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Using the GNU Privacy Guard
***************************

This is the 'The GNU Privacy Guard Manual' (version 2.2.4, December
2017).

   (C) 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
(C) 2013, 2014, 2015 Werner Koch.
(C) 2015, 2016, 2017 g10 Code GmbH.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
     published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the
     License, or (at your option) any later version.  The text of the
     license can be found in the section entitled "Copying".

   This manual documents how to use the GNU Privacy Guard system as well
as the administration and the architecture.

* Menu:

* Installation::        A short installation guide.

* Invoking GPG-AGENT::  How to launch the secret key daemon.
* Invoking DIRMNGR::    How to launch the CRL and OCSP daemon.
* Invoking GPG::        Using the OpenPGP protocol.
* Invoking GPGSM::      Using the S/MIME protocol.
* Invoking SCDAEMON::   How to handle Smartcards.
* Specify a User ID::   How to Specify a User Id.

* Helper Tools::        Description of small helper tools
* Web Key Service::     Tools for the Web Key Service

* Howtos::              How to do certain things.
* System Notes::        Notes pertaining to certain OSes.
* Debugging::           How to solve problems

* Copying::             GNU General Public License says
                        how you can copy and share GnuPG
* Contributors::        People who have contributed to GnuPG.

* Glossary::            Short description of terms used.
* Option Index::        Index to command line options.
* Environment Index::   Index to environment variables and files.
* Index::	        Index of concepts and symbol names.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 A short installation guide
****************************

Unfortunately the installation guide has not been finished in time.
Instead of delaying the release of GnuPG 2.0 even further, I decided to
release without that guide.  The chapter on gpg-agent and gpgsm do
include brief information on how to set up the whole thing.  Please
watch the GnuPG website for updates of the documentation.  In the
meantime you may search the GnuPG mailing list archives or ask on the
gnupg-users mailing list for advise on how to solve problems or how to
get that whole thing up and running.

   ** Building the software

   Building the software is described in the file 'INSTALL'.  Given that
you are already reading this documentation we can only give some extra
hints.

   To comply with the rules on GNU systems you should have build time
configured 'gnupg' using:

     ./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var

   This is to make sure that system wide configuration files are
searched in the directory '/etc' and variable data below '/var'; the
default would be to also install them below '/usr/local' where the
binaries get installed.  If you selected to use the '--prefix=/' you
obviously don't need those option as they are the default then.

   ** Notes on setting a root CA key to trusted

   X.509 is based on a hierarchical key infrastructure.  At the root of
the tree a trusted anchor (root certificate) is required.  There are
usually no other means of verifying whether this root certificate is
trustworthy than looking it up in a list.  GnuPG uses a file
('trustlist.txt') to keep track of all root certificates it knows about.
There are 3 ways to get certificates into this list:

   * Use the list which comes with GnuPG. However this list only
     contains a few root certificates.  Most installations will need
     more.

   * Let 'gpgsm' ask you whether you want to insert a new root
     certificate.  This feature is enabled by default; you may disable
     it using the option 'no-allow-mark-trusted' into 'gpg-agent.conf'.

   * Manually maintain the list of trusted root certificates.  For a
     multi user installation this can be done once for all users on a
     machine.  Specific changes on a per-user base are also possible.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Next: Invoking DIRMNGR,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

2 Invoking GPG-AGENT
********************

'gpg-agent' is a daemon to manage secret (private) keys independently
from any protocol.  It is used as a backend for 'gpg' and 'gpgsm' as
well as for a couple of other utilities.

   The agent is automatically started on demand by 'gpg', 'gpgsm',
'gpgconf', or 'gpg-connect-agent'.  Thus there is no reason to start it
manually.  In case you want to use the included Secure Shell Agent you
may start the agent using:

     gpg-connect-agent /bye

If you want to manually terminate the currently-running agent, you can
safely do so with:

     gpgconf --kill gpg-agent

You should always add the following lines to your '.bashrc' or whatever
initialization file is used for all shell invocations:

     GPG_TTY=$(tty)
     export GPG_TTY

It is important that this environment variable always reflects the
output of the 'tty' command.  For W32 systems this option is not
required.

   Please make sure that a proper pinentry program has been installed
under the default filename (which is system dependent) or use the option
'pinentry-program' to specify the full name of that program.  It is
often useful to install a symbolic link from the actual used pinentry
(e.g.  '/usr/bin/pinentry-gtk') to the expected one (e.g.
'/usr/bin/pinentry').

*Note Option Index::, for an index to 'GPG-AGENT''s commands and
options.

* Menu:

* Agent Commands::      List of all commands.
* Agent Options::       List of all options.
* Agent Configuration:: Configuration files.
* Agent Signals::       Use of some signals.
* Agent Examples::      Some usage examples.
* Agent Protocol::      The protocol the agent uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Commands,  Next: Agent Options,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help'
'-h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the 'stdin'.  The
     default mode is to create a socket and listen for commands there.

'--daemon [COMMAND LINE]'
     Start the gpg-agent as a daemon; that is, detach it from the
     console and run it in the background.

     As an alternative you may create a new process as a child of
     gpg-agent: 'gpg-agent --daemon /bin/sh'.  This way you get a new
     shell with the environment setup properly; after you exit from this
     shell, gpg-agent terminates within a few seconds.

'--supervised'
     Run in the foreground, sending logs by default to stderr, and
     listening on provided file descriptors, which must already be bound
     to listening sockets.  This command is useful when running under
     systemd or other similar process supervision schemes.  This option
     is not supported on Windows.

     In -supervised mode, different file descriptors can be provided for
     use as different socket types (e.g.  ssh, extra) as long as they
     are identified in the environment variable 'LISTEN_FDNAMES' (see
     sd_listen_fds(3) on some Linux distributions for more information
     on this convention).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Options,  Next: Agent Configuration,  Prev: Agent Commands,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.2 Option Summary
==================

Options may either be used on the command line or, after stripping off
the two leading dashes, in the configuration file.

'--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     'gpg-agent.conf' and expected in the '.gnupg' directory directly
     below the home directory of the user.  This option is ignored if
     used in an options file.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase the
     verbosity by giving several verbose commands to 'gpg-agent', such
     as '-vv'.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--batch'
     Don't invoke a pinentry or do any other thing requiring human
     interaction.

'--faked-system-time EPOCH'
     This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
     back or forth to EPOCH which is the number of seconds elapsed since
     the year 1970.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

'--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behavior may
     change at any time without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may
     be given in usual C-Syntax.  The currently defined bits are:

     '0 (1)'
          X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data
     '1 (2)'
          values of big number integers
     '2 (4)'
          low level crypto operations
     '5 (32)'
          memory allocation
     '6 (64)'
          caching
     '7 (128)'
          show memory statistics
     '9 (512)'
          write hashed data to files named 'dbgmd-000*'
     '10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol
     '12 (4096)'
          bypass all certificate validation

'--debug-all'
     Same as '--debug=0xffffffff'

'--debug-wait N'
     When running in server mode, wait N seconds before entering the
     actual processing loop and print the pid.  This gives time to
     attach a debugger.

'--debug-quick-random'
     This option inhibits the use of the very secure random quality
     level (Libgcrypt’s 'GCRY_VERY_STRONG_RANDOM') and degrades all
     request down to standard random quality.  It is only used for
     testing and should not be used for any production quality keys.
     This option is only effective when given on the command line.

     On GNU/Linux, another way to quickly generate insecure keys is to
     use 'rngd' to fill the kernel's entropy pool with lower quality
     random data.  'rngd' is typically provided by the 'rng-tools'
     package.  It can be run as follows: 'sudo rngd -f -r /dev/urandom'.

'--debug-pinentry'
     This option enables extra debug information pertaining to the
     Pinentry.  As of now it is only useful when used along with
     '--debug 1024'.

'--no-detach'
     Don't detach the process from the console.  This is mainly useful
     for debugging.

'-s'
'--sh'
'-c'
'--csh'
     Format the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard
     Bourne shell or the C-shell respectively.  The default is to guess
     it based on the environment variable 'SHELL' which is correct in
     almost all cases.

'--grab'
'--no-grab'
     Tell the pinentry to grab the keyboard and mouse.  This option
     should be used on X-Servers to avoid X-sniffing attacks.  Any use
     of the option '--grab' overrides an used option '--no-grab'.  The
     default is '--no-grab'.

'--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  This is very helpful in seeing
     what the agent actually does.  Use 'socket://' to log to socket.
     If neither a log file nor a log file descriptor has been set on a
     Windows platform, the Registry entry
     'HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:DefaultLogFile', if set, is used to
     specify the logging output.

'--no-allow-mark-trusted'
     Do not allow clients to mark keys as trusted, i.e.  put them into
     the 'trustlist.txt' file.  This makes it harder for users to
     inadvertently accept Root-CA keys.

'--allow-preset-passphrase'
     This option allows the use of 'gpg-preset-passphrase' to seed the
     internal cache of 'gpg-agent' with passphrases.

'--no-allow-loopback-pinentry'
'--allow-loopback-pinentry'
     Disallow or allow clients to use the loopback pinentry features;
     see the option 'pinentry-mode' for details.  Allow is the default.

     The '--force' option of the Assuan command 'DELETE_KEY' is also
     controlled by this option: The option is ignored if a loopback
     pinentry is disallowed.

'--no-allow-external-cache'
     Tell Pinentry not to enable features which use an external cache
     for passphrases.

     Some desktop environments prefer to unlock all credentials with one
     master password and may have installed a Pinentry which employs an
     additional external cache to implement such a policy.  By using
     this option the Pinentry is advised not to make use of such a cache
     and instead always ask the user for the requested passphrase.

'--allow-emacs-pinentry'
     Tell Pinentry to allow features to divert the passphrase entry to a
     running Emacs instance.  How this is exactly handled depends on the
     version of the used Pinentry.

'--ignore-cache-for-signing'
     This option will let 'gpg-agent' bypass the passphrase cache for
     all signing operation.  Note that there is also a per-session
     option to control this behavior but this command line option takes
     precedence.

'--default-cache-ttl N'
     Set the time a cache entry is valid to N seconds.  The default is
     600 seconds.  Each time a cache entry is accessed, the entry's
     timer is reset.  To set an entry's maximum lifetime, use
     'max-cache-ttl'.

'--default-cache-ttl-ssh N'
     Set the time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to N seconds.
     The default is 1800 seconds.  Each time a cache entry is accessed,
     the entry's timer is reset.  To set an entry's maximum lifetime,
     use 'max-cache-ttl-ssh'.

'--max-cache-ttl N'
     Set the maximum time a cache entry is valid to N seconds.  After
     this time a cache entry will be expired even if it has been
     accessed recently or has been set using 'gpg-preset-passphrase'.
     The default is 2 hours (7200 seconds).

'--max-cache-ttl-ssh N'
     Set the maximum time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to N
     seconds.  After this time a cache entry will be expired even if it
     has been accessed recently or has been set using
     'gpg-preset-passphrase'.  The default is 2 hours (7200 seconds).

'--enforce-passphrase-constraints'
     Enforce the passphrase constraints by not allowing the user to
     bypass them using the "Take it anyway" button.

'--min-passphrase-len N'
     Set the minimal length of a passphrase.  When entering a new
     passphrase shorter than this value a warning will be displayed.
     Defaults to 8.

'--min-passphrase-nonalpha N'
     Set the minimal number of digits or special characters required in
     a passphrase.  When entering a new passphrase with less than this
     number of digits or special characters a warning will be displayed.
     Defaults to 1.

'--check-passphrase-pattern FILE'
     Check the passphrase against the pattern given in FILE.  When
     entering a new passphrase matching one of these pattern a warning
     will be displayed.  FILE should be an absolute filename.  The
     default is not to use any pattern file.

     Security note: It is known that checking a passphrase against a
     list of pattern or even against a complete dictionary is not very
     effective to enforce good passphrases.  Users will soon figure up
     ways to bypass such a policy.  A better policy is to educate users
     on good security behavior and optionally to run a passphrase
     cracker regularly on all users passphrases to catch the very simple
     ones.

'--max-passphrase-days N'
     Ask the user to change the passphrase if N days have passed since
     the last change.  With '--enforce-passphrase-constraints' set the
     user may not bypass this check.

'--enable-passphrase-history'
     This option does nothing yet.

'--pinentry-invisible-char CHAR'
     This option asks the Pinentry to use CHAR for displaying hidden
     characters.  CHAR must be one character UTF-8 string.  A Pinentry
     may or may not honor this request.

'--pinentry-timeout N'
     This option asks the Pinentry to timeout after N seconds with no
     user input.  The default value of 0 does not ask the pinentry to
     timeout, however a Pinentry may use its own default timeout value
     in this case.  A Pinentry may or may not honor this request.

'--pinentry-program FILENAME'
     Use program FILENAME as the PIN entry.  The default is installation
     dependent.  With the default configuration the name of the default
     pinentry is 'pinentry'; if that file does not exist but a
     'pinentry-basic' exist the latter is used.

     On a Windows platform the default is to use the first existing
     program from this list: 'bin\pinentry.exe',
     '..\Gpg4win\bin\pinentry.exe', '..\Gpg4win\pinentry.exe',
     '..\GNU\GnuPG\pinentry.exe', '..\GNU\bin\pinentry.exe',
     'bin\pinentry-basic.exe' where the file names are relative to the
     GnuPG installation directory.

'--pinentry-touch-file FILENAME'
     By default the filename of the socket gpg-agent is listening for
     requests is passed to Pinentry, so that it can touch that file
     before exiting (it does this only in curses mode).  This option
     changes the file passed to Pinentry to FILENAME.  The special name
     '/dev/null' may be used to completely disable this feature.  Note
     that Pinentry will not create that file, it will only change the
     modification and access time.

'--scdaemon-program FILENAME'
     Use program FILENAME as the Smartcard daemon.  The default is
     installation dependent and can be shown with the 'gpgconf' command.

'--disable-scdaemon'
     Do not make use of the scdaemon tool.  This option has the effect
     of disabling the ability to do smartcard operations.  Note, that
     enabling this option at runtime does not kill an already forked
     scdaemon.

'--disable-check-own-socket'
     'gpg-agent' employs a periodic self-test to detect a stolen socket.
     This usually means a second instance of 'gpg-agent' has taken over
     the socket and 'gpg-agent' will then terminate itself.  This option
     may be used to disable this self-test for debugging purposes.

'--use-standard-socket'
'--no-use-standard-socket'
'--use-standard-socket-p'
     Since GnuPG 2.1 the standard socket is always used.  These options
     have no more effect.  The command 'gpg-agent
     --use-standard-socket-p' will thus always return success.

'--display STRING'
'--ttyname STRING'
'--ttytype STRING'
'--lc-ctype STRING'
'--lc-messages STRING'
'--xauthority STRING'
     These options are used with the server mode to pass localization
     information.

'--keep-tty'
'--keep-display'
     Ignore requests to change the current 'tty' or X window system's
     'DISPLAY' variable respectively.  This is useful to lock the
     pinentry to pop up at the 'tty' or display you started the agent.

'--listen-backlog N'
     Set the size of the queue for pending connections.  The default is
     64.

'--extra-socket NAME'
     The extra socket is created by default, you may use this option to
     change the name of the socket.  To disable the creation of the
     socket use "none" or "/dev/null" for NAME.

     Also listen on native gpg-agent connections on the given socket.
     The intended use for this extra socket is to setup a Unix domain
     socket forwarding from a remote machine to this socket on the local
     machine.  A 'gpg' running on the remote machine may then connect to
     the local gpg-agent and use its private keys.  This enables
     decrypting or signing data on a remote machine without exposing the
     private keys to the remote machine.

'--enable-extended-key-format'
     This option creates keys in the extended private key format.
     Changing the passphrase of a key will also convert the key to that
     new format.  Using this option makes the private keys unreadable
     for gpg-agent versions before 2.1.12.  The advantage of the
     extended private key format is that it is text based and can carry
     additional meta data.  Note that this option also changes the key
     protection format to use OCB mode.

'--enable-ssh-support'
'--enable-putty-support'

     The OpenSSH Agent protocol is always enabled, but 'gpg-agent' will
     only set the 'SSH_AUTH_SOCK' variable if this flag is given.

     In this mode of operation, the agent does not only implement the
     gpg-agent protocol, but also the agent protocol used by OpenSSH
     (through a separate socket).  Consequently, it should be possible
     to use the gpg-agent as a drop-in replacement for the well known
     ssh-agent.

     SSH Keys, which are to be used through the agent, need to be added
     to the gpg-agent initially through the ssh-add utility.  When a key
     is added, ssh-add will ask for the password of the provided key
     file and send the unprotected key material to the agent; this
     causes the gpg-agent to ask for a passphrase, which is to be used
     for encrypting the newly received key and storing it in a gpg-agent
     specific directory.

     Once a key has been added to the gpg-agent this way, the gpg-agent
     will be ready to use the key.

     Note: in case the gpg-agent receives a signature request, the user
     might need to be prompted for a passphrase, which is necessary for
     decrypting the stored key.  Since the ssh-agent protocol does not
     contain a mechanism for telling the agent on which display/terminal
     it is running, gpg-agent's ssh-support will use the TTY or X
     display where gpg-agent has been started.  To switch this display
     to the current one, the following command may be used:

          gpg-connect-agent updatestartuptty /bye

     Although all GnuPG components try to start the gpg-agent as needed,
     this is not possible for the ssh support because ssh does not know
     about it.  Thus if no GnuPG tool which accesses the agent has been
     run, there is no guarantee that ssh is able to use gpg-agent for
     authentication.  To fix this you may start gpg-agent if needed
     using this simple command:

          gpg-connect-agent /bye

     Adding the '--verbose' shows the progress of starting the agent.

     The '--enable-putty-support' is only available under Windows and
     allows the use of gpg-agent with the ssh implementation 'putty'.
     This is similar to the regular ssh-agent support but makes use of
     Windows message queue as required by 'putty'.

'--ssh-fingerprint-digest'

     Select the digest algorithm used to compute ssh fingerprints that
     are communicated to the user, e.g.  in pinentry dialogs.  OpenSSH
     has transitioned from using MD5 to the more secure SHA256.

'--auto-expand-secmem N'
     Allow Libgcrypt to expand its secure memory area as required.  The
     optional value N is a non-negative integer with a suggested size in
     bytes of each additionally allocated secure memory area.  The value
     is rounded up to the next 32 KiB; usual C style prefixes are
     allowed.  For an heavy loaded gpg-agent with many concurrent
     connection this option avoids sign or decrypt errors due to out of
     secure memory error returns.

'--s2k-count N'
     Specify the iteration count used to protect the passphrase.  This
     option can be used to override the auto-calibration done by
     default.  The auto-calibration computes a count which requires
     100ms to mangle a given passphrase.

     To view the actually used iteration count and the milliseconds
     required for an S2K operation use:

          gpg-connect-agent 'GETINFO s2k_count' /bye
          gpg-connect-agent 'GETINFO s2k_time' /bye

     To view the auto-calibrated count use:

          gpg-connect-agent 'GETINFO s2k_count_cal' /bye

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Configuration,  Next: Agent Signals,  Prev: Agent Options,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.3 Configuration
=================

There are a few configuration files needed for the operation of the
agent.  By default they may all be found in the current home directory
(*note option --homedir::).

'gpg-agent.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'gpg-agent' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This file is also read after a 'SIGHUP' however only a few options
     will actually have an effect.  This default name may be changed on
     the command line (*note option --options::).  You should backup
     this file.

'trustlist.txt'
     This is the list of trusted keys.  You should backup this file.

     Comment lines, indicated by a leading hash mark, as well as empty
     lines are ignored.  To mark a key as trusted you need to enter its
     fingerprint followed by a space and a capital letter 'S'.  Colons
     may optionally be used to separate the bytes of a fingerprint; this
     enables cutting and pasting the fingerprint from a key listing
     output.  If the line is prefixed with a '!' the key is explicitly
     marked as not trusted.

     Here is an example where two keys are marked as ultimately trusted
     and one as not trusted:

            # CN=Wurzel ZS 3,O=Intevation GmbH,C=DE
            A6935DD34EF3087973C706FC311AA2CCF733765B S

            # CN=PCA-1-Verwaltung-02/O=PKI-1-Verwaltung/C=DE
            DC:BD:69:25:48:BD:BB:7E:31:6E:BB:80:D3:00:80:35:D4:F8:A6:CD S

            # CN=Root-CA/O=Schlapphuete/L=Pullach/C=DE
            !14:56:98:D3:FE:9C:CA:5A:31:6E:BC:81:D3:11:4E:00:90:A3:44:C2 S

     Before entering a key into this file, you need to ensure its
     authenticity.  How to do this depends on your organisation; your
     administrator might have already entered those keys which are
     deemed trustworthy enough into this file.  Places where to look for
     the fingerprint of a root certificate are letters received from the
     CA or the website of the CA (after making 100% sure that this is
     indeed the website of that CA). You may want to consider
     disallowing interactive updates of this file by using the *note
     option --no-allow-mark-trusted::.  It might even be advisable to
     change the permissions to read-only so that this file can't be
     changed inadvertently.

     As a special feature a line 'include-default' will include a global
     list of trusted certificates (e.g.  '/etc/gnupg/trustlist.txt').
     This global list is also used if the local list is not available.

     It is possible to add further flags after the 'S' for use by the
     caller:

     'relax'
          Relax checking of some root certificate requirements.  As of
          now this flag allows the use of root certificates with a
          missing basicConstraints attribute (despite that it is a MUST
          for CA certificates) and disables CRL checking for the root
          certificate.

     'cm'
          If validation of a certificate finally issued by a CA with
          this flag set fails, try again using the chain validation
          model.

'sshcontrol'
     This file is used when support for the secure shell agent protocol
     has been enabled (*note option --enable-ssh-support::).  Only keys
     present in this file are used in the SSH protocol.  You should
     backup this file.

     The 'ssh-add' tool may be used to add new entries to this file; you
     may also add them manually.  Comment lines, indicated by a leading
     hash mark, as well as empty lines are ignored.  An entry starts
     with optional whitespace, followed by the keygrip of the key given
     as 40 hex digits, optionally followed by the caching TTL in seconds
     and another optional field for arbitrary flags.  A non-zero TTL
     overrides the global default as set by '--default-cache-ttl-ssh'.

     The only flag support is 'confirm'.  If this flag is found for a
     key, each use of the key will pop up a pinentry to confirm the use
     of that key.  The flag is automatically set if a new key was loaded
     into 'gpg-agent' using the option '-c' of the 'ssh-add' command.

     The keygrip may be prefixed with a '!' to disable an entry.

     The following example lists exactly one key.  Note that keys
     available through a OpenPGP smartcard in the active smartcard
     reader are implicitly added to this list; i.e.  there is no need to
     list them.

                 # Key added on: 2011-07-20 20:38:46
                 # Fingerprint:  5e:8d:c4:ad:e7:af:6e:27:8a:d6:13:e4:79:ad:0b:81
                 34B62F25E277CF13D3C6BCEBFD3F85D08F0A864B 0 confirm

'private-keys-v1.d/'

     This is the directory where gpg-agent stores the private keys.
     Each key is stored in a file with the name made up of the keygrip
     and the suffix 'key'.  You should backup all files in this
     directory and take great care to keep this backup closed away.

   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the a small
helper script is provided to create these files (*note addgnupghome::).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Signals,  Next: Agent Examples,  Prev: Agent Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.4 Use of some signals
=======================

A running 'gpg-agent' may be controlled by signals, i.e.  using the
'kill' command to send a signal to the process.

   Here is a list of supported signals:

'SIGHUP'
     This signal flushes all cached passphrases and if the program has
     been started with a configuration file, the configuration file is
     read again.  Only certain options are honored: 'quiet', 'verbose',
     'debug', 'debug-all', 'debug-level', 'debug-pinentry', 'no-grab',
     'pinentry-program', 'pinentry-invisible-char', 'default-cache-ttl',
     'max-cache-ttl', 'ignore-cache-for-signing', 's2k-count',
     'no-allow-external-cache', 'allow-emacs-pinentry',
     'no-allow-mark-trusted', 'disable-scdaemon', and
     'disable-check-own-socket'.  'scdaemon-program' is also supported
     but due to the current implementation, which calls the scdaemon
     only once, it is not of much use unless you manually kill the
     scdaemon.

'SIGTERM'
     Shuts down the process but waits until all current requests are
     fulfilled.  If the process has received 3 of these signals and
     requests are still pending, a shutdown is forced.

'SIGINT'
     Shuts down the process immediately.

'SIGUSR1'
     Dump internal information to the log file.

'SIGUSR2'
     This signal is used for internal purposes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Examples,  Next: Agent Protocol,  Prev: Agent Signals,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.5 Examples
============

It is important to set the environment variable 'GPG_TTY' in your login
shell, for example in the '~/.bashrc' init script:

       export GPG_TTY=$(tty)

   If you enabled the Ssh Agent Support, you also need to tell ssh about
it by adding this to your init script:

     unset SSH_AGENT_PID
     if [ "${gnupg_SSH_AUTH_SOCK_by:-0}" -ne $$ ]; then
       export SSH_AUTH_SOCK="$(gpgconf --list-dirs agent-ssh-socket)"
     fi

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Protocol,  Prev: Agent Examples,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.6 Agent's Assuan Protocol
===========================

Note: this section does only document the protocol, which is used by
GnuPG components; it does not deal with the ssh-agent protocol.  To see
the full specification of each command, use

       gpg-connect-agent 'help COMMAND' /bye

or just 'help' to list all available commands.

The 'gpg-agent' daemon is started on demand by the GnuPG components.

   To identify a key we use a thing called keygrip which is the SHA-1
hash of an canonical encoded S-Expression of the public key as used in
Libgcrypt.  For the purpose of this interface the keygrip is given as a
hex string.  The advantage of using this and not the hash of a
certificate is that it will be possible to use the same keypair for
different protocols, thereby saving space on the token used to keep the
secret keys.

   The 'gpg-agent' may send status messages during a command or when
returning from a command to inform a client about the progress or result
of an operation.  For example, the INQUIRE_MAXLEN status message may be
sent during a server inquire to inform the client of the maximum usable
length of the inquired data (which should not be exceeded).

* Menu:

* Agent PKDECRYPT::       Decrypting a session key
* Agent PKSIGN::          Signing a Hash
* Agent GENKEY::          Generating a Key
* Agent IMPORT::          Importing a Secret Key
* Agent EXPORT::          Exporting a Secret Key
* Agent ISTRUSTED::       Importing a Root Certificate
* Agent GET_PASSPHRASE::  Ask for a passphrase
* Agent CLEAR_PASSPHRASE:: Expire a cached passphrase
* Agent PRESET_PASSPHRASE:: Set a passphrase for a keygrip
* Agent GET_CONFIRMATION:: Ask for confirmation
* Agent HAVEKEY::         Check whether a key is available
* Agent LEARN::           Register a smartcard
* Agent PASSWD::          Change a Passphrase
* Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY:: Change the Standard Display
* Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER:: Get the Event Counters
* Agent GETINFO::         Return information about the process
* Agent OPTION::          Set options for the session

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PKDECRYPT,  Next: Agent PKSIGN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.1 Decrypting a session key
------------------------------

The client asks the server to decrypt a session key.  The encrypted
session key should have all information needed to select the appropriate
secret key or to delegate it to a smartcard.

       SETKEY <keyGrip>

   Tell the server about the key to be used for decryption.  If this is
not used, 'gpg-agent' may try to figure out the key by trying to decrypt
the message with each key available.

       PKDECRYPT

   The agent checks whether this command is allowed and then does an
INQUIRY to get the ciphertext the client should then send the cipher
text.

         S: INQUIRE CIPHERTEXT
         C: D (xxxxxx
         C: D xxxx)
         C: END

   Please note that the server may send status info lines while reading
the data lines from the client.  The data send is a SPKI like S-Exp with
this structure:

          (enc-val
            (<algo>
              (<param_name1> <mpi>)
      	   ...
              (<param_namen> <mpi>)))

   Where algo is a string with the name of the algorithm; see the
libgcrypt documentation for a list of valid algorithms.  The number and
names of the parameters depend on the algorithm.  The agent does return
an error if there is an inconsistency.

   If the decryption was successful the decrypted data is returned by
means of "D" lines.

   Here is an example session:
        C: PKDECRYPT
        S: INQUIRE CIPHERTEXT
        C: D (enc-val elg (a 349324324)
        C: D    (b 3F444677CA)))
        C: END
        S: # session key follows
        S: S PADDING 0
        S: D (value 1234567890ABCDEF0)
        S: OK decryption successful

   The “PADDING” status line is only send if gpg-agent can tell what
kind of padding is used.  As of now only the value 0 is used to indicate
that the padding has been removed.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PKSIGN,  Next: Agent GENKEY,  Prev: Agent PKDECRYPT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.2 Signing a Hash
--------------------

The client asks the agent to sign a given hash value.  A default key
will be chosen if no key has been set.  To set a key a client first
uses:

        SIGKEY <keyGrip>

   This can be used multiple times to create multiple signature, the
list of keys is reset with the next PKSIGN command or a RESET. The
server tests whether the key is a valid key to sign something and
responds with okay.

        SETHASH --hash=<name>|<algo> <hexstring>

   The client can use this command to tell the server about the data
<hexstring> (which usually is a hash) to be signed.  <algo> is the
decimal encoded hash algorithm number as used by Libgcrypt.  Either
<algo> or -hash=<name> must be given.  Valid names for <name> are:

'sha1'
     The SHA-1 hash algorithm
'sha256'
     The SHA-256 hash algorithm
'rmd160'
     The RIPE-MD160 hash algorithm
'md5'
     The old and broken MD5 hash algorithm
'tls-md5sha1'
     A combined hash algorithm as used by the TLS protocol.

The actual signing is done using

        PKSIGN <options>

   Options are not yet defined, but may later be used to choose among
different algorithms.  The agent does then some checks, asks for the
passphrase and as a result the server returns the signature as an SPKI
like S-expression in "D" lines:

          (sig-val
            (<algo>
              (<param_name1> <mpi>)
      	   ...
              (<param_namen> <mpi>)))

   The operation is affected by the option

        OPTION use-cache-for-signing=0|1

   The default of '1' uses the cache.  Setting this option to '0' will
lead 'gpg-agent' to ignore the passphrase cache.  Note, that there is
also a global command line option for 'gpg-agent' to globally disable
the caching.

   Here is an example session:
        C: SIGKEY <keyGrip>
        S: OK key available
        C: SIGKEY <keyGrip>
        S: OK key available
        C: PKSIGN
        S: # I did ask the user whether he really wants to sign
        S: # I did ask the user for the passphrase
        S: INQUIRE HASHVAL
        C: D ABCDEF012345678901234
        C: END
        S: # signature follows
        S: D (sig-val rsa (s 45435453654612121212))
        S: OK

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GENKEY,  Next: Agent IMPORT,  Prev: Agent PKSIGN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.3 Generating a Key
----------------------

This is used to create a new keypair and store the secret key inside the
active PSE -- which is in most cases a Soft-PSE. A not-yet-defined
option allows choosing the storage location.  To get the secret key out
of the PSE, a special export tool has to be used.

        GENKEY [--no-protection] [--preset] [<cache_nonce>]

   Invokes the key generation process and the server will then inquire
on the generation parameters, like:

        S: INQUIRE KEYPARM
        C: D (genkey (rsa (nbits  1024)))
        C: END

   The format of the key parameters which depends on the algorithm is of
the form:

         (genkey
           (algo
             (parameter_name_1 ....)
               ....
             (parameter_name_n ....)))

   If everything succeeds, the server returns the *public key* in a SPKI
like S-Expression like this:

          (public-key
            (rsa
      	 (n <mpi>)
      	 (e <mpi>)))

   Here is an example session:
        C: GENKEY
        S: INQUIRE KEYPARM
        C: D (genkey (rsa (nbits  1024)))
        C: END
        S: D (public-key
        S: D   (rsa (n 326487324683264) (e 10001)))
        S  OK key created

   The '--no-protection' option may be used to prevent prompting for a
passphrase to protect the secret key while leaving the secret key
unprotected.  The '--preset' option may be used to add the passphrase to
the cache using the default cache parameters.

   The '--inq-passwd' option may be used to create the key with a
supplied passphrase.  When used the agent does an inquiry with the
keyword 'NEWPASSWD' to retrieve that passphrase.  This option takes
precedence over '--no-protection'; however if the client sends a empty
(zero-length) passphrase, this is identical to '--no-protection'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent IMPORT,  Next: Agent EXPORT,  Prev: Agent GENKEY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.4 Importing a Secret Key
----------------------------

This operation is not yet supported by GpgAgent.  Specialized tools are
to be used for this.

   There is no actual need because we can expect that secret keys
created by a 3rd party are stored on a smartcard.  If we have generated
the key ourselves, we do not need to import it.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent EXPORT,  Next: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Prev: Agent IMPORT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.5 Export a Secret Key
-------------------------

Not implemented.

   Should be done by an extra tool.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Next: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Prev: Agent EXPORT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.6 Importing a Root Certificate
----------------------------------

Actually we do not import a Root Cert but provide a way to validate any
piece of data by storing its Hash along with a description and an
identifier in the PSE. Here is the interface description:

         ISTRUSTED <fingerprint>

   Check whether the OpenPGP primary key or the X.509 certificate with
the given fingerprint is an ultimately trusted key or a trusted Root CA
certificate.  The fingerprint should be given as a hexstring (without
any blanks or colons or whatever in between) and may be left padded with
00 in case of an MD5 fingerprint.  GPGAgent will answer with:

         OK

   The key is in the table of trusted keys.

         ERR 304 (Not Trusted)

   The key is not in this table.

   Gpg needs the entire list of trusted keys to maintain the web of
trust; the following command is therefore quite helpful:

         LISTTRUSTED

   GpgAgent returns a list of trusted keys line by line:

         S: D 000000001234454556565656677878AF2F1ECCFF P
         S: D 340387563485634856435645634856438576457A P
         S: D FEDC6532453745367FD83474357495743757435D S
         S: OK

   The first item on a line is the hexified fingerprint where MD5
fingerprints are '00' padded to the left and the second item is a flag
to indicate the type of key (so that gpg is able to only take care of
PGP keys).  P = OpenPGP, S = S/MIME. A client should ignore the rest of
the line, so that we can extend the format in the future.

   Finally a client should be able to mark a key as trusted:

        MARKTRUSTED FINGERPRINT "P"|"S"

   The server will then pop up a window to ask the user whether she
really trusts this key.  For this it will probably ask for a text to be
displayed like this:

        S: INQUIRE TRUSTDESC
        C: D Do you trust the key with the fingerprint @FPR@
        C: D bla fasel blurb.
        C: END
        S: OK

   Known sequences with the pattern @foo@ are replaced according to this
table:

'@FPR16@'
     Format the fingerprint according to gpg rules for a v3 keys.
'@FPR20@'
     Format the fingerprint according to gpg rules for a v4 keys.
'@FPR@'
     Choose an appropriate format to format the fingerprint.
'@@'
     Replaced by a single '@'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Next: Agent CLEAR_PASSPHRASE,  Prev: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.7 Ask for a passphrase
--------------------------

This function is usually used to ask for a passphrase to be used for
symmetric encryption, but may also be used by programs which need
special handling of passphrases.  This command uses a syntax which helps
clients to use the agent with minimum effort.

       GET_PASSPHRASE [--data] [--check] [--no-ask] [--repeat[=N]] \
                      [--qualitybar] CACHE_ID                \
                      [ERROR_MESSAGE PROMPT DESCRIPTION]

   CACHE_ID is expected to be a string used to identify a cached
passphrase.  Use a 'X' to bypass the cache.  With no other arguments the
agent returns a cached passphrase or an error.  By convention either the
hexified fingerprint of the key shall be used for CACHE_ID or an
arbitrary string prefixed with the name of the calling application and a
colon: Like 'gpg:somestring'.

   ERROR_MESSAGE is either a single 'X' for no error message or a string
to be shown as an error message like (e.g.  "invalid passphrase").
Blanks must be percent escaped or replaced by '+''.

   PROMPT is either a single 'X' for a default prompt or the text to be
shown as the prompt.  Blanks must be percent escaped or replaced by '+'.

   DESCRIPTION is a text shown above the entry field.  Blanks must be
percent escaped or replaced by '+'.

   The agent either returns with an error or with a OK followed by the
hex encoded passphrase.  Note that the length of the strings is
implicitly limited by the maximum length of a command.  If the option
'--data' is used, the passphrase is not returned on the OK line but by
regular data lines; this is the preferred method.

   If the option '--check' is used, the standard passphrase constraints
checks are applied.  A check is not done if the passphrase has been
found in the cache.

   If the option '--no-ask' is used and the passphrase is not in the
cache the user will not be asked to enter a passphrase but the error
code 'GPG_ERR_NO_DATA' is returned.

   If the option '--qualitybar' is used and a minimum passphrase length
has been configured, a visual indication of the entered passphrase
quality is shown.

       CLEAR_PASSPHRASE CACHE_ID

   may be used to invalidate the cache entry for a passphrase.  The
function returns with OK even when there is no cached passphrase.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent CLEAR_PASSPHRASE,  Next: Agent PRESET_PASSPHRASE,  Prev: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.8 Remove a cached passphrase
--------------------------------

Use this command to remove a cached passphrase.

       CLEAR_PASSPHRASE [--mode=normal] <cache_id>

   The '--mode=normal' option can be used to clear a CACHE_ID that was
set by gpg-agent.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PRESET_PASSPHRASE,  Next: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Prev: Agent CLEAR_PASSPHRASE,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.9 Set a passphrase for a keygrip
------------------------------------

This command adds a passphrase to the cache for the specified KEYGRIP.

       PRESET_PASSPHRASE [--inquire] <string_or_keygrip> <timeout> [<hexstring>]

   The passphrase is a hexadecimal string when specified.  When not
specified, the passphrase will be retrieved from the pinentry module
unless the '--inquire' option was specified in which case the passphrase
will be retrieved from the client.

   The TIMEOUT parameter keeps the passphrase cached for the specified
number of seconds.  A value of '-1' means infinite while '0' means the
default (currently only a timeout of -1 is allowed, which means to never
expire it).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Next: Agent HAVEKEY,  Prev: Agent PRESET_PASSPHRASE,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.10 Ask for confirmation
---------------------------

This command may be used to ask for a simple confirmation by presenting
a text and 2 buttons: Okay and Cancel.

       GET_CONFIRMATION DESCRIPTION

   DESCRIPTIONis displayed along with a Okay and Cancel button.  Blanks
must be percent escaped or replaced by '+'.  A 'X' may be used to
display confirmation dialog with a default text.

   The agent either returns with an error or with a OK. Note, that the
length of DESCRIPTION is implicitly limited by the maximum length of a
command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent HAVEKEY,  Next: Agent LEARN,  Prev: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.11 Check whether a key is available
---------------------------------------

This can be used to see whether a secret key is available.  It does not
return any information on whether the key is somehow protected.

       HAVEKEY KEYGRIPS

   The agent answers either with OK or 'No_Secret_Key' (208).  The
caller may want to check for other error codes as well.  More than one
keygrip may be given.  In this case the command returns success if at
least one of the keygrips corresponds to an available secret key.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent LEARN,  Next: Agent PASSWD,  Prev: Agent HAVEKEY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.12 Register a smartcard
---------------------------

       LEARN [--send]

   This command is used to register a smartcard.  With the '--send'
option given the certificates are sent back.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PASSWD,  Next: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Prev: Agent LEARN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.13 Change a Passphrase
--------------------------

       PASSWD [--cache-nonce=<c>] [--passwd-nonce=<s>] [--preset] KEYGRIP

   This command is used to interactively change the passphrase of the
key identified by the hex string KEYGRIP.  The '--preset' option may be
used to add the new passphrase to the cache using the default cache
parameters.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Next: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Prev: Agent PASSWD,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.14 Change the standard display
----------------------------------

       UPDATESTARTUPTTY

   Set the startup TTY and X-DISPLAY variables to the values of this
session.  This command is useful to direct future pinentry invocations
to another screen.  It is only required because there is no way in the
ssh-agent protocol to convey this information.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Next: Agent GETINFO,  Prev: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.15 Get the Event Counters
-----------------------------

       GETEVENTCOUNTER

   This function return one status line with the current values of the
event counters.  The event counters are useful to avoid polling by
delaying a poll until something has changed.  The values are decimal
numbers in the range '0' to 'UINT_MAX' and wrapping around to 0.  The
actual values should not be relied upon; they shall only be used to
detect a change.

   The currently defined counters are:
'ANY'
     Incremented with any change of any of the other counters.
'KEY'
     Incremented for added or removed private keys.
'CARD'
     Incremented for changes of the card readers stati.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GETINFO,  Next: Agent OPTION,  Prev: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.16 Return information about the process
-------------------------------------------

This is a multipurpose function to return a variety of information.

     GETINFO WHAT

   The value of WHAT specifies the kind of information returned:
'version'
     Return the version of the program.
'pid'
     Return the process id of the process.
'socket_name'
     Return the name of the socket used to connect the agent.
'ssh_socket_name'
     Return the name of the socket used for SSH connections.  If SSH
     support has not been enabled the error 'GPG_ERR_NO_DATA' will be
     returned.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent OPTION,  Prev: Agent GETINFO,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.17 Set options for the session
----------------------------------

Here is a list of session options which are not yet described with other
commands.  The general syntax for an Assuan option is:

     OPTION  KEY=VALUE

Supported KEYs are:

'agent-awareness'
     This may be used to tell gpg-agent of which gpg-agent version the
     client is aware of.  gpg-agent uses this information to enable
     features which might break older clients.

'putenv'
     Change the session's environment to be used for the Pinentry.
     Valid values are:

     'NAME'
          Delete envvar NAME
     'NAME='
          Set envvar NAME to the empty string
     'NAME=VALUE'
          Set envvar NAME to the string VALUE.

'use-cache-for-signing'
     See Assuan command 'PKSIGN'.

'allow-pinentry-notify'
     This does not need any value.  It is used to enable the
     PINENTRY_LAUNCHED inquiry.

'pinentry-mode'
     This option is used to change the operation mode of the pinentry.
     The following values are defined:

     'ask'
          This is the default mode which pops up a pinentry as needed.

     'cancel'
          Instead of popping up a pinentry, return the error code
          'GPG_ERR_CANCELED'.

     'error'
          Instead of popping up a pinentry, return the error code
          'GPG_ERR_NO_PIN_ENTRY'.

     'loopback'
          Use a loopback pinentry.  This fakes a pinentry by using
          inquiries back to the caller to ask for a passphrase.  This
          option may only be set if the agent has been configured for
          that.  To disable this feature use *note option
          --no-allow-loopback-pinentry::.

'cache-ttl-opt-preset'
     This option sets the cache TTL for new entries created by GENKEY
     and PASSWD commands when using the '--preset' option.  It is not
     used a default value is used.

's2k-count'
     Instead of using the standard S2K count (which is computed on the
     fly), the given S2K count is used for new keys or when changing the
     passphrase of a key.  Values below 65536 are considered to be 0.
     This option is valid for the entire session or until reset to 0.
     This option is useful if the key is later used on boxes which are
     either much slower or faster than the actual box.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking DIRMNGR,  Next: Invoking GPG,  Prev: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Up: Top

3 Invoking DIRMNGR
******************

Since version 2.1 of GnuPG, 'dirmngr' takes care of accessing the
OpenPGP keyservers.  As with previous versions it is also used as a
server for managing and downloading certificate revocation lists (CRLs)
for X.509 certificates, downloading X.509 certificates, and providing
access to OCSP providers.  Dirmngr is invoked internally by 'gpg',
'gpgsm', or via the 'gpg-connect-agent' tool.

*Note Option Index::,for an index to 'DIRMNGR''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* Dirmngr Commands::      List of all commands.
* Dirmngr Options::       List of all options.
* Dirmngr Configuration:: Configuration files.
* Dirmngr Signals::       Use of signals.
* Dirmngr Examples::      Some usage examples.
* Dirmngr Protocol::      The protocol dirmngr uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Commands,  Next: Dirmngr Options,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the 'stdin'.  The
     default mode is to create a socket and listen for commands there.
     This is only used for testing.

'--daemon'
     Run in background daemon mode and listen for commands on a socket.
     This is the way 'dirmngr' is started on demand by the other GnuPG
     components.  To force starting 'dirmngr' it is in general best to
     use 'gpgconf --launch dirmngr'.

'--supervised'
     Run in the foreground, sending logs to stderr, and listening on
     file descriptor 3, which must already be bound to a listening
     socket.  This is useful when running under systemd or other similar
     process supervision schemes.  This option is not supported on
     Windows.

'--list-crls'
     List the contents of the CRL cache on 'stdout'.  This is probably
     only useful for debugging purposes.

'--load-crl FILE'
     This command requires a filename as additional argument, and it
     will make Dirmngr try to import the CRL in FILE into it's cache.
     Note, that this is only possible if Dirmngr is able to retrieve the
     CA's certificate directly by its own means.  In general it is
     better to use 'gpgsm''s '--call-dirmngr loadcrl filename' command
     so that 'gpgsm' can help dirmngr.

'--fetch-crl URL'
     This command requires an URL as additional argument, and it will
     make dirmngr try to retrieve and import the CRL from that URL into
     it's cache.  This is mainly useful for debugging purposes.  The
     'dirmngr-client' provides the same feature for a running dirmngr.

'--shutdown'
     This commands shuts down an running instance of Dirmngr.  This
     command has currently no effect.

'--flush'
     This command removes all CRLs from Dirmngr's cache.  Client
     requests will thus trigger reading of fresh CRLs.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Options,  Next: Dirmngr Configuration,  Prev: Dirmngr Commands,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.2 Option Summary
==================

Note that all long options with the exception of '--options' and
'--homedir' may also be given in the configuration file after stripping
off the two leading dashes.

'--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     'dirmngr.conf' and expected in the home directory.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  This option is only
     effective when used on the command line.  The default is the
     directory named '.gnupg' directly below the home directory of the
     user unless the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME' has been set in
     which case its value will be used.  Many kinds of data are stored
     within this directory.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase the
     verbosity by giving several verbose commands to DIRMNGR, such as
     '-vv'.

'--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  This is very helpful in seeing
     what the agent actually does.  Use 'socket://' to log to socket.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

'--debug FLAGS'
     Set debugging flags.  This option is only useful for debugging and
     its behavior may change with a new release.  All flags are or-ed
     and may be given in C syntax (e.g.  0x0042) or as a comma separated
     list of flag names.  To get a list of all supported flags the
     single word "help" can be used.

'--debug-all'
     Same as '--debug=0xffffffff'

'--gnutls-debug LEVEL'
     Enable debugging of GNUTLS at LEVEL.

'--debug-wait N'
     When running in server mode, wait N seconds before entering the
     actual processing loop and print the pid.  This gives time to
     attach a debugger.

'--disable-check-own-socket'
     On some platforms 'dirmngr' is able to detect the removal of its
     socket file and shutdown itself.  This option disable this
     self-test for debugging purposes.

'-s'
'--sh'
'-c'
'--csh'
     Format the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard
     Bourne shell respective the C-shell.  The default is to guess it
     based on the environment variable 'SHELL' which is in almost all
     cases sufficient.

'--force'
     Enabling this option forces loading of expired CRLs; this is only
     useful for debugging.

'--use-tor'
'--no-use-tor'
     The option '--use-tor' switches Dirmngr and thus GnuPG into "Tor
     mode" to route all network access via Tor (an anonymity network).
     Certain other features are disabled in this mode.  The effect of
     '--use-tor' cannot be overridden by any other command or even be
     reloading gpg-agent.  The use of '--no-use-tor' disables the use of
     Tor.  The default is to use Tor if it is available on startup or
     after reloading dirmngr.

'--standard-resolver'
     This option forces the use of the system's standard DNS resolver
     code.  This is mainly used for debugging.  Note that on Windows a
     standard resolver is not used and all DNS access will return the
     error "Not Implemented" if this function is used.

'--recursive-resolver'
     When possible use a recursive resolver instead of a stub resolver.

'--resolver-timeout N'
     Set the timeout for the DNS resolver to N seconds.  The default are
     30 seconds.

'--connect-timeout N'
'--connect-quick-timeout N'
     Set the timeout for HTTP and generic TCP connection attempts to N
     seconds.  The value set with the quick variant is used when the
     -quick option has been given to certain Assuan commands.  The quick
     value is capped at the value of the regular connect timeout.  The
     default values are 15 and 2 seconds.  Note that the timeout values
     are for each connection attempt; the connection code will attempt
     to connect all addresses listed for a server.

'--listen-backlog N'
     Set the size of the queue for pending connections.  The default is
     64.

'--allow-version-check'
     Allow Dirmngr to connect to 'https://versions.gnupg.org' to get the
     list of current software versions.  On debian-packaged versions,
     this option does nothing since software updates should be handled
     by the distribution.  See the option '--query-swdb' of the command
     'gpgconf' for more details.  Note, that regardless of this option a
     version check can always be triggered using this command:

                 gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'loadswdb --force' /bye

'--keyserver NAME'
     Use NAME as your keyserver.  This is the server that 'gpg'
     communicates with to receive keys, send keys, and search for keys.
     The format of the NAME is a URI: 'scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'
     The scheme is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or
     compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto"
     for the Graff email keyserver.  Note that your particular
     installation of GnuPG may have other keyserver types available as
     well.  Keyserver schemes are case-insensitive.  After the keyserver
     name, optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.
     These are the same as the '--keyserver-options' of 'gpg', but apply
     only to this particular keyserver.

     Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally
     no need to send keys to more than one server.  The keyserver
     'hkp://keys.gnupg.net' uses round robin DNS to give a different
     keyserver each time you use it.

     If exactly two keyservers are configured and only one is a Tor
     hidden service (.onion), Dirmngr selects the keyserver to use
     depending on whether Tor is locally running or not.  The check for
     a running Tor is done for each new connection.

     If no keyserver is explicitly configured, dirmngr will use the
     built-in default of hkps://hkps.pool.sks-keyservers.net.

'--nameserver IPADDR'
     In "Tor mode" Dirmngr uses a public resolver via Tor to resolve DNS
     names.  If the default public resolver, which is '8.8.8.8', shall
     not be used a different one can be given using this option.  Note
     that a numerical IP address must be given (IPv6 or IPv4) and that
     no error checking is done for IPADDR.

'--disable-ipv4'
'--disable-ipv6'
     Disable the use of all IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.

'--disable-ldap'
     Entirely disables the use of LDAP.

'--disable-http'
     Entirely disables the use of HTTP.

'--ignore-http-dp'
     When looking for the location of a CRL, the to be tested
     certificate usually contains so called "CRL Distribution Point"
     (DP) entries which are URLs describing the way to access the CRL.
     The first found DP entry is used.  With this option all entries
     using the HTTP scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.

'--ignore-ldap-dp'
     This is similar to '--ignore-http-dp' but ignores entries using the
     LDAP scheme.  Both options may be combined resulting in ignoring
     DPs entirely.

'--ignore-ocsp-service-url'
     Ignore all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate.  The effect is
     to force the use of the default responder.

'--honor-http-proxy'
     If the environment variable 'http_proxy' has been set, use its
     value to access HTTP servers.

'--http-proxy HOST[:PORT]'
     Use HOST and PORT to access HTTP servers.  The use of this option
     overrides the environment variable 'http_proxy' regardless whether
     '--honor-http-proxy' has been set.

'--ldap-proxy HOST[:PORT]'
     Use HOST and PORT to connect to LDAP servers.  If PORT is omitted,
     port 389 (standard LDAP port) is used.  This overrides any
     specified host and port part in a LDAP URL and will also be used if
     host and port have been omitted from the URL.

'--only-ldap-proxy'
     Never use anything else but the LDAP "proxy" as configured with
     '--ldap-proxy'.  Usually 'dirmngr' tries to use other configured
     LDAP server if the connection using the "proxy" failed.

'--ldapserverlist-file FILE'
     Read the list of LDAP servers to consult for CRLs and certificates
     from file instead of the default per-user ldap server list file.
     The default value for FILE is 'dirmngr_ldapservers.conf'.

     This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the
     format

     HOSTNAME:PORT:USERNAME:PASSWORD:BASE_DN

     Lines starting with a '#' are comments.

     Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8
     encoded.  Obviously this will lead to problems if the password has
     originally been encoded as Latin-1.  There is no other solution
     here than to put such a password in the binary encoding into the
     file (i.e.  non-ascii characters won't show up readable).(1)

'--ldaptimeout SECS'
     Specify the number of seconds to wait for an LDAP query before
     timing out.  The default are 15 seconds.  0 will never timeout.

'--add-servers'
     This option makes dirmngr add any servers it discovers when
     validating certificates against CRLs to the internal list of
     servers to consult for certificates and CRLs.

     This option is useful when trying to validate a certificate that
     has a CRL distribution point that points to a server that is not
     already listed in the ldapserverlist.  Dirmngr will always go to
     this server and try to download the CRL, but chances are high that
     the certificate used to sign the CRL is located on the same server.
     So if dirmngr doesn't add that new server to list, it will often
     not be able to verify the signature of the CRL unless the
     '--add-servers' option is used.

     Note: The current version of dirmngr has this option disabled by
     default.

'--allow-ocsp'
     This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.

     OCSP requests are rejected by default because they may violate the
     privacy of the user; for example it is possible to track the time
     when a user is reading a mail.

'--ocsp-responder URL'
     Use URL as the default OCSP Responder if the certificate does not
     contain information about an assigned responder.  Note, that
     '--ocsp-signer' must also be set to a valid certificate.

'--ocsp-signer FPR|FILE'
     Use the certificate with the fingerprint FPR to check the responses
     of the default OCSP Responder.  Alternatively a filename can be
     given in which case the response is expected to be signed by one of
     the certificates described in that file.  Any argument which
     contains a slash, dot or tilde is considered a filename.  Usual
     filename expansion takes place: A tilde at the start followed by a
     slash is replaced by the content of 'HOME', no slash at start
     describes a relative filename which will be searched at the home
     directory.  To make sure that the FILE is searched in the home
     directory, either prepend the name with "./" or use a name which
     contains a dot.

     If a response has been signed by a certificate described by these
     fingerprints no further check upon the validity of this certificate
     is done.

     The format of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per line
     with optional colons between the bytes.  Empty lines and lines
     prefix with a hash mark are ignored.

'--ocsp-max-clock-skew N'
     The number of seconds a skew between the OCSP responder and them
     local clock is accepted.  Default is 600 (10 minutes).

'--ocsp-max-period N'
     Seconds a response is at maximum considered valid after the time
     given in the thisUpdate field.  Default is 7776000 (90 days).

'--ocsp-current-period N'
     The number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after
     the time given in the NEXT_UPDATE datum.  Default is 10800 (3
     hours).

'--max-replies N'
     Do not return more that N items in one query.  The default is 10.

'--ignore-cert-extension OID'
     Add OID to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The OID is
     expected to be in dotted decimal form, like '2.5.29.3'.  This
     option may be used more than once.  Critical flagged certificate
     extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are treated as if
     they are actually handled and thus the certificate won't be
     rejected due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option
     with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical for a
     reason.

'--hkp-cacert FILE'
     Use the root certificates in FILE for verification of the TLS
     certificates used with 'hkps' (keyserver access over TLS). If the
     file is in PEM format a suffix of '.pem' is expected for FILE.
     This option may be given multiple times to add more root
     certificates.  Tilde expansion is supported.

     If no 'hkp-cacert' directive is present, dirmngr will make a
     reasonable choice: if the keyserver in question is the special pool
     'hkps.pool.sks-keyservers.net', it will use the bundled root
     certificate for that pool.  Otherwise, it will use the system CAs.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The 'gpgconf' tool might be helpful for frontends as it enables
editing this configuration file using percent-escaped strings.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Configuration,  Next: Dirmngr Signals,  Prev: Dirmngr Options,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.3 Configuration
=================

Dirmngr makes use of several directories when running in daemon mode:
There are a few configuration files whih control the operation of
dirmngr.  By default they may all be found in the current home directory
(*note option --homedir::).

'dirmngr.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'dirmngr' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This file is also read after a 'SIGHUP' however not all options
     will actually have an effect.  This default name may be changed on
     the command line (*note option --options::).  You should backup
     this file.

'/etc/gnupg/trusted-certs'
     This directory should be filled with certificates of Root CAs you
     are trusting in checking the CRLs and signing OCSP Responses.

     Usually these are the same certificates you use with the
     applications making use of dirmngr.  It is expected that each of
     these certificate files contain exactly one DER encoded certificate
     in a file with the suffix '.crt' or '.der'.  'dirmngr' reads those
     certificates on startup and when given a SIGHUP. Certificates which
     are not readable or do not make up a proper X.509 certificate are
     ignored; see the log file for details.

     Applications using dirmngr (e.g.  gpgsm) can request these
     certificates to complete a trust chain in the same way as with the
     extra-certs directory (see below).

     Note that for OCSP responses the certificate specified using the
     option '--ocsp-signer' is always considered valid to sign OCSP
     requests.

'/etc/gnupg/extra-certs'
     This directory may contain extra certificates which are preloaded
     into the internal cache on startup.  Applications using dirmngr
     (e.g.  gpgsm) can request cached certificates to complete a trust
     chain.  This is convenient in cases you have a couple intermediate
     CA certificates or certificates usually used to sign OCSP
     responses.  These certificates are first tried before going out to
     the net to look for them.  These certificates must also be DER
     encoded and suffixed with '.crt' or '.der'.

'~/.gnupg/crls.d'
     This directory is used to store cached CRLs.  The 'crls.d' part
     will be created by dirmngr if it does not exists but you need to
     make sure that the upper directory exists.

   To be able to see what's going on you should create the configure
file '~/gnupg/dirmngr.conf' with at least one line:

     log-file ~/dirmngr.log

   To be able to perform OCSP requests you probably want to add the
line:

     allow-ocsp

   To make sure that new options are read and that after the
installation of a new GnuPG versions the installed dirmngr is running,
you may want to kill an existing dirmngr first:

     gpgconf --kill dirmngr

   You may check the log file to see whether all desired root
certificates have been loaded correctly.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Signals,  Next: Dirmngr Examples,  Prev: Dirmngr Configuration,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.4 Use of signals
==================

A running 'dirmngr' may be controlled by signals, i.e.  using the 'kill'
command to send a signal to the process.

   Here is a list of supported signals:

'SIGHUP'
     This signal flushes all internally cached CRLs as well as any
     cached certificates.  Then the certificate cache is reinitialized
     as on startup.  Options are re-read from the configuration file.
     Instead of sending this signal it is better to use
          gpgconf --reload dirmngr

'SIGTERM'
     Shuts down the process but waits until all current requests are
     fulfilled.  If the process has received 3 of these signals and
     requests are still pending, a shutdown is forced.  You may also use
          gpgconf --kill dirmngr
     instead of this signal

'SIGINT'
     Shuts down the process immediately.

'SIGUSR1'
     This prints some caching statistics to the log file.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Examples,  Next: Dirmngr Protocol,  Prev: Dirmngr Signals,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.5 Examples
============

Here is an example on how to show dirmngr's internal table of OpenPGP
keyserver addresses.  The output is intended for debugging purposes and
not part of a defined API.

       gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --hosttable' /bye

   To inhibit the use of a particular host you have noticed in one of
the keyserver pools, you may use

      gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'keyserver --dead pgpkeys.bnd.de' /bye

   The description of the 'keyserver' command can be printed using

      gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'help keyserver' /bye

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr Protocol,  Prev: Dirmngr Examples,  Up: Invoking DIRMNGR

3.6 Dirmngr's Assuan Protocol
=============================

Assuan is the IPC protocol used to access dirmngr.  This is a
description of the commands implemented by dirmngr.

* Menu:

* Dirmngr LOOKUP::      Look up a certificate via LDAP
* Dirmngr ISVALID::     Validate a certificate using a CRL or OCSP.
* Dirmngr CHECKCRL::    Validate a certificate using a CRL.
* Dirmngr CHECKOCSP::   Validate a certificate using OCSP.
* Dirmngr CACHECERT::   Put a certificate into the internal cache.
* Dirmngr VALIDATE::    Validate a certificate for debugging.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr LOOKUP,  Next: Dirmngr ISVALID,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.1 Return the certificate(s) found
-------------------------------------

Lookup certificate.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed) quoting
is required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or into "%20";
obviously this requires that the usual escape quoting rules are applied.
The server responds with:

       S: D <DER encoded certificate>
       S: END
       S: D <second DER encoded certificate>
       S: END
       S: OK

   In this example 2 certificates are returned.  The server may return
any number of certificates; OK will also be returned when no
certificates were found.  The dirmngr might return a status line

       S: S TRUNCATED <n>

   To indicate that the output was truncated to N items due to a
limitation of the server or by an arbitrary set limit.

   The option '--url' may be used if instead of a search pattern a
complete URL to the certificate is known:

       C: LOOKUP --url CN%3DWerner%20Koch,o%3DIntevation%20GmbH,c%3DDE?userCertificate

   If the option '--cache-only' is given, no external lookup is done so
that only certificates from the cache are returned.

   With the option '--single', the first and only the first match will
be returned.  Unless option '--cache-only' is also used, no local lookup
will be done in this case.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr ISVALID,  Next: Dirmngr CHECKCRL,  Prev: Dirmngr LOOKUP,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.2 Validate a certificate using a CRL or OCSP
------------------------------------------------

       ISVALID [--only-ocsp] [--force-default-responder] CERTID|CERTFPR

   Check whether the certificate described by the CERTID has been
revoked.  Due to caching, the Dirmngr is able to answer immediately in
most cases.

   The CERTID is a hex encoded string consisting of two parts, delimited
by a single dot.  The first part is the SHA-1 hash of the issuer name
and the second part the serial number.

   Alternatively the certificate's SHA-1 fingerprint CERTFPR may be
given in which case an OCSP request is done before consulting the CRL.
If the option '--only-ocsp' is given, no fallback to a CRL check will be
used.  If the option '--force-default-responder' is given, only the
default OCSP responder will be used and any other methods of obtaining
an OCSP responder URL won't be used.

Common return values are:

'GPG_ERR_NO_ERROR (0)'
     This is the positive answer: The certificate is not revoked and we
     have an up-to-date revocation list for that certificate.  If OCSP
     was used the responder confirmed that the certificate has not been
     revoked.

'GPG_ERR_CERT_REVOKED'
     This is the negative answer: The certificate has been revoked.
     Either it is in a CRL and that list is up to date or an OCSP
     responder informed us that it has been revoked.

'GPG_ERR_NO_CRL_KNOWN'
     No CRL is known for this certificate or the CRL is not valid or out
     of date.

'GPG_ERR_NO_DATA'
     The OCSP responder returned an "unknown" status.  This means that
     it is not aware of the certificate's status.

'GPG_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED'
     This is commonly seen if OCSP support has not been enabled in the
     configuration.

   If DirMngr has not enough information about the given certificate
(which is the case for not yet cached certificates), it will inquire the
missing data:

       S: INQUIRE SENDCERT <CertID>
       C: D <DER encoded certificate>
       C: END

   A client should be aware that DirMngr may ask for more than one
certificate.

   If Dirmngr has a certificate but the signature of the certificate
could not been validated because the root certificate is not known to
dirmngr as trusted, it may ask back to see whether the client trusts
this the root certificate:

       S: INQUIRE ISTRUSTED <CertHexfpr>
       C: D 1
       C: END

   Only this answer will let Dirmngr consider the certificate as valid.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr CHECKCRL,  Next: Dirmngr CHECKOCSP,  Prev: Dirmngr ISVALID,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.3 Validate a certificate using a CRL
----------------------------------------

Check whether the certificate with FINGERPRINT (SHA-1 hash of the entire
X.509 certificate blob) is valid or not by consulting the CRL
responsible for this certificate.  If the fingerprint has not been given
or the certificate is not known, the function inquires the certificate
using:

       S: INQUIRE TARGETCERT
       C: D <DER encoded certificate>
       C: END

   Thus the caller is expected to return the certificate for the request
(which should match FINGERPRINT) as a binary blob.  Processing then
takes place without further interaction; in particular dirmngr tries to
locate other required certificate by its own mechanism which includes a
local certificate store as well as a list of trusted root certificates.

The return code is 0 for success; i.e.  the certificate has not been
revoked or one of the usual error codes from libgpg-error.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr CHECKOCSP,  Next: Dirmngr CACHECERT,  Prev: Dirmngr CHECKCRL,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.4 Validate a certificate using OCSP
---------------------------------------

       CHECKOCSP [--force-default-responder] [FINGERPRINT]

   Check whether the certificate with FINGERPRINT (the SHA-1 hash of the
entire X.509 certificate blob) is valid by consulting the appropriate
OCSP responder.  If the fingerprint has not been given or the
certificate is not known by Dirmngr, the function inquires the
certificate using:

       S: INQUIRE TARGETCERT
       C: D <DER encoded certificate>
       C: END

   Thus the caller is expected to return the certificate for the request
(which should match FINGERPRINT) as a binary blob.  Processing then
takes place without further interaction; in particular dirmngr tries to
locate other required certificates by its own mechanism which includes a
local certificate store as well as a list of trusted root certificates.

   If the option '--force-default-responder' is given, only the default
OCSP responder is used.  This option is the per-command variant of the
global option '--ignore-ocsp-service-url'.

The return code is 0 for success; i.e.  the certificate has not been
revoked or one of the usual error codes from libgpg-error.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr CACHECERT,  Next: Dirmngr VALIDATE,  Prev: Dirmngr CHECKOCSP,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.5 Put a certificate into the internal cache
-----------------------------------------------

Put a certificate into the internal cache.  This command might be useful
if a client knows in advance certificates required for a test and wants
to make sure they get added to the internal cache.  It is also helpful
for debugging.  To get the actual certificate, this command immediately
inquires it using

       S: INQUIRE TARGETCERT
       C: D <DER encoded certificate>
       C: END

   Thus the caller is expected to return the certificate for the request
as a binary blob.

The return code is 0 for success; i.e.  the certificate has not been
successfully cached or one of the usual error codes from libgpg-error.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Dirmngr VALIDATE,  Prev: Dirmngr CACHECERT,  Up: Dirmngr Protocol

3.6.6 Validate a certificate for debugging
------------------------------------------

Validate a certificate using the certificate validation function used
internally by dirmngr.  This command is only useful for debugging.  To
get the actual certificate, this command immediately inquires it using

       S: INQUIRE TARGETCERT
       C: D <DER encoded certificate>
       C: END

   Thus the caller is expected to return the certificate for the request
as a binary blob.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPG,  Next: Invoking GPGSM,  Prev: Invoking DIRMNGR,  Up: Top

4 Invoking GPG
**************

'gpg' is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
to provide digital encryption and signing services using the OpenPGP
standard.  'gpg' features complete key management and all the bells and
whistles you would expect from a full OpenPGP implementation.

   There are two main versions of GnuPG: GnuPG 1.x and GnuPG 2.x.  GnuPG
2.x supports modern encryption algorithms and thus should be preferred
over GnuPG 1.x.  You only need to use GnuPG 1.x if your platform doesn't
support GnuPG 2.x, or you need support for some features that GnuPG 2.x
has deprecated, e.g., decrypting data created with PGP-2 keys.

   If you are looking for version 1 of GnuPG, you may find that version
installed under the name 'gpg1'.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to 'gpg''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* GPG Commands::            List of all commands.
* GPG Options::             List of all options.
* GPG Configuration::       Configuration files.
* GPG Examples::            Some usage examples.

Developer information:
* Unattended Usage of GPG:: Using 'gpg' from other programs.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Commands,  Next: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

4.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.  Generally speaking, irrelevant options are
silently ignored, and may not be checked for correctness.

   'gpg' may be run with no commands.  In this case it will print a
warning perform a reasonable action depending on the type of file it is
given as input (an encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is
verified, a file containing keys is listed, etc.).

   If you run into any problems, please add the option '--verbose' to
the invocation to see more diagnostics.

* Menu:

* General GPG Commands::        Commands not specific to the functionality.
* Operational GPG Commands::    Commands to select the type of operation.
* OpenPGP Key Management::      How to manage your keys.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: General GPG Commands,  Next: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

4.1.1 Commands not specific to the function
-------------------------------------------

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help'
'-h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot arbitrarily abbreviate this command
     (though you can use its short form '-h').

'--warranty'
     Print warranty information.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Operational GPG Commands,  Next: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: General GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

4.1.2 Commands to select the type of operation
----------------------------------------------

'--sign'
'-s'
     Sign a message.  This command may be combined with '--encrypt' (to
     sign and encrypt a message), '--symmetric' (to sign and
     symmetrically encrypt a message), or both '--encrypt' and
     '--symmetric' (to sign and encrypt a message that can be decrypted
     using a secret key or a passphrase).  The signing key is chosen by
     default or can be set explicitly using the '--local-user' and
     '--default-key' options.

'--clear-sign'
'--clearsign'
     Make a cleartext signature.  The content in a cleartext signature
     is readable without any special software.  OpenPGP software is only
     needed to verify the signature.  cleartext signatures may modify
     end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and are not
     intended to be reversible.  The signing key is chosen by default or
     can be set explicitly using the '--local-user' and '--default-key'
     options.

'--detach-sign'
'-b'
     Make a detached signature.

'--encrypt'
'-e'
     Encrypt data to one or more public keys.  This command may be
     combined with '--sign' (to sign and encrypt a message),
     '--symmetric' (to encrypt a message that can decrypted using a
     secret key or a passphrase), or '--sign' and '--symmetric' together
     (for a signed message that can be decrypted using a secret key or a
     passphrase).  '--recipient' and related options specify which
     public keys to use for encryption.

'--symmetric'
'-c'
     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase.  The default
     symmetric cipher used is AES-128, but may be chosen with the
     '--cipher-algo' option.  This command may be combined with '--sign'
     (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), '--encrypt'
     (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a
     passphrase), or '--sign' and '--encrypt' together (for a signed
     message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

'--store'
     Store only (make a simple literal data packet).

'--decrypt'
'-d'
     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is
     specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
     '--output').  If the decrypted file is signed, the signature is
     also verified.  This command differs from the default operation, as
     it never writes to the filename which is included in the file and
     it rejects files that don't begin with an encrypted message.

'--verify'
     Assume that the first argument is a signed file and verify it
     without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
     packet is read from STDIN. If only one argument is given, the
     specified file is expected to include a complete signature.

     With more than one argument, the first argument should specify a
     file with a detached signature and the remaining files should
     contain the signed data.  To read the signed data from STDIN, use
     '-' as the second filename.  For security reasons, a detached
     signature will not read the signed material from STDIN if not
     explicitly specified.

     Note: If the option '--batch' is not used, 'gpg' may assume that a
     single argument is a file with a detached signature, and it will
     try to find a matching data file by stripping certain suffixes.
     Using this historical feature to verify a detached signature is
     strongly discouraged; you should always specify the data file
     explicitly.

     Note: When verifying a cleartext signature, 'gpg' verifies only
     what makes up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
     outside of the cleartext signature or the header lines directly
     following the dash marker line.  The option '--output' may be used
     to write out the actual signed data, but there are other pitfalls
     with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext
     signatures in favor of detached signatures.

     Note: Sometimes the use of the 'gpgv' tool is easier than using the
     full-fledged 'gpg' with this option.  'gpgv' is designed to compare
     signed data against a list of trusted keys and returns with success
     only for a good signature.  It has its own manual page.

'--multifile'
     This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for
     processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
     filename on a separate line.  This allows for many files to be
     processed at once.  '--multifile' may currently be used along with
     '--verify', '--encrypt', and '--decrypt'.  Note that '--multifile
     --verify' may not be used with detached signatures.

'--verify-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --verify'.

'--encrypt-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --encrypt'.

'--decrypt-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --decrypt'.

'--list-keys'
'-k'
'--list-public-keys'
     List the specified keys.  If no keys are specified, then all keys
     from the configured public keyrings are listed.

     Never use the output of this command in scripts or other programs.
     The output is intended only for humans and its format is likely to
     change.  The '--with-colons' option emits the output in a stable,
     machine-parseable format, which is intended for use by scripts and
     other programs.

'--list-secret-keys'
'-K'
     List the specified secret keys.  If no keys are specified, then all
     known secret keys are listed.  A '#' after the initial tags 'sec'
     or 'ssb' means that the secret key or subkey is currently not
     usable.  We also say that this key has been taken offline (for
     example, a primary key can be taken offline by exported the key
     using the command '--export-secret-subkeys').  A '>' after these
     tags indicate that the key is stored on a smartcard.  See also
     '--list-keys'.

'--check-signatures'
'--check-sigs'
     Same as '--list-keys', but the key signatures are verified and
     listed too.  Note that for performance reasons the revocation
     status of a signing key is not shown.  This command has the same
     effect as using '--list-keys' with '--with-sig-check'.

     The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
     following the "sig" tag (and thus before the flags described below.
     A "!"  indicates that the signature has been successfully verified,
     a "-" denotes a bad signature and a "%" is used if an error
     occurred while checking the signature (e.g.  a non supported
     algorithm).  Signatures where the public key is not availabale are
     not listed; to see their keyids the command '--list-sigs' can be
     used.

     For each signature listed, there are several flags in between the
     signature status flag and keyid.  These flags give additional
     information about each key signature.  From left to right, they are
     the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see
     '--ask-cert-level'), "L" for a local or non-exportable signature
     (see '--lsign-key'), "R" for a nonRevocable signature (see the
     '--edit-key' command "nrsign"), "P" for a signature that contains a
     policy URL (see '--cert-policy-url'), "N" for a signature that
     contains a notation (see '--cert-notation'), "X" for an eXpired
     signature (see '--ask-cert-expire'), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for
     10 and above to indicate trust signature levels (see the
     '--edit-key' command "tsign").

'--locate-keys'
     Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
     the same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption or
     signing and may thus be used to see what keys 'gpg' might use.  In
     particular external methods as defined by '--auto-key-locate' may
     be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

'--fingerprint'
     List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their
     fingerprints.  This is the same output as '--list-keys' but with
     the additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May also be
     combined with '--check-signatures'.  If this command is given
     twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.  This
     command also forces pretty printing of fingerprints if the keyid
     format has been set to "none".

'--list-packets'
     List only the sequence of packets.  This command is only useful for
     debugging.  When used with option '--verbose' the actual MPI values
     are dumped and not only their lengths.  Note that the output of
     this command may change with new releases.

'--edit-card'
'--card-edit'
     Present a menu to work with a smartcard.  The subcommand "help"
     provides an overview on available commands.  For a detailed
     description, please see the Card HOWTO at
     https://gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

'--card-status'
     Show the content of the smart card.

'--change-pin'
     Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard.  This
     functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with the
     '--edit-card' command.

'--delete-keys NAME'
     Remove key from the public keyring.  In batch mode either '--yes'
     is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint.  This is a
     safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

'--delete-secret-keys NAME'
     Remove key from the secret keyring.  In batch mode the key must be
     specified by fingerprint.  The option '--yes' can be used to advice
     gpg-agent not to request a confirmation.  This extra pre-caution is
     done because 'gpg' can't be sure that the secret key (as controlled
     by gpg-agent) is only used for the given OpenPGP public key.

'--delete-secret-and-public-key NAME'
     Same as '--delete-key', but if a secret key exists, it will be
     removed first.  In batch mode the key must be specified by
     fingerprint.  The option '--yes' can be used to advice gpg-agent
     not to request a confirmation.

'--export'
     Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and
     those registered via option '--keyring'), or if at least one name
     is given, those of the given name.  The exported keys are written
     to STDOUT or to the file given with option '--output'.  Use
     together with '--armor' to mail those keys.

'--send-keys KEYIDS'
     Similar to '--export' but sends the keys to a keyserver.
     Fingerprints may be used instead of key IDs.  Option '--keyserver'
     must be used to give the name of this keyserver.  Don't send your
     complete keyring to a keyserver -- select only those keys which are
     new or changed by you.  If no KEYIDS are given, 'gpg' does nothing.

'--export-secret-keys'
'--export-secret-subkeys'
     Same as '--export', but exports the secret keys instead.  The
     exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the file given with
     option '--output'.  This command is often used along with the
     option '--armor' to allow for easy printing of the key for paper
     backup; however the external tool 'paperkey' does a better job of
     creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can be
     a security risk if the exported keys are sent over an insecure
     channel.

     The second form of the command has the special property to render
     the secret part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU extension
     to OpenPGP and other implementations can not be expected to
     successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is in generating
     a full key with an additional signing subkey on a dedicated
     machine.  This command then exports the key without the primary key
     to the main machine.

     GnuPG may ask you to enter the passphrase for the key.  This is
     required, because the internal protection method of the secret key
     is different from the one specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

'--export-ssh-key'
     This command is used to export a key in the OpenSSH public key
     format.  It requires the specification of one key by the usual
     means and exports the latest valid subkey which has an
     authentication capability to STDOUT or to the file given with
     option '--output'.  That output can directly be added to ssh's
     'authorized_key' file.

     By specifying the key to export using a key ID or a fingerprint
     suffixed with an exclamation mark (!), a specific subkey or the
     primary key can be exported.  This does not even require that the
     key has the authentication capability flag set.

'--import'
'--fast-import'
     Import/merge keys.  This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
     fast version is currently just a synonym.

     There are a few other options which control how this command works.
     Most notable here is the '--import-options merge-only' option which
     does not insert new keys but does only the merging of new
     signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

'--receive-keys KEYIDS'
'--recv-keys KEYIDS'
     Import the keys with the given KEYIDS from a keyserver.  Option
     '--keyserver' must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

'--refresh-keys'
     Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the
     local keyring.  This is useful for updating a key with the latest
     signatures, user IDs, etc.  Calling this with no arguments will
     refresh the entire keyring.  Option '--keyserver' must be used to
     give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
     preferred keyservers set (see '--keyserver-options
     honor-keyserver-url').

'--search-keys NAMES'
     Search the keyserver for the given NAMES.  Multiple names given
     here will be joined together to create the search string for the
     keyserver.  Option '--keyserver' must be used to give the name of
     this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search methods
     allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID"
     below.  Note that different keyserver types support different
     search methods.  Currently only LDAP supports them all.

'--fetch-keys URIS'
     Retrieve keys located at the specified URIS.  Note that different
     installations of GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP, FTP,
     LDAP, etc.).  When using HTTPS the system provided root
     certificates are used by this command.

'--update-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance.  This command iterates over all keys
     and builds the Web of Trust.  This is an interactive command
     because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
     The user has to give an estimation of how far she trusts the owner
     of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys.  GnuPG
     only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned
     to a key.  Using the '--edit-key' menu, the assigned value can be
     changed at any time.

'--check-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance without user interaction.  From time
     to time the trust database must be updated so that expired keys or
     signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust can be
     tracked.  Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this is required and
     do it automatically unless '--no-auto-check-trustdb' is set.  This
     command can be used to force a trust database check at any time.
     The processing is identical to that of '--update-trustdb' but it
     skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

     For use with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
     '--batch' in which case the trust database check is done only if a
     check is needed.  To force a run even in batch mode add the option
     '--yes'.

'--export-ownertrust'
     Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
     purposes as these values are the only ones which can't be
     re-created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
            gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

'--import-ownertrust'
     Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in 'files' (or
     STDIN if not given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case
     of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent backup of
     the ownertrust values (e.g.  in the file 'otrust.txt'), you may
     re-create the trustdb using these commands:
            cd ~/.gnupg
            rm trustdb.gpg
            gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

'--rebuild-keydb-caches'
     When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
     used to create signature caches in the keyring.  It might be handy
     in other situations too.

'--print-md ALGO'
'--print-mds'
     Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
     STDIN. With the second form (or a deprecated "*" for ALGO) digests
     for all available algorithms are printed.

'--gen-random 0|1|2 COUNT'
     Emit COUNT random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2.  If
     COUNT is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes
     will be emitted.  If used with '--armor' the output will be base64
     encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know what you
     are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

'--gen-prime MODE BITS'
     Use the source, Luke :-).  The output format is subject to change
     with ant release.

'--enarmor'
'--dearmor'
     Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII armor.
     This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very
     useful.

'--tofu-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask} KEYS'
     Set the TOFU policy for all the bindings associated with the
     specified KEYS.  For more information about the meaning of the
     policies, *note trust-model-tofu::.  The KEYS may be specified
     either by their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

4.1.3 How to manage your keys
-----------------------------

This section explains the main commands for key management.

'--quick-generate-key USER-ID [ALGO [USAGE [EXPIRE]]]'
     This is a simple command to generate a standard key with one user
     id.  In contrast to '--generate-key' the key is generated directly
     without the need to answer a bunch of prompts.  Unless the option
     '--yes' is given, the key creation will be canceled if the given
     user id already exists in the keyring.

     If invoked directly on the console without any special options an
     answer to a "Continue?"  style confirmation prompt is required.  In
     case the user id already exists in the keyring a second prompt to
     force the creation of the key will show up.

     If ALGO or USAGE are given, only the primary key is created and no
     prompts are shown.  To specify an expiration date but still create
     a primary and subkey use "default" or "future-default" for ALGO and
     "default" for USAGE.  For a description of these optional arguments
     see the command '--quick-add-key'.  The USAGE accepts also the
     value "cert" which can be used to create a certification only
     primary key; the default is to a create certification and signing
     key.

     The EXPIRE argument can be used to specify an expiration date for
     the key.  Several formats are supported; commonly the ISO formats
     "YYYY-MM-DD" or "YYYYMMDDThhmmss" are used.  To make the key expire
     in N seconds, N days, N weeks, N months, or N years use
     "seconds=N", "Nd", "Nw", "Nm", or "Ny" respectively.  Not
     specifying a value, or using "-" results in a key expiring in a
     reasonable default interval.  The values "never", "none" can be
     used for no expiration date.

     If this command is used with '--batch', '--pinentry-mode' has been
     set to 'loopback', and one of the passphrase options
     ('--passphrase', '--passphrase-fd', or 'passphrase-file') is used,
     the supplied passphrase is used for the new key and the agent does
     not ask for it.  To create a key without any protection
     '--passphrase ''' may be used.

'--quick-set-expire FPR EXPIRE [*|SUBFPRS]'
     With two arguments given, directly set the expiration time of the
     primary key identified by FPR to EXPIRE.  To remove the expiration
     time '0' can be used.  With three arguments and the third given as
     an asterisk, the expiration time of all non-revoked and not yet
     expired subkeys are set to EXPIRE.  With more than two arguments
     and a list of fingerprints given for SUBFPRS, all non-revoked
     subkeys matching these fingerprints are set to EXPIRE.

'--quick-add-key FPR [ALGO [USAGE [EXPIRE]]]'
     Directly add a subkey to the key identified by the fingerprint FPR.
     Without the optional arguments an encryption subkey is added.  If
     any of the arguments are given a more specific subkey is added.

     ALGO may be any of the supported algorithms or curve names given in
     the format as used by key listings.  To use the default algorithm
     the string "default" or "-" can be used.  Supported algorithms are
     "rsa", "dsa", "elg", "ed25519", "cv25519", and other ECC curves.
     For example the string "rsa" adds an RSA key with the default key
     length; a string "rsa4096" requests that the key length is 4096
     bits.  The string "future-default" is an alias for the algorithm
     which will likely be used as default algorithm in future versions
     of gpg.

     Depending on the given ALGO the subkey may either be an encryption
     subkey or a signing subkey.  If an algorithm is capable of signing
     and encryption and such a subkey is desired, a USAGE string must be
     given.  This string is either "default" or "-" to keep the default
     or a comma delimited list (or space delimited list) of keywords:
     "sign" for a signing subkey, "auth" for an authentication subkey,
     and "encr" for an encryption subkey ("encrypt" can be used as alias
     for "encr").  The valid combinations depend on the algorithm.

     The EXPIRE argument can be used to specify an expiration date for
     the key.  Several formats are supported; commonly the ISO formats
     "YYYY-MM-DD" or "YYYYMMDDThhmmss" are used.  To make the key expire
     in N seconds, N days, N weeks, N months, or N years use
     "seconds=N", "Nd", "Nw", "Nm", or "Ny" respectively.  Not
     specifying a value, or using "-" results in a key expiring in a
     reasonable default interval.  The values "never", "none" can be
     used for no expiration date.

'--generate-key'
'--gen-key'
     Generate a new key pair using the current default parameters.  This
     is the standard command to create a new key.  In addition to the
     key a revocation certificate is created and stored in the
     'openpgp-revocs.d' directory below the GnuPG home directory.

'--full-generate-key'
'--full-gen-key'
     Generate a new key pair with dialogs for all options.  This is an
     extended version of '--generate-key'.

     There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
     mode.  See the manual section "Unattended key generation" on how to
     use this.

'--generate-revocation NAME'
'--gen-revoke NAME'
     Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To only
     revoke a subkey or a key signature, use the '--edit' command.

     This command merely creates the revocation certificate so that it
     can be used to revoke the key if that is ever needed.  To actually
     revoke a key the created revocation certificate needs to be merged
     with the key to revoke.  This is done by importing the revocation
     certificate using the '--import' command.  Then the revoked key
     needs to be published, which is best done by sending the key to a
     keyserver (command '--send-key') and by exporting ('--export') it
     to a file which is then send to frequent communication partners.

'--generate-designated-revocation NAME'
'--desig-revoke NAME'
     Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key.  This
     allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
     someone else's key.

'--edit-key'
     Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key management
     related tasks.  It expects the specification of a key on the
     command line.

     uid N
          Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index
          N.  Use '*' to select all and '0' to deselect all.

     key N
          Toggle selection of subkey with index N or key ID N.  Use '*'
          to select all and '0' to deselect all.

     sign
          Make a signature on key of user 'name'.  If the key is not yet
          signed by the default user (or the users given with '-u'), the
          program displays the information of the key again, together
          with its fingerprint and asks whether it should be signed.
          This question is repeated for all users specified with '-u'.

     lsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-exportable
          and will therefore never be used by others.  This may be used
          to make keys valid only in the local environment.

     nrsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revocable
          and can therefore never be revoked.

     tsign
          Make a trust signature.  This is a signature that combines the
          notions of certification (like a regular signature), and trust
          (like the "trust" command).  It is generally only useful in
          distinct communities or groups.  For more information please
          read the sections "Trust Signature" and "Regular Expression"
          in RFC-4880.

     Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for
     non-revocable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed
     to "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

     If the option '--only-sign-text-ids' is specified, then any
     non-text based user ids (e.g., photo IDs) will not be selected for
     signing.

     delsig
          Delete a signature.  Note that it is not possible to retract a
          signature, once it has been send to the public (i.e.  to a
          keyserver).  In that case you better use 'revsig'.

     revsig
          Revoke a signature.  For every signature which has been
          generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
          revocation certificate should be generated.

     check
          Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.  With the extra
          option 'selfsig' only self-signatures are shown.

     adduid
          Create an additional user ID.

     addphoto
          Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG
          file that will be embedded into the user ID. Note that a very
          large JPEG will make for a very large key.  Also note that
          some programs will display your JPEG unchanged (GnuPG), and
          some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

     showphoto
          Display the selected photographic user ID.

     deluid
          Delete a user ID or photographic user ID. Note that it is not
          possible to retract a user id, once it has been send to the
          public (i.e.  to a keyserver).  In that case you better use
          'revuid'.

     revuid
          Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

     primary
          Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes the
          primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
          timestamp of all affected self-signatures one second ahead.
          Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes it primary
          over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
          primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

     keyserver
          Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).  This
          allows other users to know where you prefer they get your key
          from.  See '--keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url' for more
          on how this works.  Setting a value of "none" removes an
          existing preferred keyserver.

     notation
          Set a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).  See
          '--cert-notation' for more on how this works.  Setting a value
          of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation prefixed
          with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and setting a
          notation name (without the =value) prefixed with a minus sign
          removes all notations with that name.

     pref
          List preferences from the selected user ID. This shows the
          actual preferences, without including any implied preferences.

     showpref
          More verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID.
          This shows the preferences in effect by including the implied
          preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and Uncompressed
          (compression) if they are not already included in the
          preference list.  In addition, the preferred keyserver and
          signature notations (if any) are shown.

     setpref STRING
          Set the list of user ID preferences to STRING for all (or just
          the selected) user IDs.  Calling setpref with no arguments
          sets the preference list to the default (either built-in or
          set via '--default-preference-list'), and calling setpref with
          "none" as the argument sets an empty preference list.  Use
          'gpg --version' to get a list of available algorithms.  Note
          that while you can change the preferences on an attribute user
          ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does not select keys via attribute
          user IDs so these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

          When setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in
          the order which you'd like to see them used by someone else
          when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't include
          3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.  Note that
          there are many factors that go into choosing an algorithm (for
          example, your key may not be the only recipient), and so the
          remote OpenPGP application being used to send to you may or
          may not follow your exact chosen order for a given message.
          It will, however, only choose an algorithm that is present on
          the preference list of every recipient key.  See also the
          INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

     addkey
          Add a subkey to this key.

     addcardkey
          Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

     keytocard
          Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key if no
          subkey has been selected) to a smartcard.  The secret key in
          the keyring will be replaced by a stub if the key could be
          stored successfully on the card and you use the save command
          later.  Only certain key types may be transferred to the card.
          A sub menu allows you to select on what card to store the key.
          Note that it is not possible to get that key back from the
          card - if the card gets broken your secret key will be lost
          unless you have a backup somewhere.

     bkuptocard FILE
          Restore the given FILE to a card.  This command may be used to
          restore a backup key (as generated during card initialization)
          to a new card.  In almost all cases this will be the
          encryption key.  You should use this command only with the
          corresponding public key and make sure that the file given as
          argument is indeed the backup to restore.  You should then
          select 2 to restore as encryption key.  You will first be
          asked to enter the passphrase of the backup key and then for
          the Admin PIN of the card.

     delkey
          Remove a subkey (secondary key).  Note that it is not possible
          to retract a subkey, once it has been send to the public (i.e.
          to a keyserver).  In that case you better use 'revkey'.  Also
          note that this only deletes the public part of a key.

     revkey
          Revoke a subkey.

     expire
          Change the key or subkey expiration time.  If a subkey is
          selected, the expiration time of this subkey will be changed.
          With no selection, the key expiration of the primary key is
          changed.

     trust
          Change the owner trust value for the key.  This updates the
          trust-db immediately and no save is required.

     disable
     enable
          Disable or enable an entire key.  A disabled key can not
          normally be used for encryption.

     addrevoker
          Add a designated revoker to the key.  This takes one optional
          argument: "sensitive".  If a designated revoker is marked as
          sensitive, it will not be exported by default (see
          export-options).

     passwd
          Change the passphrase of the secret key.

     toggle
          This is dummy command which exists only for backward
          compatibility.

     clean
          Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any
          user ID that is no longer usable (e.g.  revoked, or expired).
          Then, remove any signatures that are not usable by the trust
          calculations.  Specifically, this removes any signature that
          does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a later
          signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by keys
          that are not present on the keyring.

     minimize
          Make the key as small as possible.  This removes all
          signatures from each user ID except for the most recent
          self-signature.

     cross-certify
          Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that may
          not currently have them.  Cross-certification signatures
          protect against a subtle attack against signing subkeys.  See
          '--require-cross-certification'.  All new keys generated have
          this signature by default, so this command is only useful to
          bring older keys up to date.

     save
          Save all changes to the keyrings and quit.

     quit
          Quit the program without updating the keyrings.

     The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all user
     ids.  The primary user id is indicated by a dot, and selected keys
     or user ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The trust value is
     displayed with the primary key: the first is the assigned owner
     trust and the second is the calculated trust value.  Letters are
     used for the values:

     -
          No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

     e
          Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

     q
          Not enough information for calculation.

     n
          Never trust this key.

     m
          Marginally trusted.

     f
          Fully trusted.

     u
          Ultimately trusted.

'--sign-key NAME'
     Signs a public key with your secret key.  This is a shortcut
     version of the subcommand "sign" from '--edit'.

'--lsign-key NAME'
     Signs a public key with your secret key but marks it as
     non-exportable.  This is a shortcut version of the subcommand
     "lsign" from '--edit-key'.

'--quick-sign-key FPR [NAMES]'
'--quick-lsign-key FPR [NAMES]'
     Directly sign a key from the passphrase without any further user
     interaction.  The FPR must be the verified primary fingerprint of a
     key in the local keyring.  If no NAMES are given, all useful user
     ids are signed; with given [NAMES] only useful user ids matching
     one of theses names are signed.  By default, or if a name is
     prefixed with a '*', a case insensitive substring match is used.
     If a name is prefixed with a '=' a case sensitive exact match is
     done.

     The command '--quick-lsign-key' marks the signatures as
     non-exportable.  If such a non-exportable signature already exists
     the '--quick-sign-key' turns it into a exportable signature.

     This command uses reasonable defaults and thus does not provide the
     full flexibility of the "sign" subcommand from '--edit-key'.  Its
     intended use is to help unattended key signing by utilizing a list
     of verified fingerprints.

'--quick-add-uid USER-ID NEW-USER-ID'
     This command adds a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast to
     the interactive sub-command 'adduid' of '--edit-key' the
     NEW-USER-ID is added verbatim with only leading and trailing white
     space removed, it is expected to be UTF-8 encoded, and no checks on
     its form are applied.

'--quick-revoke-uid USER-ID USER-ID-TO-REVOKE'
     This command revokes a user ID on an existing key.  It cannot be
     used to revoke the last user ID on key (some non-revoked user ID
     must remain), with revocation reason "User ID is no longer valid".
     If you want to specify a different revocation reason, or to supply
     supplementary revocation text, you should use the interactive
     sub-command 'revuid' of '--edit-key'.

'--quick-set-primary-uid USER-ID PRIMARY-USER-ID'
     This command sets or updates the primary user ID flag on an
     existing key.  USER-ID specifies the key and PRIMARY-USER-ID the
     user ID which shall be flagged as the primary user ID. The primary
     user ID flag is removed from all other user ids and the timestamp
     of all affected self-signatures is set one second ahead.

'--change-passphrase USER-ID'
'--passwd USER-ID'
     Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging to the
     certificate specified as USER-ID.  This is a shortcut for the
     sub-command 'passwd' of the edit key menu.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Options,  Next: GPG Configuration,  Prev: GPG Commands,  Up: Invoking GPG

4.2 Option Summary
==================

'gpg' features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
change the default configuration.

* Menu:

* GPG Configuration Options::   How to change the configuration.
* GPG Key related Options::     Key related options.
* GPG Input and Output::        Input and Output.
* OpenPGP Options::             OpenPGP protocol specific options.
* Compliance Options::          Compliance options.
* GPG Esoteric Options::        Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.
* Deprecated Options::          Deprecated options.

   Long options can be put in an options file (default
"~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short option names will not work - for example,
"armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a" is not.  Do
not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any
required arguments.  Lines with a hash ('#') as the first
non-white-space character are ignored.  Commands may be put in this file
too, but that is not generally useful as the command will execute
automatically with every execution of gpg.

   Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special option
'--'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Configuration Options,  Next: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.1 How to change the configuration
-------------------------------------

These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found
in the option file.

'--default-key NAME'
     Use NAME as the default key to sign with.  If this option is not
     used, the default key is the first key found in the secret keyring.
     Note that '-u' or '--local-user' overrides this option.  This
     option may be given multiple times.  In this case, the last key for
     which a secret key is available is used.  If there is no secret key
     available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will not emit an
     error message but continue as if this option wasn't given.

'--default-recipient NAME'
     Use NAME as default recipient if option '--recipient' is not used
     and don't ask if this is a valid one.  NAME must be non-empty.

'--default-recipient-self'
     Use the default key as default recipient if option '--recipient' is
     not used and don't ask if this is a valid one.  The default key is
     the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
     '--default-key'.

'--no-default-recipient'
     Reset '--default-recipient' and '--default-recipient-self'.

'-v, --verbose'
     Give more information during processing.  If used twice, the input
     data is listed in detail.

'--no-verbose'
     Reset verbose level to 0.

'-q, --quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--batch'
'--no-batch'
     Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
     '--no-batch' disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
     given on the command line, gpg might still need to read from STDIN
     (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
     signature and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do not
     want to feed data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to
     g'/dev/null'.

     It is highly recommended to use this option along with the options
     '--status-fd' and '--with-colons' for any unattended use of 'gpg'.

'--no-tty'
     Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
     This option is needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes prints
     warnings to the TTY even if '--batch' is used.

'--yes'
     Assume "yes" on most questions.

'--no'
     Assume "no" on most questions.

'--list-options PARAMETERS'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when listing keys and signatures (that is, '--list-keys',
     '--check-signatures', '--list-public-keys', '--list-secret-keys',
     and the '--edit-key' functions).  Options can be prepended with a
     'no-' (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The
     options are:

     show-photos
          Causes '--list-keys', '--check-signatures',
          '--list-public-keys', and '--list-secret-keys' to display any
          photo IDs attached to the key.  Defaults to no.  See also
          '--photo-viewer'.  Does not work with '--with-colons': see
          '--attribute-fd' for the appropriate way to get photo data for
          scripts and other frontends.

     show-usage
          Show usage information for keys and subkeys in the standard
          key listing.  This is a list of letters indicating the allowed
          usage for a key ('E'=encryption, 'S'=signing,
          'C'=certification, 'A'=authentication).  Defaults to yes.

     show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the '--check-signatures' listings.
          Defaults to no.

     show-notations
     show-std-notations
     show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the '--check-signatures' listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the '--check-signatures'
          listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key
          listings.  Defaults to yes.

     show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings.  Defaults
          to no.

     show-unusable-subkeys
          Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings.  Defaults to
          no.

     show-keyring
          Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show
          which keyring a given key resides on.  Defaults to no.

     show-sig-expire
          Show signature expiration dates (if any) during
          '--check-signatures' listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-sig-subpackets
          Include signature subpackets in the key listing.  This option
          can take an optional argument list of the subpackets to list.
          If no argument is passed, list all subpackets.  Defaults to
          no.  This option is only meaningful when using '--with-colons'
          along with '--check-signatures'.

'--verify-options PARAMETERS'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when verifying signatures.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-'
     to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

     show-photos
          Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
          signature.  Defaults to no.  See also '--photo-viewer'.

     show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the signature being verified.  Defaults to
          yes.

     show-notations
     show-std-notations
     show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the signature being verified.  Defaults to IETF standard.

     show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
          verified.  Defaults to yes.

     show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of the user IDs on the key
          that issued the signature.  Defaults to yes.

     show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature
          verification.  Defaults to no.

     show-primary-uid-only
          Show only the primary user ID during signature verification.
          That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are not shown
          with the signature verification status.

     pka-lookups
          Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses.  Note that PKA
          is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose
          information on when and what signatures are verified or to
          whom data is encrypted.  This is similar to the "web bug"
          described for the '--auto-key-retrieve' option.

     pka-trust-increase
          Raise the trust in a signature to full if the signature passes
          PKA validation.  This option is only meaningful if pka-lookups
          is set.

'--enable-large-rsa'
'--disable-large-rsa'
     With -generate-key and -batch, enable the creation of RSA secret
     keys as large as 8192 bit.  Note: 8192 bit is more than is
     generally recommended.  These large keys don't significantly
     improve security, but they are more expensive to use, and their
     signatures and certifications are larger.  This option is only
     available if the binary was build with large-secmem support.

'--enable-dsa2'
'--disable-dsa2'
     Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to
     1024 bit.  This is also the default with '--openpgp'.  Note that
     older versions of GnuPG also required this flag to allow the
     generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

'--photo-viewer STRING'
     This is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
     "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the photo.  "%I"
     does the same, except the file will not be deleted once the viewer
     exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the long key
     ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the extension of the
     image type (e.g.  "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of the image (e.g.
     "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of
     the image being viewed (e.g.  "f"), "%V" for the calculated
     validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for a base32 encoded hash
     of the user ID, and "%%" for an actual percent sign.  If neither %i
     or %I are present, then the photo will be supplied to the viewer on
     standard input.

     The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID 0x%k'
     STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not secure, then
     executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

'--exec-path STRING'
     Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and
     keyserver helpers.  If not provided, keyserver helpers use the
     compiled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the 'PATH'
     environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value is
     ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

'--keyring FILE'
     Add FILE to the current list of keyrings.  If FILE begins with a
     tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory.  If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if '--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

     Note that this adds a keyring to the current list.  If the intent
     is to use the specified keyring alone, use '--keyring' along with
     '--no-default-keyring'.

     If the option '--no-keyring' has been used no keyrings will be used
     at all.

'--secret-keyring FILE'
     This is an obsolete option and ignored.  All secret keys are stored
     in the 'private-keys-v1.d' directory below the GnuPG home
     directory.

'--primary-keyring FILE'
     Designate FILE as the primary public keyring.  This means that
     newly imported keys (via '--import' or keyserver '--recv-from')
     will go to this keyring.

'--trustdb-name FILE'
     Use FILE instead of the default trustdb.  If FILE begins with a
     tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory.  If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if '--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'--display-charset NAME'
     Set the name of the native character set.  This is used to convert
     some informational strings like user IDs to the proper UTF-8
     encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the character set
     of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not recode
     user-supplied data.  If this option is not used, the default
     character set is determined from the current locale.  A verbosity
     level of 3 shows the chosen set.  Valid values for NAME are:

     iso-8859-1
          This is the Latin 1 set.

     iso-8859-2
          The Latin 2 set.

     iso-8859-15
          This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

     koi8-r
          The usual Russian set (RFC-1489).

     utf-8
          Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native
          UTF-8 encoding.

'--utf8-strings'
'--no-utf8-strings'
     Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF-8 strings.  The
     default ('--no-utf8-strings') is to assume that arguments are
     encoded in the character set as specified by '--display-charset'.
     These options affect all following arguments.  Both options may be
     used multiple times.

'--options FILE'
     Read options from FILE and do not try to read them from the default
     options file in the homedir (see '--homedir').  This option is
     ignored if used in an options file.

'--no-options'
     Shortcut for '--options /dev/null'.  This option is detected before
     an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
     prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.

'-z N'
'--compress-level N'
'--bzip2-compress-level N'
     Set compression level to N for the ZIP and ZLIB compression
     algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level of
     zlib (normally 6).  '--bzip2-compress-level' sets the compression
     level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6 as
     well).  This is a different option from '--compress-level' since
     BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory for each additional
     compression level.  '-z' sets both.  A value of 0 for N disables
     compression.

'--bzip2-decompress-lowmem'
     Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
     This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
     also runs at half the speed.  This is useful under extreme low
     memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed at a
     high '--bzip2-compress-level'.

'--mangle-dos-filenames'
'--no-mangle-dos-filenames'
     Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one
     dot.  '--mangle-dos-filenames' causes GnuPG to replace (rather than
     add to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this problem.
     This option is off by default and has no effect on non-Windows
     platforms.

'--ask-cert-level'
'--no-ask-cert-level'
     When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level.  If
     this option is not specified, the certification level used is set
     via '--default-cert-level'.  See '--default-cert-level' for
     information on the specific levels and how they are used.
     '--no-ask-cert-level' disables this option.  This option defaults
     to no.

'--default-cert-level N'
     The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

     0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you
     verified the key.

     1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
     own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all.  This
     is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key of a
     pseudonymous user.

     2 means you did casual verification of the key.  For example, this
     could mean that you verified the key fingerprint and checked the
     user ID on the key against a photo ID.

     3 means you did extensive verification of the key.  For example,
     this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
     owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
     hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
     the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
     key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the
     email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

     Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
     that: examples.  In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
     "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

     This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

'--min-cert-level'
     When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a
     certification level below this as invalid.  Defaults to 2, which
     disregards level 1 signatures.  Note that level 0 "no particular
     claim" signatures are always accepted.

'--trusted-key LONG KEY ID'
     Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte
     key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.  This
     option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys (or one
     of them) online but still want to be able to check the validity of
     a given recipient's or signator's key.

'--trust-model {pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto}'
     Set what trust model GnuPG should follow.  The models are:

     pgp
          This is the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as
          used in PGP 5.x and later.  This is the default trust model
          when creating a new trust database.

     classic
          This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

     tofu
          TOFU stands for Trust On First Use.  In this trust model, the
          first time a key is seen, it is memorized.  If later another
          key with a user id with the same email address is seen, both
          keys are marked as suspect.  In that case, the next time
          either is used, a warning is displayed describing the
          conflict, why it might have occurred (either the user
          generated a new key and failed to cross sign the old and new
          keys, the key is forgery, or a man-in-the-middle attack is
          being attempted), and the user is prompted to manually confirm
          the validity of the key in question.

          Because a potential attacker is able to control the email
          address and thereby circumvent the conflict detection
          algorithm by using an email address that is similar in
          appearance to a trusted email address, whenever a message is
          verified, statistics about the number of messages signed with
          the key are shown.  In this way, a user can easily identify
          attacks using fake keys for regular correspondents.

          When compared with the Web of Trust, TOFU offers significantly
          weaker security guarantees.  In particular, TOFU only helps
          ensure consistency (that is, that the binding between a key
          and email address doesn't change).  A major advantage of TOFU
          is that it requires little maintenance to use correctly.  To
          use the web of trust properly, you need to actively sign keys
          and mark users as trusted introducers.  This is a
          time-consuming process and anecdotal evidence suggests that
          even security-conscious users rarely take the time to do this
          thoroughly and instead rely on an ad-hoc TOFU process.

          In the TOFU model, policies are associated with bindings
          between keys and email addresses (which are extracted from
          user ids and normalized).  There are five policies, which can
          be set manually using the '--tofu-policy' option.  The default
          policy can be set using the '--tofu-default-policy' option.

          The TOFU policies are: 'auto', 'good', 'unknown', 'bad' and
          'ask'.  The 'auto' policy is used by default (unless
          overridden by '--tofu-default-policy') and marks a binding as
          marginally trusted.  The 'good', 'unknown' and 'bad' policies
          mark a binding as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as
          having trust never, respectively.  The 'unknown' policy is
          useful for just using TOFU to detect conflicts, but to never
          assign positive trust to a binding.  The final policy, 'ask'
          prompts the user to indicate the binding's trust.  If batch
          mode is enabled (or input is inappropriate in the context),
          then the user is not prompted and the 'undefined' trust level
          is returned.

     tofu+pgp
          This trust model combines TOFU with the Web of Trust.  This is
          done by computing the trust level for each model and then
          taking the maximum trust level where the trust levels are
          ordered as follows: 'unknown < undefined < marginal < fully <
          ultimate < expired < never'.

          By setting '--tofu-default-policy=unknown', this model can be
          used to implement the web of trust with TOFU's conflict
          detection algorithm, but without its assignment of positive
          trust values, which some security-conscious users don't like.

     direct
          Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated
          via the Web of Trust.  This model is solely based on the key
          and does not distinguish user IDs.  Note that when changing to
          another trust model the trust values assigned to a key are
          transformed into ownertrust values, which also indicate how
          you trust the owner of the key to sign other keys.

     always
          Skip key validation and assume that used keys are always fully
          valid.  You generally won't use this unless you are using some
          external validation scheme.  This option also suppresses the
          "[uncertain]" tag printed with signature checks when there is
          no evidence that the user ID is bound to the key.  Note that
          this trust model still does not allow the use of expired,
          revoked, or disabled keys.

     auto
          Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
          trust database says.  This is the default model if such a
          database already exists.

'--auto-key-locate MECHANISMS'
'--no-auto-key-locate'
     GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
     this option.  This happens when encrypting to an email address (in
     the "user AT example.com" form), and there are no "user AT example.com"
     keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number of the
     mechanisms listed below, in the order they are to be tried.
     Instead of listing the mechanisms as comma delimited arguments, the
     option may also be given several times to add more mechanism.  The
     option '--no-auto-key-locate' or the mechanism "clear" resets the
     list.  The default is "local,wkd".

     cert
          Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in RFC-4398.

     pka
          Locate a key using DNS PKA.

     dane
          Locate a key using DANE, as specified in
          draft-ietf-dane-openpgpkey-05.txt.

     wkd
          Locate a key using the Web Key Directory protocol.

     ldap
          Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question for
          any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate
          the key using the PGP Universal method of checking
          'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

     keyserver
          Locate a key using whatever keyserver is defined using the
          '--keyserver' option.

     keyserver-URL
          In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the '--keyserver'
          option may be used here to query that particular keyserver.

     local
          Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
          allows the user to select the order a local key lookup is
          done.  Thus using '--auto-key-locate local' is identical to
          '--no-auto-key-locate'.

     nodefault
          This flag disables the standard local key lookup, done before
          any of the mechanisms defined by the '--auto-key-locate' are
          tried.  The position of this mechanism in the list does not
          matter.  It is not required if 'local' is also used.

     clear
          Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
          mechanisms given in a config file.

'--auto-key-retrieve'
'--no-auto-key-retrieve'
     These options enable or disable the automatic retrieving of keys
     from a keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are
     not on the local keyring.  The default is '--no-auto-key-retrieve'.

     If the method "wkd" is included in the list of methods given to
     'auto-key-locate', the signer's user ID is part of the signature,
     and the option '--disable-signer-uid' is not used, the "wkd" method
     may also be used to retrieve a key.

     Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior possible.
     Keyserver or Web Key Directory operators can see which keys you
     request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key
     (which you naturally will not have on your local keyring), the
     operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you
     verified the signature.

'--keyid-format {none|short|0xshort|long|0xlong}'
     Select how to display key IDs.  "none" does not show the key ID at
     all but shows the fingerprint in a separate line.  "short" is the
     traditional 8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but
     less convenient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to
     include an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.
     Note that this option is ignored if the option '--with-colons' is
     used.

'--keyserver NAME'
     This option is deprecated - please use the '--keyserver' in
     'dirmngr.conf' instead.

     Use NAME as your keyserver.  This is the server that
     '--receive-keys', '--send-keys', and '--search-keys' will
     communicate with to receive keys from, send keys to, and search for
     keys on.  The format of the NAME is a URI:
     'scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme is the type of
     keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap"
     for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the Graff email keyserver.
     Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may have other
     keyserver types available as well.  Keyserver schemes are
     case-insensitive.  After the keyserver name, optional keyserver
     configuration options may be provided.  These are the same as the
     global '--keyserver-options' from below, but apply only to this
     particular keyserver.

     Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally
     no need to send keys to more than one server.  The keyserver
     'hkp://keys.gnupg.net' uses round robin DNS to give a different
     keyserver each time you use it.

'--keyserver-options {NAME=VALUE}'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     the keyserver.  Options can be prefixed with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  Valid import-options or export-options may be
     used here as well to apply to importing ('--recv-key') or exporting
     ('--send-key') a key from a keyserver.  While not all options are
     available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

     include-revoked
          When searching for a key with '--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as revoked.  Note that not
          all keyservers differentiate between revoked and unrevoked
          keys, and for such keyservers this option is meaningless.
          Note also that most keyservers do not have cryptographic
          verification of key revocations, and so turning this option
          off may result in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked as
          revoked.

     include-disabled
          When searching for a key with '--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note that this
          option is not used with HKP keyservers.

     auto-key-retrieve
          This is an obsolete alias for the option 'auto-key-retrieve'.
          Please do not use it; it will be removed in future versions..

     honor-keyserver-url
          When using '--refresh-keys', if the key in question has a
          preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to
          refresh the key from.  In addition, if auto-key-retrieve is
          set, and the signature being verified has a preferred
          keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the
          key from.  Note that this option introduces a "web bug": The
          creator of the key can see when the keys is refreshed.  Thus
          this option is not enabled by default.

     honor-pka-record
          If '--auto-key-retrieve' is used, and the signature being
          verified has a PKA record, then use the PKA information to
          fetch the key.  Defaults to "yes".

     include-subkeys
          When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets.
          Note that this option is not used with HKP keyservers, as they
          do not support retrieving keys by subkey id.

     timeout
          Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try
          and perform a keyserver action before giving up.  Note that
          performing multiple actions at the same time uses this timeout
          value per action.  For example, when retrieving multiple keys
          via '--receive-keys', the timeout applies separately to each
          key retrieval, and not to the '--receive-keys' command as a
          whole.  Defaults to 30 seconds.

     http-proxy=VALUE
          This option is deprecated.  Set the proxy to use for HTTP and
          HKP keyservers.  This overrides any proxy defined in
          'dirmngr.conf'.

     verbose
          This option has no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use the
          'dirmngr' configuration options instead.

     debug
          This option has no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use the
          'dirmngr' configuration options instead.

     check-cert
          This option has no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use the
          'dirmngr' configuration options instead.

     ca-cert-file
          This option has no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use the
          'dirmngr' configuration options instead.

'--completes-needed N'
     Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 1).

'--marginals-needed N'
     Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 3)

'--tofu-default-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask}'
     The default TOFU policy (defaults to 'auto').  For more information
     about the meaning of this option, *note trust-model-tofu::.

'--max-cert-depth N'
     Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

'--no-sig-cache'
     Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
     gives a much better performance in key listings.  However, if you
     suspect that your public keyring is not safe against write
     modifications, you can use this option to disable the caching.  It
     probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind of
     damage can be done if someone else has write access to your public
     keyring.

'--auto-check-trustdb'
'--no-auto-check-trustdb'
     If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has to
     be updated, it automatically runs the '--check-trustdb' command
     internally.  This may be a time consuming process.
     '--no-auto-check-trustdb' disables this option.

'--use-agent'
'--no-use-agent'
     This is dummy option.  'gpg' always requires the agent.

'--gpg-agent-info'
     This is dummy option.  It has no effect when used with 'gpg'.

'--agent-program FILE'
     Specify an agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The
     default value is determined by running 'gpgconf' with the option
     '--list-dirs'.  Note that the pipe symbol ('|') is used for a
     regression test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file
     name.

'--dirmngr-program FILE'
     Specify a dirmngr program to be used for keyserver access.  The
     default value is '/usr/bin/dirmngr'.

'--disable-dirmngr'
     Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

'--no-autostart'
     Do not start the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been
     started and its service is required.  This option is mostly useful
     on machines where the connection to gpg-agent has been redirected
     to another machines.  If dirmngr is required on the remote machine,
     it may be started manually using 'gpgconf --launch dirmngr'.

'--lock-once'
     Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
     release the lock until the process terminates.

'--lock-multiple'
     Release the locks every time a lock is no longer needed.  Use this
     to override a previous '--lock-once' from a config file.

'--lock-never'
     Disable locking entirely.  This option should be used only in very
     special environments, where it can be assured that only one process
     is accessing those files.  A bootable floppy with a stand-alone
     encryption system will probably use this.  Improper usage of this
     option may lead to data and key corruption.

'--exit-on-status-write-error'
     This option will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately
     terminate the process.  That should in fact be the default but it
     never worked this way and thus we need an option to enable this, so
     that the change won't break applications which close their end of a
     status fd connected pipe too early.  Using this option along with
     '--enable-progress-filter' may be used to cleanly cancel long
     running gpg operations.

'--limit-card-insert-tries N'
     With N greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
     smartcard gets limited to N-1.  Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't at
     all ask to insert a card if none has been inserted at startup.
     This option is useful in the configuration file in case an
     application does not know about the smartcard support and waits ad
     infinitum for an inserted card.

'--no-random-seed-file'
     GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over
     invocations.  This makes random generation faster; however
     sometimes write operations are not desired.  This option can be
     used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

'--no-greeting'
     Suppress the initial copyright message.

'--no-secmem-warning'
     Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

'--no-permission-warning'
     Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory
     ('--homedir') permissions.  Note that the permission checks that
     GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
     they simply warn about certain common permission problems.  Do not
     assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is secure.

     Note that the warning for unsafe '--homedir' permissions cannot be
     suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker to
     place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
     suppress warnings about itself.  The '--homedir' permissions
     warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

'--require-secmem'
'--no-require-secmem'
     Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory.  Defaults to no
     (i.e.  run, but give a warning).

'--require-cross-certification'
'--no-require-cross-certification'
     When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
     cross certification "back signature" on the subkey is present and
     valid.  This protects against a subtle attack against subkeys that
     can sign.  Defaults to '--require-cross-certification' for 'gpg'.

'--expert'
'--no-expert'
     Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
     signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially
     incompatible things like generating unusual key types.  This also
     disables certain warning messages about potentially incompatible
     actions.  As the name implies, this option is for experts only.  If
     you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows you
     to do, leave this off.  '--no-expert' disables this option.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Key related Options,  Next: GPG Input and Output,  Prev: GPG Configuration Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.2 Key related options
-------------------------

'--recipient NAME'
'-r'
     Encrypt for user id NAME.  If this option or '--hidden-recipient'
     is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless
     '--default-recipient' is given.

'--hidden-recipient NAME'
'-R'
     Encrypt for user ID NAME, but hide the key ID of this user's key.
     This option helps to hide the receiver of the message and is a
     limited countermeasure against traffic analysis.  If this option or
     '--recipient' is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user ID unless
     '--default-recipient' is given.

'--recipient-file FILE'
'-f'
     This option is similar to '--recipient' except that it encrypts to
     a key stored in the given file.  FILE must be the name of a file
     containing exactly one key.  'gpg' assumes that the key in this
     file is fully valid.

'--hidden-recipient-file FILE'
'-F'
     This option is similar to '--hidden-recipient' except that it
     encrypts to a key stored in the given file.  FILE must be the name
     of a file containing exactly one key.  'gpg' assumes that the key
     in this file is fully valid.

'--encrypt-to NAME'
     Same as '--recipient' but this one is intended for use in the
     options file and may be used with your own user-id as an
     "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of '--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

'--hidden-encrypt-to NAME'
     Same as '--hidden-recipient' but this one is intended for use in
     the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hidden
     "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of '--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

'--no-encrypt-to'
     Disable the use of all '--encrypt-to' and '--hidden-encrypt-to'
     keys.

'--group {NAME=VALUE}'
     Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email
     programs.  Any time the group name is a recipient ('-r' or
     '--recipient'), it will be expanded to the values specified.
     Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into a
     single group.

     The values are 'key IDs' or fingerprints, but any key description
     is accepted.  Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
     as two different values.  Note also there is only one level of
     expansion -- you cannot make an group that points to another group.
     When used from the command line, it may be necessary to quote the
     argument to this option to prevent the shell from treating it as
     multiple arguments.

'--ungroup NAME'
     Remove a given entry from the '--group' list.

'--no-groups'
     Remove all entries from the '--group' list.

'--local-user NAME'
'-u'
     Use NAME as the key to sign with.  Note that this option overrides
     '--default-key'.

'--sender MBOX'
     This option has two purposes.  MBOX must either be a complete user
     id with a proper mail address or just a mail address.  When
     creating a signature this option tells gpg the user id of a key
     used to make a signature if the key was not directly specified by a
     user id.  When verifying a signature the MBOX is used to restrict
     the information printed by the TOFU code to matching user ids.

'--try-secret-key NAME'
     For hidden recipients GPG needs to know the keys to use for trial
     decryption.  The key set with '--default-key' is always tried
     first, but this is often not sufficient.  This option allows
     setting more keys to be used for trial decryption.  Although any
     valid user-id specification may be used for NAME it makes sense to
     use at least the long keyid to avoid ambiguities.  Note that
     gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a lot keys to do the trial
     decryption.  If you want to stop all further trial decryption you
     may use close-window button instead of the cancel button.

'--try-all-secrets'
     Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all
     secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key.  This option
     forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients (created by
     using '--throw-keyids' or '--hidden-recipient') and might come
     handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

'--skip-hidden-recipients'
'--no-skip-hidden-recipients'
     During decryption skip all anonymous recipients.  This option helps
     in the case that people use the hidden recipients feature to hide
     there own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has many secret
     keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all keys are tried
     in turn to decrypt something which was not really intended for it.
     The drawback of this option is that it is currently not possible to
     decrypt a message which includes real anonymous recipients.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Input and Output,  Next: OpenPGP Options,  Prev: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.3 Input and Output
----------------------

'--armor'
'-a'
     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary
     OpenPGP format.

'--no-armor'
     Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

'--output FILE'
'-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE.  To write to stdout use '-' as the filename.

'--max-output N'
     This option sets a limit on the number of bytes that will be
     generated when processing a file.  Since OpenPGP supports various
     levels of compression, it is possible that the plaintext of a given
     message may be significantly larger than the original OpenPGP
     message.  While GnuPG works properly with such messages, there is
     often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be generated
     before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.  Defaults to
     0, which means "no limit".

'--input-size-hint N'
     This option can be used to tell GPG the size of the input data in
     bytes.  N must be a positive base-10 number.  This option is only
     useful if the input is not taken from a file.  GPG may use this
     hint to optimize its buffer allocation strategy.  It is also used
     by the '--status-fd' line "PROGRESS" to provide a value for "total"
     if that is not available by other means.

'--key-origin STRING[,URL]'
     gpg can track the origin of a key.  Certain origins are implicitly
     known (e.g.  keyserver, web key directory) and set.  For a standard
     import the origin of the keys imported can be set with this option.
     To list the possible values use "help" for STRING.  Some origins
     can store an optional URL argument.  That URL can appended to
     STRING after a comma.

'--import-options PARAMETERS'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     importing keys.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  The options are:

     import-local-sigs
          Allow importing key signatures marked as "local".  This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

     keep-ownertrust
          Normally possible still existing ownertrust values of a key
          are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
          desirable so that a formerly deleted key does not
          automatically gain an ownertrust values merely due to import.
          On the other hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import a
          trusted set of keys again but keeping already assigned
          ownertrust values.  This can be achieved by using this option.

     repair-pks-subkey-bug
          During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS
          keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with
          multiple subkeys.  Note that this cannot completely repair the
          damaged key as some crucial data is removed by the keyserver,
          but it does at least give you back one subkey.  Defaults to no
          for regular '--import' and to yes for keyserver
          '--receive-keys'.

     import-show
     show-only
          Show a listing of the key as imported right before it is
          stored.  This can be combined with the option '--dry-run' to
          only look at keys; the option 'show-only' is a shortcut for
          this combination.  Note that suffixes like '#' for "sec" and
          "sbb" lines may or may not be printed.

     import-export
          Run the entire import code but instead of storing the key to
          the local keyring write it to the output.  The export options
          'export-pka' and 'export-dane' affect the output.  This option
          can be used to remove all invalid parts from a key without the
          need to store it.

     merge-only
          During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not
          allow any new keys to be imported.  Defaults to no.

     import-clean
          After import, compact (remove all signatures except the
          self-signature) any user IDs from the new key that are not
          usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key that are
          not usable.  This includes signatures that were issued by keys
          that are not present on the keyring.  This option is the same
          as running the '--edit-key' command "clean" after import.
          Defaults to no.

     repair-keys. After import, fix various problems with the
          keys.  For example, this reorders signatures, and strips
          duplicate signatures.  Defaults to yes.

     import-minimal
          Import the smallest key possible.  This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

     restore
     import-restore
          Import in key restore mode.  This imports all data which is
          usually skipped during import; including all GnuPG specific
          data.  All other contradicting options are overridden.

'--import-filter {NAME=EXPR}'
'--export-filter {NAME=EXPR}'
     These options define an import/export filter which are applied to
     the imported/exported keyblock right before it will be
     stored/written.  NAME defines the type of filter to use, EXPR the
     expression to evaluate.  The option can be used several times which
     then appends more expression to the same NAME.

     The available filter types are:

     keep-uid
          This filter will keep a user id packet and its dependent
          packets in the keyblock if the expression evaluates to true.

     drop-subkey
          This filter drops the selected subkeys.  Currently only
          implemented for -export-filter.

     drop-sig
          This filter drops the selected key signatures on user ids.
          Self-signatures are not considered.  Currently only
          implemented for -import-filter.

     For the syntax of the expression see the chapter "FILTER
     EXPRESSIONS". The property names for the expressions depend on the
     actual filter type and are indicated in the following table.

     The available properties are:

     uid
          A string with the user id.  (keep-uid)

     mbox
          The addr-spec part of a user id with mailbox or the empty
          string.  (keep-uid)

     key_algo
          A number with the public key algorithm of a key or subkey
          packet.  (drop-subkey)

     key_created
     key_created_d
          The first is the timestamp a public key or subkey packet was
          created.  The second is the same but given as an ISO string,
          e.g.  "2016-08-17".  (drop-subkey)

     primary
          Boolean indicating whether the user id is the primary one.
          (keep-uid)

     expired
          Boolean indicating whether a user id (keep-uid), a key
          (drop-subkey), or a signature (drop-sig) expired.

     revoked
          Boolean indicating whether a user id (keep-uid) or a key
          (drop-subkey) has been revoked.

     disabled
          Boolean indicating whether a primary key is disabled.  (not
          used)

     secret
          Boolean indicating whether a key or subkey is a secret one.
          (drop-subkey)

     sig_created
     sig_created_d
          The first is the timestamp a signature packet was created.
          The second is the same but given as an ISO date string, e.g.
          "2016-08-17".  (drop-sig)

     sig_algo
          A number with the public key algorithm of a signature packet.
          (drop-sig)

     sig_digest_algo
          A number with the digest algorithm of a signature packet.
          (drop-sig)

'--export-options PARAMETERS'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     exporting keys.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  The options are:

     export-local-sigs
          Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local".  This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

     export-attributes
          Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.  Not
          including attribute user IDs is useful to export keys that are
          going to be used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept
          attribute user IDs.  Defaults to yes.

     export-sensitive-revkeys
          Include designated revoker information that was marked as
          "sensitive".  Defaults to no.

     backup
     export-backup
          Export for use as a backup.  The exported data includes all
          data which is needed to restore the key or keys later with
          GnuPG. The format is basically the OpenPGP format but enhanced
          with GnuPG specific data.  All other contradicting options are
          overridden.

     export-clean
          Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key being
          exported if the user IDs are not usable.  Also, do not export
          any signatures that are not usable.  This includes signatures
          that were issued by keys that are not present on the keyring.
          This option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "clean" before export except that the local copy of the key is
          not modified.  Defaults to no.

     export-minimal
          Export the smallest key possible.  This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "minimize" before export except that the local copy of the key
          is not modified.  Defaults to no.

     export-pka
          Instead of outputting the key material output PKA records
          suitable to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is
          printed before each record to allow diverting the records to
          the corresponding zone file.

     export-dane
          Instead of outputting the key material output OpenPGP DANE
          records suitable to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line
          is printed before each record to allow diverting the records
          to the corresponding zone file.

'--with-colons'
     Print key listings delimited by colons.  Note that the output will
     be encoded in UTF-8 regardless of any '--display-charset' setting.
     This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts and other
     programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The details of this
     format are documented in the file 'doc/DETAILS', which is included
     in the GnuPG source distribution.

'--fixed-list-mode'
     Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in '--with-colon'
     listing mode and print all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.
     Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is always used and thus this option
     is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

'--legacy-list-mode'
     Revert to the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This only affects the
     human readable output and not the machine interface (i.e.
     '--with-colons').  Note that the legacy format does not convey
     suitable information for elliptic curves.

'--with-fingerprint'
     Same as the command '--fingerprint' but changes only the format of
     the output and may be used together with another command.

'--with-subkey-fingerprint'
     If a fingerprint is printed for the primary key, this option forces
     printing of the fingerprint for all subkeys.  This could also be
     achieved by using the '--with-fingerprint' twice but by using this
     option along with keyid-format "none" a compact fingerprint is
     printed.

'--with-icao-spelling'
     Print the ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in addition to the hex
     digits.

'--with-keygrip'
     Include the keygrip in the key listings.  In '--with-colons' mode
     this is implicitly enable for secret keys.

'--with-key-origin'
     Include the locally held information on the origin and last update
     of a key in a key listing.  In '--with-colons' mode this is always
     printed.  This data is currently experimental and shall not be
     considered part of the stable API.

'--with-wkd-hash'
     Print a Web Key Directory identifier along with each user ID in key
     listings.  This is an experimental feature and semantics may
     change.

'--with-secret'
     Include info about the presence of a secret key in public key
     listings done with '--with-colons'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Options,  Next: Compliance Options,  Prev: GPG Input and Output,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.4 OpenPGP protocol specific options
---------------------------------------

'-t, --textmode'
'--no-textmode'
     Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical
     text form with standard "CRLF" line endings.  This also sets the
     necessary flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted or
     signed data is text and may need its line endings converted back to
     whatever the local system uses.  This option is useful when
     communicating between two platforms that have different line ending
     conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
     '--no-textmode' disables this option, and is the default.

'--force-v3-sigs'
'--no-force-v3-sigs'
'--force-v4-certs'
'--no-force-v4-certs'
     These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.1.

'--force-mdc'
'--disable-mdc'
     These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG
     2.2.4-1ubuntu1.1.  The +MDC is always used.  But note: If the
     creation of a legacy non-MDC message is exceptionally required, the
     option '--rfc2440' allows for this.

'--disable-signer-uid'
     By default the user ID of the signing key is embedded in the data
     signature.  As of now this is only done if the signing key has been
     specified with 'local-user' using a mail address.  This information
     can be helpful for verifier to locate the key; see option
     '--auto-key-retrieve'.

'--personal-cipher-preferences STRING'
     Set the list of personal cipher preferences to STRING.  Use 'gpg
     --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use 'none' to
     set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override
     the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG will
     only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The
     most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used for the
     '--symmetric' encryption command.

'--personal-digest-preferences STRING'
     Set the list of personal digest preferences to STRING.  Use 'gpg
     --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use 'none' to
     set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override
     the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG will
     only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The
     most highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is also used when
     signing without encryption (e.g.  '--clear-sign' or '--sign').

'--personal-compress-preferences STRING'
     Set the list of personal compression preferences to STRING.  Use
     'gpg --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use
     'none' to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely
     override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
     GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
     The most highly ranked compression algorithm in this list is also
     used when there are no recipient keys to consider (e.g.
     '--symmetric').

'--s2k-cipher-algo NAME'
     Use NAME as the cipher algorithm for symmetric encryption with a
     passphrase if '--personal-cipher-preferences' and '--cipher-algo'
     are not given.  The default is AES-128.

'--s2k-digest-algo NAME'
     Use NAME as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases for
     symmetric encryption.  The default is SHA-1.

'--s2k-mode N'
     Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled.  If N
     is 0 a plain passphrase (which is in general not recommended) will
     be used, a 1 adds a salt (which should not be used) to the
     passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole process a
     number of times (see '--s2k-count').

'--s2k-count N'
     Specify how many times the passphrases mangling for symmetric
     encryption is repeated.  This value may range between 1024 and
     65011712 inclusive.  The default is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note
     that not all values in the 1024-65011712 range are legal and if an
     illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal
     value.  This option is only meaningful if '--s2k-mode' is set to
     the default of 3.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Compliance Options,  Next: GPG Esoteric Options,  Prev: OpenPGP Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.5 Compliance options
------------------------

These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only one of these
options may be active at a time.  Note that the default setting of this
is nearly always the correct one.  See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

'--gnupg'
     Use standard GnuPG behavior.  This is essentially OpenPGP behavior
     (see '--openpgp'), but with some additional workarounds for common
     compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This is the
     default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may be useful
     to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

'--openpgp'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
     behavior.  Use this option to reset all previous options like
     '--s2k-*', '--cipher-algo', '--digest-algo' and '--compress-algo'
     to OpenPGP compliant values.  All PGP workarounds are disabled.

'--rfc4880'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
     behavior.  Note that this is currently the same thing as
     '--openpgp'.

'--rfc4880bis'
     Enable experimental features from proposed updates to RFC-4880.
     This option can be used in addition to the other compliance
     options.  Warning: The behavior may change with any GnuPG release
     and created keys or data may not be usable with future GnuPG
     versions.

'--rfc2440'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
     behavior.  Note that by using this option encryption packets are
     created in a legacy mode without MDC protection.  This is dangerous
     and should thus only be used for experiments.  See also option
     '--ignore-mdc-error'.

'--pgp6'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible.  This
     restricts you to the ciphers IDEA (if the IDEA plugin is
     installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
     and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
     '--throw-keyids', and making signatures with signing subkeys as PGP
     6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

     This option implies '--escape-from-lines'.

'--pgp7'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible.  This is
     identical to '--pgp6' except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
     list of allowable ciphers is expanded to add AES128, AES192,
     AES256, and TWOFISH.

'--pgp8'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible.  PGP 8 is
     a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions of PGP,
     so all this does is disable '--throw-keyids' and set
     '--escape-from-lines'.  All algorithms are allowed except for the
     SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

'--compliance STRING'
     This option can be used instead of one of the options above.  Valid
     values for STRING are the above option names (without the double
     dash) and possibly others as shown when using "help" for VALUE.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Esoteric Options,  Next: Deprecated Options,  Prev: Compliance Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.6 Doing things one usually doesn't want to do
-------------------------------------------------

'-n'
'--dry-run'
     Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

'--list-only'
     Changes the behaviour of some commands.  This is like '--dry-run'
     but different in some cases.  The semantic of this option may be
     extended in the future.  Currently it only skips the actual
     decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of the
     encryption keys.

'-i'
'--interactive'
     Prompt before overwriting any files.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

'--debug FLAGS'
     Set debugging flags.  All flags are or-ed and FLAGS may be given in
     C syntax (e.g.  0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag names.
     To get a list of all supported flags the single word "help" can be
     used.

'--debug-all'
     Set all useful debugging flags.

'--debug-iolbf'
     Set stdout into line buffered mode.  This option is only honored
     when given on the command line.

'--faked-system-time EPOCH'
     This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
     back or forth to EPOCH which is the number of seconds elapsed since
     the year 1970.  Alternatively EPOCH may be given as a full ISO time
     string (e.g.  "20070924T154812").

     If you suffix EPOCH with an exclamation mark (!), the system time
     will appear to be frozen at the specified time.

'--enable-progress-filter'
     Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs.  This option allows
     frontends to display a progress indicator while gpg is processing
     larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

'--status-fd N'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor N.  See the
     file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

'--status-file FILE'
     Same as '--status-fd', except the status data is written to file
     FILE.

'--logger-fd N'
     Write log output to file descriptor N and not to STDERR.

'--log-file FILE'
'--logger-file FILE'
     Same as '--logger-fd', except the logger data is written to file
     FILE.  Use 'socket://' to log to s socket.

'--attribute-fd N'
     Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor N.  This is most
     useful for use with '--status-fd', since the status messages are
     needed to separate out the various subpackets from the stream
     delivered to the file descriptor.

'--attribute-file FILE'
     Same as '--attribute-fd', except the attribute data is written to
     file FILE.

'--comment STRING'
'--no-comments'
     Use STRING as a comment string in cleartext signatures and ASCII
     armored messages or keys (see '--armor').  The default behavior is
     not to use a comment string.  '--comment' may be repeated multiple
     times to get multiple comment strings.  '--no-comments' removes all
     comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single comment
     below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail programs wrapping
     such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all other header lines,
     are not protected by the signature.

'--emit-version'
'--no-emit-version'
     Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.  If
     given once only the name of the program and the major number is
     emitted, given twice the minor is also emitted, given thrice the
     micro is added, and given four times an operating system
     identification is also emitted.  '--no-emit-version' (default)
     disables the version line.

'--sig-notation {NAME=VALUE}'
'--cert-notation {NAME=VALUE}'
'-N, --set-notation {NAME=VALUE}'
     Put the name value pair into the signature as notation data.  NAME
     must consist only of printable characters or spaces, and must
     contain a '@' character in the form keyname AT domain.com
     (substituting the appropriate keyname and domain name, of course).
     This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation
     namespace.  The '--expert' flag overrides the '@' check.  VALUE may
     be any printable string; it will be encoded in UTF-8, so you should
     check that your '--display-charset' is set correctly.  If you
     prefix NAME with an exclamation mark (!), the notation data will be
     flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).  '--sig-notation' sets a
     notation for data signatures.  '--cert-notation' sets a notation
     for key signatures (certifications).  '--set-notation' sets both.

     There are special codes that may be used in notation names.  "%k"
     will be expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K" into
     the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fingerprint
     of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the key making the
     signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key making the
     signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key making the
     signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint of
     the primary key of the key making the signature, "%c" into the
     signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%" results in a
     single "%".  %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful when making a key
     signature (certification), and %c is only meaningful when using the
     OpenPGP smartcard.

'--sig-policy-url STRING'
'--cert-policy-url STRING'
'--set-policy-url STRING'
     Use STRING as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).  If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL packet
     will be flagged as critical.  '--sig-policy-url' sets a policy url
     for data signatures.  '--cert-policy-url' sets a policy url for key
     signatures (certifications).  '--set-policy-url' sets both.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

'--sig-keyserver-url STRING'
     Use STRING as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures.  If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL
     packet will be flagged as critical.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

'--set-filename STRING'
     Use STRING as the filename which is stored inside messages.  This
     overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename of the
     file being encrypted.  Using the empty string for STRING
     effectively removes the filename from the output.

'--for-your-eyes-only'
'--no-for-your-eyes-only'
     Set the 'for your eyes only' flag in the message.  This causes
     GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the '--output' option is
     given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed
     Tempest-resistant font to display the message.  This option
     overrides '--set-filename'.  '--no-for-your-eyes-only' disables
     this option.

'--use-embedded-filename'
'--no-use-embedded-filename'
     Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data.  This can
     be a dangerous option as it enables overwriting files.  Defaults to
     no.

'--cipher-algo NAME'
     Use NAME as cipher algorithm.  Running the program with the command
     '--version' yields a list of supported algorithms.  If this is not
     used the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences stored
     with the key.  In general, you do not want to use this option as it
     allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     '--personal-cipher-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

'--digest-algo NAME'
     Use NAME as the message digest algorithm.  Running the program with
     the command '--version' yields a list of supported algorithms.  In
     general, you do not want to use this option as it allows you to
     violate the OpenPGP standard.  '--personal-digest-preferences' is
     the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

'--compress-algo NAME'
     Use compression algorithm NAME.  "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB
     compression.  "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by
     PGP. "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme that can compress
     some things better than zip or zlib, but at the cost of more memory
     used during compression and decompression.  "uncompressed" or
     "none" disables compression.  If this option is not used, the
     default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to see
     which algorithms the recipient supports.  If all else fails, ZIP is
     used for maximum compatibility.

     ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the
     compression window size is not limited to 8k.  BZIP2 may give even
     better compression results than that, but will use a significantly
     larger amount of memory while compressing and decompressing.  This
     may be significant in low memory situations.  Note, however, that
     PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression.  Using any
     algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the message unreadable
     with PGP. In general, you do not want to use this option as it
     allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     '--personal-compress-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

'--cert-digest-algo NAME'
     Use NAME as the message digest algorithm used when signing a key.
     Running the program with the command '--version' yields a list of
     supported algorithms.  Be aware that if you choose an algorithm
     that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations do not, then
     some users will not be able to use the key signatures you make, or
     quite possibly your entire key.

'--disable-cipher-algo NAME'
     Never allow the use of NAME as cipher algorithm.  The given name
     will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get
     disabled.

'--disable-pubkey-algo NAME'
     Never allow the use of NAME as public key algorithm.  The given
     name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
     still get disabled.

'--throw-keyids'
'--no-throw-keyids'
     Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages.  This
     helps to hide the receivers of the message and is a limited
     countermeasure against traffic analysis.(1)  On the receiving side,
     it may slow down the decryption process because all available
     secret keys must be tried.  '--no-throw-keyids' disables this
     option.  This option is essentially the same as using
     '--hidden-recipient' for all recipients.

'--not-dash-escaped'
     This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
     they can be used for patch files.  You should not send such an
     armored file via email because all spaces and line endings are
     hashed too.  You can not use this option for data which has 5
     dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.  A
     special armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
     signature option.

'--escape-from-lines'
'--no-escape-from-lines'
     Because some mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From "
     it is good to handle such lines in a special way when creating
     cleartext signatures to prevent the mail system from breaking the
     signature.  Note that all other PGP versions do it this way too.
     Enabled by default.  '--no-escape-from-lines' disables this option.

'--passphrase-repeat N'
     Specify how many times 'gpg' will request a new passphrase be
     repeated.  This is useful for helping memorize a passphrase.
     Defaults to 1 repetition.

'--passphrase-fd N'
     Read the passphrase from file descriptor N.  Only the first line
     will be read from file descriptor N.  If you use 0 for N, the
     passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if only
     one passphrase is supplied.

     Note that this passphrase is only used if the option '--batch' has
     also been given.  This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

'--passphrase-file FILE'
     Read the passphrase from file FILE.  Only the first line will be
     read from file FILE.  This can only be used if only one passphrase
     is supplied.  Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file is of
     questionable security if other users can read this file.  Don't use
     this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is only
     used if the option '--batch' has also been given.  This is
     different from GnuPG version 1.x.

'--passphrase STRING'
     Use STRING as the passphrase.  This can only be used if only one
     passphrase is supplied.  Obviously, this is of very questionable
     security on a multi-user system.  Don't use this option if you can
     avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is only used if the option
     '--batch' has also been given.  This is different from GnuPG
     version 1.x.

'--pinentry-mode MODE'
     Set the pinentry mode to MODE.  Allowed values for MODE are:
     default
          Use the default of the agent, which is 'ask'.
     ask
          Force the use of the Pinentry.
     cancel
          Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.
     error
          Return a Pinentry error ("No Pinentry").
     loopback
          Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.  Note that in
          contrast to Pinentry the user is not prompted again if he
          enters a bad password.

'--command-fd N'
     This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
     If this option is enabled, user input on questions is not expected
     from the TTY but from the given file descriptor.  It should be used
     together with '--status-fd'.  See the file doc/DETAILS in the
     source distribution for details on how to use it.

'--command-file FILE'
     Same as '--command-fd', except the commands are read out of file
     FILE

'--allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
'--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
     Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not
     self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user ID
     is trivial to forge.  '--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid' disables.

'--allow-freeform-uid'
     Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
     new one.  This option should only be used in very special
     environments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
     user IDs.

'--ignore-time-conflict'
     GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and
     signatures have plausible values.  However, sometimes a signature
     seems to be older than the key due to clock problems.  This option
     makes these checks just a warning.  See also '--ignore-valid-from'
     for timestamp issues on subkeys.

'--ignore-valid-from'
     GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the
     future.  This option allows the use of such keys and thus exhibits
     the pre-1.0.7 behaviour.  You should not use this option unless
     there is some clock problem.  See also '--ignore-time-conflict' for
     timestamp issues with signatures.

'--ignore-crc-error'
     The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
     against transmission errors.  Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
     somewhere on the transmission channel but the actual content (which
     is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still okay.  This
     option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

'--ignore-mdc-error'
     This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a
     warning.  It is required to decrypt old messages which did not use
     an MDC. It may also be useful if a message is partially garbled,
     but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out of that
     garbled message.  Be aware that a missing or failed MDC can be an
     indication of an attack.  Use with great caution; see also option
     '--rfc2440'.

'--allow-weak-digest-algos'
     Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms are normally
     rejected with an "invalid digest algorithm" message.  This option
     allows the verification of signatures made with such weak
     algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
     default.  See also '--weak-digest' to reject other digest
     algorithms.

'--weak-digest NAME'
     Treat the specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made over
     weak digests algorithms are normally rejected.  This option can be
     supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should be considered
     weak.  See also '--allow-weak-digest-algos' to disable rejection of
     weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and does not need to
     be listed explicitly.

'--allow-weak-key-signatures'
     To avoid a minor risk of collision attacks on third-party key
     signatures made using SHA-1, those key signatures are considered
     invalid.  This options allows to override this restriction.

'--no-default-keyring'
     Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings.  Note that
     GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use this
     option and do not provide alternate keyrings via '--keyring' or
     '--secret-keyring', then GnuPG will still use the default public or
     secret keyrings.

'--no-keyring'
     Do not add use any keyrings even if specified as options.

'--skip-verify'
     Skip the signature verification step.  This may be used to make the
     decryption faster if the signature verification is not needed.

'--with-key-data'
     Print key listings delimited by colons (like '--with-colons') and
     print the public key data.

'--list-signatures'
'--list-sigs'
     Same as '--list-keys', but the signatures are listed too.  This
     command has the same effect as using '--list-keys' with
     '--with-sig-list'.  Note that in contrast to '--check-signatures'
     the key signatures are not verified.

'--fast-list-mode'
     Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
     achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some applications don't need
     the user ID and the trust information given in the listings.  By
     using this options they can get a faster listing.  The exact
     behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you are
     missing some information, don't use this option.

'--no-literal'
     This is not for normal use.  Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

'--set-filesize'
     This is not for normal use.  Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

'--show-session-key'
     Display the session key used for one message.  See
     '--override-session-key' for the counterpart of this option.

     We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
     have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal the
     content of one specific message without compromising all messages
     ever encrypted for one secret key.

     You can also use this option if you receive an encrypted message
     which is abusive or offensive, to prove to the administrators of
     the messaging system that the ciphertext transmitted corresponds to
     an inappropriate plaintext so they can take action against the
     offending user.

'--override-session-key STRING'
'--override-session-key-fd FD'
     Don't use the public key but the session key STRING respective the
     session key taken from the first line read from file descriptor FD.
     The format of this string is the same as the one printed by
     '--show-session-key'.  This option is normally not used but comes
     handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content of an
     encrypted message; using this option you can do this without
     handing out the secret key.  Note that using
     '--override-session-key' may reveal the session key to all local
     users via the global process table.

'--ask-sig-expire'
'--no-ask-sig-expire'
     When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
     this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     '--default-sig-expire' is used.  '--no-ask-sig-expire' disables
     this option.

'--default-sig-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for signature expiration.  Valid
     values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d
     (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for years) (for
     example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years), or an
     absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

'--ask-cert-expire'
'--no-ask-cert-expire'
     When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
     this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     '--default-cert-expire' is used.  '--no-ask-cert-expire' disables
     this option.

'--default-cert-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
     Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
     letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
     years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years),
     or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

'--default-new-key-algo STRING'
     This option can be used to change the default algorithms for key
     generation.  Note that the advanced key generation commands can
     always be used to specify a key algorithm directly.  Please consult
     the source code to learn the syntax of STRING.

'--allow-secret-key-import'
     This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

'--allow-multiple-messages'
'--no-allow-multiple-messages'
     Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a single
     file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not prepared to
     deal with multiple messages being processed together, so this
     option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior to 1.4.7
     always allowed multiple messages.

     Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary
     workaround!

'--enable-special-filenames'
     This option enables a mode in which filenames of the form '-&n',
     where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file
     descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

'--no-expensive-trust-checks'
     Experimental use only.

'--preserve-permissions'
     Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user
     read/write only.  Use this option only if you really know what you
     are doing.

'--default-preference-list STRING'
     Set the list of default preferences to STRING.  This preference
     list is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in
     the edit menu.

'--default-keyserver-url NAME'
     Set the default keyserver URL to NAME.  This keyserver will be used
     as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a key,
     which includes key generation and changing preferences.

'--list-config'
     Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
     option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to perform
     tasks, and is thus not generally useful.  See the file
     'doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of which
     configuration items may be listed.  '--list-config' is only usable
     with '--with-colons' set.

'--list-gcrypt-config'
     Display various internal configuration parameters of Libgcrypt.

'--gpgconf-list'
     This command is similar to '--list-config' but in general only
     internally used by the 'gpgconf' tool.

'--gpgconf-test'
     This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the
     configuration file and returns with failure if the configuration
     file would prevent 'gpg' from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
     a syntax check on the configuration file.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Using a little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt
the message can check whether one of the other recipients is the one he
suspects.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Deprecated Options,  Prev: GPG Esoteric Options,  Up: GPG Options

4.2.7 Deprecated options
------------------------

'--show-photos'
'--no-show-photos'
     Causes '--list-keys', '--list-signatures', '--list-public-keys',
     '--list-secret-keys', and verifying a signature to also display the
     photo ID attached to the key, if any.  See also '--photo-viewer'.
     These options are deprecated.  Use '--list-options
     [no-]show-photos' and/or '--verify-options [no-]show-photos'
     instead.

'--show-keyring'
     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which
     keyring a given key resides on.  This option is deprecated: use
     '--list-options [no-]show-keyring' instead.

'--always-trust'
     Identical to '--trust-model always'.  This option is deprecated.

'--show-notation'
'--no-show-notation'
     Show signature notations in the '--list-signatures' or
     '--check-signatures' listings as well as when verifying a signature
     with a notation in it.  These options are deprecated.  Use
     '--list-options [no-]show-notation' and/or '--verify-options
     [no-]show-notation' instead.

'--show-policy-url'
'--no-show-policy-url'
     Show policy URLs in the '--list-signatures' or '--check-signatures'
     listings as well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL in
     it.  These options are deprecated.  Use '--list-options
     [no-]show-policy-url' and/or '--verify-options
     [no-]show-policy-url' instead.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Configuration,  Next: GPG Examples,  Prev: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

4.3 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
'gpg''s operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
directory (*note option --homedir::).

'gpg.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'gpg' on startup.
     It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
     not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This default
     name may be changed on the command line (*note gpg-option
     --options::).  You should backup this file.

   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.  For existing users a small
helper script is provided to create these files (*note addgnupghome::).

   For internal purposes 'gpg' creates and maintains a few other files;
They all live in the current home directory (*note option --homedir::).
Only the 'gpg' program may modify these files.

'~/.gnupg'
     This is the default home directory which is used if neither the
     environment variable 'GNUPGHOME' nor the option '--homedir' is
     given.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg'
     The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the public keyring.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'
     The public keyring using a different format.  This file is shared
     with 'gpgsm'.  You should backup this file.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock'
     The lock file for 'pubring.kbx'.

'~/.gnupg/secring.gpg'
     A secret keyring as used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.  It is not
     used by GnuPG 2.1 and later.

'~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the secret keyring.

'~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated'
     File indicating that a migration to GnuPG 2.1 has been done.

'~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg'
     The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
     better to backup the ownertrust values (*note option
     --export-ownertrust::).

'~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the trust database.

'~/.gnupg/random_seed'
     A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

'~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/'
     This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation
     certificates.  The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP fingerprint
     of the respective key.  It is suggested to backup those
     certificates and if the primary private key is not stored on the
     disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can
     access theses files is able to revoke the corresponding key.  You
     may want to print them out.  You should backup all files in this
     directory and take care to keep this backup closed away.

   Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

HOME
     Used to locate the default home directory.

GNUPGHOME
     If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

GPG_AGENT_INFO
     This variable is obsolete; it was used by GnuPG versions before
     2.1.

PINENTRY_USER_DATA
     This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
     convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

COLUMNS
LINES
     Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

LANGUAGE
     Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
     override the language selection done through the Registry.  If used
     and set to a valid and available language name (LANGID), the file
     with the translation is loaded from 'GPGDIR/gnupg.nls/LANGID.mo'.
     Here GPGDIR is the directory out of which the gpg binary has been
     loaded.  If it can't be loaded the Registry is tried and as last
     resort the native Windows locale system is used.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Examples,  Next: Unattended Usage of GPG,  Prev: GPG Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPG

4.4 Examples
============

gpg -se -r 'Bob' 'file'
     sign and encrypt for user Bob

gpg -clear-sign 'file'
     make a cleartext signature

gpg -sb 'file'
     make a detached signature

gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb 'file'
     make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

gpg -list-keys 'user_ID'
     show keys

gpg -fingerprint 'user_ID'
     show fingerprint

gpg -verify 'pgpfile'
gpg -verify 'sigfile' ['datafile']
     Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data unless
     requested.  The second form is used for detached signatures, where
     'sigfile' is the detached signature (either ASCII armored or
     binary) and 'datafile' are the signed data; if this is not given,
     the name of the file holding the signed data is constructed by
     cutting off the extension (".asc" or ".sig") of 'sigfile' or by
     asking the user for the filename.  If the option '--output' is also
     used the signed data is written to the file specified by that
     option; use '-' to write the signed data to stdout.

FILTER EXPRESSIONS
******************

The options '--import-filter' and '--export-filter' use expressions with
this syntax (square brackets indicate an optional part and curly braces
a repetition, white space between the elements are allowed):

       [lc] {[{flag}] PROPNAME op VALUE [lc]}

   The name of a property (PROPNAME) may only consist of letters, digits
and underscores.  The description for the filter type describes which
properties are defined.  If an undefined property is used it evaluates
to the empty string.  Unless otherwise noted, the VALUE must always be
given and may not be the empty string.  No quoting is defined for the
value, thus the value may not contain the strings '&&' or '||', which
are used as logical connection operators.  The flag '--' can be used to
remove this restriction.

   Numerical values are computed as long int; standard C notation
applies.  LC is the logical connection operator; either '&&' for a
conjunction or '||' for a disjunction.  A conjunction is assumed at the
begin of an expression.  Conjunctions have higher precedence than
disjunctions.  If VALUE starts with one of the characters used in any OP
a space after the OP is required.

The supported operators (OP) are:

=~
     Substring must match.

!~
     Substring must not match.

=
     The full string must match.

<>
     The full string must not match.

==
     The numerical value must match.

!=
     The numerical value must not match.

<=
     The numerical value of the field must be LE than the value.

<
     The numerical value of the field must be LT than the value.

>
     The numerical value of the field must be GT than the value.

>=
     The numerical value of the field must be GE than the value.

-le
     The string value of the field must be less or equal than the value.

-lt
     The string value of the field must be less than the value.

-gt
     The string value of the field must be greater than the value.

-ge
     The string value of the field must be greater or equal than the
     value.

-n
     True if value is not empty (no value allowed).

-z
     True if value is empty (no value allowed).

-t
     Alias for "PROPNAME != 0" (no value allowed).

-f
     Alias for "PROPNAME == 0" (no value allowed).

Values for FLAG must be space separated.  The supported flags are:

-
     VALUE spans to the end of the expression.
-c
     The string match in this part is done case-sensitive.

   The filter options concatenate several specifications for a filter of
the same type.  For example the four options in this example:

      --import-option keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa"
      --import-option keep-uid="&& uid !~ Test"
      --import-option keep-uid="|| uid =~ Alpha"
      --import-option keep-uid="uid !~ Test"

which is equivalent to

      --import-option \
       keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa" && uid !~ Test" || uid =~ Alpha" && "uid !~ Test"

   imports only the user ids of a key containing the strings "Alfa" or
"Alpha" but not the string "test".

RETURN VALUE
************

The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
********

Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
protect your secret key.  This passphrase is the weakest part of the
whole system.  Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
are very easy to write and so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
directory very well.

   Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),
it is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

   If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the
program knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line
or use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS
********************************************

GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP
standard.  In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of
the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2
compression algorithms.  It is important to be aware that not all
OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing
their use via the '--cipher-algo', '--digest-algo',
'--cert-digest-algo', or '--compress-algo' options in GnuPG, it is
possible to create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that
cannot be read by the intended recipient.

   There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and
each supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.
For example, until recently, no (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
BLOWFISH cipher algorithm.  A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
read by a PGP user.  By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP
preferences system that will always do the right thing and create
messages that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP
program they use.  Only override this safe default if you really know
what you are doing.

   If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the
preferences on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far
better off using the '--pgp6', '--pgp7', or '--pgp8' options.  These
options are safe as they do not force any particular algorithms in
violation of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a
"PGP-safe" list.

BUGS
****

On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root).  This
is necessary to lock memory pages.  Locking memory pages prevents the
operating system from writing memory pages (which may contain
passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk.  If you get no warning
message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking
without being root.  The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
memory is allocated.

   Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
"suspend to disk" (also known as "safe sleep" or "hibernate").  This
writes all memory to disk before going into a low power or even powered
off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to protect
the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may be
recoverable from it later.

   Before you report a bug you should first search the mailing list
archives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has
already been reported to our bug tracker at <https://bugs.gnupg.org>.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Unattended Usage of GPG,  Prev: GPG Examples,  Up: Invoking GPG

4.5 Unattended Usage
====================

'gpg' is often used as a backend engine by other software.  To help with
this a machine interface has been defined to have an unambiguous way to
do this.  The options '--status-fd' and '--batch' are almost always
required for this.

* Menu:

* Programmatic use of GnuPG:: Programmatic use of GnuPG
* Ephemeral home directories:: Ephemeral home directories
* The quick key manipulation interface:: The quick key manipulation interface
* Unattended GPG key generation::  Unattended key generation

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Programmatic use of GnuPG,  Next: Ephemeral home directories,  Up: Unattended Usage of GPG

4.5.1 Programmatic use of GnuPG
-------------------------------

Please consider using GPGME instead of calling 'gpg' directly.  GPGME
offers a stable, backend-independent interface for many cryptographic
operations.  It supports OpenPGP and S/MIME, and also allows interaction
with various GnuPG components.

   GPGME provides a C-API, and comes with bindings for C++, Qt, and
Python.  Bindings for other languages are available.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Ephemeral home directories,  Next: The quick key manipulation interface,  Prev: Programmatic use of GnuPG,  Up: Unattended Usage of GPG

4.5.2 Ephemeral home directories
--------------------------------

Sometimes you want to contain effects of some operation, for example you
want to import a key to inspect it, but you do not want this key to be
added to your keyring.  In earlier versions of GnuPG, it was possible to
specify alternate keyring files for both public and secret keys.  In
modern GnuPG versions, however, we changed how secret keys are stored in
order to better protect secret key material, and it was not possible to
preserve this interface.

   The preferred way to do this is to use ephemeral home directories.
This technique works across all versions of GnuPG.

   Create a temporary directory, create (or copy) a configuration that
meets your needs, make 'gpg' use this directory either using the
environment variable GNUPGHOME, or the option '--homedir'.  GPGME
supports this too on a per-context basis, by modifying the engine info
of contexts.  Now execute whatever operation you like, import and export
key material as necessary.  Once finished, you can delete the directory.
All GnuPG backend services that were started will detect this and shut
down.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: The quick key manipulation interface,  Next: Unattended GPG key generation,  Prev: Ephemeral home directories,  Up: Unattended Usage of GPG

4.5.3 The quick key manipulation interface
------------------------------------------

Recent versions of GnuPG have an interface to manipulate keys without
using the interactive command '--edit-key'.  This interface was added
mainly for the benefit of GPGME (please consider using GPGME, see the
manual subsection "Programmatic use of GnuPG"). This interface is
described in the subsection "How to manage your keys".

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Unattended GPG key generation,  Prev: The quick key manipulation interface,  Up: Unattended Usage of GPG

4.5.4 Unattended key generation
-------------------------------

The command '--generate-key' may be used along with the option '--batch'
for unattended key generation.  This is the most flexible way of
generating keys, but it is also the most complex one.  Consider using
the quick key manipulation interface described in the previous
subsection "The quick key manipulation interface".

   The parameters for the key are either read from stdin or given as a
file on the command line.  The format of the parameter file is as
follows:

   * Text only, line length is limited to about 1000 characters.
   * UTF-8 encoding must be used to specify non-ASCII characters.
   * Empty lines are ignored.
   * Leading and trailing white space is ignored.
   * A hash sign as the first non white space character indicates a
     comment line.
   * Control statements are indicated by a leading percent sign, the
     arguments are separated by white space from the keyword.
   * Parameters are specified by a keyword, followed by a colon.
     Arguments are separated by white space.
   * The first parameter must be 'Key-Type'; control statements may be
     placed anywhere.
   * The order of the parameters does not matter except for 'Key-Type'
     which must be the first parameter.  The parameters are only used
     for the generated keyblock (primary and subkeys); parameters from
     previous sets are not used.  Some syntactically checks may be
     performed.
   * Key generation takes place when either the end of the parameter
     file is reached, the next 'Key-Type' parameter is encountered or at
     the control statement '%commit' is encountered.

Control statements:

%echo TEXT
     Print TEXT as diagnostic.

%dry-run
     Suppress actual key generation (useful for syntax checking).

%commit
     Perform the key generation.  Note that an implicit commit is done
     at the next Key-Type parameter.

%pubring FILENAME
     Do not write the key to the default or commandline given keyring
     but to FILENAME.  This must be given before the first commit to
     take place, duplicate specification of the same filename is
     ignored, the last filename before a commit is used.  The filename
     is used until a new filename is used (at commit points) and all
     keys are written to that file.  If a new filename is given, this
     file is created (and overwrites an existing one).

     See the previous subsection "Ephemeral home directories" for a more
     robust way to contain side-effects.

%secring FILENAME
     This option is a no-op for GnuPG 2.1 and later.

     See the previous subsection "Ephemeral home directories".

%ask-passphrase
%no-ask-passphrase
     This option is a no-op for GnuPG 2.1 and later.

%no-protection
     Using this option allows the creation of keys without any
     passphrase protection.  This option is mainly intended for
     regression tests.

%transient-key
     If given the keys are created using a faster and a somewhat less
     secure random number generator.  This option may be used for keys
     which are only used for a short time and do not require full
     cryptographic strength.  It takes only effect if used together with
     the control statement '%no-protection'.

General Parameters:

Key-Type: ALGO
     Starts a new parameter block by giving the type of the primary key.
     The algorithm must be capable of signing.  This is a required
     parameter.  ALGO may either be an OpenPGP algorithm number or a
     string with the algorithm name.  The special value 'default' may be
     used for ALGO to create the default key type; in this case a
     'Key-Usage' shall not be given and 'default' also be used for
     'Subkey-Type'.

Key-Length: NBITS
     The requested length of the generated key in bits.  The default is
     returned by running the command 'gpg --gpgconf-list'.

Key-Grip: HEXSTRING
     This is optional and used to generate a CSR or certificate for an
     already existing key.  Key-Length will be ignored when given.

Key-Usage: USAGE-LIST
     Space or comma delimited list of key usages.  Allowed values are
     'encrypt', 'sign', and 'auth'.  This is used to generate the key
     flags.  Please make sure that the algorithm is capable of this
     usage.  Note that OpenPGP requires that all primary keys are
     capable of certification, so no matter what usage is given here,
     the 'cert' flag will be on.  If no 'Key-Usage' is specified and the
     'Key-Type' is not 'default', all allowed usages for that particular
     algorithm are used; if it is not given but 'default' is used the
     usage will be 'sign'.

Subkey-Type: ALGO
     This generates a secondary key (subkey).  Currently only one subkey
     can be handled.  See also 'Key-Type' above.

Subkey-Length: NBITS
     Length of the secondary key (subkey) in bits.  The default is
     returned by running the command 'gpg --gpgconf-list'.

Subkey-Usage: USAGE-LIST
     Key usage lists for a subkey; similar to 'Key-Usage'.

Passphrase: STRING
     If you want to specify a passphrase for the secret key, enter it
     here.  Default is to use the Pinentry dialog to ask for a
     passphrase.

Name-Real: NAME
Name-Comment: COMMENT
Name-Email: EMAIL
     The three parts of a user name.  Remember to use UTF-8 encoding
     here.  If you don't give any of them, no user ID is created.

Expire-Date: ISO-DATE|(NUMBER[d|w|m|y])
     Set the expiration date for the key (and the subkey).  It may
     either be entered in ISO date format (e.g.  "20000815T145012") or
     as number of days, weeks, month or years after the creation date.
     The special notation "seconds=N" is also allowed to specify a
     number of seconds since creation.  Without a letter days are
     assumed.  Note that there is no check done on the overflow of the
     type used by OpenPGP for timestamps.  Thus you better make sure
     that the given value make sense.  Although OpenPGP works with time
     intervals, GnuPG uses an absolute value internally and thus the
     last year we can represent is 2105.

Creation-Date: ISO-DATE
     Set the creation date of the key as stored in the key information
     and which is also part of the fingerprint calculation.  Either a
     date like "1986-04-26" or a full timestamp like "19860426T042640"
     may be used.  The time is considered to be UTC. The special
     notation "seconds=N" may be used to directly specify a the number
     of seconds since Epoch (Unix time).  If it is not given the current
     time is used.

Preferences: STRING
     Set the cipher, hash, and compression preference values for this
     key.  This expects the same type of string as the sub-command
     'setpref' in the '--edit-key' menu.

Revoker: ALGO:FPR [sensitive]
     Add a designated revoker to the generated key.  Algo is the public
     key algorithm of the designated revoker (i.e.  RSA=1, DSA=17, etc.)
     FPR is the fingerprint of the designated revoker.  The optional
     'sensitive' flag marks the designated revoker as sensitive
     information.  Only v4 keys may be designated revokers.

Keyserver: STRING
     This is an optional parameter that specifies the preferred
     keyserver URL for the key.

Handle: STRING
     This is an optional parameter only used with the status lines
     KEY_CREATED and KEY_NOT_CREATED. STRING may be up to 100 characters
     and should not contain spaces.  It is useful for batch key
     generation to associate a key parameter block with a status line.

Here is an example on how to create a key in an ephemeral home
directory:
     $ export GNUPGHOME="$(mktemp -d)"
     $ cat >foo <<EOF
          %echo Generating a basic OpenPGP key
          Key-Type: DSA
          Key-Length: 1024
          Subkey-Type: ELG-E
          Subkey-Length: 1024
          Name-Real: Joe Tester
          Name-Comment: with stupid passphrase
          Name-Email: joe AT foo.bar
          Expire-Date: 0
          Passphrase: abc
          # Do a commit here, so that we can later print "done" :-)
          %commit
          %echo done
     EOF
     $ gpg --batch --generate-key foo
      [...]
     $ gpg --list-secret-keys
     /tmp/tmp.0NQxB74PEf/pubring.kbx
     -------------------------------
     sec   dsa1024 2016-12-16 [SCA]
           768E895903FC1C44045C8CB95EEBDB71E9E849D0
     uid           [ultimate] Joe Tester (with stupid passphrase) <joe AT foo.bar>
     ssb   elg1024 2016-12-16 [E]

If you want to create a key with the default algorithms you would use
these parameters:
          %echo Generating a default key
          Key-Type: default
          Subkey-Type: default
          Name-Real: Joe Tester
          Name-Comment: with stupid passphrase
          Name-Email: joe AT foo.bar
          Expire-Date: 0
          Passphrase: abc
          # Do a commit here, so that we can later print "done" :-)
          %commit
          %echo done

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPGSM,  Next: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Prev: Invoking GPG,  Up: Top

5 Invoking GPGSM
****************

'gpgsm' is a tool similar to 'gpg' to provide digital encryption and
signing services on X.509 certificates and the CMS protocol.  It is
mainly used as a backend for S/MIME mail processing.  'gpgsm' includes a
full featured certificate management and complies with all rules defined
for the German Sphinx project.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to 'GPGSM''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* GPGSM Commands::        List of all commands.
* GPGSM Options::         List of all options.
* GPGSM Configuration::   Configuration files.
* GPGSM Examples::        Some usage examples.

Developer information:
* Unattended Usage::      Using 'gpgsm' from other programs.
* GPGSM Protocol::        The protocol the server mode uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Commands,  Next: GPGSM Options,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

* Menu:

* General GPGSM Commands::        Commands not specific to the functionality.
* Operational GPGSM Commands::    Commands to select the type of operation.
* Certificate Management::        How to manage certificates.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: General GPGSM Commands,  Next: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

5.1.1 Commands not specific to the function
-------------------------------------------

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--warranty'
     Print warranty information.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this
     command.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Next: Certificate Management,  Prev: General GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

5.1.2 Commands to select the type of operation
----------------------------------------------

'--encrypt'
     Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted to must be
     set using the option '--recipient'.

'--decrypt'
     Perform a decryption; the type of input is automatically
     determined.  It may either be in binary form or PEM encoded;
     automatic determination of base-64 encoding is not done.

'--sign'
     Create a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one
     found in the keybox or those set with the '--local-user' option.

'--verify'
     Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments a
     detached signature may also be checked.

'--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the 'stdin'.

'--call-dirmngr COMMAND [ARGS]'
     Behave as a Dirmngr client issuing the request COMMAND with the
     optional list of ARGS.  The output of the Dirmngr is printed
     stdout.  Please note that file names given as arguments should have
     an absolute file name (i.e.  commencing with '/') because they are
     passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working directory of the
     Dirmngr might not be the same as the one of this client.  Currently
     it is not possible to pass data via stdin to the Dirmngr.  COMMAND
     should not contain spaces.

     This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the
     dirmngr where a dirmngr must be able to call back to 'gpgsm'.  See
     the Dirmngr manual for details.

'--call-protect-tool ARGUMENTS'
     Certain maintenance operations are done by an external program call
     'gpg-protect-tool'; this is usually not installed in a directory
     listed in the PATH variable.  This command provides a simple
     wrapper to access this tool.  ARGUMENTS are passed verbatim to this
     command; use '--help' to get a list of supported operations.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Certificate Management,  Prev: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

5.1.3 How to manage the certificates and keys
---------------------------------------------

'--generate-key'
'--gen-key'
     This command allows the creation of a certificate signing request
     or a self-signed certificate.  It is commonly used along with the
     '--output' option to save the created CSR or certificate into a
     file.  If used with the '--batch' a parameter file is used to
     create the CSR or certificate and it is further possible to create
     non-self-signed certificates.

'--list-keys'
'-k'
     List all available certificates stored in the local key database.
     Note that the displayed data might be reformatted for better human
     readability and illegal characters are replaced by safe
     substitutes.

'--list-secret-keys'
'-K'
     List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret
     key is available.

'--list-external-keys PATTERN'
     List certificates matching PATTERN using an external server.  This
     utilizes the 'dirmngr' service.

'--list-chain'
     Same as '--list-keys' but also prints all keys making up the chain.

'--dump-cert'
'--dump-keys'
     List all available certificates stored in the local key database
     using a format useful mainly for debugging.

'--dump-chain'
     Same as '--dump-keys' but also prints all keys making up the chain.

'--dump-secret-keys'
     List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret
     key is available using a format useful mainly for debugging.

'--dump-external-keys PATTERN'
     List certificates matching PATTERN using an external server.  This
     utilizes the 'dirmngr' service.  It uses a format useful mainly for
     debugging.

'--keydb-clear-some-cert-flags'
     This is a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key database
     which are used to cache certain certificate stati.  It is
     especially useful if a bad CRL or a weird running OCSP responder
     did accidentally revoke certificate.  There is no security issue
     with this command because 'gpgsm' always make sure that the
     validity of a certificate is checked right before it is used.

'--delete-keys PATTERN'
     Delete the keys matching PATTERN.  Note that there is no command to
     delete the secret part of the key directly.  In case you need to do
     this, you should run the command 'gpgsm --dump-secret-keys KEYID'
     before you delete the key, copy the string of hex-digits in the
     "keygrip" line and delete the file consisting of these hex-digits
     and the suffix '.key' from the 'private-keys-v1.d' directory below
     our GnuPG home directory (usually '~/.gnupg').

'--export [PATTERN]'
     Export all certificates stored in the Keybox or those specified by
     the optional PATTERN.  Those pattern consist of a list of user ids
     (*note how-to-specify-a-user-id::).  When used along with the
     '--armor' option a few informational lines are prepended before
     each block.  There is one limitation: As there is no commonly
     agreed upon way to pack more than one certificate into an ASN.1
     structure, the binary export (i.e.  without using 'armor') works
     only for the export of one certificate.  Thus it is required to
     specify a PATTERN which yields exactly one certificate.  Ephemeral
     certificate are only exported if all PATTERN are given as
     fingerprints or keygrips.

'--export-secret-key-p12 KEY-ID'
     Export the private key and the certificate identified by KEY-ID in
     a PKCS#12 format.  When used with the '--armor' option a few
     informational lines are prepended to the output.  Note, that the
     PKCS#12 format is not very secure and this command is only provided
     if there is no other way to exchange the private key.  (*Note
     option --p12-charset::.)

'--export-secret-key-p8 KEY-ID'
'--export-secret-key-raw KEY-ID'
     Export the private key of the certificate identified by KEY-ID with
     any encryption stripped.  The '...-raw' command exports in PKCS#1
     format; the '...-p8' command exports in PKCS#8 format.  When used
     with the '--armor' option a few informational lines are prepended
     to the output.  These commands are useful to prepare a key for use
     on a TLS server.

'--import [FILES]'
     Import the certificates from the PEM or binary encoded files as
     well as from signed-only messages.  This command may also be used
     to import a secret key from a PKCS#12 file.

'--learn-card'
     Read information about the private keys from the smartcard and
     import the certificates from there.  This command utilizes the
     'gpg-agent' and in turn the 'scdaemon'.

'--change-passphrase USER_ID'
'--passwd USER_ID'
     Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to the
     certificate specified as USER_ID.  Note, that changing the
     passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet supported.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Options,  Next: GPGSM Configuration,  Prev: GPGSM Commands,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.2 Option Summary
==================

'GPGSM' features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and
to change the default configuration.

* Menu:

* Configuration Options::   How to change the configuration.
* Certificate Options::     Certificate related options.
* Input and Output::        Input and Output.
* CMS Options::             How to change how the CMS is created.
* Esoteric Options::        Doing things one usually do not want to do.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Configuration Options,  Next: Certificate Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

5.2.1 How to change the configuration
-------------------------------------

These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found
in the option file.

'--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     'gpgsm.conf' and expected in the '.gnupg' directory directly below
     the home directory of the user.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase the
     verbosity by giving several verbose commands to 'gpgsm', such as
     '-vv'.

'--policy-file FILENAME'
     Change the default name of the policy file to FILENAME.

'--agent-program FILE'
     Specify an agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The
     default value is determined by running the command 'gpgconf'.  Note
     that the pipe symbol ('|') is used for a regression test suite hack
     and may thus not be used in the file name.

'--dirmngr-program FILE'
     Specify a dirmngr program to be used for CRL checks.  The default
     value is '/usr/bin/dirmngr'.

'--prefer-system-dirmngr'
     This option is obsolete and ignored.

'--disable-dirmngr'
     Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

'--no-autostart'
     Do not start the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been
     started and its service is required.  This option is mostly useful
     on machines where the connection to gpg-agent has been redirected
     to another machines.  If dirmngr is required on the remote machine,
     it may be started manually using 'gpgconf --launch dirmngr'.

'--no-secmem-warning'
     Do not print a warning when the so called "secure memory" cannot be
     used.

'--log-file FILE'
     When running in server mode, append all logging output to FILE.
     Use 'socket://' to log to socket.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Certificate Options,  Next: Input and Output,  Prev: Configuration Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

5.2.2 Certificate related options
---------------------------------

'--enable-policy-checks'
'--disable-policy-checks'
     By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used to
     change it.

'--enable-crl-checks'
'--disable-crl-checks'
     By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to
     check for revoked certificates.  The disable option is most useful
     with an off-line network connection to suppress this check.

'--enable-trusted-cert-crl-check'
'--disable-trusted-cert-crl-check'
     By default the CRL for trusted root certificates are checked like
     for any other certificates.  This allows a CA to revoke its own
     certificates voluntary without the need of putting all ever issued
     certificates into a CRL. The disable option may be used to switch
     this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by the Dirmngr,
     there will not be any noticeable performance gain.  Note, that this
     also disables possible OCSP checks for trusted root certificates.
     A more specific way of disabling this check is by adding the
     "relax" keyword to the root CA line of the 'trustlist.txt'

'--force-crl-refresh'
     Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better
     performance, the dirmngr will actually optimize this by suppressing
     the loading for short time intervals (e.g.  30 minutes).  This
     option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is available for
     certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing this
     is by using it along with the option '--with-validation' for a key
     listing command.  This option should not be used in a configuration
     file.

'--enable-ocsp'
'--disable-ocsp'
     By default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option may be used
     to enable OCSP checks via Dirmngr.  If CRL checks are also enabled,
     CRLs will be used as a fallback if for some reason an OCSP request
     will not succeed.  Note, that you have to allow OCSP requests in
     Dirmngr's configuration too (option '--allow-ocsp') and configure
     Dirmngr properly.  If you do not do so you will get the error code
     'Not supported'.

'--auto-issuer-key-retrieve'
     If a required certificate is missing while validating the chain of
     certificates, try to load that certificate from an external
     location.  This usually means that Dirmngr is employed to search
     for the certificate.  Note that this option makes a "web bug" like
     behavior possible.  LDAP server operators can see which keys you
     request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key
     (which you naturally will not have on your local keybox), the
     operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you
     verified the signature.

'--validation-model NAME'
     This option changes the default validation model.  The only
     possible values are "shell" (which is the default), "chain" which
     forces the use of the chain model and "steed" for a new simplified
     model.  The chain model is also used if an option in the
     'trustlist.txt' or an attribute of the certificate requests it.
     However the standard model (shell) is in that case always tried
     first.

'--ignore-cert-extension OID'
     Add OID to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The OID is
     expected to be in dotted decimal form, like '2.5.29.3'.  This
     option may be used more than once.  Critical flagged certificate
     extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are treated as if
     they are actually handled and thus the certificate will not be
     rejected due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option
     with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical for a
     reason.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Input and Output,  Next: CMS Options,  Prev: Certificate Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

5.2.3 Input and Output
----------------------

'--armor'
'-a'
     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

'--base64'
     Create Base-64 encoded output; i.e.  PEM without the header lines.

'--assume-armor'
     Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to autodetect the
     encoding but this is may fail.

'--assume-base64'
     Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

'--assume-binary'
     Assume the input data is binary encoded.

'--p12-charset NAME'
     'gpgsm' uses the UTF-8 encoding when encoding passphrases for
     PKCS#12 files.  This option may be used to force the passphrase to
     be encoded in the specified encoding NAME.  This is useful if the
     application used to import the key uses a different encoding and
     thus will not be able to import a file generated by 'gpgsm'.
     Commonly used values for NAME are 'Latin1' and 'CP850'.  Note that
     'gpgsm' itself automagically imports any file with a passphrase
     encoded to the most commonly used encodings.

'--default-key USER_ID'
     Use USER_ID as the standard key for signing.  This key is used if
     no other key has been defined as a signing key.  Note, that the
     first '--local-users' option also sets this key if it has not yet
     been set; however '--default-key' always overrides this.

'--local-user USER_ID'
'-u USER_ID'
     Set the user(s) to be used for signing.  The default is the first
     secret key found in the database.

'--recipient NAME'
'-r'
     Encrypt to the user id NAME.  There are several ways a user id may
     be given (*note how-to-specify-a-user-id::).

'--output FILE'
'-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE.  The default is to write it to stdout.

'--with-key-data'
     Displays extra information with the '--list-keys' commands.
     Especially a line tagged 'grp' is printed which tells you the
     keygrip of a key.  This string is for example used as the file name
     of the secret key.  Implies '--with-colons'.

'--with-validation'
     When doing a key listing, do a full validation check for each key
     and print the result.  This is usually a slow operation because it
     requires a CRL lookup and other operations.

     When used along with '--import', a validation of the certificate to
     import is done and only imported if it succeeds the test.  Note
     that this does not affect an already available certificate in the
     DB. This option is therefore useful to simply verify a certificate.

'--with-md5-fingerprint'
     For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the
     certificate.

'--with-keygrip'
     Include the keygrip in standard key listings.  Note that the
     keygrip is always listed in '--with-colons' mode.

'--with-secret'
     Include info about the presence of a secret key in public key
     listings done with '--with-colons'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: CMS Options,  Next: Esoteric Options,  Prev: Input and Output,  Up: GPGSM Options

5.2.4 How to change how the CMS is created
------------------------------------------

'--include-certs N'
     Using N of -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert, -1
     includes all certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes only
     the signers cert and all other positive values include up to N
     certificates starting with the signer cert.  The default is -2.

'--cipher-algo OID'
     Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1 object identifier OID for
     encryption.  For convenience the strings '3DES', 'AES' and 'AES256'
     may be used instead of their OIDs.  The default is 'AES'
     (2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.2).

'--digest-algo name'
     Use 'name' as the message digest algorithm.  Usually this algorithm
     is deduced from the respective signing certificate.  This option
     forces the use of the given algorithm and may lead to severe
     interoperability problems.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Esoteric Options,  Prev: CMS Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

5.2.5 Doing things one usually do not want to do
------------------------------------------------

'--extra-digest-algo NAME'
     Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a different
     digest algorithm than actually used.  'gpgsm' uses a one-pass data
     processing model and thus needs to rely on the announced digest
     algorithms to properly hash the data.  As a workaround this option
     may be used to tell 'gpgsm' to also hash the data using the
     algorithm NAME; this slows processing down a little bit but allows
     verification of such broken signatures.  If 'gpgsm' prints an error
     like "digest algo 8 has not been enabled" you may want to try this
     option, with 'SHA256' for NAME.

'--faked-system-time EPOCH'
     This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
     back or forth to EPOCH which is the number of seconds elapsed since
     the year 1970.  Alternatively EPOCH may be given as a full ISO time
     string (e.g.  "20070924T154812").

'--with-ephemeral-keys'
     Include ephemeral flagged keys in the output of key listings.  Note
     that they are included anyway if the key specification for a
     listing is given as fingerprint or keygrip.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

'--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
     change at any time without notice; using '--debug-levels' is the
     preferred method to select the debug verbosity.  FLAGS are bit
     encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax.  The currently defined
     bits are:

     '0 (1)'
          X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data
     '1 (2)'
          values of big number integers
     '2 (4)'
          low level crypto operations
     '5 (32)'
          memory allocation
     '6 (64)'
          caching
     '7 (128)'
          show memory statistics
     '9 (512)'
          write hashed data to files named 'dbgmd-000*'
     '10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol

     Note, that all flags set using this option may get overridden by
     '--debug-level'.

'--debug-all'
     Same as '--debug=0xffffffff'

'--debug-allow-core-dump'
     Usually 'gpgsm' tries to avoid dumping core by well written code
     and by disabling core dumps for security reasons.  However, bugs
     are pretty durable beasts and to squash them it is sometimes useful
     to have a core dump.  This option enables core dumps unless the Bad
     Thing happened before the option parsing.

'--debug-no-chain-validation'
     This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
     It lets 'gpgsm' bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

'--debug-ignore-expiration'
     This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
     It lets 'gpgsm' ignore all notAfter dates, this is used by the
     regression tests.

'--passphrase-fd n'
     Read the passphrase from file descriptor 'n'.  Only the first line
     will be read from file descriptor 'n'.  If you use 0 for 'n', the
     passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if only
     one passphrase is supplied.

     Note that this passphrase is only used if the option '--batch' has
     also been given.

'--pinentry-mode mode'
     Set the pinentry mode to 'mode'.  Allowed values for 'mode' are:
     default
          Use the default of the agent, which is 'ask'.
     ask
          Force the use of the Pinentry.
     cancel
          Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.
     error
          Return a Pinentry error ("No Pinentry").
     loopback
          Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.  Note that in
          contrast to Pinentry the user is not prompted again if he
          enters a bad password.

'--no-common-certs-import'
     Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.

   All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Configuration,  Next: GPGSM Examples,  Prev: GPGSM Options,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.3 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
'gpgsm''s operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current
home directory (*note option --homedir::).

'gpgsm.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'gpgsm' on startup.
     It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
     not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This default
     name may be changed on the command line (*note gpgsm-option
     --options::).  You should backup this file.

'policies.txt'
     This is a list of allowed CA policies.  This file should list the
     object identifiers of the policies line by line.  Empty lines and
     lines starting with a hash mark are ignored.  Policies missing in
     this file and not marked as critical in the certificate will print
     only a warning; certificates with policies marked as critical and
     not listed in this file will fail the signature verification.  You
     should backup this file.

     For example, to allow only the policy 2.289.9.9, the file should
     look like this:

          # Allowed policies
          2.289.9.9

'qualified.txt'
     This is the list of root certificates used for qualified
     certificates.  They are defined as certificates capable of creating
     legally binding signatures in the same way as handwritten
     signatures are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines
     are ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but this is not a
     serious limitation as the format of the entries is fixed and
     checked by 'gpgsm': A non-comment line starts with optional
     whitespace, followed by exactly 40 hex characters, white space and
     a lowercased 2 letter country code.  Additional data delimited with
     by a white space is current ignored but might late be used for
     other purposes.

     Note that even if a certificate is listed in this file, this does
     not mean that the certificate is trusted; in general the
     certificates listed in this file need to be listed also in
     'trustlist.txt'.

     This is a global file an installed in the data directory (e.g.
     '/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').  GnuPG installs a suitable file
     with root certificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA
     certificates may be issued over time, these entries may need to be
     updated; new distributions of this software should come with an
     updated list but it is still the responsibility of the
     Administrator to check that this list is correct.

     Every time 'gpgsm' uses a certificate for signing or verification
     this file will be consulted to check whether the certificate under
     question has ultimately been issued by one of these CAs.  If this
     is the case the user will be informed that the verified signature
     represents a legally binding ("qualified") signature.  When
     creating a signature using such a certificate an extra prompt will
     be issued to let the user confirm that such a legally binding
     signature shall really be created.

     Because this software has not yet been approved for use with such
     certificates, appropriate notices will be shown to indicate this
     fact.

'help.txt'
     This is plain text file with a few help entries used with
     'pinentry' as well as a large list of help items for 'gpg' and
     'gpgsm'.  The standard file has English help texts; to install
     localized versions use filenames like 'help.LL.txt' with LL
     denoting the locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help
     files in the data directory (e.g.
     '/usr/share/gnupg/gnupg/help.de.txt') and allows overriding of any
     help item by help files stored in the system configuration
     directory (e.g.  '/etc/gnupg/help.de.txt').  For a reference of the
     help file's syntax, please see the installed 'help.txt' file.

'com-certs.pem'
     This file is a collection of common certificates used to populated
     a newly created 'pubring.kbx'.  An administrator may replace this
     file with a custom one.  The format is a concatenation of PEM
     encoded X.509 certificates.  This global file is installed in the
     data directory (e.g.  '/usr/share/gnupg/com-certs.pem').

   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.  For existing users a small
helper script is provided to create these files (*note addgnupghome::).

   For internal purposes 'gpgsm' creates and maintains a few other
files; they all live in the current home directory (*note option
--homedir::).  Only 'gpgsm' may modify these files.

'pubring.kbx'
     This a database file storing the certificates as well as meta
     information.  For debugging purposes the tool 'kbxutil' may be used
     to show the internal structure of this file.  You should backup
     this file.

'random_seed'
     This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state of
     the random number generator across invocations.  The same file is
     used by other programs of this software too.

'S.gpg-agent'
     If this file exists 'gpgsm' will first try to connect to this
     socket for accessing 'gpg-agent' before starting a new 'gpg-agent'
     instance.  Under Windows this socket (which in reality be a plain
     file describing a regular TCP listening port) is the standard way
     of connecting the 'gpg-agent'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Examples,  Next: Unattended Usage,  Prev: GPGSM Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.4 Examples
============

     $ gpgsm -er goo AT bar.net <plaintext >ciphertext

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Unattended Usage,  Next: GPGSM Protocol,  Prev: GPGSM Examples,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.5 Unattended Usage
====================

'gpgsm' is often used as a backend engine by other software.  To help
with this a machine interface has been defined to have an unambiguous
way to do this.  This is most likely used with the '--server' command
but may also be used in the standard operation mode by using the
'--status-fd' option.

* Menu:

* Automated signature checking::  Automated signature checking.
* CSR and certificate creation::  CSR and certificate creation.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Automated signature checking,  Next: CSR and certificate creation,  Up: Unattended Usage

5.5.1 Automated signature checking
----------------------------------

It is very important to understand the semantics used with signature
verification.  Checking a signature is not as simple as it may sound and
so the operation is a bit complicated.  In most cases it is required to
look at several status lines.  Here is a table of all cases a signed
message may have:

The signature is valid
     This does mean that the signature has been successfully verified,
     the certificates are all sane.  However there are two subcases with
     important information: One of the certificates may have expired or
     a signature of a message itself as expired.  It is a sound practise
     to consider such a signature still as valid but additional
     information should be displayed.  Depending on the subcase 'gpgsm'
     will issue these status codes:
     signature valid and nothing did expire
          'GOODSIG', 'VALIDSIG', 'TRUST_FULLY'
     signature valid but at least one certificate has expired
          'EXPKEYSIG', 'VALIDSIG', 'TRUST_FULLY'
     signature valid but expired
          'EXPSIG', 'VALIDSIG', 'TRUST_FULLY' Note, that this case is
          currently not implemented.

The signature is invalid
     This means that the signature verification failed (this is an
     indication of a transfer error, a program error or tampering with
     the message).  'gpgsm' issues one of these status codes sequences:
     'BADSIG'
     'GOODSIG, VALIDSIG TRUST_NEVER'

Error verifying a signature
     For some reason the signature could not be verified, i.e.  it
     cannot be decided whether the signature is valid or invalid.  A
     common reason for this is a missing certificate.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: CSR and certificate creation,  Prev: Automated signature checking,  Up: Unattended Usage

5.5.2 CSR and certificate creation
----------------------------------

The command '--generate-key' may be used along with the option '--batch'
to either create a certificate signing request (CSR) or an X.509
certificate.  This is controlled by a parameter file; the format of this
file is as follows:

   * Text only, line length is limited to about 1000 characters.
   * UTF-8 encoding must be used to specify non-ASCII characters.
   * Empty lines are ignored.
   * Leading and trailing while space is ignored.
   * A hash sign as the first non white space character indicates a
     comment line.
   * Control statements are indicated by a leading percent sign, the
     arguments are separated by white space from the keyword.
   * Parameters are specified by a keyword, followed by a colon.
     Arguments are separated by white space.
   * The first parameter must be 'Key-Type', control statements may be
     placed anywhere.
   * The order of the parameters does not matter except for 'Key-Type'
     which must be the first parameter.  The parameters are only used
     for the generated CSR/certificate; parameters from previous sets
     are not used.  Some syntactically checks may be performed.
   * Key generation takes place when either the end of the parameter
     file is reached, the next 'Key-Type' parameter is encountered or at
     the control statement '%commit' is encountered.

Control statements:

%echo TEXT
     Print TEXT as diagnostic.

%dry-run
     Suppress actual key generation (useful for syntax checking).

%commit
     Perform the key generation.  Note that an implicit commit is done
     at the next Key-Type parameter.

General Parameters:

Key-Type: ALGO
     Starts a new parameter block by giving the type of the primary key.
     The algorithm must be capable of signing.  This is a required
     parameter.  The only supported value for ALGO is 'rsa'.

Key-Length: NBITS
     The requested length of a generated key in bits.  Defaults to 3072.

Key-Grip: HEXSTRING
     This is optional and used to generate a CSR or certificate for an
     already existing key.  Key-Length will be ignored when given.

Key-Usage: USAGE-LIST
     Space or comma delimited list of key usage, allowed values are
     'encrypt', 'sign' and 'cert'.  This is used to generate the
     keyUsage extension.  Please make sure that the algorithm is capable
     of this usage.  Default is to allow encrypt and sign.

Name-DN: SUBJECT-NAME
     This is the Distinguished Name (DN) of the subject in RFC-2253
     format.

Name-Email: STRING
     This is an email address for the altSubjectName.  This parameter is
     optional but may occur several times to add several email addresses
     to a certificate.

Name-DNS: STRING
     The is an DNS name for the altSubjectName.  This parameter is
     optional but may occur several times to add several DNS names to a
     certificate.

Name-URI: STRING
     This is an URI for the altSubjectName.  This parameter is optional
     but may occur several times to add several URIs to a certificate.

Additional parameters used to create a certificate (in contrast to a
certificate signing request):

Serial: SN
     If this parameter is given an X.509 certificate will be generated.
     SN is expected to be a hex string representing an unsigned integer
     of arbitrary length.  The special value 'random' can be used to
     create a 64 bit random serial number.

Issuer-DN: ISSUER-NAME
     This is the DN name of the issuer in RFC-2253 format.  If it is not
     set it will default to the subject DN and a special GnuPG extension
     will be included in the certificate to mark it as a standalone
     certificate.

Creation-Date: ISO-DATE
Not-Before: ISO-DATE
     Set the notBefore date of the certificate.  Either a date like
     '1986-04-26' or '1986-04-26 12:00' or a standard ISO timestamp like
     '19860426T042640' may be used.  The time is considered to be UTC.
     If it is not given the current date is used.

Expire-Date: ISO-DATE
Not-After: ISO-DATE
     Set the notAfter date of the certificate.  Either a date like
     '2063-04-05' or '2063-04-05 17:00' or a standard ISO timestamp like
     '20630405T170000' may be used.  The time is considered to be UTC.
     If it is not given a default value in the not too far future is
     used.

Signing-Key: KEYGRIP
     This gives the keygrip of the key used to sign the certificate.  If
     it is not given a self-signed certificate will be created.  For
     compatibility with future versions, it is suggested to prefix the
     keygrip with a '&'.

Hash-Algo: HASH-ALGO
     Use HASH-ALGO for this CSR or certificate.  The supported hash
     algorithms are: 'sha1', 'sha256', 'sha384' and 'sha512'; they may
     also be specified with uppercase letters.  The default is 'sha256'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Protocol,  Prev: Unattended Usage,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

5.6 The Protocol the Server Mode Uses
=====================================

Description of the protocol used to access 'GPGSM'.  'GPGSM' does
implement the Assuan protocol and in addition provides a regular command
line interface which exhibits a full client to this protocol (but uses
internal linking).  To start 'gpgsm' as a server the command line the
option '--server' must be used.  Additional options are provided to
select the communication method (i.e.  the name of the socket).

   We assume that the connection has already been established; see the
Assuan manual for details.

* Menu:

* GPGSM ENCRYPT::         Encrypting a message.
* GPGSM DECRYPT::         Decrypting a message.
* GPGSM SIGN::            Signing a message.
* GPGSM VERIFY::          Verifying a message.
* GPGSM GENKEY::          Generating a key.
* GPGSM LISTKEYS::        List available keys.
* GPGSM EXPORT::          Export certificates.
* GPGSM IMPORT::          Import certificates.
* GPGSM DELETE::          Delete certificates.
* GPGSM GETAUDITLOG::     Retrieve an audit log.
* GPGSM GETINFO::         Information about the process
* GPGSM OPTION::          Session options.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM ENCRYPT,  Next: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.1 Encrypting a Message
--------------------------

Before encryption can be done the recipient must be set using the
command:

       RECIPIENT USERID

   Set the recipient for the encryption.  USERID should be the internal
representation of the key; the server may accept any other way of
specification.  If this is a valid and trusted recipient the server does
respond with OK, otherwise the return is an ERR with the reason why the
recipient cannot be used, the encryption will then not be done for this
recipient.  If the policy is not to encrypt at all if not all recipients
are valid, the client has to take care of this.  All 'RECIPIENT'
commands are cumulative until a 'RESET' or an successful 'ENCRYPT'
command.

       INPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64|--binary]

   Set the file descriptor for the message to be encrypted to N.
Obviously the pipe must be open at that point, the server establishes
its own end.  If the server returns an error the client should consider
this session failed.  If N is not given, this commands uses the last
file descriptor passed to the application.  *Note the assuan_sendfd
function: (assuan)fun-assuan_sendfd, on how to do descriptor passing.

   The '--armor' option may be used to advice the server that the input
data is in PEM format, '--base64' advices that a raw base-64 encoding is
used, '--binary' advices of raw binary input (BER).  If none of these
options is used, the server tries to figure out the used encoding, but
this may not always be correct.

       OUTPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64]

   Set the file descriptor to be used for the output (i.e.  the
encrypted message).  Obviously the pipe must be open at that point, the
server establishes its own end.  If the server returns an error the
client should consider this session failed.

   The option '--armor' encodes the output in PEM format, the '--base64'
option applies just a base-64 encoding.  No option creates binary output
(BER).

   The actual encryption is done using the command

       ENCRYPT

   It takes the plaintext from the 'INPUT' command, writes to the
ciphertext to the file descriptor set with the 'OUTPUT' command, take
the recipients from all the recipients set so far.  If this command
fails the clients should try to delete all output currently done or
otherwise mark it as invalid.  'GPGSM' does ensure that there will not
be any security problem with leftover data on the output in this case.

   This command should in general not fail, as all necessary checks have
been done while setting the recipients.  The input and output pipes are
closed.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Next: GPGSM SIGN,  Prev: GPGSM ENCRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.2 Decrypting a message
--------------------------

Input and output FDs are set the same way as in encryption, but 'INPUT'
refers to the ciphertext and 'OUTPUT' to the plaintext.  There is no
need to set recipients.  'GPGSM' automatically strips any S/MIME headers
from the input, so it is valid to pass an entire MIME part to the INPUT
pipe.

   The decryption is done by using the command

       DECRYPT

   It performs the decrypt operation after doing some check on the
internal state (e.g.  that all needed data has been set).  Because it
utilizes the GPG-Agent for the session key decryption, there is no need
to ask the client for a protecting passphrase - GpgAgent takes care of
this by requesting this from the user.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM SIGN,  Next: GPGSM VERIFY,  Prev: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.3 Signing a Message
-----------------------

Signing is usually done with these commands:

       INPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64|--binary]

   This tells 'GPGSM' to read the data to sign from file descriptor N.

       OUTPUT FD[=M] [--armor|--base64]

   Write the output to file descriptor M.  If a detached signature is
requested, only the signature is written.

       SIGN [--detached]

   Sign the data set with the 'INPUT' command and write it to the sink
set by 'OUTPUT'.  With '--detached', a detached signature is created
(surprise).

   The key used for signing is the default one or the one specified in
the configuration file.  To get finer control over the keys, it is
possible to use the command

       SIGNER USERID

   to set the signer's key.  USERID should be the internal
representation of the key; the server may accept any other way of
specification.  If this is a valid and trusted recipient the server does
respond with OK, otherwise the return is an ERR with the reason why the
key cannot be used, the signature will then not be created using this
key.  If the policy is not to sign at all if not all keys are valid, the
client has to take care of this.  All 'SIGNER' commands are cumulative
until a 'RESET' is done.  Note that a 'SIGN' does not reset this list of
signers which is in contrast to the 'RECIPIENT' command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM VERIFY,  Next: GPGSM GENKEY,  Prev: GPGSM SIGN,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.4 Verifying a Message
-------------------------

To verify a message the command:

       VERIFY

   is used.  It does a verify operation on the message send to the input
FD. The result is written out using status lines.  If an output FD was
given, the signed text will be written to that.  If the signature is a
detached one, the server will inquire about the signed material and the
client must provide it.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM GENKEY,  Next: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Prev: GPGSM VERIFY,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.5 Generating a Key
----------------------

This is used to generate a new keypair, store the secret part in the PSE
and the public key in the key database.  We will probably add optional
commands to allow the client to select whether a hardware token is used
to store the key.  Configuration options to 'GPGSM' can be used to
restrict the use of this command.

       GENKEY

   'GPGSM' checks whether this command is allowed and then does an
INQUIRY to get the key parameters, the client should then send the key
parameters in the native format:

         S: INQUIRE KEY_PARAM native
         C: D foo:fgfgfg
         C: D bar
         C: END

   Please note that the server may send Status info lines while reading
the data lines from the client.  After this the key generation takes
place and the server eventually does send an ERR or OK response.  Status
lines may be issued as a progress indicator.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Next: GPGSM EXPORT,  Prev: GPGSM GENKEY,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.6 List available keys
-------------------------

To list the keys in the internal database or using an external key
provider, the command:

       LISTKEYS  PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed during the
search) quoting is required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or
into "%20"; in turn this requires that the usual escape quoting rules
are done.

       LISTSECRETKEYS PATTERN

   Lists only the keys where a secret key is available.

   The list commands are affected by the option

       OPTION list-mode=MODE

   where mode may be:
'0'
     Use default (which is usually the same as 1).
'1'
     List only the internal keys.
'2'
     List only the external keys.
'3'
     List internal and external keys.

   Note that options are valid for the entire session.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM EXPORT,  Next: GPGSM IMPORT,  Prev: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.7 Export certificates
-------------------------

To export certificate from the internal key database the command:

       EXPORT [--data [--armor] [--base64]] [--] PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed) quoting is
required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or into "%20"; in turn
this requires that the usual escape quoting rules are done.

   If the '--data' option has not been given, the format of the output
depends on what was set with the 'OUTPUT' command.  When using PEM
encoding a few informational lines are prepended.

   If the '--data' has been given, a target set via 'OUTPUT' is ignored
and the data is returned inline using standard 'D'-lines.  This avoids
the need for an extra file descriptor.  In this case the options
'--armor' and '--base64' may be used in the same way as with the
'OUTPUT' command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM IMPORT,  Next: GPGSM DELETE,  Prev: GPGSM EXPORT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.8 Import certificates
-------------------------

To import certificates into the internal key database, the command

       IMPORT [--re-import]

   is used.  The data is expected on the file descriptor set with the
'INPUT' command.  Certain checks are performed on the certificate.  Note
that the code will also handle PKCS#12 files and import private keys; a
helper program is used for that.

   With the option '--re-import' the input data is expected to a be a
linefeed separated list of fingerprints.  The command will re-import the
corresponding certificates; that is they are made permanent by removing
their ephemeral flag.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM DELETE,  Next: GPGSM GETAUDITLOG,  Prev: GPGSM IMPORT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.9 Delete certificates
-------------------------

To delete a certificate the command

       DELKEYS PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed) quoting is
required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or into "%20"; in turn
this requires that the usual escape quoting rules are done.

   The certificates must be specified unambiguously otherwise an error
is returned.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM GETAUDITLOG,  Next: GPGSM GETINFO,  Prev: GPGSM DELETE,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.10 Retrieve an audit log
----------------------------

This command is used to retrieve an audit log.

     GETAUDITLOG [--data] [--html]

   If '--data' is used, the audit log is send using D-lines instead of
being sent to the file descriptor given by an 'OUTPUT' command.  If
'--html' is used, the output is formatted as an XHTML block.  This is
designed to be incorporated into a HTML document.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM GETINFO,  Next: GPGSM OPTION,  Prev: GPGSM GETAUDITLOG,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.11 Return information about the process
-------------------------------------------

This is a multipurpose function to return a variety of information.

     GETINFO WHAT

   The value of WHAT specifies the kind of information returned:
'version'
     Return the version of the program.
'pid'
     Return the process id of the process.
'agent-check'
     Return OK if the agent is running.
'cmd_has_option CMD OPT'
     Return OK if the command CMD implements the option OPT.  The
     leading two dashes usually used with OPT shall not be given.
'offline'
     Return OK if the connection is in offline mode.  This may be either
     due to a 'OPTION offline=1' or due to 'gpgsm' being started with
     option '--disable-dirmngr'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM OPTION,  Prev: GPGSM GETINFO,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

5.6.12 Session options
----------------------

The standard Assuan option handler supports these options.

     OPTION NAME[=VALUE]

   These NAMEs are recognized:

'putenv'
     Change the session's environment to be passed via gpg-agent to
     Pinentry.  VALUE is a string of the form '<KEY>[=[<STRING>]]'.  If
     only '<KEY>' is given the environment variable '<KEY>' is removed
     from the session environment, if '<KEY>=' is given that environment
     variable is set to the empty string, and if '<STRING>' is given it
     is set to that string.

'display'
     Set the session environment variable 'DISPLAY' is set to VALUE.
'ttyname'
     Set the session environment variable 'GPG_TTY' is set to VALUE.
'ttytype'
     Set the session environment variable 'TERM' is set to VALUE.
'lc-ctype'
     Set the session environment variable 'LC_CTYPE' is set to VALUE.
'lc-messages'
     Set the session environment variable 'LC_MESSAGES' is set to VALUE.
'xauthority'
     Set the session environment variable 'XAUTHORITY' is set to VALUE.
'pinentry-user-data'
     Set the session environment variable 'PINENTRY_USER_DATA' is set to
     VALUE.

'include-certs'
     This option overrides the command line option '--include-certs'.  A
     VALUE of -2 includes all certificates except for the root
     certificate, -1 includes all certificates, 0 does not include any
     certificates, 1 includes only the signers certificate and all other
     positive values include up to VALUE certificates starting with the
     signer cert.

'list-mode'
     *Note gpgsm-cmd listkeys::.

'list-to-output'
     If VALUE is true the output of the list commands (*note gpgsm-cmd
     listkeys::) is written to the file descriptor set with the last
     'OUTPUT' command.  If VALUE is false the output is written via data
     lines; this is the default.

'with-validation'
     If VALUE is true for each listed certificate the validation status
     is printed.  This may result in the download of a CRL or the user
     being asked about the trustworthiness of a root certificate.  The
     default is given by a command line option (*note gpgsm-option
     --with-validation::).

'with-secret'
     If VALUE is true certificates with a corresponding private key are
     marked by the list commands.

'validation-model'
     This option overrides the command line option 'validation-model'
     for the session.  (*Note gpgsm-option --validation-model::.)

'with-key-data'
     This option globally enables the command line option
     '--with-key-data'.  (*Note gpgsm-option --with-key-data::.)

'enable-audit-log'
     If VALUE is true data to write an audit log is gathered.  (*Note
     gpgsm-cmd getauditlog::.)

'allow-pinentry-notify'
     If this option is used notifications about the launch of a Pinentry
     are passed back to the client.

'with-ephemeral-keys'
     If VALUE is true ephemeral certificates are included in the output
     of the list commands.

'no-encrypt-to'
     If this option is used all keys set by the command line option
     '--encrypt-to' are ignored.

'offline'
     If VALUE is true or VALUE is not given all network access is
     disabled for this session.  This is the same as the command line
     option '--disable-dirmngr'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Next: Specify a User ID,  Prev: Invoking GPGSM,  Up: Top

6 Invoking the SCDAEMON
***********************

The 'scdaemon' is a daemon to manage smartcards.  It is usually invoked
by 'gpg-agent' and in general not used directly.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to 'scdaemon''s commands and
options.

* Menu:

* Scdaemon Commands::      List of all commands.
* Scdaemon Options::       List of all options.
* Card applications::      Description of card applications.
* Scdaemon Configuration:: Configuration files.
* Scdaemon Examples::      Some usage examples.
* Scdaemon Protocol::      The protocol the daemon uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Commands,  Next: Scdaemon Options,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the 'stdin'.  The
     default mode is to create a socket and listen for commands there.

'--multi-server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the 'stdin' as well as
     on an additional Unix Domain socket.  The server command 'GETINFO'
     may be used to get the name of that extra socket.

'--daemon'
     Run the program in the background.  This option is required to
     prevent it from being accidentally running in the background.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Options,  Next: Card applications,  Prev: Scdaemon Commands,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.2 Option Summary
==================

'--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     'scdaemon.conf' and expected in the '.gnupg' directory directly
     below the home directory of the user.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase the
     verbosity by giving several verbose commands to 'gpgsm', such as
     '-vv'.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

          Note: All debugging options are subject to change and thus
          should not be used by any application program.  As the name
          says, they are only used as helpers to debug problems.

'--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behavior may
     change at any time without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may
     be given in usual C-Syntax.  The currently defined bits are:

     '0 (1)'
          command I/O
     '1 (2)'
          values of big number integers
     '2 (4)'
          low level crypto operations
     '5 (32)'
          memory allocation
     '6 (64)'
          caching
     '7 (128)'
          show memory statistics
     '9 (512)'
          write hashed data to files named 'dbgmd-000*'
     '10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol.  See also option
          '--debug-assuan-log-cats'.
     '11 (2048)'
          trace APDU I/O to the card.  This may reveal sensitive data.
     '12 (4096)'
          trace some card reader related function calls.

'--debug-all'
     Same as '--debug=0xffffffff'

'--debug-wait N'
     When running in server mode, wait N seconds before entering the
     actual processing loop and print the pid.  This gives time to
     attach a debugger.

'--debug-ccid-driver'
     Enable debug output from the included CCID driver for smartcards.
     Using this option twice will also enable some tracing of the T=1
     protocol.  Note that this option may reveal sensitive data.

'--debug-disable-ticker'
     This option disables all ticker functions like checking for card
     insertions.

'--debug-allow-core-dump'
     For security reasons we won't create a core dump when the process
     aborts.  For debugging purposes it is sometimes better to allow
     core dump.  This option enables it and also changes the working
     directory to '/tmp' when running in '--server' mode.

'--debug-log-tid'
     This option appends a thread ID to the PID in the log output.

'--debug-assuan-log-cats CATS'
     Changes the active Libassuan logging categories to CATS.  The value
     for CATS is an unsigned integer given in usual C-Syntax.  A value
     of 0 switches to a default category.  If this option is not used
     the categories are taken from the environment variable
     'ASSUAN_DEBUG'.  Note that this option has only an effect if the
     Assuan debug flag has also been with the option '--debug'.  For a
     list of categories see the Libassuan manual.

'--no-detach'
     Don't detach the process from the console.  This is mainly useful
     for debugging.

'--listen-backlog N'
     Set the size of the queue for pending connections.  The default is
     64.  This option has an effect only if '--multi-server' is also
     used.

'--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  This is very helpful in seeing
     what the agent actually does.  Use 'socket://' to log to socket.

'--pcsc-driver LIBRARY'
     Use LIBRARY to access the smartcard reader.  The current default is
     'libpcsclite.so'.  Instead of using this option you might also want
     to install a symbolic link to the default file name (e.g.  from
     'libpcsclite.so.1').

'--ctapi-driver LIBRARY'
     Use LIBRARY to access the smartcard reader.  The current default is
     'libtowitoko.so'.  Note that the use of this interface is
     deprecated; it may be removed in future releases.

'--disable-ccid'
     Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers.  This
     allows falling back to one of the other drivers even if the
     internal CCID driver can handle the reader.  Note, that CCID
     support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

'--reader-port NUMBER_OR_STRING'
     This option may be used to specify the port of the card terminal.
     A value of 0 refers to the first serial device; add 32768 to access
     USB devices.  The default is 32768 (first USB device).  PC/SC or
     CCID readers might need a string here; run the program in verbose
     mode to get a list of available readers.  The default is then the
     first reader found.

     To get a list of available CCID readers you may use this command:
            echo scd getinfo reader_list \
              | gpg-connect-agent --decode | awk '/^D/ {print $2}'

'--card-timeout N'
     If N is not 0 and no client is actively using the card, the card
     will be powered down after N seconds.  Powering down the card
     avoids a potential risk of damaging a card when used with certain
     cheap readers.  This also allows applications that are not aware of
     Scdaemon to access the card.  The disadvantage of using a card
     timeout is that accessing the card takes longer and that the user
     needs to enter the PIN again after the next power up.

     Note that with the current version of Scdaemon the card is powered
     down immediately at the next timer tick for any value of N other
     than 0.

'--enable-pinpad-varlen'
     Please specify this option when the card reader supports variable
     length input for pinpad (default is no).  For known readers (listed
     in ccid-driver.c and apdu.c), this option is not needed.  Note that
     if your card reader doesn't supports variable length input but you
     want to use it, you need to specify your pinpad request on your
     card.

'--disable-pinpad'
     Even if a card reader features a pinpad, do not try to use it.

'--deny-admin'
     This option disables the use of admin class commands for card
     applications where this is supported.  Currently we support it for
     the OpenPGP card.  This option is useful to inhibit accidental
     access to admin class command which could ultimately lock the card
     through wrong PIN numbers.  Note that GnuPG versions older than
     2.0.11 featured an '--allow-admin' option which was required to use
     such admin commands.  This option has no more effect today because
     the default is now to allow admin commands.

'--disable-application NAME'
     This option disables the use of the card application named NAME.
     This is mainly useful for debugging or if a application with lower
     priority should be used by default.

   All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Card applications,  Next: Scdaemon Configuration,  Prev: Scdaemon Options,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.3 Description of card applications
====================================

'scdaemon' supports the card applications as described below.

* Menu:

* OpenPGP Card::          The OpenPGP card application
* NKS Card::              The Telesec NetKey card application
* DINSIG Card::           The DINSIG card application
* PKCS#15 Card::          The PKCS#15 card application
* Geldkarte Card::        The Geldkarte application
* SmartCard-HSM::         The SmartCard-HSM application
* Undefined Card::        The Undefined stub application

File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Card,  Next: NKS Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.1 The OpenPGP card application "openpgp"
--------------------------------------------

This application is currently only used by 'gpg' but may in future also
be useful with 'gpgsm'.  Version 1 and version 2 of the card is
supported.

The specifications for these cards are available at
<http://g10code.com/docs/openpgp-card-1.0.pdf> and
<http://g10code.com/docs/openpgp-card-2.0.pdf>.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: NKS Card,  Next: DINSIG Card,  Prev: OpenPGP Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.2 The Telesec NetKey card "nks"
-----------------------------------

This is the main application of the Telesec cards as available in
Germany.  It is a superset of the German DINSIG card.  The card is used
by 'gpgsm'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: DINSIG Card,  Next: PKCS#15 Card,  Prev: NKS Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.3 The DINSIG card application "dinsig"
------------------------------------------

This is an application as described in the German draft standard _DIN V
66291-1_.  It is intended to be used by cards supporting the German
signature law and its bylaws (SigG and SigV).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: PKCS#15 Card,  Next: Geldkarte Card,  Prev: DINSIG Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.4 The PKCS#15 card application "p15"
----------------------------------------

This is common framework for smart card applications.  It is used by
'gpgsm'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Geldkarte Card,  Next: SmartCard-HSM,  Prev: PKCS#15 Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.5 The Geldkarte card application "geldkarte"
------------------------------------------------

This is a simple application to display information of a German
Geldkarte.  The Geldkarte is a small amount debit card application which
comes with almost all German banking cards.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: SmartCard-HSM,  Next: Undefined Card,  Prev: Geldkarte Card,  Up: Card applications

6.3.6 The SmartCard-HSM card application "sc-hsm"
-------------------------------------------------

This application adds read-only support for keys and certificates stored
on a SmartCard-HSM (http://www.smartcard-hsm.com).

   To generate keys and store certifiates you may use OpenSC
(https://github.com/OpenSC/OpenSC/wiki/SmartCardHSM) or the tools from
OpenSCDP (http://www.openscdp.org).

   The SmartCard-HSM cards requires a card reader that supports Extended
Length APDUs.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Undefined Card,  Prev: SmartCard-HSM,  Up: Card applications

6.3.7 The Undefined card application "undefined"
------------------------------------------------

This is a stub application to allow the use of the APDU command even if
no supported application is found on the card.  This application is not
used automatically but must be explicitly requested using the SERIALNO
command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Configuration,  Next: Scdaemon Examples,  Prev: Card applications,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.4 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
'scdaemons''s operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current
home directory (*note option --homedir::).

'scdaemon.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'scdaemon' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This default name may be changed on the command line (*note option
     --options::).

'scd-event'
     If this file is present and executable, it will be called on every
     card reader's status change.  An example of this script is provided
     with the distribution

'reader_N.status'
     This file is created by 'scdaemon' to let other applications now
     about reader status changes.  Its use is now deprecated in favor of
     'scd-event'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Examples,  Next: Scdaemon Protocol,  Prev: Scdaemon Configuration,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.5 Examples
============

     $ scdaemon --server -v

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Protocol,  Prev: Scdaemon Examples,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

6.6 Scdaemon's Assuan Protocol
==============================

The SC-Daemon should be started by the system to provide access to
external tokens.  Using Smartcards on a multi-user system does not make
much sense except for system services, but in this case no regular user
accounts are hosted on the machine.

   A client connects to the SC-Daemon by connecting to the socket named
'/var/run/gnupg/scdaemon/socket', configuration information is read from
/ETC/GNUPG/SCDAEMON.CONF

   Each connection acts as one session, SC-Daemon takes care of
synchronizing access to a token between sessions.

* Menu:

* Scdaemon SERIALNO::     Return the serial number.
* Scdaemon LEARN::        Read all useful information from the card.
* Scdaemon READCERT::     Return a certificate.
* Scdaemon READKEY::      Return a public key.
* Scdaemon PKSIGN::       Signing data with a Smartcard.
* Scdaemon PKDECRYPT::    Decrypting data with a Smartcard.
* Scdaemon GETATTR::      Read an attribute's value.
* Scdaemon SETATTR::      Update an attribute's value.
* Scdaemon WRITEKEY::     Write a key to a card.
* Scdaemon GENKEY::       Generate a new key on-card.
* Scdaemon RANDOM::       Return random bytes generated on-card.
* Scdaemon PASSWD::       Change PINs.
* Scdaemon CHECKPIN::     Perform a VERIFY operation.
* Scdaemon RESTART::      Restart connection
* Scdaemon APDU::         Send a verbatim APDU to the card

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon SERIALNO,  Next: Scdaemon LEARN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.1 Return the serial number
------------------------------

This command should be used to check for the presence of a card.  It is
special in that it can be used to reset the card.  Most other commands
will return an error when a card change has been detected and the use of
this function is therefore required.

   Background: We want to keep the client clear of handling card changes
between operations; i.e.  the client can assume that all operations are
done on the same card unless he call this function.

       SERIALNO

   Return the serial number of the card using a status response like:

       S SERIALNO D27600000000000000000000

   The serial number is the hex encoded value identified by the '0x5A'
tag in the GDO file (FIX=0x2F02).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon LEARN,  Next: Scdaemon READCERT,  Prev: Scdaemon SERIALNO,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.2 Read all useful information from the card
-----------------------------------------------

       LEARN [--force]

   Learn all useful information of the currently inserted card.  When
used without the '--force' option, the command might do an INQUIRE like
this:

           INQUIRE KNOWNCARDP <hexstring_with_serialNumber>

   The client should just send an 'END' if the processing should go on
or a 'CANCEL' to force the function to terminate with a cancel error
message.  The response of this command is a list of status lines
formatted as this:

          S KEYPAIRINFO HEXSTRING_WITH_KEYGRIP HEXSTRING_WITH_ID

   If there is no certificate yet stored on the card a single "X" is
returned in HEXSTRING_WITH_KEYGRIP.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon READCERT,  Next: Scdaemon READKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon LEARN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.3 Return a certificate
--------------------------

      READCERT HEXIFIED_CERTID|KEYID

   This function is used to read a certificate identified by
HEXIFIED_CERTID from the card.  With OpenPGP cards the keyid 'OpenPGP.3'
may be used to read the certificate of version 2 cards.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon READKEY,  Next: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Prev: Scdaemon READCERT,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.4 Return a public key
-------------------------

     READKEY HEXIFIED_CERTID

   Return the public key for the given cert or key ID as an standard
S-Expression.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Next: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Prev: Scdaemon READKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.5 Signing data with a Smartcard
-----------------------------------

To sign some data the caller should use the command

      SETDATA HEXSTRING

   to tell 'scdaemon' about the data to be signed.  The data must be
given in hex notation.  The actual signing is done using the command

       PKSIGN KEYID

   where KEYID is the hexified ID of the key to be used.  The key id may
have been retrieved using the command 'LEARN'.  If another hash
algorithm than SHA-1 is used, that algorithm may be given like:

       PKSIGN --hash=ALGONAME KEYID

   With ALGONAME are one of 'sha1', 'rmd160' or 'md5'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Next: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Prev: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.6 Decrypting data with a Smartcard
--------------------------------------

To decrypt some data the caller should use the command

      SETDATA HEXSTRING

   to tell 'scdaemon' about the data to be decrypted.  The data must be
given in hex notation.  The actual decryption is then done using the
command

       PKDECRYPT KEYID

   where KEYID is the hexified ID of the key to be used.

   If the card is aware of the apdding format a status line with padding
information is send before the plaintext data.  The key for this status
line is 'PADDING' with the only defined value being 0 and meaning
padding has been removed.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Next: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Prev: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.7 Read an attribute's value
-------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Next: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.8 Update an attribute's value
---------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Next: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.9 Write a key to a card
---------------------------

       WRITEKEY [--force] KEYID

   This command is used to store a secret key on a smartcard.  The
allowed keyids depend on the currently selected smartcard application.
The actual keydata is requested using the inquiry 'KEYDATA' and need to
be provided without any protection.  With '--force' set an existing key
under this KEYID will get overwritten.  The key data is expected to be
the usual canonical encoded S-expression.

   A PIN will be requested in most cases.  This however depends on the
actual card application.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Next: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Prev: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.10 Generate a new key on-card
---------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Next: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Prev: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.11 Return random bytes generated on-card
--------------------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Next: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Prev: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.12 Change PINs
------------------

        PASSWD [--reset] [--nullpin] CHVNO

   Change the PIN or reset the retry counter of the card holder
verification vector number CHVNO.  The option '--nullpin' is used to
initialize the PIN of TCOS cards (6 byte NullPIN only).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Next: Scdaemon RESTART,  Prev: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.13 Perform a VERIFY operation
---------------------------------

       CHECKPIN IDSTR

   Perform a VERIFY operation without doing anything else.  This may be
used to initialize a the PIN cache earlier to long lasting operations.
Its use is highly application dependent:

*OpenPGP*

     Perform a simple verify operation for CHV1 and CHV2, so that
     further operations won't ask for CHV2 and it is possible to do a
     cheap check on the PIN: If there is something wrong with the PIN
     entry system, only the regular CHV will get blocked and not the
     dangerous CHV3.  IDSTR is the usual card's serial number in hex
     notation; an optional fingerprint part will get ignored.

     There is however a special mode if IDSTR is suffixed with the
     literal string '[CHV3]': In this case the Admin PIN is checked if
     and only if the retry counter is still at 3.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon RESTART,  Next: Scdaemon APDU,  Prev: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.14 Perform a RESTART operation
----------------------------------

       RESTART

   Restart the current connection; this is a kind of warm reset.  It
deletes the context used by this connection but does not actually reset
the card.

   This is used by gpg-agent to reuse a primary pipe connection and may
be used by clients to backup from a conflict in the serial command; i.e.
to select another application.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon APDU,  Prev: Scdaemon RESTART,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

6.6.15 Send a verbatim APDU to the card
---------------------------------------

       APDU [--atr] [--more] [--exlen[=N]] [HEXSTRING]

   Send an APDU to the current reader.  This command bypasses the high
level functions and sends the data directly to the card.  HEXSTRING is
expected to be a proper APDU. If HEXSTRING is not given no commands are
send to the card; However the command will implicitly check whether the
card is ready for use.

   Using the option '--atr' returns the ATR of the card as a status
message before any data like this:
          S CARD-ATR 3BFA1300FF813180450031C173C00100009000B1

   Using the option '--more' handles the card status word MORE_DATA
(61xx) and concatenate all responses to one block.

   Using the option '--exlen' the returned APDU may use extended length
up to N bytes.  If N is not given a default value is used (currently
4096).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Specify a User ID,  Next: Helper Tools,  Prev: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Up: Top

7 How to Specify a User Id
**************************

There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG. Some of them are
only valid for 'gpg' others are only good for 'gpgsm'.  Here is the
entire list of ways to specify a key:

   * By key Id.  This format is deduced from the length of the string
     and its content or '0x' prefix.  The key Id of an X.509 certificate
     are the low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids
     is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
     should be used.

     When using 'gpg' an exclamation mark (!)  may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
     form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol.  You can see the
     long key ID using the option '--with-colons'.

          234567C4
          0F34E556E
          01347A56A
          0xAB123456

          234AABBCC34567C4
          0F323456784E56EAB
          01AB3FED1347A5612
          0x234AABBCC34567C4

   * By fingerprint.  This format is deduced from the length of the
     string and its content or the '0x' prefix.  Note, that only the 20
     byte version fingerprint is available with 'gpgsm' (i.e.  the SHA-1
     hash of the certificate).

     When using 'gpg' an exclamation mark (!)  may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The best way to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This
     avoids any ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

          1234343434343434C434343434343434
          123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
          0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
          0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

     'gpgsm' also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits
     because this is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509
     fingerprints.  'gpg' also allows the use of the space separated
     SHA-1 fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

   * By exact match on OpenPGP user ID. This is denoted by a leading
     equal sign.  It does not make sense for X.509 certificates.

          =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By exact match on an email address.  This is indicated by enclosing
     the email address in the usual way with left and right angles.

          <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By partial match on an email address.  This is indicated by
     prefixing the search string with an '@'.  This uses a substring
     search but considers only the mail address (i.e.  inside the angle
     brackets).

          @heinrichh

   * By exact match on the subject's DN. This is indicated by a leading
     slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.
     Note that you can't use the string printed by 'gpgsm --list-keys'
     because that one has been reordered and modified for better
     readability; use '--with-colons' to print the raw (but standard
     escaped) RFC-2253 string.

          /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on the issuer's DN. This is indicated by a leading
     hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then directly followed
     by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
     Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

          #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN. This is indicated
     by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
     serial number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN
     of the issuer.  See note above.

          #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By keygrip.  This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40
     hex digits of a keygrip.  'gpgsm' prints the keygrip when using the
     command '--dump-cert'.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

          &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

   * By substring match.  This is the default mode but applications may
     want to explicitly indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.
     Match is not case sensitive.

          Heine
          *Heine

   * .  and + prefixes These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails
     anchored at the end and for a word search mode.  They are not yet
     implemented and using them is undefined.

   Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was
used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is
not anymore used and there should be no conflict when used with X.509
stuff.

   Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
possible to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't
have to do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta
data.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Helper Tools,  Next: Web Key Service,  Prev: Specify a User ID,  Up: Top

8 Helper Tools
**************

GnuPG comes with a couple of smaller tools:

* Menu:

* watchgnupg::            Read logs from a socket.
* gpgv::                  Verify OpenPGP signatures.
* addgnupghome::          Create .gnupg home directories.
* gpgconf::               Modify .gnupg home directories.
* applygnupgdefaults::    Run gpgconf for all users.
* gpg-preset-passphrase:: Put a passphrase into the cache.
* gpg-connect-agent::     Communicate with a running agent.
* dirmngr-client::        How to use the Dirmngr client tool.
* gpgparsemail::          Parse a mail message into an annotated format
* symcryptrun::           Call a simple symmetric encryption tool.
* gpgtar::                Encrypt or sign files into an archive.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: watchgnupg,  Next: gpgv,  Up: Helper Tools

8.1 Read logs from a socket
===========================

Most of the main utilities are able to write their log files to a Unix
Domain socket if configured that way.  'watchgnupg' is a simple listener
for such a socket.  It ameliorates the output with a time stamp and
makes sure that long lines are not interspersed with log output from
other utilities.  This tool is not available for Windows.

'watchgnupg' is commonly invoked as

     watchgnupg --force $(gpgconf --list-dirs socketdir)/S.log

This starts it on the current terminal for listening on the standard
logging socket (which is either '~/.gnupg/S.log' or
'/var/run/user/UID/gnupg/S.log').

'watchgnupg' understands these options:

'--force'
     Delete an already existing socket file.

'--tcp N'
     Instead of reading from a local socket, listen for connects on TCP
     port N.

'--time-only'
     Do not print the date part of the timestamp.

'--verbose'
     Enable extra informational output.

'--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

'--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.


Examples
********

     $ watchgnupg --force --time-only $(gpgconf --list-dirs socketdir)/S.log

   This waits for connections on the local socket (e.g.
'/home/foo/.gnupg/S.log') and shows all log entries.  To make this work
the option 'log-file' needs to be used with all modules which logs are
to be shown.  The suggested entry for the configuration files is:

     log-file socket://

   If the default socket as given above and returned by "echo $(gpgconf
-list-dirs socketdir)/S.log" is not desired an arbitrary socket name can
be specified, for example 'socket:///home/foo/bar/mysocket'.  For
debugging purposes it is also possible to do remote logging.  Take care
if you use this feature because the information is send in the clear
over the network.  Use this syntax in the conf files:

     log-file tcp://192.168.1.1:4711

   You may use any port and not just 4711 as shown above; only IP
addresses are supported (v4 and v6) and no host names.  You need to
start 'watchgnupg' with the 'tcp' option.  Note that under Windows the
registry entry HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:DEFAULTLOGFILE can be used to
change the default log output from 'stderr' to whatever is given by that
entry.  However the only useful entry is a TCP name for remote
debugging.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgv,  Next: addgnupghome,  Prev: watchgnupg,  Up: Helper Tools

8.2 Verify OpenPGP signatures
=============================

'gpgv' is an OpenPGP signature verification tool.

   This program is actually a stripped-down version of 'gpg' which is
only able to check signatures.  It is somewhat smaller than the
fully-blown 'gpg' and uses a different (and simpler) way to check that
the public keys used to make the signature are valid.  There are no
configuration files and only a few options are implemented.

   'gpgv' assumes that all keys in the keyring are trustworthy.  That
does also mean that it does not check for expired or revoked keys.

   By default a keyring named 'trustedkeys.kbx' is used; if that does
not exist a keyring named 'trustedkeys.gpg' is used.  The default
keyring is assumed to be in the home directory of GnuPG, either the
default home directory or the one set by an option or an environment
variable.  The option '--keyring' may be used to specify a different
keyring or even multiple keyrings.


   'gpgv' recognizes these options:

'--verbose'
'-v'
     Gives more information during processing.  If used twice, the input
     data is listed in detail.

'--quiet'
'-q'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--keyring FILE'
     Add FILE to the list of keyrings.  If FILE begins with a tilde and
     a slash, these are replaced by the HOME directory.  If the filename
     does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the home-directory
     ("~/.gnupg" if -homedir is not used).

'--output FILE'
'-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE; to write to stdout use '-'.  This option can
     be used to get the signed text from a cleartext or binary
     signature; it also works for detached signatures, but in that case
     this option is in general not useful.  Note that an existing file
     will be overwritten.

'--status-fd N'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor N.  See the
     file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

'--logger-fd n'
     Write log output to file descriptor 'n' and not to stderr.

'--log-file file'
     Same as '--logger-fd', except the logger data is written to file
     'file'.  Use 'socket://' to log to socket.

'--ignore-time-conflict'
     GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and
     signatures have plausible values.  However, sometimes a signature
     seems to be older than the key due to clock problems.  This option
     turns these checks into warnings.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'--weak-digest name'
     Treat the specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made over
     weak digests algorithms are normally rejected.  This option can be
     supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should be considered
     weak.  MD5 is always considered weak, and does not need to be
     listed explicitly.

'--enable-special-filenames'
     This option enables a mode in which filenames of the form '-&n',
     where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file
     descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

   The program returns 0 if everything is fine, 1 if at least one
signature was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

8.2.1 Examples
--------------

gpgv 'pgpfile'
gpgv 'sigfile' ['datafile']
     Verify the signature of the file.  The second form is used for
     detached signatures, where 'sigfile' is the detached signature
     (either ASCII-armored or binary) and 'datafile' contains the signed
     data; if 'datafile' is "-" the signed data is expected on 'stdin';
     if 'datafile' is not given the name of the file holding the signed
     data is constructed by cutting off the extension (".asc", ".sig" or
     ".sign") from 'sigfile'.

8.2.2 Environment
-----------------

HOME
     Used to locate the default home directory.

GNUPGHOME
     If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

8.2.3 FILES
-----------

~/.gnupg/trustedkeys.gpg
     The default keyring with the allowed keys.

   'gpg'(1)

File: gnupg.info,  Node: addgnupghome,  Next: gpgconf,  Prev: gpgv,  Up: Helper Tools

8.3 Create .gnupg home directories
==================================

If GnuPG is installed on a system with existing user accounts, it is
sometimes required to populate the GnuPG home directory with existing
files.  Especially a 'trustlist.txt' and a keybox with some initial
certificates are often desired.  This script helps to do this by copying
all files from '/etc/skel/.gnupg' to the home directories of the
accounts given on the command line.  It takes care not to overwrite
existing GnuPG home directories.

'addgnupghome' is invoked by root as:

     addgnupghome account1 account2 ... accountn

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgconf,  Next: applygnupgdefaults,  Prev: addgnupghome,  Up: Helper Tools

8.4 Modify .gnupg home directories
==================================

The 'gpgconf' is a utility to automatically and reasonable safely query
and modify configuration files in the '.gnupg' home directory.  It is
designed not to be invoked manually by the user, but automatically by
graphical user interfaces (GUI).(1)

   'gpgconf' provides access to the configuration of one or more
components of the GnuPG system.  These components correspond more or
less to the programs that exist in the GnuPG framework, like GPG, GPGSM,
DirMngr, etc.  But this is not a strict one-to-one relationship.  Not
all configuration options are available through 'gpgconf'.  'gpgconf'
provides a generic and abstract method to access the most important
configuration options that can feasibly be controlled via such a
mechanism.

   'gpgconf' can be used to gather and change the options available in
each component, and can also provide their default values.  'gpgconf'
will give detailed type information that can be used to restrict the
user's input without making an attempt to commit the changes.

   'gpgconf' provides the backend of a configuration editor.  The
configuration editor would usually be a graphical user interface program
that displays the current options, their default values, and allows the
user to make changes to the options.  These changes can then be made
active with 'gpgconf' again.  Such a program that uses 'gpgconf' in this
way will be called GUI throughout this section.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpgconf::       List of all commands and options.
* Format conventions::     Formatting conventions relevant for all commands.
* Listing components::     List all gpgconf components.
* Checking programs::      Check all programs known to gpgconf.
* Listing options::        List all options of a component.
* Changing options::       Changing options of a component.
* Listing global options:: List all global options.
* Querying versions::      Get and compare software versions.
* Files used by gpgconf::  What files are used by gpgconf.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Please note that currently no locking is done, so concurrent
access should be avoided.  There are some precautions to avoid
corruption with concurrent usage, but results may be inconsistent and
some changes may get lost.  The stateless design makes it difficult to
provide more guarantees.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpgconf,  Next: Format conventions,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.1 Invoking gpgconf
----------------------

One of the following commands must be given:

'--list-components'
     List all components.  This is the default command used if none is
     specified.

'--check-programs'
     List all available backend programs and test whether they are
     runnable.

'--list-options COMPONENT'
     List all options of the component COMPONENT.

'--change-options COMPONENT'
     Change the options of the component COMPONENT.

'--check-options COMPONENT'
     Check the options for the component COMPONENT.

'--apply-profile FILE'
     Apply the configuration settings listed in FILE to the
     configuration files.  If FILE has no suffix and no slashes the
     command first tries to read a file with the suffix '.prf' from the
     the data directory ('gpgconf --list-dirs datadir') before it reads
     the file verbatim.  A profile is divided into sections using the
     bracketed component name.  Each section then lists the option which
     shall go into the respective configuration file.

'--apply-defaults'
     Update all configuration files with values taken from the global
     configuration file (usually '/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf').

'--list-dirs [NAMES]'
     Lists the directories used by 'gpgconf'.  One directory is listed
     per line, and each line consists of a colon-separated list where
     the first field names the directory type (for example 'sysconfdir')
     and the second field contains the percent-escaped directory.
     Although they are not directories, the socket file names used by
     'gpg-agent' and 'dirmngr' are printed as well.  Note that the
     socket file names and the 'homedir' lines are the default names and
     they may be overridden by command line switches.  If NAMES are
     given only the directories or file names specified by the list
     names are printed without any escaping.

'--list-config [FILENAME]'
     List the global configuration file in a colon separated format.  If
     FILENAME is given, check that file instead.

'--check-config [FILENAME]'
     Run a syntax check on the global configuration file.  If FILENAME
     is given, check that file instead.

'--query-swdb PACKAGE_NAME [VERSION_STRING]'
     Returns the current version for PACKAGE_NAME and if VERSION_STRING
     is given also an indicator on whether an update is available.  The
     actual file with the software version is automatically downloaded
     and checked by 'dirmngr'.  'dirmngr' uses a thresholds to avoid
     download the file too often and it does this by default only if it
     can be done via Tor.  To force an update of that file this command
     can be used:

                 gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'loadswdb --force' /bye

'--reload [COMPONENT]'
     Reload all or the given component.  This is basically the same as
     sending a SIGHUP to the component.  Components which don't support
     reloading are ignored.  Without COMPONENT or by using "all" for
     COMPONENT all components which are daemons are reloaded.

'--launch [COMPONENT]'
     If the COMPONENT is not already running, start it.  'component'
     must be a daemon.  This is in general not required because the
     system starts these daemons as needed.  However, external software
     making direct use of 'gpg-agent' or 'dirmngr' may use this command
     to ensure that they are started.  Using "all" for COMPONENT
     launches all components which are daemons.

'--kill [COMPONENT]'
     Kill the given component.  Components which support killing are
     'gpg-agent' and 'scdaemon'.  Components which don't support
     reloading are ignored.  Using "all" for COMPONENT kills all
     components running as daemons.  Note that as of now reload and kill
     have the same effect for 'scdaemon'.

'--create-socketdir'
     Create a directory for sockets below /run/user or /var/run/user.
     This is command is only required if a non default home directory is
     used and the /run based sockets shall be used.  For the default
     home directory GnUPG creates a directory on the fly.

'--remove-socketdir'
     Remove a directory created with command '--create-socketdir'.

   The following options may be used:

'-o FILE'
'--output FILE'
     Write output to FILE.  Default is to write to stdout.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  Specifically, this
     extends numerical field values by human-readable descriptions.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'-n'
'--dry-run'
     Do not actually change anything.  This is currently only
     implemented for '--change-options' and can be used for testing
     purposes.

'-r'
'--runtime'
     Only used together with '--change-options'.  If one of the modified
     options can be changed in a running daemon process, signal the
     running daemon to ask it to reparse its configuration file after
     changing.

     This means that the changes will take effect at run-time, as far as
     this is possible.  Otherwise, they will take effect at the next
     start of the respective backend programs.

'--status-fd N'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor N.  This
     program returns the status messages SUCCESS or FAILURE which are
     helpful when the caller uses a double fork approach and can't
     easily get the return code of the process.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Format conventions,  Next: Listing components,  Prev: Invoking gpgconf,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.2 Format conventions
------------------------

Some lines in the output of 'gpgconf' contain a list of colon-separated
fields.  The following conventions apply:

   * The GUI program is required to strip off trailing newline and/or
     carriage return characters from the output.

   * 'gpgconf' will never leave out fields.  If a certain version
     provides a certain field, this field will always be present in all
     'gpgconf' versions from that time on.

   * Future versions of 'gpgconf' might append fields to the list.  New
     fields will always be separated from the previously last field by a
     colon separator.  The GUI should be prepared to parse the last
     field it knows about up until a colon or end of line.

   * Not all fields are defined under all conditions.  You are required
     to ignore the content of undefined fields.

   There are several standard types for the content of a field:

verbatim
     Some fields contain strings that are not escaped in any way.  Such
     fields are described to be used _verbatim_.  These fields will
     never contain a colon character (for obvious reasons).  No
     de-escaping or other formatting is required to use the field
     content.  This is for easy parsing of the output, when it is known
     that the content can never contain any special characters.

percent-escaped
     Some fields contain strings that are described to be
     _percent-escaped_.  Such strings need to be de-escaped before their
     content can be presented to the user.  A percent-escaped string is
     de-escaped by replacing all occurrences of '%XY' by the byte that
     has the hexadecimal value 'XY'.  'X' and 'Y' are from the set
     '0-9a-f'.

localized
     Some fields contain strings that are described to be _localized_.
     Such strings are translated to the active language and formatted in
     the active character set.

unsigned number
     Some fields contain an _unsigned number_.  This number will always
     fit into a 32-bit unsigned integer variable.  The number may be
     followed by a space, followed by a human readable description of
     that value (if the verbose option is used).  You should ignore
     everything in the field that follows the number.

signed number
     Some fields contain a _signed number_.  This number will always fit
     into a 32-bit signed integer variable.  The number may be followed
     by a space, followed by a human readable description of that value
     (if the verbose option is used).  You should ignore everything in
     the field that follows the number.

boolean value
     Some fields contain a _boolean value_.  This is a number with
     either the value 0 or 1.  The number may be followed by a space,
     followed by a human readable description of that value (if the
     verbose option is used).  You should ignore everything in the field
     that follows the number; checking just the first character is
     sufficient in this case.

option
     Some fields contain an _option_ argument.  The format of an option
     argument depends on the type of the option and on some flags:

     no argument
          The simplest case is that the option does not take an argument
          at all (TYPE '0').  Then the option argument is an unsigned
          number that specifies how often the option occurs.  If the
          'list' flag is not set, then the only valid number is '1'.
          Options that do not take an argument never have the 'default'
          or 'optional arg' flag set.

     number
          If the option takes a number argument (ALT-TYPE is '2' or
          '3'), and it can only occur once ('list' flag is not set),
          then the option argument is either empty (only allowed if the
          argument is optional), or it is a number.  A number is a
          string that begins with an optional minus character, followed
          by one or more digits.  The number must fit into an integer
          variable (unsigned or signed, depending on ALT-TYPE).

     number list
          If the option takes a number argument and it can occur more
          than once, then the option argument is either empty, or it is
          a comma-separated list of numbers as described above.

     string
          If the option takes a string argument (ALT-TYPE is 1), and it
          can only occur once ('list' flag is not set) then the option
          argument is either empty (only allowed if the argument is
          optional), or it starts with a double quote character ('"')
          followed by a percent-escaped string that is the argument
          value.  Note that there is only a leading double quote
          character, no trailing one.  The double quote character is
          only needed to be able to differentiate between no value and
          the empty string as value.

     string list
          If the option takes a string argument and it can occur more
          than once, then the option argument is either empty, or it is
          a comma-separated list of string arguments as described above.

   The active language and character set are currently determined from
the locale environment of the 'gpgconf' program.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing components,  Next: Checking programs,  Prev: Format conventions,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.3 Listing components
------------------------

The command '--list-components' will list all components that can be
configured with 'gpgconf'.  Usually, one component will correspond to
one GnuPG-related program and contain the options of that program's
configuration file that can be modified using 'gpgconf'.  However, this
is not necessarily the case.  A component might also be a group of
selected options from several programs, or contain entirely virtual
options that have a special effect rather than changing exactly one
option in one configuration file.

   A component is a set of configuration options that semantically
belong together.  Furthermore, several changes to a component can be
made in an atomic way with a single operation.  The GUI could for
example provide a menu with one entry for each component, or a window
with one tabulator sheet per component.

   The command '--list-components' lists all available components, one
per line.  The format of each line is:

   'NAME:DESCRIPTION:PGMNAME:'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag of the component.  The name tag is
     used to specify the component in all communication with 'gpgconf'.
     The name tag is to be used _verbatim_.  It is thus not in any
     escaped format.

DESCRIPTION
     The _string_ in this field contains a human-readable description of
     the component.  It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for
     informational purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

PGMNAME
     The _string_ in this field contains the absolute name of the
     program's file.  It can be used to unambiguously invoke that
     program.  It is _percent-escaped_.

   Example:
     $ gpgconf --list-components
     gpg:GPG for OpenPGP:/usr/local/bin/gpg2:
     gpg-agent:GPG Agent:/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent:
     scdaemon:Smartcard Daemon:/usr/local/bin/scdaemon:
     gpgsm:GPG for S/MIME:/usr/local/bin/gpgsm:
     dirmngr:Directory Manager:/usr/local/bin/dirmngr:

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Checking programs,  Next: Listing options,  Prev: Listing components,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.4 Checking programs
-----------------------

The command '--check-programs' is similar to '--list-components' but
works on backend programs and not on components.  It runs each program
to test whether it is installed and runnable.  This also includes a
syntax check of all config file options of the program.

   The command '--check-programs' lists all available programs, one per
line.  The format of each line is:

   'NAME:DESCRIPTION:PGMNAME:AVAIL:OKAY:CFGFILE:LINE:ERROR:'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag of the program which is identical to
     the name of the component.  The name tag is to be used _verbatim_.
     It is thus not in any escaped format.  This field may be empty to
     indicate a continuation of error descriptions for the last name.
     The description and pgmname fields are then also empty.

DESCRIPTION
     The _string_ in this field contains a human-readable description of
     the component.  It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for
     informational purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

PGMNAME
     The _string_ in this field contains the absolute name of the
     program's file.  It can be used to unambiguously invoke that
     program.  It is _percent-escaped_.

AVAIL
     The _boolean value_ in this field indicates whether the program is
     installed and runnable.

OKAY
     The _boolean value_ in this field indicates whether the program's
     config file is syntactically okay.

CFGFILE
     If an error occurred in the configuration file (as indicated by a
     false value in the field 'okay'), this field has the name of the
     failing configuration file.  It is _percent-escaped_.

LINE
     If an error occurred in the configuration file, this field has the
     line number of the failing statement in the configuration file.  It
     is an _unsigned number_.

ERROR
     If an error occurred in the configuration file, this field has the
     error text of the failing statement in the configuration file.  It
     is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

In the following example the 'dirmngr' is not runnable and the
configuration file of 'scdaemon' is not okay.

     $ gpgconf --check-programs
     gpg:GPG for OpenPGP:/usr/local/bin/gpg2:1:1:
     gpg-agent:GPG Agent:/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent:1:1:
     scdaemon:Smartcard Daemon:/usr/local/bin/scdaemon:1:0:
     gpgsm:GPG for S/MIME:/usr/local/bin/gpgsm:1:1:
     dirmngr:Directory Manager:/usr/local/bin/dirmngr:0:0:

The command '--check-options COMPONENT' will verify the configuration
file in the same manner as '--check-programs', but only for the
component COMPONENT.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing options,  Next: Changing options,  Prev: Checking programs,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.5 Listing options
---------------------

Every component contains one or more options.  Options may be gathered
into option groups to allow the GUI to give visual hints to the user
about which options are related.

   The command '--list-options COMPONENT' lists all options (and the
groups they belong to) in the component COMPONENT, one per line.
COMPONENT must be the string in the field NAME in the output of the
'--list-components' command.

   There is one line for each option and each group.  First come all
options that are not in any group.  Then comes a line describing a
group.  Then come all options that belong into each group.  Then comes
the next group and so on.  There does not need to be any group (and in
this case the output will stop after the last non-grouped option).

   The format of each line is:

   'NAME:FLAGS:LEVEL:DESCRIPTION:TYPE:ALT-TYPE:ARGNAME:DEFAULT:ARGDEF:VALUE'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag for the group or option.  The name
     tag is used to specify the group or option in all communication
     with 'gpgconf'.  The name tag is to be used _verbatim_.  It is thus
     not in any escaped format.

FLAGS
     The flags field contains an _unsigned number_.  Its value is the
     OR-wise combination of the following flag values:

     'group (1)'
          If this flag is set, this is a line describing a group and not
          an option.

     The following flag values are only defined for options (that is, if
     the 'group' flag is not used).

     'optional arg (2)'
          If this flag is set, the argument is optional.  This is never
          set for TYPE '0' (none) options.

     'list (4)'
          If this flag is set, the option can be given multiple times.

     'runtime (8)'
          If this flag is set, the option can be changed at runtime.

     'default (16)'
          If this flag is set, a default value is available.

     'default desc (32)'
          If this flag is set, a (runtime) default is available.  This
          and the 'default' flag are mutually exclusive.

     'no arg desc (64)'
          If this flag is set, and the 'optional arg' flag is set, then
          the option has a special meaning if no argument is given.

     'no change (128)'
          If this flag is set, 'gpgconf' ignores requests to change the
          value.  GUI frontends should grey out this option.  Note, that
          manual changes of the configuration files are still possible.

LEVEL
     This field is defined for options and for groups.  It contains an
     _unsigned number_ that specifies the expert level under which this
     group or option should be displayed.  The following expert levels
     are defined for options (they have analogous meaning for groups):

     'basic (0)'
          This option should always be offered to the user.

     'advanced (1)'
          This option may be offered to advanced users.

     'expert (2)'
          This option should only be offered to expert users.

     'invisible (3)'
          This option should normally never be displayed, not even to
          expert users.

     'internal (4)'
          This option is for internal use only.  Ignore it.

     The level of a group will always be the lowest level of all options
     it contains.

DESCRIPTION
     This field is defined for options and groups.  The _string_ in this
     field contains a human-readable description of the option or group.
     It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for informational
     purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

TYPE
     This field is only defined for options.  It contains an _unsigned
     number_ that specifies the type of the option's argument, if any.
     The following types are defined:

     Basic types:

     'none (0)'
          No argument allowed.

     'string (1)'
          An _unformatted string_.

     'int32 (2)'
          A _signed number_.

     'uint32 (3)'
          An _unsigned number_.

     Complex types:

     'pathname (32)'
          A _string_ that describes the pathname of a file.  The file
          does not necessarily need to exist.

     'ldap server (33)'
          A _string_ that describes an LDAP server in the format:

          'HOSTNAME:PORT:USERNAME:PASSWORD:BASE_DN'

     'key fingerprint (34)'
          A _string_ with a 40 digit fingerprint specifying a
          certificate.

     'pub key (35)'
          A _string_ that describes a certificate by user ID, key ID or
          fingerprint.

     'sec key (36)'
          A _string_ that describes a certificate with a key by user ID,
          key ID or fingerprint.

     'alias list (37)'
          A _string_ that describes an alias list, like the one used
          with gpg's group option.  The list consists of a key, an equal
          sign and space separated values.

     More types will be added in the future.  Please see the ALT-TYPE
     field for information on how to cope with unknown types.

ALT-TYPE
     This field is identical to TYPE, except that only the types '0' to
     '31' are allowed.  The GUI is expected to present the user the
     option in the format specified by TYPE.  But if the argument type
     TYPE is not supported by the GUI, it can still display the option
     in the more generic basic type ALT-TYPE.  The GUI must support all
     the defined basic types to be able to display all options.  More
     basic types may be added in future versions.  If the GUI encounters
     a basic type it doesn't support, it should report an error and
     abort the operation.

ARGNAME
     This field is only defined for options with an argument type TYPE
     that is not '0'.  In this case it may contain a _percent-escaped_
     and _localized string_ that gives a short name for the argument.
     The field may also be empty, though, in which case a short name is
     not known.

DEFAULT
     This field is defined only for options for which the 'default' or
     'default desc' flag is set.  If the 'default' flag is set, its
     format is that of an _option argument_ (*note Format conventions::,
     for details).  If the default value is empty, then no default is
     known.  Otherwise, the value specifies the default value for this
     option.  If the 'default desc' flag is set, the field is either
     empty or contains a description of the effect if the option is not
     given.

ARGDEF
     This field is defined only for options for which the 'optional arg'
     flag is set.  If the 'no arg desc' flag is not set, its format is
     that of an _option argument_ (*note Format conventions::, for
     details).  If the default value is empty, then no default is known.
     Otherwise, the value specifies the default argument for this
     option.  If the 'no arg desc' flag is set, the field is either
     empty or contains a description of the effect of this option if no
     argument is given.

VALUE
     This field is defined only for options.  Its format is that of an
     _option argument_.  If it is empty, then the option is not
     explicitly set in the current configuration, and the default
     applies (if any).  Otherwise, it contains the current value of the
     option.  Note that this field is also meaningful if the option
     itself does not take a real argument (in this case, it contains the
     number of times the option appears).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Changing options,  Next: Listing global options,  Prev: Listing options,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.6 Changing options
----------------------

The command '--change-options COMPONENT' will attempt to change the
options of the component COMPONENT to the specified values.  COMPONENT
must be the string in the field NAME in the output of the
'--list-components' command.  You have to provide the options that shall
be changed in the following format on standard input:

   'NAME:FLAGS:NEW-VALUE'

NAME
     This is the name of the option to change.  NAME must be the string
     in the field NAME in the output of the '--list-options' command.

FLAGS
     The flags field contains an _unsigned number_.  Its value is the
     OR-wise combination of the following flag values:

     'default (16)'
          If this flag is set, the option is deleted and the default
          value is used instead (if applicable).

NEW-VALUE
     The new value for the option.  This field is only defined if the
     'default' flag is not set.  The format is that of an _option
     argument_.  If it is empty (or the field is omitted), the default
     argument is used (only allowed if the argument is optional for this
     option).  Otherwise, the option will be set to the specified value.

The output of the command is the same as that of '--check-options' for
the modified configuration file.

   Examples:

   To set the force option, which is of basic type 'none (0)':

     $ echo 'force:0:1' | gpgconf --change-options dirmngr

   To delete the force option:

     $ echo 'force:16:' | gpgconf --change-options dirmngr

   The '--runtime' option can influence when the changes take effect.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing global options,  Next: Querying versions,  Prev: Changing options,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.7 Listing global options
----------------------------

Sometimes it is useful for applications to look at the global options
file 'gpgconf.conf'.  The colon separated listing format is record
oriented and uses the first field to identify the record type:

'k'
     This describes a key record to start the definition of a new
     ruleset for a user/group.  The format of a key record is:

     'k:USER:GROUP:'

     USER
          This is the user field of the key.  It is percent escaped.
          See the definition of the gpgconf.conf format for details.

     GROUP
          This is the group field of the key.  It is percent escaped.

'r'
     This describes a rule record.  All rule records up to the next key
     record make up a rule set for that key.  The format of a rule
     record is:

     'r:::COMPONENT:OPTION:FLAG:VALUE:'

     COMPONENT
          This is the component part of a rule.  It is a plain string.

     OPTION
          This is the option part of a rule.  It is a plain string.

     FLAG
          This is the flags part of a rule.  There may be only one flag
          per rule but by using the same component and option, several
          flags may be assigned to an option.  It is a plain string.

     VALUE
          This is the optional value for the option.  It is a percent
          escaped string with a single quotation mark to indicate a
          string.  The quotation mark is only required to distinguish
          between no value specified and an empty string.

Unknown record types should be ignored.  Note that there is
intentionally no feature to change the global option file through
'gpgconf'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Querying versions,  Next: Files used by gpgconf,  Prev: Listing global options,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.8 Get and compare software versions.
----------------------------------------

The GnuPG Project operates a server to query the current versions of
software packages related to GnuPG. 'gpgconf' can be used to access this
online database.  To allow for offline operations, this feature works by
having 'dirmngr' download a file from 'https://versions.gnupg.org',
checking the signature of that file and storing the file in the GnuPG
home directory.  If 'gpgconf' is used and 'dirmngr' is running, it may
ask 'dirmngr' to refresh that file before itself uses the file.

   The command '--query-swdb' returns information for the given package
in a colon delimited format:

NAME
     This is the name of the package as requested.  Note that "gnupg" is
     a special name which is replaced by the actual package implementing
     this version of GnuPG. For this name it is also not required to
     specify a version because 'gpgconf' takes its own version in this
     case.

IVERSION
     The currently installed version or an empty string.  The value is
     taken from the command line argument but may be provided by gpg if
     not given.

STATUS
     The status of the software package according to this table:
     '-'
          No information available.  This is either because no current
          version has been specified or due to an error.
     '?'
          The given name is not known in the online database.
     'u'
          An update of the software is available.
     'c'
          The installed version of the software is current.
     'n'
          The installed version is already newer than the released
          version.

URGENCY
     If the value (the empty string should be considered as zero) is
     greater than zero an important update is available.

ERROR
     This returns an 'gpg-error' error code to distinguish between
     various failure modes.

FILEDATE
     This gives the date of the file with the version numbers in
     standard ISO format ('yyyymmddThhmmss').  The date has been
     extracted by 'dirmngr' from the signature of the file.

VERIFIED
     This gives the date in ISO format the file was downloaded.  This
     value can be used to evaluate the freshness of the information.

VERSION
     This returns the version string for the requested software from the
     file.

RELDATE
     This returns the release date in ISO format.

SIZE
     This returns the size of the package as decimal number of bytes.

HASH
     This returns a hexified SHA-2 hash of the package.

More fields may be added in future to the output.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Files used by gpgconf,  Prev: Querying versions,  Up: gpgconf

8.4.9 Files used by gpgconf
---------------------------

'/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf'
     If this file exists, it is processed as a global configuration
     file.  A commented example can be found in the 'examples' directory
     of the distribution.

'GNUPGHOME/swdb.lst'
     A file with current software versions.  'dirmngr' creates this file
     on demand from an online resource.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: applygnupgdefaults,  Next: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Prev: gpgconf,  Up: Helper Tools

8.5 Run gpgconf for all users
=============================

This script is a wrapper around 'gpgconf' to run it with the command
'--apply-defaults' for all real users with an existing GnuPG home
directory.  Admins might want to use this script to update he GnuPG
configuration files for all users after '/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf' has
been changed.  This allows enforcing certain policies for all users.
Note, that this is not a bulletproof way to force a user to use certain
options.  A user may always directly edit the configuration files and
bypass gpgconf.

'applygnupgdefaults' is invoked by root as:

     applygnupgdefaults

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Next: gpg-connect-agent,  Prev: applygnupgdefaults,  Up: Helper Tools

8.6 Put a passphrase into the cache
===================================

The 'gpg-preset-passphrase' is a utility to seed the internal cache of a
running 'gpg-agent' with passphrases.  It is mainly useful for
unattended machines, where the usual 'pinentry' tool may not be used and
the passphrases for the to be used keys are given at machine startup.

   This program works with GnuPG 2 and later.  GnuPG 1.x is not
supported.

   Passphrases set with this utility don't expire unless the '--forget'
option is used to explicitly clear them from the cache -- or 'gpg-agent'
is either restarted or reloaded (by sending a SIGHUP to it).  Note that
the maximum cache time as set with '--max-cache-ttl' is still honored.
It is necessary to allow this passphrase presetting by starting
'gpg-agent' with the '--allow-preset-passphrase'.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase::   List of all commands and options.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase,  Up: gpg-preset-passphrase

8.6.1 List of all commands and options
--------------------------------------

'gpg-preset-passphrase' is invoked this way:

     gpg-preset-passphrase [options] [command] CACHEID

   CACHEID is either a 40 character keygrip of hexadecimal characters
identifying the key for which the passphrase should be set or cleared.
The keygrip is listed along with the key when running the command:
'gpgsm --with-keygrip --list-secret-keys'.  Alternatively an arbitrary
string may be used to identify a passphrase; it is suggested that such a
string is prefixed with the name of the application (e.g 'foo:12346').
Scripts should always use the option '--with-colons', which provides the
keygrip in a "grp" line (cf.  'doc/DETAILS')/

One of the following command options must be given:

'--preset'
     Preset a passphrase.  This is what you usually will use.
     'gpg-preset-passphrase' will then read the passphrase from 'stdin'.

'--forget'
     Flush the passphrase for the given cache ID from the cache.

The following additional options may be used:

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

'-P STRING'
'--passphrase STRING'
     Instead of reading the passphrase from 'stdin', use the supplied
     STRING as passphrase.  Note that this makes the passphrase visible
     for other users.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-connect-agent,  Next: dirmngr-client,  Prev: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Up: Helper Tools

8.7 Communicate with a running agent
====================================

The 'gpg-connect-agent' is a utility to communicate with a running
'gpg-agent'.  It is useful to check out the commands 'gpg-agent'
provides using the Assuan interface.  It might also be useful for
scripting simple applications.  Input is expected at stdin and output
gets printed to stdout.

   It is very similar to running 'gpg-agent' in server mode; but here we
connect to a running instance.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpg-connect-agent::       List of all options.
* Controlling gpg-connect-agent::    Control commands.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpg-connect-agent,  Next: Controlling gpg-connect-agent,  Up: gpg-connect-agent

8.7.1 List of all options
-------------------------

'gpg-connect-agent' is invoked this way:

     gpg-connect-agent [options] [commands]

The following options may be used:

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'--agent-program FILE'
     Specify the agent program to be started if none is running.  The
     default value is determined by running 'gpgconf' with the option
     '--list-dirs'.  Note that the pipe symbol ('|') is used for a
     regression test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file
     name.

'--dirmngr-program FILE'
     Specify the directory manager (keyserver client) program to be
     started if none is running.  This has only an effect if used
     together with the option '--dirmngr'.

'--dirmngr'
     Connect to a running directory manager (keyserver client) instead
     of to the gpg-agent.  If a dirmngr is not running, start it.

'-S'
'--raw-socket NAME'
     Connect to socket NAME assuming this is an Assuan style server.  Do
     not run any special initializations or environment checks.  This
     may be used to directly connect to any Assuan style socket server.

'-E'
'--exec'
     Take the rest of the command line as a program and it's arguments
     and execute it as an Assuan server.  Here is how you would run
     'gpgsm':
           gpg-connect-agent --exec gpgsm --server
     Note that you may not use options on the command line in this case.

'--no-ext-connect'
     When using '-S' or '--exec', 'gpg-connect-agent' connects to the
     Assuan server in extended mode to allow descriptor passing.  This
     option makes it use the old mode.

'--no-autostart'
     Do not start the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been
     started.

'-r FILE'
'--run FILE'
     Run the commands from FILE at startup and then continue with the
     regular input method.  Note, that commands given on the command
     line are executed after this file.

'-s'
'--subst'
     Run the command '/subst' at startup.

'--hex'
     Print data lines in a hex format and the ASCII representation of
     non-control characters.

'--decode'
     Decode data lines.  That is to remove percent escapes but make sure
     that a new line always starts with a D and a space.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Controlling gpg-connect-agent,  Prev: Invoking gpg-connect-agent,  Up: gpg-connect-agent

8.7.2 Control commands
----------------------

While reading Assuan commands, gpg-agent also allows a few special
commands to control its operation.  These control commands all start
with a slash ('/').

'/echo ARGS'
     Just print ARGS.

'/let NAME VALUE'
     Set the variable NAME to VALUE.  Variables are only substituted on
     the input if the '/subst' has been used.  Variables are referenced
     by prefixing the name with a dollar sign and optionally include the
     name in curly braces.  The rules for a valid name are identically
     to those of the standard bourne shell.  This is not yet enforced
     but may be in the future.  When used with curly braces no leading
     or trailing white space is allowed.

     If a variable is not found, it is searched in the environment and
     if found copied to the table of variables.

     Variable functions are available: The name of the function must be
     followed by at least one space and the at least one argument.  The
     following functions are available:

     'get'
          Return a value described by the argument.  Available arguments
          are:

          'cwd'
               The current working directory.
          'homedir'
               The gnupg homedir.
          'sysconfdir'
               GnuPG's system configuration directory.
          'bindir'
               GnuPG's binary directory.
          'libdir'
               GnuPG's library directory.
          'libexecdir'
               GnuPG's library directory for executable files.
          'datadir'
               GnuPG's data directory.
          'serverpid'
               The PID of the current server.  Command '/serverpid' must
               have been given to return a useful value.

     'unescape ARGS'
          Remove C-style escapes from ARGS.  Note that '\0' and '\x00'
          terminate the returned string implicitly.  The string to be
          converted are the entire arguments right behind the delimiting
          space of the function name.

     'unpercent ARGS'
     'unpercent+ ARGS'
          Remove percent style escaping from ARGS.  Note that '%00'
          terminates the string implicitly.  The string to be converted
          are the entire arguments right behind the delimiting space of
          the function name.  'unpercent+' also maps plus signs to a
          spaces.

     'percent ARGS'
     'percent+ ARGS'
          Escape the ARGS using percent style escaping.  Tabs,
          formfeeds, linefeeds, carriage returns and colons are escaped.
          'percent+' also maps spaces to plus signs.

     'errcode ARG'
     'errsource ARG'
     'errstring ARG'
          Assume ARG is an integer and evaluate it using 'strtol'.
          Return the gpg-error error code, error source or a formatted
          string with the error code and error source.

     '+'
     '-'
     '*'
     '/'
     '%'
          Evaluate all arguments as long integers using 'strtol' and
          apply this operator.  A division by zero yields an empty
          string.

     '!'
     '|'
     '&'
          Evaluate all arguments as long integers using 'strtol' and
          apply the logical operators NOT, OR or AND. The NOT operator
          works on the last argument only.

'/definq NAME VAR'
     Use content of the variable VAR for inquiries with NAME.  NAME may
     be an asterisk ('*') to match any inquiry.

'/definqfile NAME FILE'
     Use content of FILE for inquiries with NAME.  NAME may be an
     asterisk ('*') to match any inquiry.

'/definqprog NAME PROG'
     Run PROG for inquiries matching NAME and pass the entire line to it
     as command line arguments.

'/datafile NAME'
     Write all data lines from the server to the file NAME.  The file is
     opened for writing and created if it does not exists.  An existing
     file is first truncated to 0.  The data written to the file fully
     decoded.  Using a single dash for NAME writes to stdout.  The file
     is kept open until a new file is set using this command or this
     command is used without an argument.

'/showdef'
     Print all definitions

'/cleardef'
     Delete all definitions

'/sendfd FILE MODE'
     Open FILE in MODE (which needs to be a valid 'fopen' mode string)
     and send the file descriptor to the server.  This is usually
     followed by a command like 'INPUT FD' to set the input source for
     other commands.

'/recvfd'
     Not yet implemented.

'/open VAR FILE [MODE]'
     Open FILE and assign the file descriptor to VAR.  Warning: This
     command is experimental and might change in future versions.

'/close FD'
     Close the file descriptor FD.  Warning: This command is
     experimental and might change in future versions.

'/showopen'
     Show a list of open files.

'/serverpid'
     Send the Assuan command 'GETINFO pid' to the server and store the
     returned PID for internal purposes.

'/sleep'
     Sleep for a second.

'/hex'
'/nohex'
     Same as the command line option '--hex'.

'/decode'
'/nodecode'
     Same as the command line option '--decode'.

'/subst'
'/nosubst'
     Enable and disable variable substitution.  It defaults to disabled
     unless the command line option '--subst' has been used.  If /subst
     as been enabled once, leading whitespace is removed from input
     lines which makes scripts easier to read.

'/while CONDITION'
'/end'
     These commands provide a way for executing loops.  All lines
     between the 'while' and the corresponding 'end' are executed as
     long as the evaluation of CONDITION yields a non-zero value or is
     the string 'true' or 'yes'.  The evaluation is done by passing
     CONDITION to the 'strtol' function.  Example:

            /subst
            /let i 3
            /while $i
              /echo loop couter is $i
              /let i ${- $i 1}
            /end

'/if CONDITION'
'/end'
     These commands provide a way for conditional execution.  All lines
     between the 'if' and the corresponding 'end' are executed only if
     the evaluation of CONDITION yields a non-zero value or is the
     string 'true' or 'yes'.  The evaluation is done by passing
     CONDITION to the 'strtol' function.

'/run FILE'
     Run commands from FILE.

'/bye'
     Terminate the connection and the program.

'/help'
     Print a list of available control commands.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: dirmngr-client,  Next: gpgparsemail,  Prev: gpg-connect-agent,  Up: Helper Tools

8.8 The Dirmngr Client Tool
===========================

The 'dirmngr-client' is a simple tool to contact a running dirmngr and
test whether a certificate has been revoked -- either by being listed in
the corresponding CRL or by running the OCSP protocol.  If no dirmngr is
running, a new instances will be started but this is in general not a
good idea due to the huge performance overhead.

The usual way to run this tool is either:

     dirmngr-client ACERT

or

     dirmngr-client <ACERT

   Where ACERT is one DER encoded (binary) X.509 certificates to be
tested.  The return value of this command is

'0'
     The certificate under question is valid; i.e.  there is a valid CRL
     available and it is not listed there or the OCSP request returned
     that that certificate is valid.

'1'
     The certificate has been revoked

'2 (and other values)'
     There was a problem checking the revocation state of the
     certificate.  A message to stderr has given more detailed
     information.  Most likely this is due to a missing or expired CRL
     or due to a network problem.

'dirmngr-client' may be called with the following options:

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--quiet, -q'
     Make the output extra brief by suppressing any informational
     messages.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase the
     verbosity by giving several verbose commands to DIRMNGR, such as
     '-vv'.

'--pem'
     Assume that the given certificate is in PEM (armored) format.

'--ocsp'
     Do the check using the OCSP protocol and ignore any CRLs.

'--force-default-responder'
     When checking using the OCSP protocol, force the use of the default
     OCSP responder.  That is not to use the Reponder as given by the
     certificate.

'--ping'
     Check whether the dirmngr daemon is up and running.

'--cache-cert'
     Put the given certificate into the cache of a running dirmngr.
     This is mainly useful for debugging.

'--validate'
     Validate the given certificate using dirmngr's internal validation
     code.  This is mainly useful for debugging.

'--load-crl'
     This command expects a list of filenames with DER encoded CRL
     files.  With the option '--url' URLs are expected in place of
     filenames and they are loaded directly from the given location.
     All CRLs will be validated and then loaded into dirmngr's cache.

'--lookup'
     Take the remaining arguments and run a lookup command on each of
     them.  The results are Base-64 encoded outputs (without header
     lines).  This may be used to retrieve certificates from a server.
     However the output format is not very well suited if more than one
     certificate is returned.

'--url'
'-u'
     Modify the 'lookup' and 'load-crl' commands to take an URL.

'--local'
'-l'
     Let the 'lookup' command only search the local cache.

'--squid-mode'
     Run DIRMNGR-CLIENT in a mode suitable as a helper program for
     Squid's 'external_acl_type' option.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgparsemail,  Next: symcryptrun,  Prev: dirmngr-client,  Up: Helper Tools

8.9 Parse a mail message into an annotated format
=================================================

The 'gpgparsemail' is a utility currently only useful for debugging.
Run it with '--help' for usage information.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: symcryptrun,  Next: gpgtar,  Prev: gpgparsemail,  Up: Helper Tools

8.10 Call a simple symmetric encryption tool
============================================

Sometimes simple encryption tools are already in use for a long time and
there might be a desire to integrate them into the GnuPG framework.  The
protocols and encryption methods might be non-standard or not even
properly documented, so that a full-fledged encryption tool with an
interface like 'gpg' is not doable.  'symcryptrun' provides a solution:
It operates by calling the external encryption/decryption module and
provides a passphrase for a key using the standard 'pinentry' based
mechanism through 'gpg-agent'.

   Note, that 'symcryptrun' is only available if GnuPG has been
configured with '--enable-symcryptrun' at build time.

* Menu:

* Invoking symcryptrun::   List of all commands and options.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking symcryptrun,  Up: symcryptrun

8.10.1 List of all commands and options
---------------------------------------

'symcryptrun' is invoked this way:

     symcryptrun --class CLASS --program PROGRAM --keyfile KEYFILE
        [--decrypt | --encrypt] [inputfile]

   For encryption, the plain text must be provided on STDIN or as the
argument INPUTFILE, and the ciphertext will be output to STDOUT. For
decryption vice versa.

   CLASS describes the calling conventions of the external tool.
Currently it must be given as 'confucius'.  PROGRAM is the full filename
of that external tool.

   For the class 'confucius' the option '--keyfile' is required; KEYFILE
is the name of a file containing the secret key, which may be protected
by a passphrase.  For detailed calling conventions, see the source code.

Note, that 'gpg-agent' must be running before starting 'symcryptrun'.

The following additional options may be used:

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is then that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  Use 'socket://' to log to
     socket.  Default is to write logging information to STDERR.

The possible exit status codes of 'symcryptrun' are:

'0'
     Success.
'1'
     Some error occurred.
'2'
     No valid passphrase was provided.
'3'
     The operation was canceled by the user.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgtar,  Prev: symcryptrun,  Up: Helper Tools

8.11 Encrypt or sign files into an archive
==========================================

'gpgtar' encrypts or signs files into an archive.  It is an gpg-ized tar
using the same format as used by PGP's PGP Zip.

'gpgtar' is invoked this way:

     gpgtar [options] FILENAME1 [FILENAME2, ...] DIRECTORY [DIRECTORY2, ...]

'gpgtar' understands these options:

'--create'
     Put given files and directories into a vanilla "ustar" archive.

'--extract'
     Extract all files from a vanilla "ustar" archive.

'--encrypt'
'-e'
     Encrypt given files and directories into an archive.  This option
     may be combined with option '--symmetric' for an archive that may
     be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase.

'--decrypt'
'-d'
     Extract all files from an encrypted archive.

'--sign'
'-s'
     Make a signed archive from the given files and directories.  Thsi
     can be combined with option '--encrypt' to create a signed and then
     encrypted archive.

'--list-archive'
'-t'
     List the contents of the specified archive.

'--symmetric'
'-c'
     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase.  The default
     symmetric cipher used is AES-128, but may be chosen with the
     '--cipher-algo' option to 'gpg'.

'--recipient USER'
'-r USER'
     Encrypt for user id USER.  For details see 'gpg'.

'--local-user USER'
'-u USER'
     Use USER as the key to sign with.  For details see 'gpg'.

'--output FILE'
'-o FILE'
     Write the archive to the specified file FILE.

'--verbose'
'-v'
     Enable extra informational output.

'--quiet'
'-q'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--skip-crypto'
     Skip all crypto operations and create or extract vanilla "ustar"
     archives.

'--dry-run'
     Do not actually output the extracted files.

'--directory DIR'
'-C DIR'
     Extract the files into the directory DIR.  The default is to take
     the directory name from the input filename.  If no input filename
     is known a directory named 'GPGARCH' is used.

'--files-from FILE'
'-T FILE'
     Take the file names to work from the file FILE; one file per line.

'--null'
     Modify option '--files-from' to use a binary nul instead of a
     linefeed to separate file names.

'--openpgp'
     This option has no effect becuase OpenPGP encryption and signing is
     the default.

'--cms'
     This option is reserved and shall not be used.  It will eventually
     be used to encrypt or sign using the CMS protocol; but that is not
     yet implemented.

'--set-filename FILE'
     Use the last component of FILE as the output directory.  The
     default is to take the directory name from the input filename.  If
     no input filename is known a directory named 'GPGARCH' is used.
     This option is deprecated in favor of option '--directory'.

'--gpg GPGCMD'
     Use the specified command GPGCMD instead of 'gpg'.

'--gpg-args ARGS'
     Pass the specified extra options to 'gpg'.

'--tar-args ARGS'
     Assume ARGS are standard options of the command 'tar' and parse
     them.  The only supported tar options are "-directory",
     "-files-from", and "-null" This is an obsolete options because
     those supported tar options can also be given directly.

'--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

'--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.

The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 otherwise.

Some examples:

Encrypt the contents of directory 'mydocs' for user Bob to file 'test1':

     gpgtar --encrypt --output test1 -r Bob mydocs

List the contents of archive 'test1':

     gpgtar --list-archive test1

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Web Key Service,  Next: Howtos,  Prev: Helper Tools,  Up: Top

9 Web Key Service
*****************

GnuPG comes with tools used to maintain and access a Web Key Directory.

* Menu:

* gpg-wks-client::        Send requests via WKS
* gpg-wks-server::        Server to provide the WKS.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-wks-client,  Next: gpg-wks-server,  Up: Web Key Service

9.1 Send requests via WKS
=========================

The 'gpg-wks-client' is used to send requests to a Web Key Service
provider.  This is usuallay done to upload a key into a Web Key
Directory.

   With the '--supported' command the caller can test whether a site
supports the Web Key Service.  The argument is an arbitray address in
the to be tested domain.  For example 'foo AT example.net'.  The command
returns success if the Web Key Service is supported.  The operation is
silent; to get diagnostic output use the option '--verbose'.

   With the '--check' command the caller can test whether a key exists
for a supplied mail address.  The command returns success if a key is
available.

   The '--create' command is used to send a request for publication in
the Web Key Directory.  The arguments are the fingerprint of the key and
the user id to publish.  The output from the command is a properly
formatted mail with all standard headers.  This mail can be fed to
'sendmail(8)' or any other tool to actually send that mail.  If
'sendmail(8)' is installed the option '--send' can be used to directly
send the created request.  If the provider request a 'mailbox-only' user
id and no such user id is found, 'gpg-wks-client' will try an additional
user id.

   The '--receive' and '--read' commands are used to process
confirmation mails as send from the service provider.  The former
expects an encrypted MIME messages, the latter an already decrypted MIME
message.  The result of these commands are another mail which can be
send in the same way as the mail created with '--create'.

   'gpg-wks-client' is not commonly invoked directly and thus it is not
installed in the bin directory.  Here is an example how it can be
invoked manually to check for a Web Key Directory entry for
'foo AT example.org':

     $(gpgconf --list-dirs libexecdir)/gpg-wks-client --check foo AT example.net

'gpg-wks-client' understands these options:

'--send'
     Directly send created mails using the 'sendmail' command.  Requires
     installation of that command.

'--output FILE'
'-o'
     Write the created mail to FILE instead of stdout.  Note that the
     value '-' for FILE is the same as writing to stdout.

'--status-fd N'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor N.  This
     program returns only the status messages SUCCESS or FAILURE which
     are helpful when the caller uses a double fork approach and can't
     easily get the return code of the process.

'--verbose'
     Enable extra informational output.

'--quiet'
     Disable almost all informational output.

'--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

'--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-wks-server,  Prev: gpg-wks-client,  Up: Web Key Service

9.2 Provide the Web Key Service
===============================

The 'gpg-wks-server' is a server site implementation of the Web Key
Service.  It receives requests for publication, sends confirmation
requests, receives confirmations, and published the key.  It also has
features to ease the setup and maintenance of a Web Key Directory.

   When used with the command '--receive' a single Web Key Service mail
is processed.  Commonly this command is used with the option '--send' to
directly send the crerated mails back.  See below for an installation
example.

   The command '--cron' is used for regualr cleanup tasks.  For example
non-confirmed requested should be removed after their expire time.  It
is best to run this command once a day from a cronjob.

   The command '--list-domains' prints all configured domains.  Further
it creates missing directories for the configuration and prints warnings
pertaining to problems in the configuration.

   The command '--check-key' (or just '--check') checks whether a key
with the given user-id is installed.  The process return success in this
case; to also print a diagnostic, use option '-v'.  If the key is not
installed a diagnostics is printed and the process returns failure; to
suppress the diagnostic, use option '-q'.  More than one user-id can be
given; see also option 'with-file'.

   The command '--remove-key' uninstalls a key from the WKD. The process
return success in this case; to also print a diagnostic, use option
'-v'.  If the key is not installed a diagnostics is printed and the
process returns failure; to suppress the diagnostic, use option '-q'.

   The commands '--install-key' and '--revoke-key' are not yet
functional.

'gpg-wks-server' understands these options:

'--from MAILADDR'
     Use MAILADDR as the default sender address.

'--header NAME=VALUE'
     Add the mail header "NAME: VALUE" to all outgoing mails.

'--send'
     Directly send created mails using the 'sendmail' command.  Requires
     installation of that command.

'--output FILE'
'-o'
     Write the created mail also to FILE.  Note that the value '-' for
     FILE would write it to stdout.

'--with-dir'
     Also print the directory name for each domain listed by command
     '--list-domains'.

'--with-file'
     With command '--check-key' print for each user-id, the address, 'i'
     for installed key or 'n' for not installed key, and the filename.

'--verbose'
     Enable extra informational output.

'--quiet'
     Disable almost all informational output.

'--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

'--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.


Examples
********

The Web Key Service requires a working directory to store keys pending
for publication.  As root create a working directory:

       # mkdir /var/lib/gnupg/wks
       # chown webkey:webkey /var/lib/gnupg/wks
       # chmod 2750 /var/lib/gnupg/wks

   Then under your webkey account create directories for all your
domains.  Here we do it for "example.net":

       $ mkdir /var/lib/gnupg/wks/example.net

   Finally run

       $ gpg-wks-server --list-domains

   to create the required sub-directories with the permission set
correctly.  For each domain a submission address needs to be configured.
All service mails are directed to that address.  It can be the same
address for all configured domains, for example:

       $ cd /var/lib/gnupg/wks/example.net
       $ echo key-submission AT example.net >submission-address

   The protocol requires that the key to be published is sent with an
encrypted mail to the service.  Thus you need to create a key for the
submission address:

       $ gpg --batch --passphrase '' --quick-gen-key key-submission AT example.net
       $ gpg --with-wkd-hash -K key-submission AT example.net

   The output of the last command looks similar to this:

       sec   rsa3072 2016-08-30 [SC]
             C0FCF8642D830C53246211400346653590B3795B
       uid           [ultimate] key-submission AT example.net
                     bxzcxpxk8h87z1k7bzk86xn5aj47intu AT example.net
       ssb   rsa3072 2016-08-30 [E]

   Take the hash of the string "key-submission", which is
"bxzcxpxk8h87z1k7bzk86xn5aj47intu" and manually publish that key:

       $ gpg --export-options export-minimal --export \
       >  -o /var/lib/gnupg/wks/example.net/hu/bxzcxpxk8h87z1k7bzk86xn5aj47intu \
       >  key-submission AT example.new

   Make sure that the created file is world readable.

   Finally that submission address needs to be redirected to a script
running 'gpg-wks-server'.  The 'procmail' command can be used for this:
Redirect the submission address to the user "webkey" and put this into
webkey's '.procmailrc':

     :0
     * !^From: webkey AT example.net
     * !^X-WKS-Loop: webkey.example.net
     |gpg-wks-server -v --receive \
          --header X-WKS-Loop=webkey.example.net \
          --from webkey AT example.net --send

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Howtos,  Next: System Notes,  Prev: Web Key Service,  Up: Top

10 How to do certain things
***************************

This is a collection of small howto documents.

* Menu:

* Howto Create a Server Cert::  Creating a TLS server certificate.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Howto Create a Server Cert,  Up: Howtos

10.1 Creating a TLS server certificate
======================================

Here is a brief run up on how to create a server certificate.  It has
actually been done this way to get a certificate from CAcert to be used
on a real server.  It has only been tested with this CA, but there
shouldn't be any problem to run this against any other CA.

   We start by generating an X.509 certificate signing request.  As
there is no need for a configuration file, you may simply enter:

       $ gpgsm --generate-key >example.com.cert-req.pem
       Please select what kind of key you want:
          (1) RSA
          (2) Existing key
          (3) Existing key from card
       Your selection? 1

   I opted for creating a new RSA key.  The other option is to use an
already existing key, by selecting '2' and entering the so-called
keygrip.  Running the command 'gpgsm --dump-secret-key USERID' shows you
this keygrip.  Using '3' offers another menu to create a certificate
directly from a smart card based key.

   Let's continue:

       What keysize do you want? (3072)
       Requested keysize is 3072 bits

   Hitting enter chooses the default RSA key size of 3072 bits.  Keys
smaller than 2048 bits are too weak on the modern Internet.  If you
choose a larger (stronger) key, your server will need to do more work.

       Possible actions for a RSA key:
          (1) sign, encrypt
          (2) sign
          (3) encrypt
       Your selection? 1

   Selecting "sign" enables use of the key for Diffie-Hellman key
exchange mechanisms (DHE and ECDHE) in TLS, which are preferred because
they offer forward secrecy.  Selecting "encrypt" enables RSA key
exchange mechanisms, which are still common in some places.  Selecting
both enables both key exchange mechanisms.

   Now for some real data:

       Enter the X.509 subject name: CN=example.com

   This is the most important value for a server certificate.  Enter
here the canonical name of your server machine.  You may add other
virtual server names later.

       E-Mail addresses (end with an empty line):
       >

   We don't need email addresses in a TLS server certificate and CAcert
would anyway ignore such a request.  Thus just hit enter.

   If you want to create a client certificate for email encryption, this
would be the place to enter your mail address (e.g.  <joe AT example.org>).
You may enter as many addresses as you like, however the CA may not
accept them all or reject the entire request.

       Enter DNS names (optional; end with an empty line):
       > example.com
       > www.example.com
       >

   Here I entered the names of the services which the machine actually
provides.  You almost always want to include the canonical name here
too.  The browser will accept a certificate for any of these names.  As
usual the CA must approve all of these names.

       URIs (optional; end with an empty line):
       >

   It is possible to insert arbitrary URIs into a certificate; for a
server certificate this does not make sense.

       Create self-signed certificate? (y/N)

   Since we are creating a certificate signing request, and not a full
certificate, we answer no here, or just hit enter for the default.

   We have now entered all required information and 'gpgsm' will display
what it has gathered and ask whether to create the certificate request:

       These parameters are used:
           Key-Type: RSA
           Key-Length: 3072
           Key-Usage: sign, encrypt
           Name-DN: CN=example.com
           Name-DNS: example.com
           Name-DNS: www.example.com

       Proceed with creation? (y/N) y

   'gpgsm' will now start working on creating the request.  As this
includes the creation of an RSA key it may take a while.  During this
time you will be asked 3 times for a passphrase to protect the created
private key on your system.  A pop up window will appear to ask for it.
The first two prompts are for the new passphrase and for re-entering it;
the third one is required to actually create the certificate signing
request.

   When it is ready, you should see the final notice:

       Ready.  You should now send this request to your CA.

   Now, you may look at the created request:

       $ cat example.com.cert-req.pem
       -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
       MIIClTCCAX0CAQAwFjEUMBIGA1UEAxMLZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3
       DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIBAQDP1QEcbTvOLLCX4gAoOzH9AW7jNOMj7OSOL0uW
       h2bCdkK5YVpnX212Z6COTC3ZG0pJiCeGt1TbbDJUlTa4syQ6JXavjK66N8ASZsyC
       Rwcl0m6hbXp541t1dbgt2VgeGk25okWw3j+brw6zxLD2TnthJxOatID0lDIG47HW
       GqzZmA6WHbIBIONmGnReIHTpPAPCDm92vUkpKG1xLPszuRmsQbwEl870W/FHrsvm
       DPvVUUSdIvTV9NuRt7/WY6G4nPp9QlIuTf1ESPzIuIE91gKPdrRCAx0yuT708S1n
       xCv3ETQ/bKPoAQ67eE3mPBqkcVwv9SE/2/36Lz06kAizRgs5AgMBAAGgOjA4Bgkq
       hkiG9w0BCQ4xKzApMCcGA1UdEQQgMB6CC2V4YW1wbGUuY29tgg93d3cuZXhhbXBs
       ZS5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAEWD0Qqz4OENLYp6yyO/KqF0ig9FDsLN
       b5/R+qhms5qlhdB5+Dh+j693Sj0UgbcNKc6JT86IuBqEBZmRCJuXRoKoo5aMS1cJ
       hXga7N9IA3qb4VBUzBWvlL92U2Iptr/cEbikFlYZF2Zv3PBv8RfopVlI3OLbKV9D
       bJJTt/6kuoydXKo/Vx4G0DFzIKNdFdJk86o/Ziz8NOs9JjZxw9H9VY5sHKFM5LKk
       VcLwnnLRlNjBGB+9VK/Tze575eG0cJomTp7UGIB+1xzIQVAhUZOizRDv9tHDeaK3
       k+tUhV0kuJcYHucpJycDSrP/uAY5zuVJ0rs2QSjdnav62YrRgEsxJrU=
       -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
       $

   You may now proceed by logging into your account at the CAcert
website, choose 'Server Certificates - New', check 'sign by class 3 root
certificate', paste the above request block into the text field and
click on 'Submit'.

   If everything works out fine, a certificate will be shown.  Now run

     $ gpgsm --import

   and paste the certificate from the CAcert page into your terminal
followed by a Ctrl-D

       -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
       MIIEIjCCAgqgAwIBAgIBTDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADBUMRQwEgYDVQQKEwtDQWNl
        [...]
       rUTFlNElRXCwIl0YcJkIaYYqWf7+A/aqYJCi8+51usZwMy3Jsq3hJ6MA3h1BgwZs
       Rtct3tIX
       -----END CERTIFICATE-----
       gpgsm: issuer certificate (#/CN=CAcert Class 3 Ro[...]) not found
       gpgsm: certificate imported

       gpgsm: total number processed: 1
       gpgsm:               imported: 1

   'gpgsm' tells you that it has imported the certificate.  It is now
associated with the key you used when creating the request.  The root
certificate has not been found, so you may want to import it from the
CACert website.

   To see the content of your certificate, you may now enter:

       $ gpgsm -K example.com
       /home/foo/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
       ---------------------------
       Serial number: 4C
              Issuer: /CN=CAcert Class 3 Root/OU=http:\x2f\x2fwww.[...]
             Subject: /CN=example.com
                 aka: (dns-name example.com)
                 aka: (dns-name www.example.com)
            validity: 2015-07-01 16:20:51 through 2016-07-01 16:20:51
            key type: 3072 bit RSA
           key usage: digitalSignature keyEncipherment
       ext key usage: clientAuth (suggested), serverAuth (suggested), [...]
         fingerprint: 0F:9C:27:B2:DA:05:5F:CB:33:D8:19:E9:65:B9:4F:BD:B1:98:CC:57

   I used '-K' above because this will only list certificates for which
a private key is available.  To see more details, you may use
'--dump-secret-keys' instead of '-K'.

   To make actual use of the certificate you need to install it on your
server.  Server software usually expects a PKCS\#12 file with key and
certificate.  To create such a file, run:

       $ gpgsm --export-secret-key-p12 -a >example.com-cert.pem

   You will be asked for the passphrase as well as for a new passphrase
to be used to protect the PKCS\#12 file.  The file now contains the
certificate as well as the private key:

       $ cat example-cert.pem
       Issuer ...: /CN=CAcert Class 3 Root/OU=http:\x2f\x2fwww.CA[...]
       Serial ...: 4C
       Subject ..: /CN=example.com
           aka ..: (dns-name example.com)
           aka ..: (dns-name www.example.com)

       -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
       MIIHlwIBAzCCB5AGCSqGSIb37QdHAaCCB4EEggd9MIIHeTk1BJ8GCSqGSIb3DQEu
       [...many more lines...]
       -----END PKCS12-----
       $

   Copy this file in a secure way to the server, install it there and
delete the file then.  You may export the file again at any time as long
as it is available in GnuPG's private key database.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: System Notes,  Next: Debugging,  Prev: Howtos,  Up: Top

11 Notes pertaining to certain OSes
***********************************

GnuPG has been developed on GNU/Linux systems and is know to work on
almost all Free OSes.  All modern POSIX systems should be supported
right now, however there are probably a lot of smaller glitches we need
to fix first.  The major problem areas are:

   * We are planning to use file descriptor passing for interprocess
     communication.  This will allow us save a lot of resources and
     improve performance of certain operations a lot.  Systems not
     supporting this won't gain these benefits but we try to keep them
     working the standard way as it is done today.

   * We require more or less full POSIX compatibility.  This has been
     around for 15 years now and thus we don't believe it makes sense to
     support non POSIX systems anymore.  Well, we of course the usual
     workarounds for near POSIX systems well be applied.

     There is one exception of this rule: Systems based the Microsoft
     Windows API (called here _W32_) will be supported to some extend.

* Menu:

* W32 Notes::             Microsoft Windows Notes

File: gnupg.info,  Node: W32 Notes,  Up: System Notes

11.1 Microsoft Windows Notes
============================

Current limitations are:

   * 'gpgconf' does not create backup files, so in case of trouble your
     configuration file might get lost.

   * 'watchgnupg' is not available.  Logging to sockets is not possible.

   * The periodical smartcard status checking done by 'scdaemon' is not
     yet supported.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging,  Next: Copying,  Prev: System Notes,  Up: Top

12 How to solve problems
************************

Everyone knows that software often does not do what it should do and
thus there is a need to track down problems.  We call this debugging in
a reminiscent to the moth jamming a relay in a Mark II box back in 1947.

   Most of the problems a merely configuration and user problems but
nevertheless they are the most annoying ones and responsible for many
gray hairs.  We try to give some guidelines here on how to identify and
solve the problem at hand.

* Menu:

* Debugging Tools::       Description of some useful tools.
* Debugging Hints::       Various hints on debugging.
* Common Problems::       Commonly seen problems.
* Architecture Details::  How the whole thing works internally.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging Tools,  Next: Debugging Hints,  Up: Debugging

12.1 Debugging Tools
====================

The GnuPG distribution comes with a couple of tools, useful to help find
and solving problems.

* Menu:

* kbxutil::        Scrutinizing a keybox file.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: kbxutil,  Up: Debugging Tools

12.1.1 Scrutinizing a keybox file
---------------------------------

A keybox is a file format used to store public keys along with meta
information and indices.  The commonly used one is the file
'pubring.kbx' in the '.gnupg' directory.  It contains all X.509
certificates as well as OpenPGP keys(1).

When called the standard way, e.g.:

   'kbxutil ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

it lists all records (called blobs) with there meta-information in a
human readable format.

To see statistics on the keybox in question, run it using

   'kbxutil --stats ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

and you get an output like:

     Total number of blobs:       99
                    header:        1
                     empty:        0
                   openpgp:        0
                      x509:       98
               non flagged:       81
            secret flagged:        0
         ephemeral flagged:       17

   In this example you see that the keybox does not have any OpenPGP
keys but contains 98 X.509 certificates and a total of 17 keys or
certificates are flagged as ephemeral, meaning that they are only
temporary stored (cached) in the keybox and won't get listed using the
usual commands provided by 'gpgsm' or 'gpg'.  81 certificates are stored
in a standard way and directly available from 'gpgsm'.

To find duplicated certificates and keyblocks in a keybox file (this
should not occur but sometimes things go wrong), run it using

   'kbxutil --find-dups ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Well, OpenPGP keys are not implemented, 'gpg' still used the
keyring file 'pubring.gpg'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging Hints,  Next: Common Problems,  Prev: Debugging Tools,  Up: Debugging

12.2 Various hints on debugging
===============================

   * How to find the IP address of a keyserver

     If a round robin URL of is used for a keyserver (e.g.
     subkeys.gnupg.org); it is not easy to see what server is actually
     used.  Using the keyserver debug option as in

           gpg --keyserver-options debug=1 -v --refresh-key 1E42B367

     is thus often helpful.  Note that the actual output depends on the
     backend and may change from release to release.

   * Logging on WindowsCE

     For development, the best logging method on WindowsCE is the use of
     remote debugging using a log file name of 'tcp://<ip-addr>:<port>'.
     The command 'watchgnupg' may be used on the remote host to listen
     on the given port (*note option watchgnupg --tcp::).  For in the
     field tests it is better to make use of the logging facility
     provided by the 'gpgcedev' driver (part of libassuan); this is
     enabled by using a log file name of 'GPG2:' (*note option
     --log-file::).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Common Problems,  Next: Architecture Details,  Prev: Debugging Hints,  Up: Debugging

12.3 Commonly Seen Problems
===========================

   * Error code 'Not supported' from Dirmngr

     Most likely the option 'enable-ocsp' is active for gpgsm but
     Dirmngr's OCSP feature has not been enabled using 'allow-ocsp' in
     'dirmngr.conf'.

   * The Curses based Pinentry does not work

     The far most common reason for this is that the environment
     variable 'GPG_TTY' has not been set correctly.  Make sure that it
     has been set to a real tty device and not just to '/dev/tty'; i.e.
     'GPG_TTY=tty' is plainly wrong; what you want is 'GPG_TTY=`tty`' --
     note the back ticks.  Also make sure that this environment variable
     gets exported, that is you should follow up the setting with an
     'export GPG_TTY' (assuming a Bourne style shell).  Even for GUI
     based Pinentries; you should have set 'GPG_TTY'.  See the section
     on installing the 'gpg-agent' on how to do it.

   * SSH hangs while a popping up pinentry was expected

     SSH has no way to tell the gpg-agent what terminal or X display it
     is running on.  So when remotely logging into a box where a
     gpg-agent with SSH support is running, the pinentry will get popped
     up on whatever display the gpg-agent has been started.  To solve
     this problem you may issue the command

          echo UPDATESTARTUPTTY | gpg-connect-agent

     and the next pinentry will pop up on your display or screen.
     However, you need to kill the running pinentry first because only
     one pinentry may be running at once.  If you plan to use ssh on a
     new display you should issue the above command before invoking ssh
     or any other service making use of ssh.

   * Exporting a secret key without a certificate

     It may happen that you have created a certificate request using
     'gpgsm' but not yet received and imported the certificate from the
     CA. However, you want to export the secret key to another machine
     right now to import the certificate over there then.  You can do
     this with a little trick but it requires that you know the
     approximate time you created the signing request.  By running the
     command

            ls -ltr ~/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d

     you get a listing of all private keys under control of 'gpg-agent'.
     Pick the key which best matches the creation time and run the
     command

            /usr/lib/gnupg/gpg-protect-tool --p12-export \
               ~/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d/FOO >FOO.p12

     (Please adjust the path to 'gpg-protect-tool' to the appropriate
     location).  FOO is the name of the key file you picked (it should
     have the suffix '.key').  A Pinentry box will pop up and ask you
     for the current passphrase of the key and a new passphrase to
     protect it in the pkcs#12 file.

     To import the created file on the machine you use this command:

            /usr/lib/gnupg/gpg-protect-tool --p12-import --store  FOO.p12

     You will be asked for the pkcs#12 passphrase and a new passphrase
     to protect the imported private key at its new location.

     Note that there is no easy way to match existing certificates with
     stored private keys because some private keys are used for Secure
     Shell or other purposes and don't have a corresponding certificate.

   * A root certificate does not verify

     A common problem is that the root certificate misses the required
     basicConstraints attribute and thus 'gpgsm' rejects this
     certificate.  An error message indicating "no value" is a sign for
     such a certificate.  You may use the 'relax' flag in
     'trustlist.txt' to accept the certificate anyway.  Note that the
     fingerprint and this flag may only be added manually to
     'trustlist.txt'.

   * Error message: "digest algorithm N has not been enabled"

     The signature is broken.  You may try the option
     '--extra-digest-algo SHA256' to workaround the problem.  The number
     N is the internal algorithm identifier; for example 8 refers to
     SHA-256.

   * The Windows version does not work under Wine

     When running the W32 version of 'gpg' under Wine you may get an
     error messages like:

          gpg: fatal: WriteConsole failed: Access denied

     The solution is to use the command 'wineconsole'.

     Some operations like '--generate-key' really want to talk to the
     console directly for increased security (for example to prevent the
     passphrase from appearing on the screen).  So, you should use
     'wineconsole' instead of 'wine', which will launch a windows
     console that implements those additional features.

   * Why does GPG's -search-key list weird keys?

     For performance reasons the keyservers do not check the keys the
     same way 'gpg' does.  It may happen that the listing of keys
     available on the keyservers shows keys with wrong user IDs or with
     user Ids from other keys.  If you try to import this key, the bad
     keys or bad user ids won't get imported, though.  This is a bit
     unfortunate but we can't do anything about it without actually
     downloading the keys.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Architecture Details,  Prev: Common Problems,  Up: Debugging

12.4 How the whole thing works internally
=========================================

* Menu:

* Component interaction:: How the components work together.
* GnuPG-1 and GnuPG-2::   Relationship between GnuPG 1.4 and 2.x.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Component interaction,  Next: GnuPG-1 and GnuPG-2,  Up: Architecture Details

12.4.1 How the components work together
---------------------------------------

      GnuPG modules

Figure 12.1: GnuPG module overview

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GnuPG-1 and GnuPG-2,  Prev: Component interaction,  Up: Architecture Details

12.4.2 Relationship between GnuPG 1.4 and 2.x
---------------------------------------------

Here is a little picture showing how the different GnuPG versions make
use of a smartcard:

GnuPG card architecture

Figure 12.2: GnuPG card architecture

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Copying,  Next: Contributors,  Prev: Debugging,  Up: Top

GNU General Public License
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  7. Additional Terms.

     "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of
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  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

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                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice
like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
     type 'show w'.  This is free software, and you are
     welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions;
     type 'show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands 'show w' and 'show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would
use an "about box".

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

   The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.  But first,
please read <https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Contributors,  Next: Glossary,  Prev: Copying,  Up: Top

Contributors to GnuPG
*********************

The GnuPG project would like to thank its many contributors.  Without
them the project would not have been nearly as successful as it has
been.  Any omissions in this list are accidental.  Feel free to contact
the maintainer if you have been left out or some of your contributions
are not listed.

   David Shaw, Matthew Skala, Michael Roth, Niklas Hernaeus, Nils
Ellmenreich, Rémi Guyomarch, Stefan Bellon, Timo Schulz and Werner Koch
wrote the code.  Birger Langkjer, Daniel Resare, Dokianakis Theofanis,
Edmund GRIMLEY EVANS, Gaël Quéri, Gregory Steuck, Nagy Ferenc
László, Ivo Timmermans, Jacobo Tarri'o Barreiro, Janusz Aleksander
Urbanowicz, Jedi Lin, Jouni Hiltunen, Laurentiu Buzdugan, Magda
Procha'zkova', Michael Anckaert, Michal Majer, Marco d'Itri, Nilgun
Belma Buguner, Pedro Morais, Tedi Heriyanto, Thiago Jung Bauermann,
Rafael Caetano dos Santos, Toomas Soome, Urko Lusa, Walter Koch, Yosiaki
IIDA did the official translations.  Mike Ashley wrote and maintains the
GNU Privacy Handbook.  David Scribner is the current FAQ editor.
Lorenzo Cappelletti maintains the web site.

   The new modularized architecture of gnupg 1.9 as well as the
X.509/CMS part has been developed as part of the Ägypten project.
Direct contributors to this project are: Bernhard Herzog, who did
extensive testing and tracked down a lot of bugs.  Bernhard Reiter, who
made sure that we met the specifications and the deadlines.  He did
extensive testing and came up with a lot of suggestions.  Jan-Oliver
Wagner made sure that we met the specifications and the deadlines.  He
also did extensive testing and came up with a lot of suggestions.
Karl-Heinz Zimmer and Marc Mutz had to struggle with all the bugs and
misconceptions while working on KDE integration.  Marcus Brinkman
extended GPGME, cleaned up the Assuan code and fixed bugs all over the
place.  Moritz Schulte took over Libgcrypt maintenance and developed it
into a stable an useful library.  Steffen Hansen had a hard time to
write the dirmngr due to underspecified interfaces.  Thomas Koester did
extensive testing and tracked down a lot of bugs.  Werner Koch designed
the system and wrote most of the code.

   The following people helped greatly by suggesting improvements,
testing, fixing bugs, providing resources and doing other important
tasks: Adam Mitchell, Albert Chin, Alec Habig, Allan Clark, Anand
Kumria, Andreas Haumer, Anthony Mulcahy, Ariel T Glenn, Bob Mathews,
Bodo Moeller, Brendan O'Dea, Brenno de Winter, Brian M. Carlson, Brian
Moore, Brian Warner, Bryan Fullerton, Caskey L. Dickson, Cees van de
Griend, Charles Levert, Chip Salzenberg, Chris Adams, Christian Biere,
Christian Kurz, Christian von Roques, Christopher Oliver, Christian
Recktenwald, Dan Winship, Daniel Eisenbud, Daniel Koening, Dave Dykstra,
David C Niemi, David Champion, David Ellement, David Hallinan, David
Hollenberg, David Mathog, David R. Bergstein, Detlef Lannert, Dimitri,
Dirk Lattermann, Dirk Meyer, Disastry, Douglas Calvert, Ed Boraas,
Edmund GRIMLEY EVANS, Edwin Woudt, Enzo Michelangeli, Ernst Molitor,
Fabio Coatti, Felix von Leitner, fish stiqz, Florian Weimer, Francesco
Potorti, Frank Donahoe, Frank Heckenbach, Frank Stajano, Frank Tobin,
Gabriel Rosenkoetter, Gaël Quéri, Gene Carter, Geoff Keating, Georg
Schwarz, Giampaolo Tomassoni, Gilbert Fernandes, Greg Louis, Greg
Troxel, Gregory Steuck, Gregery Barton, Harald Denker, Holger Baust,
Hendrik Buschkamp, Holger Schurig, Holger Smolinski, Holger Trapp, Hugh
Daniel, Huy Le, Ian McKellar, Ivo Timmermans, Jan Krueger, Jan
Niehusmann, Janusz A. Urbanowicz, James Troup, Jean-loup Gailly, Jeff
Long, Jeffery Von Ronne, Jens Bachem, Jeroen C. van Gelderen, J Horacio
MG, J. Michael Ashley, Jim Bauer, Jim Small, Joachim Backes, Joe Rhett,
John A. Martin, Johnny Teveßen, Jörg Schilling, Jos Backus, Joseph
Walton, Juan F. Codagnone, Jun Kuriyama, Kahil D. Jallad, Karl Fogel,
Karsten Thygesen, Katsuhiro Kondou, Kazu Yamamoto, Keith Clayton, Kevin
Ryde, Klaus Singvogel, Kurt Garloff, Lars Kellogg-Stedman, L. Sassaman,
M Taylor, Marcel Waldvogel, Marco d'Itri, Marco Parrone, Marcus
Brinkmann, Mark Adler, Mark Elbrecht, Mark Pettit, Markus Friedl, Martin
Kahlert, Martin Hamilton, Martin Schulte, Matt Kraai, Matthew Skala,
Matthew Wilcox, Matthias Urlichs, Max Valianskiy, Michael Engels,
Michael Fischer v.  Mollard, Michael Roth, Michael Sobolev, Michael
Tokarev, Nicolas Graner, Mike McEwan, Neal H Walfield, Nelson H. F.
Beebe, NIIBE Yutaka, Niklas Hernaeus, Nimrod Zimerman, N J Doye, Oliver
Haakert, Oskari Jääskeläinen, Pascal Scheffers, Paul D. Smith, Per
Cederqvist, Phil Blundell, Philippe Laliberte, Peter Fales, Peter
Gutmann, Peter Marschall, Peter Valchev, Piotr Krukowiecki, QingLong,
Ralph Gillen, Rat, Reinhard Wobst, Rémi Guyomarch, Reuben Sumner,
Richard Outerbridge, Robert Joop, Roddy Strachan, Roger Sondermann,
Roland Rosenfeld, Roman Pavlik, Ross Golder, Ryan Malayter, Sam Roberts,
Sami Tolvanen, Sean MacLennan, Sebastian Klemke, Serge Munhoven, SL
Baur, Stefan Bellon, Dr.Stefan.Dalibor, Stefan Karrmann, Stefan Keller,
Steffen Ullrich, Steffen Zahn, Steven Bakker, Steven Murdoch, Susanne
Schultz, Ted Cabeen, Thiago Jung Bauermann, Thijmen Klok, Thomas
Roessler, Tim Mooney, Timo Schulz, Todd Vierling, TOGAWA Satoshi, Tom
Spindler, Tom Zerucha, Tomas Fasth, Tommi Komulainen, Thomas Klausner,
Tomasz Kozlowski, Thomas Mikkelsen, Ulf Möller, Urko Lusa, Vincent P.
Broman, Volker Quetschke, W Lewis, Walter Hofmann, Walter Koch, Wayne
Chapeskie, Wim Vandeputte, Winona Brown, Yosiaki IIDA, Yoshihiro Kajiki
and Gerlinde Klaes.

   This software has been made possible by the previous work of Chris
Wedgwood, Jean-loup Gailly, Jon Callas, Mark Adler, Martin Hellman, Paul
Kendall, Philip R. Zimmermann, Peter Gutmann, Philip A. Nelson, Taher
Elgamal, Torbjorn Granlund, Whitfield Diffie, some unknown NSA
mathematicians and all the folks who have worked hard to create complete
and free operating systems.

   And finally we'd like to thank everyone who uses these tools, submits
bug reports and generally reminds us why we're doing this work in the
first place.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Glossary,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Contributors,  Up: Top

Glossary
********

'ARL'
     The _Authority Revocation List_ is technical identical to a CRL but
     used for CAs and not for end user certificates.

'Chain model'
     Verification model for X.509 which uses the creation date of a
     signature as the date the validation starts and in turn checks that
     each certificate has been issued within the time frame, the issuing
     certificate was valid.  This allows the verification of signatures
     after the CA's certificate expired.  The validation test also
     required an online check of the certificate status.  The chain
     model is required by the German signature law.  See also _Shell
     model_.

'CMS'
     The _Cryptographic Message Standard_ describes a message format for
     encryption and digital signing.  It is closely related to the X.509
     certificate format.  CMS was formerly known under the name 'PKCS#7'
     and is described by 'RFC3369'.

'CRL'
     The _Certificate Revocation List_ is a list containing certificates
     revoked by the issuer.

'CSR'
     The _Certificate Signing Request_ is a message send to a CA to ask
     them to issue a new certificate.  The data format of such a signing
     request is called PCKS#10.

'OpenPGP'
     A data format used to build a PKI and to exchange encrypted or
     signed messages.  In contrast to X.509, OpenPGP also includes the
     message format but does not explicitly demand a specific PKI.
     However any kind of PKI may be build upon the OpenPGP protocol.

'Keygrip'
     This term is used by GnuPG to describe a 20 byte hash value used to
     identify a certain key without referencing to a concrete protocol.
     It is used internally to access a private key.  Usually it is shown
     and entered as a 40 character hexadecimal formatted string.

'OCSP'
     The _Online Certificate Status Protocol_ is used as an alternative
     to a CRL.  It is described in 'RFC 2560'.

'PSE'
     The _Personal Security Environment_ describes a database to store
     private keys.  This is either a smartcard or a collection of files
     on a disk; the latter is often called a Soft-PSE.

'Shell model'
     The standard model for validation of certificates under X.509.  At
     the time of the verification all certificates must be valid and not
     expired.  See also _Chain model_.

'X.509'
     Description of a PKI used with CMS. It is for example defined by
     'RFC3280'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Environment Index,  Prev: Glossary,  Up: Top

Option Index
************


* Menu:

* add-servers:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line 243)
* agent-program:                         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 706)
* agent-program <1>:                     Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  46)
* agent-program <2>:                     Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  42)
* allow-admin:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 197)
* allow-emacs-pinentry:                  Agent Options.       (line 187)
* allow-freeform-uid:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 337)
* allow-loopback-pinentry:               Agent Options.       (line 169)
* allow-multiple-messages:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 500)
* allow-non-selfsigned-uid:              GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 332)
* allow-ocsp:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line 260)
* allow-preset-passphrase:               Agent Options.       (line 164)
* allow-secret-key-import:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 496)
* allow-version-check:                   Dirmngr Options.     (line 132)
* allow-weak-digest-algos:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 373)
* allow-weak-key-signatures:             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 389)
* always-trust:                          Deprecated Options.  (line  21)
* armor:                                 GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line   8)
* armor <1>:                             Input and Output.    (line   8)
* ask-cert-expire:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 477)
* ask-cert-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 341)
* ask-sig-expire:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 463)
* assume-armor:                          Input and Output.    (line  14)
* assume-base64:                         Input and Output.    (line  18)
* assume-binary:                         Input and Output.    (line  21)
* attribute-fd:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  90)
* attribute-file:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  96)
* auto-check-trustdb:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 693)
* auto-expand-secmem:                    Agent Options.       (line 411)
* auto-issuer-key-retrieve:              Certificate Options. (line  50)
* auto-key-locate:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 487)
* auto-key-retrieve:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 542)
* base64:                                Input and Output.    (line  11)
* batch:                                 Agent Options.       (line  48)
* batch <1>:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  43)
* bzip2-compress-level:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 315)
* bzip2-decompress-lowmem:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 325)
* c:                                     Dirmngr Options.     (line  85)
* cache-cert:                            dirmngr-client.      (line  72)
* call-dirmngr:                          Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  27)
* call-protect-tool:                     Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  41)
* card-edit:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 188)
* card-status:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 194)
* card-timeout:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 173)
* cert-digest-algo:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 229)
* cert-notation:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 122)
* cert-policy-url:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 151)
* change-passphrase:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 435)
* change-passphrase <1>:                 Certificate Management.
                                                              (line 109)
* change-pin:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 197)
* check-passphrase-pattern:              Agent Options.       (line 237)
* check-signatures:                      Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 136)
* check-sigs:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 137)
* check-trustdb:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 319)
* cipher-algo:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 190)
* cipher-algo <1>:                       CMS Options.         (line  13)
* clear-sign:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* clearsign:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  18)
* cms:                                   gpgtar.              (line  93)
* command-fd:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 320)
* command-file:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 327)
* comment:                               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 101)
* compliance:                            Compliance Options.  (line  67)
* compliant-needed:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 668)
* compress-algo:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 206)
* compress-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 315)
* connect-quick-timeout:                 Dirmngr Options.     (line 119)
* connect-timeout:                       Dirmngr Options.     (line 119)
* create:                                gpgtar.              (line  16)
* create-socketdir:                      Invoking gpgconf.    (line  91)
* csh:                                   Agent Options.       (line 138)
* csh <1>:                               Dirmngr Options.     (line  85)
* ctapi-driver:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 150)
* daemon:                                Agent Commands.      (line  27)
* daemon <1>:                            Dirmngr Commands.    (line  27)
* daemon <2>:                            Scdaemon Commands.   (line  31)
* dearmor:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 373)
* debug:                                 Agent Options.       (line  82)
* debug <1>:                             Dirmngr Options.     (line  59)
* debug <2>:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  47)
* debug <3>:                             Esoteric Options.    (line  54)
* debug <4>:                             Scdaemon Options.    (line  69)
* debug-all:                             Agent Options.       (line 106)
* debug-all <1>:                         Dirmngr Options.     (line  66)
* debug-all <2>:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  53)
* debug-all <3>:                         Esoteric Options.    (line  81)
* debug-all <4>:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line  96)
* debug-allow-core-dump:                 Esoteric Options.    (line  84)
* debug-allow-core-dump <1>:             Scdaemon Options.    (line 113)
* debug-assuan-log-cats:                 Scdaemon Options.    (line 122)
* debug-disable-ticker:                  Scdaemon Options.    (line 109)
* debug-ignore-expiration:               Esoteric Options.    (line  95)
* debug-iolbf:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  56)
* debug-level:                           Agent Options.       (line  57)
* debug-level <1>:                       Dirmngr Options.     (line  34)
* debug-level <2>:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  22)
* debug-level <3>:                       Esoteric Options.    (line  29)
* debug-level <4>:                       Scdaemon Options.    (line  40)
* debug-log-tid:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line 119)
* debug-no-chain-validation:             Esoteric Options.    (line  91)
* debug-pinentry:                        Agent Options.       (line 126)
* debug-quick-random:                    Agent Options.       (line 114)
* debug-wait:                            Agent Options.       (line 109)
* debug-wait <1>:                        Dirmngr Options.     (line  72)
* debug-wait <2>:                        Scdaemon Options.    (line  99)
* debug-wait <3>:                        Scdaemon Options.    (line 104)
* decode:                                Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  95)
* decrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  55)
* decrypt <1>:                           Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* decrypt <2>:                           gpgtar.              (line  29)
* decrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 110)
* default-cache-ttl:                     Agent Options.       (line 198)
* default-cache-ttl <1>:                 Agent Options.       (line 204)
* default-cert-expire:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 483)
* default-cert-level:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 349)
* default-key:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  10)
* default-key <1>:                       Input and Output.    (line  34)
* default-keyserver-url:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 528)
* default-new-key-algo STRING:           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 490)
* default-preference-list:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 523)
* default-recipient:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* default-recipient-self:                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  23)
* default-sig-expire:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 469)
* delete-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 202)
* delete-keys <1>:                       Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  60)
* delete-secret-and-public-key:          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 214)
* delete-secret-keys:                    Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 207)
* deny-admin:                            Scdaemon Options.    (line 197)
* desig-revoke:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 119)
* detach-sign:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  28)
* digest-algo:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 199)
* directory:                             gpgtar.              (line  76)
* dirmngr:                               Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  54)
* dirmngr-program:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 713)
* dirmngr-program <1>:                   Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  52)
* dirmngr-program <2>:                   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  49)
* disable-application:                   Scdaemon Options.    (line 207)
* disable-ccid:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 155)
* disable-check-own-socket:              Agent Options.       (line 302)
* disable-check-own-socket <1>:          Dirmngr Options.     (line  77)
* disable-cipher-algo:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 237)
* disable-crl-checks:                    Certificate Options. (line  13)
* disable-dsa2:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 187)
* disable-http:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line 182)
* disable-ipv4:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line 176)
* disable-ipv6:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line 176)
* disable-large-rsa:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 178)
* disable-ldap:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line 179)
* disable-mdc:                           OpenPGP Options.     (line  25)
* disable-ocsp:                          Certificate Options. (line  41)
* disable-pinpad:                        Scdaemon Options.    (line 194)
* disable-policy-checks:                 Certificate Options. (line   8)
* disable-pubkey-algo:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 242)
* disable-scdaemon:                      Agent Options.       (line 296)
* disable-signer-uid:                    OpenPGP Options.     (line  31)
* disable-trusted-cert-crl-check:        Certificate Options. (line  19)
* display:                               Agent Options.       (line 320)
* display-charset:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 270)
* display-charset:iso-8859-1:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 279)
* display-charset:iso-8859-15:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 285)
* display-charset:iso-8859-2:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 282)
* display-charset:koi8-r:                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* display-charset:utf-8:                 GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 291)
* dry-run:                               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* dry-run <1>:                           gpgtar.              (line  72)
* dump-cert:                             Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  36)
* dump-chain:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  40)
* dump-external-keys:                    Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  47)
* dump-keys:                             Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  36)
* dump-options:                          Agent Commands.      (line  19)
* dump-options <1>:                      Dirmngr Commands.    (line  18)
* dump-options <2>:                      General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  20)
* dump-options <3>:                      General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  19)
* dump-options <4>:                      Scdaemon Commands.   (line  18)
* dump-secret-keys:                      Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  43)
* edit-card:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 187)
* edit-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 124)
* emit-version:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 112)
* enable-crl-checks:                     Certificate Options. (line  13)
* enable-dsa2:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 187)
* enable-extended-key-format:            Agent Options.       (line 347)
* enable-large-rsa:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 178)
* enable-ocsp:                           Certificate Options. (line  41)
* enable-passphrase-history:             Agent Options.       (line 256)
* enable-pinpad-varlen:                  Scdaemon Options.    (line 186)
* enable-policy-checks:                  Certificate Options. (line   8)
* enable-progress-filter:                GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  69)
* enable-putty-support:                  Agent Options.       (line 357)
* enable-special-filenames:              GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 510)
* enable-special-filenames <1>:          gpgv.                (line  96)
* enable-ssh-support:                    Agent Options.       (line 357)
* enable-trusted-cert-crl-check:         Certificate Options. (line  19)
* enarmor:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 373)
* encrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  32)
* encrypt <1>:                           Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* encrypt <2>:                           gpgtar.              (line  23)
* encrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 107)
* encrypt-to:                            GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  35)
* enforce-passphrase-constraints:        Agent Options.       (line 222)
* escape-from-lines:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 267)
* exec:                                  Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  65)
* exec-path:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 211)
* exit-on-status-write-error:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 742)
* expert:                                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 797)
* export:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 220)
* export <1>:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  69)
* export-filter:                         GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 118)
* export-options:                        GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 197)
* export-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 334)
* export-secret-key-p12:                 Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  82)
* export-secret-key-p8:                  Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  91)
* export-secret-key-raw:                 Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  91)
* export-secret-keys:                    Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 235)
* export-secret-subkeys:                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 235)
* export-ssh-key:                        Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 257)
* extra-digest-algo:                     Esoteric Options.    (line   7)
* extra-socket:                          Agent Options.       (line 334)
* extract:                               gpgtar.              (line  19)
* faked-system-time:                     Agent Options.       (line  52)
* faked-system-time <1>:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  60)
* faked-system-time <2>:                 Esoteric Options.    (line  18)
* fast-list-mode:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 419)
* fetch-crl:                             Dirmngr Commands.    (line  52)
* fetch-keys:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 303)
* fingerprint:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 172)
* fixed-list-mode:                       GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 261)
* flush:                                 Dirmngr Commands.    (line  62)
* for-your-eyes-only:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 176)
* force:                                 Dirmngr Options.     (line  91)
* force <1>:                             watchgnupg.          (line  23)
* force-crl-refresh:                     Certificate Options. (line  30)
* force-default-responder:               dirmngr-client.      (line  64)
* force-mdc:                             OpenPGP Options.     (line  25)
* forget:                                Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  26)
* from:                                  gpg-wks-server.      (line  42)
* full-gen-key:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  96)
* full-generate-key:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  95)
* gen-key:                               OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  89)
* gen-key <1>:                           Certificate Management.
                                                              (line   8)
* gen-prime:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 368)
* gen-random:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 361)
* gen-revoke:                            OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 105)
* generate-designated-revocation:        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 118)
* generate-key:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  88)
* generate-key <1>:                      Certificate Management.
                                                              (line   7)
* generate-revocation:                   OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 104)
* gnupg:                                 Compliance Options.  (line  12)
* gnutls-debug:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line  69)
* gpg:                                   gpgtar.              (line 104)
* gpg-agent-info:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 703)
* gpg-args:                              gpgtar.              (line 107)
* gpgconf-list:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 544)
* gpgconf-test:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 548)
* grab:                                  Agent Options.       (line 145)
* group:                                 GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  55)
* header:                                gpg-wks-server.      (line  45)
* help:                                  Agent Commands.      (line  15)
* help <1>:                              Dirmngr Commands.    (line  14)
* help <2>:                              General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  12)
* help <3>:                              General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* help <4>:                              Scdaemon Commands.   (line  14)
* help <5>:                              watchgnupg.          (line  39)
* help <6>:                              dirmngr-client.      (line  44)
* help <7>:                              gpgtar.              (line 119)
* help <8>:                              gpg-wks-client.      (line  70)
* help <9>:                              gpg-wks-server.      (line  74)
* hex:                                   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  91)
* hidden-encrypt-to:                     GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  43)
* hidden-recipient:                      GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* hidden-recipient-file:                 GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  29)
* homedir:                               Agent Options.       (line  17)
* homedir <1>:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 249)
* homedir <2>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  16)
* homedir <3>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line  13)
* homedir <4>:                           gpgv.                (line  68)
* homedir <5>:                           Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  21)
* homedir <6>:                           Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  36)
* honor-http-proxy:                      Dirmngr Options.     (line 201)
* http-proxy:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line 205)
* ignore-cache-for-signing:              Agent Options.       (line 192)
* ignore-cert-extension:                 Dirmngr Options.     (line 309)
* ignore-cert-extension <1>:             Certificate Options. (line  70)
* ignore-crc-error:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 357)
* ignore-http-dp:                        Dirmngr Options.     (line 185)
* ignore-ldap-dp:                        Dirmngr Options.     (line 192)
* ignore-mdc-error:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 364)
* ignore-ocsp-service-url:               Dirmngr Options.     (line 197)
* ignore-time-conflict:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 343)
* ignore-time-conflict <1>:              gpgv.                (line  62)
* ignore-valid-from:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 350)
* import:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 271)
* import <1>:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  99)
* import-filter:                         GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 118)
* import-options:                        GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  45)
* import-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 340)
* include-certs:                         CMS Options.         (line   7)
* input-size-hint:                       GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  29)
* interactive:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* keep-display:                          Agent Options.       (line 325)
* keep-tty:                              Agent Options.       (line 325)
* key-origin:                            GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  37)
* keydb-clear-some-cert-flags:           Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  52)
* keyedit:addcardkey:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 266)
* keyedit:addkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 263)
* keyedit:addphoto:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 186)
* keyedit:addrevoker:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 315)
* keyedit:adduid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 183)
* keyedit:bkuptocard:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 280)
* keyedit:check:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 179)
* keyedit:clean:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 328)
* keyedit:cross-certify:                 OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 342)
* keyedit:delkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 291)
* keyedit:delsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 169)
* keyedit:deluid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 196)
* keyedit:disable:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 311)
* keyedit:enable:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 311)
* keyedit:expire:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 300)
* keyedit:key:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 133)
* keyedit:keyserver:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 213)
* keyedit:keytocard:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 269)
* keyedit:lsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 144)
* keyedit:minimize:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 337)
* keyedit:notation:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 220)
* keyedit:nrsign:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 149)
* keyedit:passwd:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 321)
* keyedit:pref:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 228)
* keyedit:primary:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 205)
* keyedit:quit:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 353)
* keyedit:revkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 297)
* keyedit:revsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 174)
* keyedit:revuid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 202)
* keyedit:save:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 350)
* keyedit:setpref:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 240)
* keyedit:showphoto:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 193)
* keyedit:showpref:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 232)
* keyedit:sign:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 137)
* keyedit:toggle:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 324)
* keyedit:trust:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 306)
* keyedit:tsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 153)
* keyedit:uid:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 129)
* keyid-format:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 559)
* keyring:                               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 218)
* keyring <1>:                           gpgv.                (line  37)
* keyserver:                             Dirmngr Options.     (line 142)
* keyserver <1>:                         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 568)
* keyserver-options:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 591)
* kill:                                  Invoking gpgconf.    (line  84)
* launch:                                Invoking gpgconf.    (line  76)
* lc-ctype:                              Agent Options.       (line 320)
* lc-messages:                           Agent Options.       (line 320)
* ldap-proxy:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line 210)
* ldapserverlist-file:                   Dirmngr Options.     (line 221)
* ldaptimeout:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line 239)
* learn-card:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line 104)
* legacy-list-mode:                      GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 267)
* limit-card-insert-tries:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 751)
* list-archive:                          gpgtar.              (line  39)
* list-chain:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  32)
* list-config:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 533)
* list-crls:                             Dirmngr Commands.    (line  40)
* list-gcrypt-config:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 541)
* list-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 115)
* list-keys <1>:                         Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  17)
* list-keys <2>:                         Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  28)
* list-only:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  11)
* list-options:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  66)
* list-options:show-keyring:             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 114)
* list-options:show-keyserver-urls:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  98)
* list-options:show-notations:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  94)
* list-options:show-photos:              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  74)
* list-options:show-policy-urls:         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  88)
* list-options:show-sig-expire:          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 118)
* list-options:show-sig-subpackets:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 122)
* list-options:show-std-notations:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  94)
* list-options:show-uid-validity:        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 102)
* list-options:show-unusable-subkeys:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 110)
* list-options:show-unusable-uids:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 106)
* list-options:show-usage:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  82)
* list-options:show-user-notations:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  94)
* list-packets:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 181)
* list-secret-keys:                      Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 126)
* list-secret-keys <1>:                  Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  24)
* list-signatures:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 412)
* list-sigs:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 413)
* listen-backlog:                        Agent Options.       (line 330)
* listen-backlog <1>:                    Dirmngr Options.     (line 128)
* listen-backlog <2>:                    Scdaemon Options.    (line 135)
* load-crl:                              Dirmngr Commands.    (line  44)
* load-crl <1>:                          dirmngr-client.      (line  80)
* local-user:                            GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  77)
* local-user <1>:                        Input and Output.    (line  41)
* local-user <2>:                        gpgtar.              (line  53)
* locate-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 165)
* lock-multiple:                         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 731)
* lock-never:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 735)
* lock-once:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 727)
* log-file:                              Agent Options.       (line 151)
* log-file <1>:                          Dirmngr Options.     (line  30)
* log-file <2>:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  86)
* log-file <3>:                          Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  73)
* log-file <4>:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 140)
* log-file <5>:                          gpgv.                (line  58)
* log-file <6>:                          Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  57)
* logger-fd:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  82)
* logger-fd <1>:                         gpgv.                (line  55)
* lookup:                                dirmngr-client.      (line  86)
* lsign-key:                             OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 388)
* mangle-dos-filenames:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 333)
* marginals-needed:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 672)
* max-cache-ttl:                         Agent Options.       (line 210)
* max-cache-ttl-ssh:                     Agent Options.       (line 216)
* max-cert-depth:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 680)
* max-output:                            GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  19)
* max-passphrase-days:                   Agent Options.       (line 251)
* max-replies:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line 306)
* min-cert-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 378)
* min-passphrase-len:                    Agent Options.       (line 226)
* min-passphrase-nonalpha:               Agent Options.       (line 231)
* multi-server:                          Scdaemon Commands.   (line  26)
* multifile:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  96)
* nameserver:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line 168)
* no:                                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  63)
* no-allow-external-cache:               Agent Options.       (line 177)
* no-allow-loopback-pinentry:            Agent Options.       (line 169)
* no-allow-mark-trusted:                 Agent Options.       (line 159)
* no-armor:                              GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  12)
* no-auto-key-retrieve:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 542)
* no-autostart:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 720)
* no-autostart <1>:                      Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  62)
* no-autostart <2>:                      Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  77)
* no-batch:                              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  43)
* no-common-certs-import:                Esoteric Options.    (line 124)
* no-default-keyring:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 394)
* no-default-recipient:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  29)
* no-detach:                             Agent Options.       (line 131)
* no-detach <1>:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line 131)
* no-encrypt-to:                         GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  51)
* no-expensive-trust-checks:             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 515)
* no-ext-connect:                        Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  72)
* no-grab:                               Agent Options.       (line 145)
* no-greeting:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 765)
* no-groups:                             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  73)
* no-keyring:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 401)
* no-literal:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 427)
* no-mangle-dos-filenames:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 333)
* no-options:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 308)
* no-random-seed-file:                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 759)
* no-secmem-warning:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 768)
* no-secmem-warning <1>:                 Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  69)
* no-sig-cache:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 683)
* no-skip-hidden-recipients:             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line 108)
* no-tty:                                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  55)
* no-use-standard-socket:                Agent Options.       (line 310)
* no-use-tor:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line  96)
* no-verbose:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  36)
* not-dash-escaped:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 257)
* null:                                  gpgtar.              (line  85)
* ocsp:                                  dirmngr-client.      (line  61)
* ocsp-current-period:                   Dirmngr Options.     (line 301)
* ocsp-max-clock-skew:                   Dirmngr Options.     (line 293)
* ocsp-max-period:                       Dirmngr Options.     (line 297)
* ocsp-responder:                        Dirmngr Options.     (line 267)
* ocsp-signer:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line 272)
* only-ldap-proxy:                       Dirmngr Options.     (line 216)
* openpgp:                               Compliance Options.  (line  19)
* openpgp <1>:                           gpgtar.              (line  89)
* options:                               Agent Options.       (line  10)
* options <1>:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line  11)
* options <2>:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line  16)
* options <3>:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 303)
* options <4>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  10)
* options <5>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line   7)
* output:                                GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  16)
* output <1>:                            Input and Output.    (line  51)
* output <2>:                            gpgv.                (line  44)
* output <3>:                            gpgtar.              (line  57)
* output <4>:                            gpg-wks-client.      (line  51)
* output <5>:                            gpg-wks-server.      (line  53)
* override-session-key:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 451)
* p12-charset:                           Input and Output.    (line  24)
* passphrase:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 297)
* passphrase <1>:                        Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  36)
* passphrase-fd:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 279)
* passphrase-fd <1>:                     Esoteric Options.    (line 100)
* passphrase-file:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* passphrase-repeat:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 274)
* passwd:                                OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 436)
* passwd <1>:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line 110)
* pcsc-driver:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 144)
* pem:                                   dirmngr-client.      (line  58)
* permission-warning:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 771)
* personal-cipher-preferences:           OpenPGP Options.     (line  38)
* personal-compress-preferences:         OpenPGP Options.     (line  56)
* personal-digest-preferences:           OpenPGP Options.     (line  47)
* pgp6:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  44)
* pgp7:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  54)
* pgp8:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  60)
* photo-viewer:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 193)
* pinentry-invisible-char:               Agent Options.       (line 259)
* pinentry-mode:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 305)
* pinentry-mode <1>:                     Esoteric Options.    (line 109)
* pinentry-program:                      Agent Options.       (line 270)
* pinentry-timeout:                      Agent Options.       (line 264)
* pinentry-touch-file:                   Agent Options.       (line 283)
* ping:                                  dirmngr-client.      (line  69)
* policy-file:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  43)
* prefer-system-dirmngr:                 Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  56)
* preserve-permissions:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 518)
* preset:                                Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  22)
* primary-keyring:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 237)
* print-md:                              Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 356)
* q:                                     Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  18)
* q <1>:                                 Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  33)
* quick-add-key:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  55)
* quick-add-uid:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 413)
* quick-generate-key:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line   9)
* quick-lsign-key:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 394)
* quick-revoke-uid:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 420)
* quick-set-expire:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  46)
* quick-set-primary-uid:                 OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 428)
* quick-sign-key:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 394)
* quiet:                                 Agent Options.       (line  45)
* quiet <1>:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  39)
* quiet <2>:                             gpgv.                (line  34)
* quiet <3>:                             Invoking gpgconf.    (line 112)
* quiet <4>:                             Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  18)
* quiet <5>:                             dirmngr-client.      (line  48)
* quiet <6>:                             Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  33)
* quiet <7>:                             gpgtar.              (line  65)
* quiet <8>:                             gpg-wks-client.      (line  64)
* quiet <9>:                             gpg-wks-server.      (line  68)
* raw-socket:                            Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  59)
* reader-port:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 161)
* rebuild-keydb-caches:                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 350)
* receive-keys:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 280)
* recipient:                             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* recipient <1>:                         Input and Output.    (line  46)
* recipient <2>:                         gpgtar.              (line  49)
* recipient-file:                        GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  22)
* recursive-resolver:                    Dirmngr Options.     (line 111)
* recv-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 281)
* refresh-keys:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 285)
* reload:                                Invoking gpgconf.    (line  70)
* remove-socketdir:                      Invoking gpgconf.    (line  97)
* require-cross-certification:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 790)
* require-secmem:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 785)
* resolver-timeout:                      Dirmngr Options.     (line 114)
* rfc2440:                               Compliance Options.  (line  37)
* rfc4880:                               Compliance Options.  (line  25)
* rfc4880bis:                            Compliance Options.  (line  30)
* run:                                   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  82)
* s:                                     Dirmngr Options.     (line  85)
* s2k-cipher-algo:                       OpenPGP Options.     (line  66)
* s2k-count:                             Agent Options.       (line 420)
* s2k-count <1>:                         OpenPGP Options.     (line  82)
* s2k-digest-algo:                       OpenPGP Options.     (line  71)
* s2k-mode:                              OpenPGP Options.     (line  75)
* scdaemon-program:                      Agent Options.       (line 292)
* search-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 294)
* secret-keyring:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 232)
* send:                                  gpg-wks-client.      (line  46)
* send <1>:                              gpg-wks-server.      (line  48)
* send-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 227)
* sender:                                GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  81)
* server:                                Agent Commands.      (line  23)
* server <1>:                            Dirmngr Commands.    (line  22)
* server <2>:                            Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* server <3>:                            Scdaemon Commands.   (line  22)
* set-filename:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 169)
* set-filename <1>:                      gpgtar.              (line  98)
* set-filesize:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 431)
* set-notation:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 122)
* set-policy-url:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 151)
* sh:                                    Agent Options.       (line 138)
* sh <1>:                                Dirmngr Options.     (line  85)
* show-keyring:                          Deprecated Options.  (line  16)
* show-notation:                         Deprecated Options.  (line  25)
* show-photos:                           Deprecated Options.  (line   8)
* show-policy-url:                       Deprecated Options.  (line  33)
* show-session-key:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 435)
* shutdown:                              Dirmngr Commands.    (line  58)
* sig-keyserver-url:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 161)
* sig-notation:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 122)
* sig-policy-url:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 151)
* sign:                                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   8)
* sign <1>:                              Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  16)
* sign-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 384)
* skip-crypto:                           gpgtar.              (line  68)
* skip-hidden-recipients:                GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line 108)
* skip-verify:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 404)
* squid-mode:                            dirmngr-client.      (line 101)
* ssh-fingerprint-digest:                Agent Options.       (line 405)
* standard-resolver:                     Dirmngr Options.     (line 105)
* status-fd:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  74)
* status-fd <1>:                         gpgv.                (line  51)
* status-fd <2>:                         Invoking gpgconf.    (line 132)
* status-fd <3>:                         gpg-wks-client.      (line  55)
* status-file:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  78)
* store:                                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  51)
* subst:                                 Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  88)
* supervised:                            Agent Commands.      (line  36)
* supervised <1>:                        Dirmngr Commands.    (line  33)
* symmetric:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  42)
* tar-args:                              gpgtar.              (line 110)
* textmode:                              OpenPGP Options.     (line   8)
* throw-keyids:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 248)
* time-only:                             watchgnupg.          (line  30)
* tofu-default-policy:                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 676)
* tofu-policy:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 378)
* trust-model:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 391)
* trust-model:always:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 472)
* trust-model:auto:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 481)
* trust-model:classic:                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 399)
* trust-model:direct:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 464)
* trust-model:pgp:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 394)
* trust-model:tofu:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 402)
* trust-model:tofu+pgp:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 452)
* trustdb-name:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 242)
* trusted-key:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 384)
* try-all-secrets:                       GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line 100)
* try-secret-key:                        GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  89)
* ttyname:                               Agent Options.       (line 320)
* ttytype:                               Agent Options.       (line 320)
* ungroup:                               GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  70)
* update-trustdb:                        Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 309)
* url:                                   dirmngr-client.      (line  94)
* url <1>:                               dirmngr-client.      (line  98)
* use-agent:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 700)
* use-embedded-filename:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 185)
* use-standard-socket:                   Agent Options.       (line 310)
* use-standard-socket-p:                 Agent Options.       (line 310)
* use-tor:                               Dirmngr Options.     (line  96)
* utf8-strings:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 296)
* v:                                     Dirmngr Options.     (line  25)
* v <1>:                                 Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  38)
* v <2>:                                 Scdaemon Options.    (line  35)
* v <3>:                                 dirmngr-client.      (line  53)
* validate:                              dirmngr-client.      (line  76)
* validation-model:                      Certificate Options. (line  61)
* verbose:                               Agent Options.       (line  39)
* verbose <1>:                           Dirmngr Options.     (line  25)
* verbose <2>:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  32)
* verbose <3>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  38)
* verbose <4>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line  35)
* verbose <5>:                           watchgnupg.          (line  33)
* verbose <6>:                           gpgv.                (line  29)
* verbose <7>:                           Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  32)
* verbose <8>:                           Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  14)
* verbose <9>:                           dirmngr-client.      (line  53)
* verbose <10>:                          Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  29)
* verbose <11>:                          gpgtar.              (line  61)
* verbose <12>:                          gpg-wks-client.      (line  61)
* verbose <13>:                          gpg-wks-server.      (line  65)
* verify:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  63)
* verify <1>:                            Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  20)
* verify-files:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 104)
* verify-options:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 129)
* verify-options:pka-lookups:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 165)
* verify-options:pka-trust-increase:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 172)
* verify-options:show-keyserver-urls:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 148)
* verify-options:show-notations:         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 144)
* verify-options:show-photos:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 134)
* verify-options:show-policy-urls:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 138)
* verify-options:show-primary-uid-only:  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 160)
* verify-options:show-std-notations:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 144)
* verify-options:show-uid-validity:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 152)
* verify-options:show-unusable-uids:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 156)
* verify-options:show-user-notations:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 144)
* version:                               Agent Commands.      (line  10)
* version <1>:                           Dirmngr Commands.    (line  10)
* version <2>:                           General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* version <3>:                           General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* version <4>:                           Scdaemon Commands.   (line  10)
* version <5>:                           watchgnupg.          (line  36)
* version <6>:                           dirmngr-client.      (line  40)
* version <7>:                           gpgtar.              (line 116)
* version <8>:                           gpg-wks-client.      (line  67)
* version <9>:                           gpg-wks-server.      (line  71)
* warranty:                              General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* warranty <1>:                          General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  15)
* weak-digest:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 381)
* weak-digest <1>:                       gpgv.                (line  89)
* with-colons:                           GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 253)
* with-dir:                              gpg-wks-server.      (line  57)
* with-ephemeral-keys:                   Esoteric Options.    (line  24)
* with-file:                             gpg-wks-server.      (line  61)
* with-fingerprint:                      GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 273)
* with-icao-spelling:                    GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 284)
* with-key-data:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 408)
* with-key-data <1>:                     Input and Output.    (line  54)
* with-key-origin:                       GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 292)
* with-keygrip:                          GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 288)
* with-secret:                           GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 303)
* with-secret <1>:                       Input and Output.    (line  78)
* with-subkey-fingerprint:               GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 277)
* with-validation:                       Input and Output.    (line  60)
* with-wkd-hash:                         GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 298)
* xauthority:                            Agent Options.       (line 320)
* yes:                                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  60)

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Environment Index,  Next: Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Environment Variable and File Index
***********************************


* Menu:

* .gpg-v21-migrated:                     GPG Configuration.   (line  52)
* ~/.gnupg:                              GPG Configuration.   (line  27)
* ASSUAN_DEBUG:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 122)
* COLUMNS:                               GPG Configuration.   (line  93)
* com-certs.pem:                         GPGSM Configuration. (line  84)
* dirmngr.conf:                          Dirmngr Configuration.
                                                              (line  12)
* DISPLAY:                               GPGSM OPTION.        (line  21)
* GNUPGHOME:                             Agent Options.       (line  17)
* GNUPGHOME <1>:                         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 249)
* GNUPGHOME <2>:                         GPG Configuration.   (line  81)
* GNUPGHOME <3>:                         Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  16)
* GNUPGHOME <4>:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line  13)
* GNUPGHOME <5>:                         gpgv.                (line  68)
* GNUPGHOME <6>:                         Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  21)
* GNUPGHOME <7>:                         Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  36)
* gpg-agent.conf:                        Agent Configuration. (line  11)
* gpg.conf:                              GPG Configuration.   (line  11)
* gpgconf.ctl:                           Agent Options.       (line  28)
* gpgconf.ctl <1>:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 260)
* gpgconf.ctl <2>:                       Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  27)
* gpgconf.ctl <3>:                       Scdaemon Options.    (line  24)
* gpgconf.ctl <4>:                       gpgv.                (line  79)
* gpgconf.ctl <5>:                       Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  32)
* gpgconf.ctl <6>:                       Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  47)
* gpgsm.conf:                            GPGSM Configuration. (line  11)
* GPG_TTY:                               Invoking GPG-AGENT.  (line  22)
* GPG_TTY <1>:                           GPGSM OPTION.        (line  23)
* help.txt:                              GPGSM Configuration. (line  72)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:DefaultLogFile: Agent Options.      (line 151)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir:       Agent Options.       (line  17)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <1>:   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 249)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <2>:   Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  16)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <3>:   Scdaemon Options.    (line  13)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <4>:   gpgv.                (line  68)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <5>:   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  21)
* HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir <6>:   Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  36)
* HOME:                                  GPG Configuration.   (line  78)
* http_proxy:                            Dirmngr Options.     (line 205)
* LANGUAGE:                              GPG Configuration.   (line  96)
* LC_CTYPE:                              GPGSM OPTION.        (line  27)
* LC_MESSAGES:                           GPGSM OPTION.        (line  29)
* LINES:                                 GPG Configuration.   (line  93)
* openpgp-revocs.d:                      GPG Configuration.   (line  66)
* PATH:                                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 211)
* PINENTRY_USER_DATA:                    GPG Configuration.   (line  88)
* PINENTRY_USER_DATA <1>:                GPGSM OPTION.        (line  33)
* policies.txt:                          GPGSM Configuration. (line  18)
* private-keys-v1.d:                     Agent Configuration. (line 104)
* pubring.gpg:                           GPG Configuration.   (line  32)
* pubring.kbx:                           GPG Configuration.   (line  38)
* pubring.kbx <1>:                       GPGSM Configuration. (line 100)
* qualified.txt:                         GPGSM Configuration. (line  33)
* random_seed:                           GPG Configuration.   (line  63)
* random_seed <1>:                       GPGSM Configuration. (line 106)
* S.gpg-agent:                           GPGSM Configuration. (line 111)
* secring.gpg:                           GPG Configuration.   (line  45)
* SHELL:                                 Agent Options.       (line 138)
* sshcontrol:                            Agent Configuration. (line  74)
* TERM:                                  GPGSM OPTION.        (line  25)
* trustdb.gpg:                           GPG Configuration.   (line  55)
* trustlist.txt:                         Agent Configuration. (line  20)
* XAUTHORITY:                            GPGSM OPTION.        (line  31)

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: Environment Index,  Up: Top

Index
*****


* Menu:

* command options:                       Invoking GPG-AGENT.   (line  6)
* command options <1>:                   Invoking DIRMNGR.     (line  6)
* command options <2>:                   Invoking GPG.         (line  6)
* command options <3>:                   Invoking GPGSM.       (line  6)
* command options <4>:                   Invoking SCDAEMON.    (line  6)
* contributors:                          Contributors.         (line  6)
* DIRMNGR command options:               Invoking DIRMNGR.     (line  6)
* GPG command options:                   Invoking GPG.         (line  6)
* GPG-AGENT command options:             Invoking GPG-AGENT.   (line  6)
* gpgconf.conf:                          Files used by gpgconf.
                                                               (line  7)
* GPGSM command options:                 Invoking GPGSM.       (line  6)
* options, DIRMNGR command:              Invoking DIRMNGR.     (line  6)
* options, GPG command:                  Invoking GPG.         (line  6)
* options, GPG-AGENT command:            Invoking GPG-AGENT.   (line  6)
* options, GPGSM command:                Invoking GPGSM.       (line  6)
* options, SCDAEMON command:             Invoking SCDAEMON.    (line  6)
* relax:                                 Agent Configuration.  (line 62)
* scd-event:                             Scdaemon Configuration.
                                                               (line 18)
* SCDAEMON command options:              Invoking SCDAEMON.    (line  6)
* scdaemon.conf:                         Scdaemon Configuration.
                                                               (line 11)
* SIGHUP:                                Agent Signals.        (line 12)
* SIGHUP <1>:                            Dirmngr Signals.      (line 12)
* SIGINT:                                Agent Signals.        (line 31)
* SIGINT <1>:                            Dirmngr Signals.      (line 26)
* SIGTERM:                               Agent Signals.        (line 26)
* SIGTERM <1>:                           Dirmngr Signals.      (line 19)
* SIGUSR1:                               Agent Signals.        (line 34)
* SIGUSR1 <1>:                           Dirmngr Signals.      (line 29)
* SIGUSR2:                               Agent Signals.        (line 37)
* swdb.lst:                              Files used by gpgconf.
                                                               (line 12)


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