dictated by the value of
`command_line_hook' as distributed in `'.  See the section on
hooks for details.

File:,  Node: Emulating Other Editors,  Next: File Types and Sizes,  Prev: Starting JED,  Up: Top

Emulating Other Editors

   JED's ability to create new functions using the S-Lang programming
language as well as allowing the user to choose key bindings, makes the
emulation of other editors possible.  Currently, JED provides
reasonable emulation of the Emacs, EDT, and Wordstar editors.

* Menu:

* Emacs Emulation::
* EDT Emulation::
* Wordstar Emulation::

File:,  Node: Emacs Emulation,  Next: EDT Emulation,  Prev: Emulating Other Editors,  Up: Emulating Other Editors

Emacs Emulation

   Emacs Emulation is provided by the S-Lang code in `'. The
basic functionality of Emacs is emulated; most Emacs users should have
no problem with JED.  To enable Emacs emulation in JED, make sure that
the line

                               ""  evalfile pop

is in your `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') startup file.  JED is distributed with
this line already present in the default `jed.rc' file.

File:,  Node: EDT Emulation,  Next: Wordstar Emulation,  Prev: Emacs Emulation,  Up: Emulating Other Editors

EDT Emulation

   For EDT emulation, `' must be loaded.  This is accomplished by
ensuring that the line

                                ""     evalfile pop

is in present in the `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') Startup File.  JED is
distributed with EDT emulation enabled on VMS and Unix systems but the
above line is commented out in the `jed.rc' file on MSDOS systems.

   This emulation provides a near identical emulation of the EDT keypad
key commands.  In addition, the smaller keypad on the newer DEC
terminals is also setup.  It is possible to have both EDT and Emacs
emulation at the same time.  The only restriction is that `'
must be loaded before `' is loaded.

   One minor difference between JED's EDT emulation and the real EDT
concerns the key.  EDT normally binds this to move the cursor to the
beginning of the line.  However, JED uses it as a help key.
Nevertheless, it is possible to rebind it.  See the section on
rebinding keys as well as the file `' for hints.  Alternatively,
simply put
                            "^H" unsetkey "bol" "^H" setkey
   in the `jed.rc' startup file after `' is loaded.  Keep in mind
that the key will no longer function as a help key if this is done.

   EDT emulation for PCs only work with the enhanced keyboard.  When
`' is loaded, a variable `NUMLOCK_IS_GOLD' is set which instructs
JED to interpret the numlock key on the square numeric keypad to
function as the EDT GOLD key.  In fact, this keypad should behave
exactly like the keypad on VTxxx terminals.  The only other problem
that remains concerns the + key on the PC keypad.  This key occupies
two VTxxx key positions, the minus and the comma (delete word and
character) keys.  Thus a decision had to be made about which key to
emulate.  I chose the + key to return the characters ` O l' which JED
maps to the delete character function.  This may be changed to the
delete word function if you prefer.  See the file `' for details.

   The GOLD-GOLD key combination toggles the keypad between application
and numeric states.  On the PC, this is not possible. Instead, the PC
F1 key has been instructed to perform this task.

File:,  Node: Wordstar Emulation,  Prev: EDT Emulation,  Up: Emulating Other Editors

Wordstar Emulation

   `' contains the S-Lang code for JED's Wordstar emulation.
Adding the line
                                ""     evalfile   pop
   to your `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') startup file will enable JED's Wordstar

File:,  Node: File Types and Sizes,  Next: Backup and Autosave Files,  Prev: Emulating Other Editors,  Up: Top

File Types and Sizes

   JED is primarily a text editor; however, it can also edit binary
files (see the section on editing binary files).  As a result, JED may
edit lines of arbitrary length (actually this depends upon the size of
an integer).  It is capable of editing arbitrarily large buffers as
long as there is enough memory for the buffer as well as the overhead
involved.  This editor employs a linked list representation; hence, the
overhead can be quite high.

File:,  Node: Backup and Autosave Files,  Next: Status line and Windows,  Prev: File Types and Sizes,  Up: Top

Backup and Autosave Files

   On UNIX and MSDOS systems, JED creates backup files by appending a
`~' character to the filename.  The VMS operating system handles backup
files itself.  JED periodically autosaves its buffers.  On UNIX and
MSDOS, autosave files are prefixed with the pound sign `#'.  On VMS,
they are prefixed with `_$'.  The autosave interval may be changed by
setting the variable MAX_HITS to the desired value. The default is 300
"hits" on the buffer. A "hit" is defined as a key which MAY change the
state of the buffer. Cursor movement keys do not cause hits on the

   Like many of JED's features, the names of autosave and backup files
can be controlled by the user.  The file `' defines two
functions, `make_backup_filename', and `make_autosave_filename' that
generate the file names described in the previous paragraph.  Like all
S-Lang functions, these functions may be overloaded and replaced with
different ones.  See also information about `find_file_hook' in the
section on hooks.

   On UNIX systems, JED catches most signals and tries to autosave its
buffers in the event of a crash or if the user accidently disconnects
from the system (`SIGHUP').

   If an autosave file exists and you is desire to recover data from the
autosave file, use the function `recover_file'.  Whenever JED finds a
file, it checks to see if an autosave file exists as well as the file's
date.  If the dates are such that the autosave file is more recent JED
will display a message in the minibuffer alerting the user of this fact
and that the function `recover_file' should be considered.

File:,  Node: Status line and Windows,  Next: MiniBuffer,  Prev: Backup and Autosave Files,  Up: Top

Status line and Windows

   JED supports multiple windows.  Each window may contain the same
buffer or different buffers.  A status line is displayed immediately
below each window.  The status line contains information such as the
JED version number, the buffer name, "mode", etc.  Please beware of the
following indicators:

     buffer has been modified since last save

     buffer is read only

     mark set indicator.  This means a region is being defined

     file changed on disk indicator.  This indicates that the
     file associated with the buffer is newer than the buffer itself.

     spot pushed indicator

     undo is enabled for the buffer

     a macro is being defined.

     buffer is narrowed to a region of LINES.

File:,  Node: MiniBuffer,  Next: Basic Editing,  Prev: Status line and Windows,  Up: Top


   The MiniBuffer consists of a single line located at the bottom of the
screen. Much of the dialog between the user and JED takes place in this
buffer.  For example, when you search for a string, JED will prompt you
for the string in the MiniBuffer.

   The MiniBuffer also provides a direct link to the S-Lang
interpreter. To access the interpreter, press  ESC and the `S-Lang>'
prompt will appear in the MiniBuffer.  Enter any valid S-Lang
expression for evaluation by the interpreter.

   It is possible to to recall data previously entered into the
MiniBuffer by using the up and down arrow keys.  This makes it possible
to use and edit previous expressions in a convenient and efficient

* Menu:

* Command Line Completion::
* File Names::
* Buffer Name and File Name Completion::

File:,  Node: Command Line Completion,  Next: File Names,  Up: MiniBuffer

Command Line Completion

   The JED editor has several hundred built-in functions as well as
many more written in the S-Lang extension language.  Many of these
functions are bound to keys and many are not.  It is simply
unreasonable to require the user to remember if a function is bound to
a key or not and, if it is, to remember the key to which it is bound.
This is especially true of those functions that are bound but rarely
used.  More often than not, one simply forgets the exact name or
spelling of a function and requires a little help.  For this reason,
JED supports command line completion in the minibuffer.  This function,
called `emacs_escape_x', is bound to the key `ESC X'.  This is one
binding that must be remembered!

   As an example, suppose that you are editing several buffers and you
wish to insert the contents of one buffer into the the current buffer.
The function that does this is called `insert_buffer' and has no
default keybinding.  Pressing `ESC X' produces the prompt `M-x'.  This
prompt, borrowed from the Emacs editor, simply means that `ESC X' was
pressed.  Now type `in' and hit the space bar or the TAB key.  In this
context (completion context) the space bar and the TAB will expand the
string in the MiniBuffer up until it is nolonger unique.  In this case,
`insert_file' and `insert_buffer' are only two functions that start
with `in'.  Hence, `in' will expand to `insert_' at which point it
becomes necessary to enter more information to uniquely specify the
desired function.  However, in a completion context, the space bar also
has a special property that enables the user to cycle among the
possible completions.  For this example, hitting the space bar twice
consecutively will produce the string `insert_file' and hitting it
again produces the desired string `insert_buffer'.

   The role of the space bar in completion is a point where Emacs and
JED differ. Emacs will pop up a buffer of possible completions but JED
expects the user to press the space bar to cycle among them.  Both have
there pros and cons.  Frequently, one sees messages on the Usenet
newsgroup `' from Emacs users asking for the kind of
completion JED employs.

File:,  Node: File Names,  Next: Buffer Name and File Name Completion,  Prev: Command Line Completion,  Up: MiniBuffer

File Names

   JED takes every file name and "expands it" according to a set of
rules which vary according to the Operating System.  For concreteness,
consider JED running under MSDOS.  Suppose the user reads a new file
into the editor via the `find_file' command which emacs binds to  <.
Then the following might be displayed in the minibuffer:

              Find File: C:\JED\SLANG\

Here JED is prompting for a file name in the directory \JED\SLANG on
disk C:. However, suppose the user wants to get the file
C:\JED\SRC\VIDEO.C. Then the following responses produce equivalent
filenames when JED expands them internally:

               Find File: C:\JED\src\video.c
               Find File: C:\JED\SLANG\..\src\video.c
               Find File: C:\JED\SLANG\../src/video.c

   Note that the on MSDOS systems, JED replaces the `/' with a `\' and
that case is not important.  Now suppose you wish to get the file
VIDEO.C from disk A:.  The following are also valid:

              Find File: A:\video.c
              Find File: A:video.c
              Find File: C:\JED\SLANG\a:\video.c

   In the last case, JED is smart enough to figure out what is really
meant.  Although the above examples are for MSDOS systems, the rules
also apply to unix and VMS systems as well.  The only change is the
file name syntax. For example, on VMS


become equivalent filenames upon expansion.  For unix, the following are


   Note the last example: the tilde character `~' always expands into
the users `HOME' directory, in this case to `/user1/users/davis'.

   When JED writes a buffer out to a file, it usually prompts for a
file name in the minibuffer displaying the directory associated with
the current buffer.  At this point a name can be appended to the
directory string to form a valid file name or the user may simply hit
the RET key.  If the latter alternative is chosen, JED simply writes
the buffer to the file already associated with the buffer.  Once the
buffer is written to a file, the buffer becomes attached to that file.

* Menu:

* Buffer Name and File Name Completion::

File:,  Node: Buffer Name and File Name Completion,  Prev: File Names,  Up: MiniBuffer

Buffer Name and File Name Completion

   When JED prompts for a file name or a buffer name, the space bar and
the TAB keys are special.  Hitting the TAB key will complete the name
that is currently in the minibuffer up until it is no longer unique.
At that point, you can either enter more characters to complete the
name or hit the space bar to cycle among the possible completions.  The
spacebar must be pressed at least twice to cycle among the completions.

   On MSDOS and VMS, it is possible to use wildcard characters in the
file name for completion purposes.  For example, entering `*.c' and
hitting the space bar will cycle among file names matching `*.c'.
Unfortunately, this feature is not available on unix systems.

File:,  Node: Basic Editing,  Next: Modes,  Prev: MiniBuffer,  Up: Top

Basic Editing

   Editing with JED is pretty easy-- most keys simply insert themselves.
Movement around the buffer is usually done using the arrow keys or page
up and page down keys.  If `' is loaded, the keypads on VTxxx
terminals function as well.  Here, only the highlights are touched upon
(cut/paste operations are not considered "highlights"). In the
following, any character prefixed by the `^' character denotes a
Control character.  On keyboards without an explicit Escape key,
Control-[ will most likely generate and Escape character.  The
following list of useful keybindings assumes that `' has been

`File:,  Node: Modes,  Next: Keyboard Macros,  Prev: Basic Editing,  Up: Top


   Jed supports two internal modes as well as user defined modes.  The
two internal modes consist of a "C" mode for C Language programming and
a "Wrap" mode for ordinary text editing.  Examples of user defined
modes are Fortran mode and DCL mode.

   Online documentation is provided for nearly every mode JED defines.
For help on the current mode, press `ESC X' and enter `describe_mode'.
A window will appear with a short description of the special features
of the mode as well as a description of the variables affecting the

* Menu:

* Wrap Mode::
* Smart Quotes::
* C Mode::
* Fortran Mode::

File:,  Node: Wrap Mode,  Next: Smart Quotes,  Up: Modes

Wrap Mode

   In this mode, text is wrapped at the column given by the `WRAP'
variable. The default is 78.  The text does not wrap until the cursor
goes beyond the wrap column and a space is inserted.

* Menu:

* Formatting paragraphs::

File:,  Node: Formatting paragraphs,  Up: Wrap Mode

Formatting paragraphs

   Paragraph delimiters are: blank lines, lines that begin with either a
percent character, `%', or a backslash character `\'.  This definition
is ideally suited for editing (La)TeX documents. However, it is
possible for the user to change this definition.  See the the discussion
of the hook, `is_paragraph_separator', in the section on hooks for
explicit details on how to do this.

   The paragraph is formatted according to the indentation of the
current line.  If the current line is indented, the paragraph will be
given the same indentation.  The default binding for this function is
`ESC q'.

   In addition, a paragraph may be "narrowed" by the `narrow_paragraph'
function which is bound to ESC N by default.  This differs from the
ordinary `format_paragraph' function described above in that the right
margin is reduced by an amount equal to the indentation of the current
line. For example:
                   This paragraph is the result of using the
                   function ``narrow_paragraph''.  Note how the
                   right margin is less here than in the above

   Finally, if either of these functions is called from the keyboard
with a prefix argument, the paragraph will be justified as well.  For
example, pressing `ESC 1 ESC N' on the previous paragraph yields:
                   This paragraph  is  the  result   of   using  the
                   function   ``narrow_paragraph''.    Note  how the
                   right margin   is less here  than  in   the above

   See the discussion of `format_paragraph_hook' in the section on hooks
for details on how this is implemented.

File:,  Node: Smart Quotes,  Next: C Mode,  Prev: Wrap Mode,  Up: Modes

Smart Quotes

   You have probably noticed that many key words in this document are
quoted in double quotes like "this is double quoted" and `this is
single quoted'.  By default, the double quote key (") and single quote
key (') are bound to the function `text_smart_quote'.  With this
binding and in wrap mode, the single quote key inserts a single quote
with the "proper" orientation and the double quote key inserts two
single quotes of the "proper" direction.  To turn this off, rebind the
keys to `self_insert_cmd'.  Some modes already do this (e.g., EDT).

   This brings up the question: if the double quote key is bound to
`text_smart_quote' then how does one insert the character (")?  The most
common way is to use the `quoted_insert' function which, by default, is
bound to the single backquote (``') key.  This is the same mechanism
that is used to insert control characters.  The other method is to use
the fact that if the preceding character is a backslash, `\', the
character simply self inserts.  Again, this is ideal for writing TeX

File:,  Node: C Mode,  Next: Fortran Mode,  Prev: Smart Quotes,  Up: Modes

C Mode

   C Mode facilitates the editing of C files.  Much of the latter part
of the development of the JED editor was done using this mode.  This
mode may be customized by a judicious choice of the variables C_INDENT
and C_BRACE as well as the bindings of the curly brace keys { and }.
Experiment to find what you like or write your own using the S-Lang

   By default, the RET key is bound to the function
`newline_and_indent'. This does what its name suggests: inserts a
newline and indents.  Again, some modes may rebind this key.  In
addition, the keys {, }, and TAB are also special in this mode.  The
TAB key indents the current line and the { and } keys insert themselves
and reindent.  If you do not like any of these bindings, simply rebind
the offending one to `self_insert_cmd'.

   Finally, the key sequence ESC ; is bound to a function called
`c_make_comment'.  This function makes and and indents a C comment to
the column specified by the value of the variable `C_Comment_Column'.
If a comment is already present on the line, it is indented.

File:,  Node: Fortran Mode,  Prev: C Mode,  Up: Modes

Fortran Mode

   Fortran Mode is written entirely in S-Lang and is designed to
facilitate the writing of Fortran programs.  It features automatic
indentation of Fortran code as well as automatic placement of Fortran
statement Labels.

   In this mode, the keys 0-9 are bound to a function `for_elebel'
which does the following:

  1. Inserts the calling character (0-9) into the buffer.

  2. If the character is preceded by only other digit characters, it
     assumes the character is for a label and moves it to the
     appropriate position.

  3. Reindents the line.

This function is very similar to the one Emacs uses for labels.

File:,  Node: Keyboard Macros,  Next: Shells and Shell Commands,  Prev: Modes,  Up: Top

Keyboard Macros

   JED is able to record a series of keystrokes from the terminal and
replay them.  The saved series of keystrokes is known as a keyboard
macro.  To begin a keyboard macro, simply enter the begin keyboard
macro key sequence which is bound to ^X( if `' is loaded.  To
stop recording the keystrokes, enter ^X).  Then to "execute" the macro,
press ^Xe.  Please note that it is illegal to execute a macro while
defining one and doing so generates an error.  A macro can be aborted at
anytime by pressing the > key.

   One nice feature JED includes is the "macro_query" function.  That
is, while defining a macro, the key sequence ` q' will cause JED to
issue the prompt `Enter String:' in the minibuffer.  Any string that is
entered will be inserted into the buffer and the process of defining the
macro continues. Every time the macro is executed, JED will prompt for
a NEW string to be inserted.

   Any time an error is generated, the process of defining the macro is
aborted as well as execution of the macro.  This is very useful and may
be exploited often.  For example, suppose you want to trim excess
whitespace from the end of ALL lines in a buffer.  Let us also suppose
that the number of lines in the buffer is less than 32000.  Then
consider the following keystrokes:

` ('
     ; begin macro

     ; goto end of line

`ESC \'
     ; trim whitespace

     ; go down one line

` )'
     ; end macro

Now the macro has been defined.  So move to the top of the buffer and
execute it 32000 times:

              `ESC <'            ; top of buffer
              `ESC 3 2 0 0 0'    ; repeat next command 32000 times
              ` e'             ; execute macro

   If the buffer has less than 32000 lines, the end of the buffer will
be reached and an error will be generated aborting the execution of the

File:,  Node: Shells and Shell Commands,  Next: Getting Help,  Prev: Keyboard Macros,  Up: Top

Shells and Shell Commands

   The default binding to execute a shell command and pump the output
to a buffer is `ESC !'.  JED will prompt for a command line and spawn a
subprocess for its execution.

   Strictly speaking, JED does not support interactive subprocesses.
However, JED includes S-Lang code that "emulates" such a subprocess.
It may invoked by typing `shell' at the `M-x' minibuffer prompt.  A
window will be created with a buffer named `*shell*' attached to it.
Any text entered at the system dependent shell prompt will be executed
in a subprocess and the result stuffed back in the shell buffer. Don't
try to execute any commands which try to take over the keyboard or the
screen or something undesirable may happen.  Examples of types of
stupid commands are spawning other editors, logging in to remote
systems, et cetera.  Even `chdir' is stupid since its effect is not
permanent.  That is,

                > cd ..
                > dir

will not do what might naively be expected.  That is, the two commands
above are not equivalent to the single command `dir ..'.

File:,  Node: Getting Help,  Next: Editing Binary Files,  Prev: Shells and Shell Commands,  Up: Top

Getting Help

   JED's help functions are bound to by default.  For example,  C'
will show what function a key carries out,  i' will run JED's info
reader,  f' will give help on a particular S-Lang function, etc...
However, some modes may use the key for something else.  For example,
if EDT mode is in effect, then may be bound to `bol' which causes the
cursor to move to the beginning of the line. See the section on EDT for
more information.

   If JED is properly installed, this entire document is accessable
from within the editor using JED's info reader.   i' will load
`info_mode' allowing the user to browse the document as well as other
"info" documents.

File:,  Node: Editing Binary Files,  Next: Dired,  Prev: Getting Help,  Up: Top

Editing Binary Files

   JED may edit binary files as long as the proper precautions are
taken. On IBMPC systems, this involves calling the S-Lang function
`set_file_translation' with an integer argument.  If the argument is 0,
files are opened as text files; otherwise, they are opened in binary
mode.  There is no need to call this function for other systems.
However, beware of the user variable `ADD_NEWLINE' which if non zero, a
newline character will be appended to the file if the last character is
not a newline character.  If you are going to edit binary files, it is
probably a good idea to set this variable to zero.

File:,  Node: Dired,  Next: Mail,  Prev: Editing Binary Files,  Up: Top

Dired-- the Directory editor

   In addition to editing files, JED is also able to rename and delete
them as well.  JED's Dired mode allows one to do just this is a simple
and safe manner.

   To run dired, simply press `ESC X' and enter `dired' at the prompt.
JED will load `' and prompt for a directory name.  Once the
directory is given, JED will display a list files in the directory in a
buffer named `*dired*'.  One may use normal buffer movemment commands to
move around this.   To delete one or more files, use the `d' key
to "tag" the files.  This in itself does not delete them; rather, it
simply marks them for deleting.  A capital `D' will appear in the left
margin to indicate that a file has been tagged.  Simply hit the u key to
untag a file.  The delete key will also untag the previously tagged

   To actually delete the tagged files, press the `x' key.  This action
causes JED to display a list of the tagged files in a separate window
and prompt the user for confirmation.  Only when the proper
confirmation is given, will the file be deleted.

   Renaming a file is just as simple.  Simply move to the line containg
the name of the file that you wish to rename and hit the `r' key.  JED
will prompt for a filename or a directory name.  If a directory is
given, the file will be moved to the new directory but will keep the
name.  However, for the operation to succeed, the file must be one the
same file system.  To rename tagged files to a different directory
residing on the same file system, use the `m' key.  This has the effect
of moving the tagged file out of the current directory to the new one.

   One may also use the f key to read the file indicated by the cursor
position into a buffer for editing.  If the file is a directory, the
directory will be used for dired operations. In addition, one may also
use the v to simply "view" a file.

   Finally, the `g' key will re-read the current directory and the `h'
and `?' keys provide some help.

File:,  Node: Mail,  Next: Customization,  Prev: Dired,  Up: Top


   This section applies to Unix and VMS systems only.  On these
systems, it is possible to compose and send mail directly using JED.
This assumes that the Unix system has `/usr/ucb/mail'.  It is trivial
to modify `' to support another Unix mailer.  For VMS, JED uses
the callable mail interface present on VMS versions 5.0 and later.

   The default binding for the mail is  m.  Alternatively, one may
press `ESC X' and enter `mail' at the `M-x' prompt.  The mail function
will cause a window to open with a buffer called `*mail*' which
contains the three lines:

           ---text follows this line---

Simply enter the email address of the person that you want to send the
mail to on the line containing `To:' and put the subject of the message
on the next line labeled `Subject:'.  The text that you wish to mail
follows the line labeled `---text follows this line---' which is used
by JED as a marker. After you have composed the mail message, press
`ESC X' and enter `send' at the `M-x' prompt.  For example, the
following is an email requesting to be put on the JED mailing list:

           To: davis AT
           Subject: jed mailing list
           ---text follows this line---

              Please add me to the JED mailing list so that I may be notified
           of upcoming releases of JED.


   For VMS systems, the above example will probably fail because an
internet address has been used for the example.  For systems using a
TCP/IP package, it may be necessary to change
`davis AT' to something like
`smtp%"davis AT"'.

   The mail function looks for a user defined hook called `mail_hook'
and execute it if it exists.  This hook may be used to bind certain
keys in the keymap associated with the `*mail*' buffer.  For example,

             ( "^C"  local_unsetkey "send" "^C^C" local_setkey ) mail_hook

defines the key `' in the mail keymap to perform the `send' function.
Other possibilities include binding a key sequence, say ^C^W, to a
function that inserts the contents of a signature file.

File:,  Node: Customization,  Next: Eight Bit Clean Issues,  Prev: Mail,  Up: Top


   To extend JED, it is necessary to become familiar with the S-Lang
programming language.  S-Lang not a standalone programming language
like C, Pascal, etc... Rather it is meant to be embedded into a C
program. The S-Lang programming language itself provides only
arithmetic, looping, and branching constructs.  In addition, it defines
a few other other primitive operations on its data structures.  It is
up to the application to define other built-in operations tailored to
the application.  That is what has been done for the JED editor.  See
the document `slang.txt' for S-Lang basics as well as the JED
Programmer's Manual for functions JED has added to the language.  In
any case, look at the `*.sl' files for explicit examples.

   For the most part, the average user will simply want to rebind some
keys and change some variables (e.g., tab width).  Here I discuss
setting keys and the predefined global variables.

* Menu:

* Setting Keys::
* Predefined Variables::
* Hooks::
* S-Lang Programming Hints (Debugging)::

File:,  Node: Setting Keys,  Next: Predefined Variables,  Up: Customization

Setting Keys

   Defining a key to invoke a certain function is accomplished using the
`setkey' function. This function takes two arguments: the function to be
executed and the key binding.  For example, suppose that you want to
bind the key  to cause the cursor to go to the beginning of the current
line.  The JED function that causes this is `bol'  (See the JED
Programmer's Manual for a complete list of functions).  Putting the

                                 "bol"   "^A"   setkey

in the startup file `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') file will perform the binding.
Here `^A' consists of the two characters `^' and `A' which JED will
interpret as the single character `Ctrl-A'.  For more examples, see
either of the S-Lang files `' or `'.

   In addition to being able to define keys to execute functions, it is
also possible to define a key to directly insert a string of
characters.  For example, suppose that you want to define a key to
insert the string `int main(int argc, char **argv)' whenever you press
the key `ESC m'.  This may be accomplished as follows:

                  " int main(int argc, char **argv)"   "\em"  setkey

   Notice two things.  First of all, the key sequence `ESC m' has been
written as `"\em"' where `\e' will be interpreted by JED as ESC. The
other salient feature is that the first argument to `setkey', the
"function" argument, begins with a space.  This tells JED that it is
not be be interpreted as the name of a function; rather, the characters
following the space are to be inserted into the buffer.  Omitting the
space character would cause JED to to execute a function called `int
main(int argc, char **argv)' which would fail and generate an error.

   Finally, it is possible to define a key to execute a series of
keystrokes similar to a keyboard macro.  This is done by prefixing the
"function" name with the `@' character.  This instructs JED to
interpret the characters following the `@' character as characters
entered from the keyboard and execute any function that they are bound
to.  For example, consider the following key definition which will
generate a C language comment to comment out the the current line of
text.  In C, this may be achieved by inserting symbol `"/*"' at the
beginning of the line and inserting `"*/"' at the end of the line.
Hence, the sequence is clear (Emacs keybindings):

  1.    Goto the beginning of the line:  or decimal `"\001"'.

  2.    Insert `"/*"'.

  3.    Goto end of the line: & or decimal `"\005"'

  4.    Insert `"*/"'.

   To bind this sequence of steps to the key sequence `ESC ;', simply

                           "@\001/*\005*/"   "\e;"   setkey

   Again, the prefix `@' lets JED know that the remaining characters
will carry out the functions they are currently bound to. Also pay
particular attention to the way  and & have been written.  Do not
attempt to use the ^ to represet "control".  It does not have the same
meaning in the first argument to the `setkey' function as it does in
the second argument.  To have control characters in the first argument,
you must enter them as `\xyz' where xyz is a three digit decimal number
coinciding with the ASCII value of the character.  In this notation,
the ESC character could have been written as `\027'.  See the S-Lang
Programmer's Reference Manual for further discussion of this notation.

   The `setkey' function sets a key in the `global' keymap from which
all others are derived.  It is also possible to use the function
`local_setkey' which operates only upon the current keymap which may or
may not be the `global' map.

File:,  Node: Predefined Variables,  Next: Hooks,  Prev: Setting Keys,  Up: Customization

Predefined Variables

   JED includes some predefined variables which the user may change.  By
convention, predefined variables are in uppercase.  The variables which
effect all modes include:

     (1) if non-zero, blink matching parenthesis.

     (8) sets default tab setting for newly created buffers        to
     specified number of columns.

     Value of tab setting for current buffer.

     (1) adds newline to end of file if needed when writing it out to
     the             disk.

     (-1) prefix for chars with high bit set (see section on eight bit
               clean issues for details)

     see section on eight bit clean issues.

     (23) IBMPC background color (see `jed.rc' for meaning)

     (0) if 1, show current line number on status line

     (0) if 1, [EOB] denotes end of buffer.

     (0) if 1, do not put the terminal in insert mode when writing to
     the        screen.

     (0) do not beep the terminal when signalling errors

In addition to the above, there are variables which affect only certain
modes.  See the section on modes for details.

File:,  Node: Hooks,  Next: S-Lang Programming Hints (Debugging),  Prev: Predefined Variables,  Up: Customization


   A hook is a user defined function that JED calls under certain
conditions which allow the user to modify default actions.  For
example, when JED starts up it looks for the existence of a user
defined function `command_line_hook'.  If this function exists, JED
calls the function.  What the function does is completely arbitrary and
is left to the discretion of the user.  The startup file, `',
defines such a function which reads in the files listed on the command
line.  It is also this function which loads the `jed.rc' startup file.
Unlike the other hooks, this one must be present in the file `'
since it is the only file loaded before calling the hook.

   After the startup files are loaded, JED calls the hook
`jed_startup_hook' immediately before entering the main editor loop.
This hook is useful to modify certain data structures which may not
have existed when the startup files were loaded.

   In addition to the above hooks, JED currently also looks for:

     function to be executed before suspending

     function that gets carried out after suspension

     gets executed before exiting JED

     sets buffer mode based on filename extension

     called before file is read into a buffer.  It currently
     checks for presence of autosave file and warns user if 	 it
     is more recent than file.

See `' for explicit examples of the above hooks.

   Another useful hook is `is_paragraph_separator'.  This hook is called
when JED searches for the beginning or end of a paragraph.  This search
is performed by all paragraph formatting functions as well as the
forward and backward paragraph movement commands. As JED performs the
search, it moves from one line to another testing the line to see if it
separates a paragraph.  The function of the hook is to make this
decision and return zero if the line does not separate paragraphs or
return one if it does. The default value of this hook may be written in
S-Lang as

          ( bol
            "\\" looking_at {1 return} if
            "%"  looking_at {1 return} if
            skip_white eolp
          ) is_paragraph_separator

   A related hook called after a paragraph is formatted is
`format_paragraph_hook'.  This hook is only called if either
`format_paragraph' or `narrow_paragraph' is called with a prefix digit
argument.  For example, `format_paragraph' is bound to `ESC q'.  Simply
pressing this key sequence will call `format_paragraph' but
`format_paragraph_hook' will not be called.  However, pressing `ESC 1'
followed by `ESC q' will result in a call to `format_paragraph_hook'.
Currently, this hook simply justifies the paragraph.  That is, it fills
each line in the paragraph such that the the line ends at the right
margin, which is defined by the `WRAP' variable.

File:,  Node: S-Lang Programming Hints (Debugging),  Prev: Hooks,  Up: Customization

S-Lang Programming Hints (Debugging)

   This section assumes some knowledge about S-Lang and is designed to
explain how to debug S-Lang routines quickly.  For information about
S-Lang, read `slang.txt'.

   There are two ways of loading a file of S-Lang code into JED.  The
most common way is through the function `evalfile'.  If an error occurs
while loading a file, JED will give some indication of where the problem
lies by displaying the line number and the offending bit of S-Lang code
in the minibuffer.  In practice though, this can be quite inefficient.
The `evalfile' function is primarily designed to load debugged and
tested S-Lang code.

   The best way to develop and test S-Lang code with JED is to use the
function `evalbuffer'.  Simply load the piece of code into JED as an
ordinary file, press `ESC X' and enter the function `evalbuffer'  If
the piece of code in the buffer has any syntax errors, JED will put the
cursor on the error.  This is the best way to spot compile time errors
such as syntax errors.  However, this will not catch runtime errors.

   When a runtime error occurs, JED will put the cursor on the top level
function where the original call was made and NOT the actual location
of the function.  To aid in determining where an error occurs, JED can
be made to give a symbolic traceback.  As the S-Lang runtime stack
unwinds, S-Lang will simply print the name of function at that
particular level.  If the function includes local variables, their
values will be dumped as well.  Hence, it is easy to quickly narrow the
location of an error down to function where the error occurs.  By
default, the traceback is disabled.  The traceback is enabled by
setting the S-Lang variable `_traceback' to a non-zero value.  It is
simpliest to just press ` ESC' and enter `1 =_traceback' at the JED
prompt.  This is one of those times where one needs access to the
`S-Lang>' prompt and not the `M-x' prompt.  For example, consider the
following piece of code:

             ( {}  forever ) fun_two  ;; loops forever
             ( fun_two ) fun_one      ;; calls fun_two-- never returns

   Simply enter the above into an empty JED `*scratch*' buffer, then
press ` ESC' and enter `1 =_traceback evalbuffer fun_one'.  This will
turn on tracebacks, evaluate the buffer and call the function
`fun_one'.  JED will then be put into an infinite loop which can only
be stopped by pressing the abort character which by default is >.
Doing so, will produce the traceback messages

            S-Lang Traceback: fun_two
            S-Lang Traceback: fun_one

in addition to the error message `User Break!'.  Of course, this
technique only narrows down the source of an error to a particular
function. To proceed further, it may necessary to put "print"
statements at suitable places in the function.  There are several ways
to do this:

  1. Use the `insert' function to insert the contents of a variable
     into the current buffer.

  2. Use the `error' function to abort the function and display the
     value of a variable in the minibuffer.

  3. Use the `message' function to display the value of a variable in
     the minibuffer.  Unlike `error', the `message' function does not
     abort the execution of the function.

   Since each of these functions require a string argument, it is
usually best to call the `string' function first for the conversion
followed by the output function.  This has to be done anyway if it is
desired to get the contents of an integer variable.  Although the
second approach is prehaps the most useful in practice, it is somtimes
appropriate to use a combination of these techniques.

   Finally, to print the entire stack, one can use the `print_stack'
function.  This function dumps the S-Lang runtime stack into the
`*traceback*' buffer.

   Since S-Lang is an interpreted language, judicious application of
the above techniques should lead very quickly to the source of any

File:,  Node: Eight Bit Clean Issues,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Top

Eight Bit Clean Issues

* Menu:

* Displaying Characters with the High Bit Set::
* Inputting Characters with the High Bit Set::
* Upper Case - Lower Case Conversions::

File:,  Node: Displaying Characters with the High Bit Set,  Next: Inputting Characters with the High Bit Set,  Up: Eight Bit Clean Issues

Displaying Characters with the High Bit Set

   There are several issues to consider here. The most important issue
is how to get JED to display 8 bit characters in a "clean" way.  By
"clean" I mean any character with the high bit set is sent to the
display device as is.  This is achieved by putting the line:

                                 1 =DISPLAY_EIGHT_BIT

in the `jed.rc' (`.jedrc') startup file.  European systems might want
to put this in the file `' for all users.  The default is 1 so
unless its value has been changed, this step may not be necessary.

   There is another issue. Suppose you want to display 8 bit characters
with extended Ascii codes greater than or equal to some value, say 160.
This is done by putting `160 =DISPLAY_EIGHT_BIT'.  I believe that ISO
Latin character sets assume this.  This is the default value for Unix
and VMS systems.  See also the file `'.

File:,  Node: Inputting Characters with the High Bit Set,  Next: Upper Case - Lower Case Conversions,  Prev: Displaying Characters with the High Bit Set,  Up: Eight Bit Clean Issues

Inputting Characters with the High Bit Set

   Inputting a character into JED with the high bit set is another
issue.  How JED interprets this is controlled by the variable
`META_CHAR'.  Specifically what happens is this: When JED reads a
character from the input device with the high bit set, it:

  1. Checks the value of `META_CHAR'.  If this value is -1, JED simply
     inserts the character into the buffer.

  2. For any other value of `META_CHAR' in the range 0 to 255, JED
     returns two 7-bit characters.  The first character returned is
     `META_CHAR' itself.  The next character returned is the original
     character but with the high bit stripped.

The default value of `META_CHAR' is -1 which means that when JED sees a
character with the high bit set, JED leaves it as is.  Please note that
a character with the high bit set  cannot be the prefix character of a
keymap. It can be a part of the keymap but not the prefix.

   Some systems only handle 7-bit character sequences and as a result,
JED will only see 7-bit characters.  JED is still able to insert any
character in the range 0-255 on a 7-bit system.  This is done through
the use of the `quoted_insert' function which, by default, is bound to
the backquote key `.  If the `quoted_insert' function is called with a
digit argument (repeat argument), the character with the value of the
argument is inserted into the buffer.  Operationally, one hits ESC,
enters the extended Ascii code and hits the backquote key.  For
example, to insert character 255 into the buffer, simply press the
following five keys: `ESC 2 5 5 `'.

File:,  Node: Upper Case - Lower Case Conversions,  Prev: Inputting Characters with the High Bit Set,  Up: Eight Bit Clean Issues

Upper Case - Lower Case Conversions

   The above discussion centers around input and output of characters
with the high bit set.  How JED treats them internally is another issue
and new questions arise.  For example, what is the uppercase equivalent
of a character with ASCII code 231?  This may vary from language to
language.  Some languages even have characters whose uppercase
equivalent correspond to multiple characters.  For JED, the following
assumptions have been made:

  1.    Each character is only 8 bits.

  2.    Each character has a unique uppercase equivalent.

  3.    Each character has a unique lowercase equivalent.

It would be nice if a fourth assumption could be made:

   4. The value of the lowercase of a character is greater than or
     equal to its uppercase counterpart.

However, apparently this is not possible since most IBMPC character sets
violate this assumption.  Hence, JED does not assume it.  Suppose X is
the upper case value of some character and suppose Y is its lower case
value.  Then to make JED aware of this fact and use it it case
conversions, it may be necessary to put a statement of the form:

                              X Y define_case

in the startup file.  For example, suppose 211 is the uppercase of 244.
Then, the line `211 244 define_case' will make JED use this fact in
operations involving the case of a character.

   This has already been done for the ISO Latin 1 character set. See
the file `' for details. For MSDOS, this will not work.
Instead use the files `' and `'.  By default, JED's
internal lookup tables are initialized to the ISO Latin set for Unix
and VMS systems and to the DOS 437 code page for the IBMPC.  To change
the defaults, it is only necessary to load the appropriate file. For
example, to load `' definitions, put

                               "" evalfile pop

in the startup file (e.g., `').  In addition to
uppercase/lowercase information, these files also contain word
definitions, i.e., which characters constitute a "word".

File:,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Eight Bit Clean Issues,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* Abort Character::
* Input Translation::
* Display Sizes::

File:,  Node: Abort Character,  Next: Input Translation,  Up: Miscellaneous

Abort Character

   The abort character (> by default) is special and should not be
rebound.  On the IBMPC, the keyboard interrupt 0x09 is hooked and a quit
condition is signaled when it is pressed.  For this reason, it should
not be used in any keybindings. A similar statement holds for the other

   This character may be changed using the function `set_abort_char'
Using this function affects all keymaps.  For example, putting the line

                                   30 set_abort_char

in your `jed.rc' file will change the abort character from its current
value to 30 which is Control-^.

File:,  Node: Input Translation,  Next: Display Sizes,  Prev: Abort Character,  Up: Miscellaneous

Input Translation

   By using the function `map_input' the user is able to remap
characters input from the terminal before JED's keymap routines have a
chance to act upon them.  This is useful when it is difficult to get
JED to see certain characters.  For example, consider the  character.
This character is especially notorious because many systems use it and
 for flow control.  Nevertheless Emacs uses  for searching.  Short
of rebinding all keys which involve a  how does one work with
functions that are bound to key sequences using ?  This is where
`map_input' comes into play.  The `map_input' function requires two
integer arguments which define how a given ascii character is to be
mapped.  Suppose that you wish to substitute  for  everywhere.  The

                                   28  19  map_input

will do the trick.  Here 28 is the ascii character of  and 19 is the
ascii character for the .

   As another example, consider the case where the backspace key sends
out a instead of the DEL character (?).

                                   8  127 map_input

will map the (8) to the delete character (127).

File:,  Node: Display Sizes,  Prev: Input Translation,  Up: Miscellaneous

Display Sizes

   On VMS and unix systems, the screen size may be changed to either 80
or 132 columns by using the functions `w80' and `w132' respectively.
Simply enter the appropriate function name at the `M-x' prompt in the
minibuffer.  The default binding for access to the minibuffer is `ESC
X'.  Most window systems, e.g., DECWindows, allow the window size to be
changed.  When this is done, JED should automatically adapt to the new

   On the PC, at this time the screen size cannot be changed while JED
is running.  Instead it is necessary to exit JED first then set the
display size and rerun JED.

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