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GNU 'gettext' utilities
***********************

   This manual documents the GNU gettext tools and the GNU libintl
library, version 0.19.8.1.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Introduction
* Users::                       The User's View
* PO Files::                    The Format of PO Files
* Sources::                     Preparing Program Sources
* Template::                    Making the PO Template File
* Creating::                    Creating a New PO File
* Updating::                    Updating Existing PO Files
* Editing::                     Editing PO Files
* Manipulating::                Manipulating PO Files
* Binaries::                    Producing Binary MO Files
* Programmers::                 The Programmer's View
* Translators::                 The Translator's View
* Maintainers::                 The Maintainer's View
* Installers::                  The Installer's and Distributor's View
* Programming Languages::       Other Programming Languages
* Conclusion::                  Concluding Remarks

* Language Codes::              ISO 639 language codes
* Country Codes::               ISO 3166 country codes
* Licenses::                    Licenses

* Program Index::               Index of Programs
* Option Index::                Index of Command-Line Options
* Variable Index::              Index of Environment Variables
* PO Mode Index::               Index of Emacs PO Mode Commands
* Autoconf Macro Index::        Index of Autoconf Macros
* Index::                       General Index

 -- The Detailed Node Listing --

Introduction

* Why::                         The Purpose of GNU 'gettext'
* Concepts::                    I18n, L10n, and Such
* Aspects::                     Aspects in Native Language Support
* Files::                       Files Conveying Translations
* Overview::                    Overview of GNU 'gettext'

The User's View

* System Installation::         Questions During Operating System Installation
* Setting the GUI Locale::      How to Specify the Locale Used by GUI Programs
* Setting the POSIX Locale::    How to Specify the Locale According to POSIX
* Installing Localizations::    How to Install Additional Translations

Setting the Locale through Environment Variables

* Locale Names::                How a Locale Specification Looks Like
* Locale Environment Variables::  Which Environment Variable Specfies What
* The LANGUAGE variable::       How to Specify a Priority List of Languages

Preparing Program Sources

* Importing::                   Importing the 'gettext' declaration
* Triggering::                  Triggering 'gettext' Operations
* Preparing Strings::           Preparing Translatable Strings
* Mark Keywords::               How Marks Appear in Sources
* Marking::                     Marking Translatable Strings
* c-format Flag::               Telling something about the following string
* Special cases::               Special Cases of Translatable Strings
* Bug Report Address::          Letting Users Report Translation Bugs
* Names::                       Marking Proper Names for Translation
* Libraries::                   Preparing Library Sources

Making the PO Template File

* xgettext Invocation::         Invoking the 'xgettext' Program

Creating a New PO File

* msginit Invocation::          Invoking the 'msginit' Program
* Header Entry::                Filling in the Header Entry

Updating Existing PO Files

* msgmerge Invocation::         Invoking the 'msgmerge' Program

Editing PO Files

* KBabel::                      KDE's PO File Editor
* Gtranslator::                 GNOME's PO File Editor
* PO Mode::                     Emacs's PO File Editor
* Compendium::                  Using Translation Compendia

Emacs's PO File Editor

* Installation::                Completing GNU 'gettext' Installation
* Main PO Commands::            Main Commands
* Entry Positioning::           Entry Positioning
* Normalizing::                 Normalizing Strings in Entries
* Translated Entries::          Translated Entries
* Fuzzy Entries::               Fuzzy Entries
* Untranslated Entries::        Untranslated Entries
* Obsolete Entries::            Obsolete Entries
* Modifying Translations::      Modifying Translations
* Modifying Comments::          Modifying Comments
* Subedit::                     Mode for Editing Translations
* C Sources Context::           C Sources Context
* Auxiliary::                   Consulting Auxiliary PO Files

Using Translation Compendia

* Creating Compendia::          Merging translations for later use
* Using Compendia::             Using older translations if they fit

Manipulating PO Files

* msgcat Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgcat' Program
* msgconv Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgconv' Program
* msggrep Invocation::          Invoking the 'msggrep' Program
* msgfilter Invocation::        Invoking the 'msgfilter' Program
* msguniq Invocation::          Invoking the 'msguniq' Program
* msgcomm Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgcomm' Program
* msgcmp Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgcmp' Program
* msgattrib Invocation::        Invoking the 'msgattrib' Program
* msgen Invocation::            Invoking the 'msgen' Program
* msgexec Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgexec' Program
* Colorizing::                  Highlighting parts of PO files
* libgettextpo::                Writing your own programs that process PO files

Highlighting parts of PO files

* The --color option::          Triggering colorized output
* The TERM variable::           The environment variable 'TERM'
* The --style option::          The '--style' option
* Style rules::                 Style rules for PO files
* Customizing less::            Customizing 'less' for viewing PO files

Producing Binary MO Files

* msgfmt Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgfmt' Program
* msgunfmt Invocation::         Invoking the 'msgunfmt' Program
* MO Files::                    The Format of GNU MO Files

The Programmer's View

* catgets::                     About 'catgets'
* gettext::                     About 'gettext'
* Comparison::                  Comparing the two interfaces
* Using libintl.a::             Using libintl.a in own programs
* gettext grok::                Being a 'gettext' grok
* Temp Programmers::            Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter

About 'catgets'

* Interface to catgets::        The interface
* Problems with catgets::       Problems with the 'catgets' interface?!

About 'gettext'

* Interface to gettext::        The interface
* Ambiguities::                 Solving ambiguities
* Locating Catalogs::           Locating message catalog files
* Charset conversion::          How to request conversion to Unicode
* Contexts::                    Solving ambiguities in GUI programs
* Plural forms::                Additional functions for handling plurals
* Optimized gettext::           Optimization of the *gettext functions

Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter

* Temp Implementations::        Temporary - Two Possible Implementations
* Temp catgets::                Temporary - About 'catgets'
* Temp WSI::                    Temporary - Why a single implementation
* Temp Notes::                  Temporary - Notes

The Translator's View

* Trans Intro 0::               Introduction 0
* Trans Intro 1::               Introduction 1
* Discussions::                 Discussions
* Organization::                Organization
* Information Flow::            Information Flow
* Translating plural forms::    How to fill in 'msgstr[0]', 'msgstr[1]'
* Prioritizing messages::       How to find which messages to translate first

Organization

* Central Coordination::        Central Coordination
* National Teams::              National Teams
* Mailing Lists::               Mailing Lists

National Teams

* Sub-Cultures::                Sub-Cultures
* Organizational Ideas::        Organizational Ideas

The Maintainer's View

* Flat and Non-Flat::           Flat or Non-Flat Directory Structures
* Prerequisites::               Prerequisite Works
* gettextize Invocation::       Invoking the 'gettextize' Program
* Adjusting Files::             Files You Must Create or Alter
* autoconf macros::             Autoconf macros for use in 'configure.ac'
* Version Control Issues::
* Release Management::          Creating a Distribution Tarball

Files You Must Create or Alter

* po/POTFILES.in::              'POTFILES.in' in 'po/'
* po/LINGUAS::                  'LINGUAS' in 'po/'
* po/Makevars::                 'Makevars' in 'po/'
* po/Rules-*::                  Extending 'Makefile' in 'po/'
* configure.ac::                'configure.ac' at top level
* config.guess::                'config.guess', 'config.sub' at top level
* mkinstalldirs::               'mkinstalldirs' at top level
* aclocal::                     'aclocal.m4' at top level
* acconfig::                    'acconfig.h' at top level
* config.h.in::                 'config.h.in' at top level
* Makefile::                    'Makefile.in' at top level
* src/Makefile::                'Makefile.in' in 'src/'
* lib/gettext.h::               'gettext.h' in 'lib/'

Autoconf macros for use in 'configure.ac'

* AM_GNU_GETTEXT::              AM_GNU_GETTEXT in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION::      AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED::         AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR::  AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR in 'intldir.m4'
* AM_PO_SUBDIRS::               AM_PO_SUBDIRS in 'po.m4'
* AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION::          AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION in 'po.m4'
* AM_ICONV::                    AM_ICONV in 'iconv.m4'

Integrating with Version Control Systems

* Distributed Development::     Avoiding version mismatch in distributed development
* Files under Version Control::  Files to put under version control
* Translations under Version Control::  Put PO Files under Version Control
* autopoint Invocation::        Invoking the 'autopoint' Program

Other Programming Languages

* Language Implementors::       The Language Implementor's View
* Programmers for other Languages::  The Programmer's View
* Translators for other Languages::  The Translator's View
* Maintainers for other Languages::  The Maintainer's View
* List of Programming Languages::  Individual Programming Languages
* List of Data Formats::        Internationalizable Data

The Translator's View

* c-format::                    C Format Strings
* objc-format::                 Objective C Format Strings
* sh-format::                   Shell Format Strings
* python-format::               Python Format Strings
* lisp-format::                 Lisp Format Strings
* elisp-format::                Emacs Lisp Format Strings
* librep-format::               librep Format Strings
* scheme-format::               Scheme Format Strings
* smalltalk-format::            Smalltalk Format Strings
* java-format::                 Java Format Strings
* csharp-format::               C# Format Strings
* awk-format::                  awk Format Strings
* object-pascal-format::        Object Pascal Format Strings
* ycp-format::                  YCP Format Strings
* tcl-format::                  Tcl Format Strings
* perl-format::                 Perl Format Strings
* php-format::                  PHP Format Strings
* gcc-internal-format::         GCC internal Format Strings
* gfc-internal-format::         GFC internal Format Strings
* qt-format::                   Qt Format Strings
* qt-plural-format::            Qt Plural Format Strings
* kde-format::                  KDE Format Strings
* boost-format::                Boost Format Strings
* lua-format::                  Lua Format Strings
* javascript-format::           JavaScript Format Strings

Individual Programming Languages

* C::                           C, C++, Objective C
* sh::                          sh - Shell Script
* bash::                        bash - Bourne-Again Shell Script
* Python::                      Python
* Common Lisp::                 GNU clisp - Common Lisp
* clisp C::                     GNU clisp C sources
* Emacs Lisp::                  Emacs Lisp
* librep::                      librep
* Scheme::                      GNU guile - Scheme
* Smalltalk::                   GNU Smalltalk
* Java::                        Java
* C#::                          C#
* gawk::                        GNU awk
* Pascal::                      Pascal - Free Pascal Compiler
* wxWidgets::                   wxWidgets library
* YCP::                         YCP - YaST2 scripting language
* Tcl::                         Tcl - Tk's scripting language
* Perl::                        Perl
* PHP::                         PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
* Pike::                        Pike
* GCC-source::                  GNU Compiler Collection sources
* Lua::                         Lua
* JavaScript::                  JavaScript
* Vala::                        Vala

sh - Shell Script

* Preparing Shell Scripts::     Preparing Shell Scripts for Internationalization
* gettext.sh::                  Contents of 'gettext.sh'
* gettext Invocation::          Invoking the 'gettext' program
* ngettext Invocation::         Invoking the 'ngettext' program
* envsubst Invocation::         Invoking the 'envsubst' program
* eval_gettext Invocation::     Invoking the 'eval_gettext' function
* eval_ngettext Invocation::    Invoking the 'eval_ngettext' function

Perl

* General Problems::            General Problems Parsing Perl Code
* Default Keywords::            Which Keywords Will xgettext Look For?
* Special Keywords::            How to Extract Hash Keys
* Quote-like Expressions::      What are Strings And Quote-like Expressions?
* Interpolation I::             Invalid String Interpolation
* Interpolation II::            Valid String Interpolation
* Parentheses::                 When To Use Parentheses
* Long Lines::                  How To Grok with Long Lines
* Perl Pitfalls::               Bugs, Pitfalls, and Things That Do Not Work

Internationalizable Data

* POT::                         POT - Portable Object Template
* RST::                         Resource String Table
* Glade::                       Glade - GNOME user interface description
* GSettings::                   GSettings - GNOME user configuration schema
* AppData::                     AppData - freedesktop.org application description
* Preparing ITS Rules::         Preparing Rules for XML Internationalization

Concluding Remarks

* History::                     History of GNU 'gettext'
* References::                  Related Readings

Language Codes

* Usual Language Codes::        Two-letter ISO 639 language codes
* Rare Language Codes::         Three-letter ISO 639 language codes

Licenses

* GNU GPL::                     GNU General Public License
* GNU LGPL::                    GNU Lesser General Public License
* GNU FDL::                     GNU Free Documentation License


File: gettext.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Users,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

   This chapter explains the goals sought in the creation of GNU
'gettext' and the free Translation Project.  Then, it explains a few
broad concepts around Native Language Support, and positions message
translation with regard to other aspects of national and cultural
variance, as they apply to programs.  It also surveys those files used
to convey the translations.  It explains how the various tools interact
in the initial generation of these files, and later, how the maintenance
cycle should usually operate.

   In this manual, we use _he_ when speaking of the programmer or
maintainer, _she_ when speaking of the translator, and _they_ when
speaking of the installers or end users of the translated program.  This
is only a convenience for clarifying the documentation.  It is
_absolutely_ not meant to imply that some roles are more appropriate to
males or females.  Besides, as you might guess, GNU 'gettext' is meant
to be useful for people using computers, whatever their sex, race,
religion or nationality!

   Please send suggestions and corrections to:

     Internet address:
         bug-gnu-gettext AT gnu.org

Please include the manual's edition number and update date in your
messages.

* Menu:

* Why::                         The Purpose of GNU 'gettext'
* Concepts::                    I18n, L10n, and Such
* Aspects::                     Aspects in Native Language Support
* Files::                       Files Conveying Translations
* Overview::                    Overview of GNU 'gettext'

File: gettext.info,  Node: Why,  Next: Concepts,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Introduction

1.1 The Purpose of GNU 'gettext'
================================

   Usually, programs are written and documented in English, and use
English at execution time to interact with users.  This is true not only
of GNU software, but also of a great deal of proprietary and free
software.  Using a common language is quite handy for communication
between developers, maintainers and users from all countries.  On the
other hand, most people are less comfortable with English than with
their own native language, and would prefer to use their mother tongue
for day to day's work, as far as possible.  Many would simply _love_ to
see their computer screen showing a lot less of English, and far more of
their own language.

   However, to many people, this dream might appear so far fetched that
they may believe it is not even worth spending time thinking about it.
They have no confidence at all that the dream might ever become true.
Yet some have not lost hope, and have organized themselves.  The
Translation Project is a formalization of this hope into a workable
structure, which has a good chance to get all of us nearer the
achievement of a truly multi-lingual set of programs.

   GNU 'gettext' is an important step for the Translation Project, as it
is an asset on which we may build many other steps.  This package offers
to programmers, translators and even users, a well integrated set of
tools and documentation.  Specifically, the GNU 'gettext' utilities are
a set of tools that provides a framework within which other free
packages may produce multi-lingual messages.  These tools include

   * A set of conventions about how programs should be written to
     support message catalogs.

   * A directory and file naming organization for the message catalogs
     themselves.

   * A runtime library supporting the retrieval of translated messages.

   * A few stand-alone programs to massage in various ways the sets of
     translatable strings, or already translated strings.

   * A library supporting the parsing and creation of files containing
     translated messages.

   * A special mode for Emacs(1) which helps preparing these sets and
     bringing them up to date.

   GNU 'gettext' is designed to minimize the impact of
internationalization on program sources, keeping this impact as small
and hardly noticeable as possible.  Internationalization has better
chances of succeeding if it is very light weighted, or at least, appear
to be so, when looking at program sources.

   The Translation Project also uses the GNU 'gettext' distribution as a
vehicle for documenting its structure and methods.  This goes beyond the
strict technicalities of documenting the GNU 'gettext' proper.  By so
doing, translators will find in a single place, as far as possible, all
they need to know for properly doing their translating work.  Also, this
supplemental documentation might also help programmers, and even curious
users, in understanding how GNU 'gettext' is related to the remainder of
the Translation Project, and consequently, have a glimpse at the _big
picture_.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) In this manual, all mentions of Emacs refers to either GNU Emacs
or to XEmacs, which people sometimes call FSF Emacs and Lucid Emacs,
respectively.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Concepts,  Next: Aspects,  Prev: Why,  Up: Introduction

1.2 I18n, L10n, and Such
========================

   Two long words appear all the time when we discuss support of native
language in programs, and these words have a precise meaning, worth
being explained here, once and for all in this document.  The words are
_internationalization_ and _localization_.  Many people, tired of
writing these long words over and over again, took the habit of writing
"i18n" and "l10n" instead, quoting the first and last letter of each
word, and replacing the run of intermediate letters by a number merely
telling how many such letters there are.  But in this manual, in the
sake of clarity, we will patiently write the names in full, each time...

   By "internationalization", one refers to the operation by which a
program, or a set of programs turned into a package, is made aware of
and able to support multiple languages.  This is a generalization
process, by which the programs are untied from calling only English
strings or other English specific habits, and connected to generic ways
of doing the same, instead.  Program developers may use various
techniques to internationalize their programs.  Some of these have been
standardized.  GNU 'gettext' offers one of these standards.  *Note
Programmers::.

   By "localization", one means the operation by which, in a set of
programs already internationalized, one gives the program all needed
information so that it can adapt itself to handle its input and output
in a fashion which is correct for some native language and cultural
habits.  This is a particularisation process, by which generic methods
already implemented in an internationalized program are used in specific
ways.  The programming environment puts several functions to the
programmers disposal which allow this runtime configuration.  The formal
description of specific set of cultural habits for some country,
together with all associated translations targeted to the same native
language, is called the "locale" for this language or country.  Users
achieve localization of programs by setting proper values to special
environment variables, prior to executing those programs, identifying
which locale should be used.

   In fact, locale message support is only one component of the cultural
data that makes up a particular locale.  There are a whole host of
routines and functions provided to aid programmers in developing
internationalized software and which allow them to access the data
stored in a particular locale.  When someone presently refers to a
particular locale, they are obviously referring to the data stored
within that particular locale.  Similarly, if a programmer is referring
to "accessing the locale routines", they are referring to the complete
suite of routines that access all of the locale's information.

   One uses the expression "Native Language Support", or merely NLS, for
speaking of the overall activity or feature encompassing both
internationalization and localization, allowing for multi-lingual
interactions in a program.  In a nutshell, one could say that
internationalization is the operation by which further localizations are
made possible.

   Also, very roughly said, when it comes to multi-lingual messages,
internationalization is usually taken care of by programmers, and
localization is usually taken care of by translators.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Aspects,  Next: Files,  Prev: Concepts,  Up: Introduction

1.3 Aspects in Native Language Support
======================================

   For a totally multi-lingual distribution, there are many things to
translate beyond output messages.

   * As of today, GNU 'gettext' offers a complete toolset for
     translating messages output by C programs.  Perl scripts and shell
     scripts will also need to be translated.  Even if there are today
     some hooks by which this can be done, these hooks are not
     integrated as well as they should be.

   * Some programs, like 'autoconf' or 'bison', are able to produce
     other programs (or scripts).  Even if the generating programs
     themselves are internationalized, the generated programs they
     produce may need internationalization on their own, and this
     indirect internationalization could be automated right from the
     generating program.  In fact, quite usually, generating and
     generated programs could be internationalized independently, as the
     effort needed is fairly orthogonal.

   * A few programs include textual tables which might need translation
     themselves, independently of the strings contained in the program
     itself.  For example, RFC 1345 gives an English description for
     each character which the 'recode' program is able to reconstruct at
     execution.  Since these descriptions are extracted from the RFC by
     mechanical means, translating them properly would require a prior
     translation of the RFC itself.

   * Almost all programs accept options, which are often worded out so
     to be descriptive for the English readers; one might want to
     consider offering translated versions for program options as well.

   * Many programs read, interpret, compile, or are somewhat driven by
     input files which are texts containing keywords, identifiers, or
     replies which are inherently translatable.  For example, one may
     want 'gcc' to allow diacriticized characters in identifiers or use
     translated keywords; 'rm -i' might accept something else than 'y'
     or 'n' for replies, etc.  Even if the program will eventually make
     most of its output in the foreign languages, one has to decide
     whether the input syntax, option values, etc., are to be localized
     or not.

   * The manual accompanying a package, as well as all documentation
     files in the distribution, could surely be translated, too.
     Translating a manual, with the intent of later keeping up with
     updates, is a major undertaking in itself, generally.

   As we already stressed, translation is only one aspect of locales.
Other internationalization aspects are system services and are handled
in GNU 'libc'.  There are many attributes that are needed to define a
country's cultural conventions.  These attributes include beside the
country's native language, the formatting of the date and time, the
representation of numbers, the symbols for currency, etc.  These local
"rules" are termed the country's locale.  The locale represents the
knowledge needed to support the country's native attributes.

   There are a few major areas which may vary between countries and
hence, define what a locale must describe.  The following list helps
putting multi-lingual messages into the proper context of other tasks
related to locales.  See the GNU 'libc' manual for details.

_Characters and Codesets_

     The codeset most commonly used through out the USA and most English
     speaking parts of the world is the ASCII codeset.  However, there
     are many characters needed by various locales that are not found
     within this codeset.  The 8-bit ISO 8859-1 code set has most of the
     special characters needed to handle the major European languages.
     However, in many cases, choosing ISO 8859-1 is nevertheless not
     adequate: it doesn't even handle the major European currency.
     Hence each locale will need to specify which codeset they need to
     use and will need to have the appropriate character handling
     routines to cope with the codeset.

_Currency_

     The symbols used vary from country to country as does the position
     used by the symbol.  Software needs to be able to transparently
     display currency figures in the native mode for each locale.

_Dates_

     The format of date varies between locales.  For example, Christmas
     day in 1994 is written as 12/25/94 in the USA and as 25/12/94 in
     Australia.  Other countries might use ISO 8601 dates, etc.

     Time of the day may be noted as HH:MM, HH.MM, or otherwise.  Some
     locales require time to be specified in 24-hour mode rather than as
     AM or PM. Further, the nature and yearly extent of the Daylight
     Saving correction vary widely between countries.

_Numbers_

     Numbers can be represented differently in different locales.  For
     example, the following numbers are all written correctly for their
     respective locales:

          12,345.67       English
          12.345,67       German
           12345,67       French
          1,2345.67       Asia

     Some programs could go further and use different unit systems, like
     English units or Metric units, or even take into account variants
     about how numbers are spelled in full.

_Messages_

     The most obvious area is the language support within a locale.
     This is where GNU 'gettext' provides the means for developers and
     users to easily change the language that the software uses to
     communicate to the user.

   These areas of cultural conventions are called _locale categories_.
It is an unfortunate term; _locale aspects_ or _locale feature
categories_ would be a better term, because each "locale category"
describes an area or task that requires localization.  The concrete data
that describes the cultural conventions for such an area and for a
particular culture is also called a _locale category_.  In this sense, a
locale is composed of several locale categories: the locale category
describing the codeset, the locale category describing the formatting of
numbers, the locale category containing the translated messages, and so
on.

   Components of locale outside of message handling are standardized in
the ISO C standard and the POSIX:2001 standard (also known as the SUSV3
specification).  GNU 'libc' fully implements this, and most other modern
systems provide a more or less reasonable support for at least some of
the missing components.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Files,  Next: Overview,  Prev: Aspects,  Up: Introduction

1.4 Files Conveying Translations
================================

   The letters PO in '.po' files means Portable Object, to distinguish
it from '.mo' files, where MO stands for Machine Object.  This paradigm,
as well as the PO file format, is inspired by the NLS standard developed
by Uniforum, and first implemented by Sun in their Solaris system.

   PO files are meant to be read and edited by humans, and associate
each original, translatable string of a given package with its
translation in a particular target language.  A single PO file is
dedicated to a single target language.  If a package supports many
languages, there is one such PO file per language supported, and each
package has its own set of PO files.  These PO files are best created by
the 'xgettext' program, and later updated or refreshed through the
'msgmerge' program.  Program 'xgettext' extracts all marked messages
from a set of C files and initializes a PO file with empty translations.
Program 'msgmerge' takes care of adjusting PO files between releases of
the corresponding sources, commenting obsolete entries, initializing new
ones, and updating all source line references.  Files ending with '.pot'
are kind of base translation files found in distributions, in PO file
format.

   MO files are meant to be read by programs, and are binary in nature.
A few systems already offer tools for creating and handling MO files as
part of the Native Language Support coming with the system, but the
format of these MO files is often different from system to system, and
non-portable.  The tools already provided with these systems don't
support all the features of GNU 'gettext'.  Therefore GNU 'gettext' uses
its own format for MO files.  Files ending with '.gmo' are really MO
files, when it is known that these files use the GNU format.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Overview,  Prev: Files,  Up: Introduction

1.5 Overview of GNU 'gettext'
=============================

   The following diagram summarizes the relation between the files
handled by GNU 'gettext' and the tools acting on these files.  It is
followed by somewhat detailed explanations, which you should read while
keeping an eye on the diagram.  Having a clear understanding of these
interrelations will surely help programmers, translators and
maintainers.

     Original C Sources ---> Preparation ---> Marked C Sources ---.
                                                                  |
                   .---------<--- GNU gettext Library             |
     .--- make <---+                                              |
     |             `---------<--------------------+---------------'
     |                                            |
     |   .-----<--- PACKAGE.pot <--- xgettext <---'   .---<--- PO Compendium
     |   |                                            |              ^
     |   |                                            `---.          |
     |   `---.                                            +---> PO editor ---.
     |       +----> msgmerge ------> LANG.po ---->--------'                  |
     |   .---'                                                               |
     |   |                                                                   |
     |   `-------------<---------------.                                     |
     |                                 +--- New LANG.po <--------------------'
     |   .--- LANG.gmo <--- msgfmt <---'
     |   |
     |   `---> install ---> /.../LANG/PACKAGE.mo ---.
     |                                              +---> "Hello world!"
     `-------> install ---> /.../bin/PROGRAM -------'

   As a programmer, the first step to bringing GNU 'gettext' into your
package is identifying, right in the C sources, those strings which are
meant to be translatable, and those which are untranslatable.  This
tedious job can be done a little more comfortably using emacs PO mode,
but you can use any means familiar to you for modifying your C sources.
Beside this some other simple, standard changes are needed to properly
initialize the translation library.  *Note Sources::, for more
information about all this.

   For newly written software the strings of course can and should be
marked while writing it.  The 'gettext' approach makes this very easy.
Simply put the following lines at the beginning of each file or in a
central header file:

     #define _(String) (String)
     #define N_(String) String
     #define textdomain(Domain)
     #define bindtextdomain(Package, Directory)

Doing this allows you to prepare the sources for internationalization.
Later when you feel ready for the step to use the 'gettext' library
simply replace these definitions by the following:

     #include <libintl.h>
     #define _(String) gettext (String)
     #define gettext_noop(String) String
     #define N_(String) gettext_noop (String)

and link against 'libintl.a' or 'libintl.so'.  Note that on GNU systems,
you don't need to link with 'libintl' because the 'gettext' library
functions are already contained in GNU libc.  That is all you have to
change.

   Once the C sources have been modified, the 'xgettext' program is used
to find and extract all translatable strings, and create a PO template
file out of all these.  This 'PACKAGE.pot' file contains all original
program strings.  It has sets of pointers to exactly where in C sources
each string is used.  All translations are set to empty.  The letter 't'
in '.pot' marks this as a Template PO file, not yet oriented towards any
particular language.  *Note xgettext Invocation::, for more details
about how one calls the 'xgettext' program.  If you are _really_ lazy,
you might be interested at working a lot more right away, and preparing
the whole distribution setup (*note Maintainers::).  By doing so, you
spare yourself typing the 'xgettext' command, as 'make' should now
generate the proper things automatically for you!

   The first time through, there is no 'LANG.po' yet, so the 'msgmerge'
step may be skipped and replaced by a mere copy of 'PACKAGE.pot' to
'LANG.po', where LANG represents the target language.  See *note
Creating:: for details.

   Then comes the initial translation of messages.  Translation in
itself is a whole matter, still exclusively meant for humans, and whose
complexity far overwhelms the level of this manual.  Nevertheless, a few
hints are given in some other chapter of this manual (*note
Translators::).  You will also find there indications about how to
contact translating teams, or becoming part of them, for sharing your
translating concerns with others who target the same native language.

   While adding the translated messages into the 'LANG.po' PO file, if
you are not using one of the dedicated PO file editors (*note
Editing::), you are on your own for ensuring that your efforts fully
respect the PO file format, and quoting conventions (*note PO Files::).
This is surely not an impossible task, as this is the way many people
have handled PO files around 1995.  On the other hand, by using a PO
file editor, most details of PO file format are taken care of for you,
but you have to acquire some familiarity with PO file editor itself.

   If some common translations have already been saved into a compendium
PO file, translators may use PO mode for initializing untranslated
entries from the compendium, and also save selected translations into
the compendium, updating it (*note Compendium::).  Compendium files are
meant to be exchanged between members of a given translation team.

   Programs, or packages of programs, are dynamic in nature: users write
bug reports and suggestion for improvements, maintainers react by
modifying programs in various ways.  The fact that a package has already
been internationalized should not make maintainers shy of adding new
strings, or modifying strings already translated.  They just do their
job the best they can.  For the Translation Project to work smoothly, it
is important that maintainers do not carry translation concerns on their
already loaded shoulders, and that translators be kept as free as
possible of programming concerns.

   The only concern maintainers should have is carefully marking new
strings as translatable, when they should be, and do not otherwise worry
about them being translated, as this will come in proper time.
Consequently, when programs and their strings are adjusted in various
ways by maintainers, and for matters usually unrelated to translation,
'xgettext' would construct 'PACKAGE.pot' files which are evolving over
time, so the translations carried by 'LANG.po' are slowly fading out of
date.

   It is important for translators (and even maintainers) to understand
that package translation is a continuous process in the lifetime of a
package, and not something which is done once and for all at the start.
After an initial burst of translation activity for a given package,
interventions are needed once in a while, because here and there,
translated entries become obsolete, and new untranslated entries appear,
needing translation.

   The 'msgmerge' program has the purpose of refreshing an already
existing 'LANG.po' file, by comparing it with a newer 'PACKAGE.pot'
template file, extracted by 'xgettext' out of recent C sources.  The
refreshing operation adjusts all references to C source locations for
strings, since these strings move as programs are modified.  Also,
'msgmerge' comments out as obsolete, in 'LANG.po', those already
translated entries which are no longer used in the program sources
(*note Obsolete Entries::).  It finally discovers new strings and
inserts them in the resulting PO file as untranslated entries (*note
Untranslated Entries::).  *Note msgmerge Invocation::, for more
information about what 'msgmerge' really does.

   Whatever route or means taken, the goal is to obtain an updated
'LANG.po' file offering translations for all strings.

   The temporal mobility, or fluidity of PO files, is an integral part
of the translation game, and should be well understood, and accepted.
People resisting it will have a hard time participating in the
Translation Project, or will give a hard time to other participants!  In
particular, maintainers should relax and include all available official
PO files in their distributions, even if these have not recently been
updated, without exerting pressure on the translator teams to get the
job done.  The pressure should rather come from the community of users
speaking a particular language, and maintainers should consider
themselves fairly relieved of any concern about the adequacy of
translation files.  On the other hand, translators should reasonably try
updating the PO files they are responsible for, while the package is
undergoing pretest, prior to an official distribution.

   Once the PO file is complete and dependable, the 'msgfmt' program is
used for turning the PO file into a machine-oriented format, which may
yield efficient retrieval of translations by the programs of the
package, whenever needed at runtime (*note MO Files::).  *Note msgfmt
Invocation::, for more information about all modes of execution for the
'msgfmt' program.

   Finally, the modified and marked C sources are compiled and linked
with the GNU 'gettext' library, usually through the operation of 'make',
given a suitable 'Makefile' exists for the project, and the resulting
executable is installed somewhere users will find it.  The MO files
themselves should also be properly installed.  Given the appropriate
environment variables are set (*note Setting the POSIX Locale::), the
program should localize itself automatically, whenever it executes.

   The remainder of this manual has the purpose of explaining in depth
the various steps outlined above.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Users,  Next: PO Files,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 The User's View
*****************

   Nowadays, when users log into a computer, they usually find that all
their programs show messages in their native language - at least for
users of languages with an active free software community, like French
or German; to a lesser extent for languages with a smaller participation
in free software and the GNU project, like Hindi and Filipino.

   How does this work?  How can the user influence the language that is
used by the programs?  This chapter will answer it.

* Menu:

* System Installation::         Questions During Operating System Installation
* Setting the GUI Locale::      How to Specify the Locale Used by GUI Programs
* Setting the POSIX Locale::    How to Specify the Locale According to POSIX
* Installing Localizations::    How to Install Additional Translations

File: gettext.info,  Node: System Installation,  Next: Setting the GUI Locale,  Prev: Users,  Up: Users

2.1 Operating System Installation
=================================

   The default language is often already specified during operating
system installation.  When the operating system is installed, the
installer typically asks for the language used for the installation
process and, separately, for the language to use in the installed
system.  Some OS installers only ask for the language once.

   This determines the system-wide default language for all users.  But
the installers often give the possibility to install extra localizations
for additional languages.  For example, the localizations of KDE (the K
Desktop Environment) and OpenOffice.org are often bundled separately, as
one installable package per language.

   At this point it is good to consider the intended use of the machine:
If it is a machine designated for personal use, additional localizations
are probably not necessary.  If, however, the machine is in use in an
organization or company that has international relationships, one can
consider the needs of guest users.  If you have a guest from abroad, for
a week, what could be his preferred locales?  It may be worth installing
these additional localizations ahead of time, since they cost only a bit
of disk space at this point.

   The system-wide default language is the locale configuration that is
used when a new user account is created.  But the user can have his own
locale configuration that is different from the one of the other users
of the same machine.  He can specify it, typically after the first
login, as described in the next section.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Setting the GUI Locale,  Next: Setting the POSIX Locale,  Prev: System Installation,  Up: Users

2.2 Setting the Locale Used by GUI Programs
===========================================

   The immediately available programs in a user's desktop come from a
group of programs called a "desktop environment"; it usually includes
the window manager, a web browser, a text editor, and more.  The most
common free desktop environments are KDE, GNOME, and Xfce.

   The locale used by GUI programs of the desktop environment can be
specified in a configuration screen called "control center", "language
settings" or "country settings".

   Individual GUI programs that are not part of the desktop environment
can have their locale specified either in a settings panel, or through
environment variables.

   For some programs, it is possible to specify the locale through
environment variables, possibly even to a different locale than the
desktop's locale.  This means, instead of starting a program through a
menu or from the file system, you can start it from the command-line,
after having set some environment variables.  The environment variables
can be those specified in the next section (*note Setting the POSIX
Locale::); for some versions of KDE, however, the locale is specified
through a variable 'KDE_LANG', rather than 'LANG' or 'LC_ALL'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Setting the POSIX Locale,  Next: Installing Localizations,  Prev: Setting the GUI Locale,  Up: Users

2.3 Setting the Locale through Environment Variables
====================================================

   As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, in
the simplest case, you only have to set the 'LANG' environment variable
to the appropriate 'LL_CC' combination.  For example, let's suppose that
you speak German and live in Germany.  At the shell prompt, merely
execute 'setenv LANG de_DE' (in 'csh'), 'export LANG; LANG=de_DE' (in
'sh') or 'export LANG=de_DE' (in 'bash').  This can be done from your
'.login' or '.profile' file, once and for all.

* Menu:

* Locale Names::                How a Locale Specification Looks Like
* Locale Environment Variables::  Which Environment Variable Specfies What
* The LANGUAGE variable::       How to Specify a Priority List of Languages

File: gettext.info,  Node: Locale Names,  Next: Locale Environment Variables,  Prev: Setting the POSIX Locale,  Up: Setting the POSIX Locale

2.3.1 Locale Names
------------------

   A locale name usually has the form 'LL_CC'.  Here 'LL' is an ISO 639
two-letter language code, and 'CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country
code.  For example, for German in Germany, LL is 'de', and CC is 'DE'.
You find a list of the language codes in appendix *note Language Codes::
and a list of the country codes in appendix *note Country Codes::.

   You might think that the country code specification is redundant.
But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries.  For
example, 'de_AT' is used for Austria, and 'pt_BR' for Brazil.  The
country code serves to distinguish the dialects.

   Many locale names have an extended syntax 'LL_CC.ENCODING' that also
specifies the character encoding.  These are in use because between 2000
and 2005, most users have switched to locales in UTF-8 encoding.  For
example, the German locale on glibc systems is nowadays 'de_DE.UTF-8'.
The older name 'de_DE' still refers to the German locale as of 2000 that
stores characters in ISO-8859-1 encoding - a text encoding that cannot
even accommodate the Euro currency sign.

   Some locale names use 'LL_CC.@VARIANT' instead of 'LL_CC'.  The
'@VARIANT' can denote any kind of characteristics that is not already
implied by the language LL and the country CC.  It can denote a
particular monetary unit.  For example, on glibc systems, 'de_DE@euro'
denotes the locale that uses the Euro currency, in contrast to the older
locale 'de_DE' which implies the use of the currency before 2002.  It
can also denote a dialect of the language, or the script used to write
text (for example, 'sr_RS@latin' uses the Latin script, whereas 'sr_RS'
uses the Cyrillic script to write Serbian), or the orthography rules, or
similar.

   On other systems, some variations of this scheme are used, such as
'LL'.  You can get the list of locales supported by your system for your
language by running the command 'locale -a | grep '^LL''.

   There is also a special locale, called 'C'.  When it is used, it
disables all localization: in this locale, all programs standardized by
POSIX use English messages and an unspecified character encoding (often
US-ASCII, but sometimes also ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8, depending on the
operating system).

File: gettext.info,  Node: Locale Environment Variables,  Next: The LANGUAGE variable,  Prev: Locale Names,  Up: Setting the POSIX Locale

2.3.2 Locale Environment Variables
----------------------------------

   A locale is composed of several _locale categories_, see *note
Aspects::.  When a program looks up locale dependent values, it does
this according to the following environment variables, in priority
order:

  1. 'LANGUAGE'
  2. 'LC_ALL'
  3. 'LC_xxx', according to selected locale category: 'LC_CTYPE',
     'LC_NUMERIC', 'LC_TIME', 'LC_COLLATE', 'LC_MONETARY',
     'LC_MESSAGES', ...
  4. 'LANG'

   Variables whose value is set but is empty are ignored in this lookup.

   'LANG' is the normal environment variable for specifying a locale.
As a user, you normally set this variable (unless some of the other
variables have already been set by the system, in '/etc/profile' or
similar initialization files).

   'LC_CTYPE', 'LC_NUMERIC', 'LC_TIME', 'LC_COLLATE', 'LC_MONETARY',
'LC_MESSAGES', and so on, are the environment variables meant to
override 'LANG' and affecting a single locale category only.  For
example, assume you are a Swedish user in Spain, and you want your
programs to handle numbers and dates according to Spanish conventions,
and only the messages should be in Swedish.  Then you could create a
locale named 'sv_ES' or 'sv_ES.UTF-8' by use of the 'localedef' program.
But it is simpler, and achieves the same effect, to set the 'LANG'
variable to 'es_ES.UTF-8' and the 'LC_MESSAGES' variable to
'sv_SE.UTF-8'; these two locales come already preinstalled with the
operating system.

   'LC_ALL' is an environment variable that overrides all of these.  It
is typically used in scripts that run particular programs.  For example,
'configure' scripts generated by GNU autoconf use 'LC_ALL' to make sure
that the configuration tests don't operate in locale dependent ways.

   Some systems, unfortunately, set 'LC_ALL' in '/etc/profile' or in
similar initialization files.  As a user, you therefore have to unset
this variable if you want to set 'LANG' and optionally some of the other
'LC_xxx' variables.

   The 'LANGUAGE' variable is described in the next subsection.

File: gettext.info,  Node: The LANGUAGE variable,  Prev: Locale Environment Variables,  Up: Setting the POSIX Locale

2.3.3 Specifying a Priority List of Languages
---------------------------------------------

   Not all programs have translations for all languages.  By default, an
English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation.  If you
understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages.
This is done through a different environment variable, called
'LANGUAGE'.  GNU 'gettext' gives preference to 'LANGUAGE' over 'LC_ALL'
and 'LANG' for the purpose of message handling, but you still need to
have 'LANG' (or 'LC_ALL') set to the primary language; this is required
by other parts of the system libraries.  For example, some Swedish users
who would rather read translations in German than English for when
Swedish is not available, set 'LANGUAGE' to 'sv:de' while leaving 'LANG'
to 'sv_SE'.

   Special advice for Norwegian users: The language code for Norwegian
bokm??l changed from 'no' to 'nb' recently (in 2003).  During the
transition period, while some message catalogs for this language are
installed under 'nb' and some older ones under 'no', it is recommended
for Norwegian users to set 'LANGUAGE' to 'nb:no' so that both newer and
older translations are used.

   In the 'LANGUAGE' environment variable, but not in the other
environment variables, 'LL_CC' combinations can be abbreviated as 'LL'
to denote the language's main dialect.  For example, 'de' is equivalent
to 'de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and 'pt' to 'pt_PT'
(Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.

   Note: The variable 'LANGUAGE' is ignored if the locale is set to 'C'.
In other words, you have to first enable localization, by setting 'LANG'
(or 'LC_ALL') to a value other than 'C', before you can use a language
priority list through the 'LANGUAGE' variable.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Installing Localizations,  Prev: Setting the POSIX Locale,  Up: Users

2.4 Installing Translations for Particular Programs
===================================================

   Languages are not equally well supported in all packages using GNU
'gettext', and more translations are added over time.  Usually, you use
the translations that are shipped with the operating system or with
particular packages that you install afterwards.  But you can also
install newer localizations directly.  For doing this, you will need an
understanding where each localization file is stored on the file system.

   For programs that participate in the Translation Project, you can
start looking for translations here:
<http://translationproject.org/team/index.html>.  A snapshot of this
information is also found in the 'ABOUT-NLS' file that is shipped with
GNU gettext.

   For programs that are part of the KDE project, the starting point is:
<http://i18n.kde.org/>.

   For programs that are part of the GNOME project, the starting point
is: <http://www.gnome.org/i18n/>.

   For other programs, you may check whether the program's source code
package contains some 'LL.po' files; often they are kept together in a
directory called 'po/'.  Each 'LL.po' file contains the message
translations for the language whose abbreviation of LL.

File: gettext.info,  Node: PO Files,  Next: Sources,  Prev: Users,  Up: Top

3 The Format of PO Files
************************

   The GNU 'gettext' toolset helps programmers and translators at
producing, updating and using translation files, mainly those PO files
which are textual, editable files.  This chapter explains the format of
PO files.

   A PO file is made up of many entries, each entry holding the relation
between an original untranslated string and its corresponding
translation.  All entries in a given PO file usually pertain to a single
project, and all translations are expressed in a single target language.
One PO file "entry" has the following schematic structure:

     WHITE-SPACE
     #  TRANSLATOR-COMMENTS
     #. EXTRACTED-COMMENTS
     #: REFERENCE...
     #, FLAG...
     #| msgid PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING
     msgid UNTRANSLATED-STRING
     msgstr TRANSLATED-STRING

   The general structure of a PO file should be well understood by the
translator.  When using PO mode, very little has to be known about the
format details, as PO mode takes care of them for her.

   A simple entry can look like this:

     #: lib/error.c:116
     msgid "Unknown system error"
     msgstr "Error desconegut del sistema"

   Entries begin with some optional white space.  Usually, when
generated through GNU 'gettext' tools, there is exactly one blank line
between entries.  Then comments follow, on lines all starting with the
character '#'.  There are two kinds of comments: those which have some
white space immediately following the '#' - the TRANSLATOR COMMENTS -,
which comments are created and maintained exclusively by the translator,
and those which have some non-white character just after the '#' - the
AUTOMATIC COMMENTS -, which comments are created and maintained
automatically by GNU 'gettext' tools.  Comment lines starting with '#.'
contain comments given by the programmer, directed at the translator;
these comments are called EXTRACTED COMMENTS because the 'xgettext'
program extracts them from the program's source code.  Comment lines
starting with '#:' contain references to the program's source code.
Comment lines starting with '#,' contain flags; more about these below.
Comment lines starting with '#|' contain the previous untranslated
string for which the translator gave a translation.

   All comments, of either kind, are optional.

   After white space and comments, entries show two strings, namely
first the untranslated string as it appears in the original program
sources, and then, the translation of this string.  The original string
is introduced by the keyword 'msgid', and the translation, by 'msgstr'.
The two strings, untranslated and translated, are quoted in various ways
in the PO file, using '"' delimiters and '\' escapes, but the translator
does not really have to pay attention to the precise quoting format, as
PO mode fully takes care of quoting for her.

   The 'msgid' strings, as well as automatic comments, are produced and
managed by other GNU 'gettext' tools, and PO mode does not provide means
for the translator to alter these.  The most she can do is merely
deleting them, and only by deleting the whole entry.  On the other hand,
the 'msgstr' string, as well as translator comments, are really meant
for the translator, and PO mode gives her the full control she needs.

   The comment lines beginning with '#,' are special because they are
not completely ignored by the programs as comments generally are.  The
comma separated list of FLAGs is used by the 'msgfmt' program to give
the user some better diagnostic messages.  Currently there are two forms
of flags defined:

'fuzzy'
     This flag can be generated by the 'msgmerge' program or it can be
     inserted by the translator herself.  It shows that the 'msgstr'
     string might not be a correct translation (anymore).  Only the
     translator can judge if the translation requires further
     modification, or is acceptable as is.  Once satisfied with the
     translation, she then removes this 'fuzzy' attribute.  The
     'msgmerge' program inserts this when it combined the 'msgid' and
     'msgstr' entries after fuzzy search only.  *Note Fuzzy Entries::.

'c-format'
'no-c-format'
     These flags should not be added by a human.  Instead only the
     'xgettext' program adds them.  In an automated PO file processing
     system as proposed here, the user's changes would be thrown away
     again as soon as the 'xgettext' program generates a new template
     file.

     The 'c-format' flag indicates that the untranslated string and the
     translation are supposed to be C format strings.  The 'no-c-format'
     flag indicates that they are not C format strings, even though the
     untranslated string happens to look like a C format string (with
     '%' directives).

     When the 'c-format' flag is given for a string the 'msgfmt' program
     does some more tests to check the validity of the translation.
     *Note msgfmt Invocation::, *note c-format Flag:: and *note
     c-format::.

'objc-format'
'no-objc-format'
     Likewise for Objective C, see *note objc-format::.

'sh-format'
'no-sh-format'
     Likewise for Shell, see *note sh-format::.

'python-format'
'no-python-format'
     Likewise for Python, see *note python-format::.

'python-brace-format'
'no-python-brace-format'
     Likewise for Python brace, see *note python-format::.

'lisp-format'
'no-lisp-format'
     Likewise for Lisp, see *note lisp-format::.

'elisp-format'
'no-elisp-format'
     Likewise for Emacs Lisp, see *note elisp-format::.

'librep-format'
'no-librep-format'
     Likewise for librep, see *note librep-format::.

'scheme-format'
'no-scheme-format'
     Likewise for Scheme, see *note scheme-format::.

'smalltalk-format'
'no-smalltalk-format'
     Likewise for Smalltalk, see *note smalltalk-format::.

'java-format'
'no-java-format'
     Likewise for Java, see *note java-format::.

'csharp-format'
'no-csharp-format'
     Likewise for C#, see *note csharp-format::.

'awk-format'
'no-awk-format'
     Likewise for awk, see *note awk-format::.

'object-pascal-format'
'no-object-pascal-format'
     Likewise for Object Pascal, see *note object-pascal-format::.

'ycp-format'
'no-ycp-format'
     Likewise for YCP, see *note ycp-format::.

'tcl-format'
'no-tcl-format'
     Likewise for Tcl, see *note tcl-format::.

'perl-format'
'no-perl-format'
     Likewise for Perl, see *note perl-format::.

'perl-brace-format'
'no-perl-brace-format'
     Likewise for Perl brace, see *note perl-format::.

'php-format'
'no-php-format'
     Likewise for PHP, see *note php-format::.

'gcc-internal-format'
'no-gcc-internal-format'
     Likewise for the GCC sources, see *note gcc-internal-format::.

'gfc-internal-format'
'no-gfc-internal-format'
     Likewise for the GNU Fortran Compiler sources, see *note
     gfc-internal-format::.

'qt-format'
'no-qt-format'
     Likewise for Qt, see *note qt-format::.

'qt-plural-format'
'no-qt-plural-format'
     Likewise for Qt plural forms, see *note qt-plural-format::.

'kde-format'
'no-kde-format'
     Likewise for KDE, see *note kde-format::.

'boost-format'
'no-boost-format'
     Likewise for Boost, see *note boost-format::.

'lua-format'
'no-lua-format'
     Likewise for Lua, see *note lua-format::.

'javascript-format'
'no-javascript-format'
     Likewise for JavaScript, see *note javascript-format::.

   It is also possible to have entries with a context specifier.  They
look like this:

     WHITE-SPACE
     #  TRANSLATOR-COMMENTS
     #. EXTRACTED-COMMENTS
     #: REFERENCE...
     #, FLAG...
     #| msgctxt PREVIOUS-CONTEXT
     #| msgid PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING
     msgctxt CONTEXT
     msgid UNTRANSLATED-STRING
     msgstr TRANSLATED-STRING

   The context serves to disambiguate messages with the same
UNTRANSLATED-STRING.  It is possible to have several entries with the
same UNTRANSLATED-STRING in a PO file, provided that they each have a
different CONTEXT.  Note that an empty CONTEXT string and an absent
'msgctxt' line do not mean the same thing.

   A different kind of entries is used for translations which involve
plural forms.

     WHITE-SPACE
     #  TRANSLATOR-COMMENTS
     #. EXTRACTED-COMMENTS
     #: REFERENCE...
     #, FLAG...
     #| msgid PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING-SINGULAR
     #| msgid_plural PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING-PLURAL
     msgid UNTRANSLATED-STRING-SINGULAR
     msgid_plural UNTRANSLATED-STRING-PLURAL
     msgstr[0] TRANSLATED-STRING-CASE-0
     ...
     msgstr[N] TRANSLATED-STRING-CASE-N

   Such an entry can look like this:

     #: src/msgcmp.c:338 src/po-lex.c:699
     #, c-format
     msgid "found %d fatal error"
     msgid_plural "found %d fatal errors"
     msgstr[0] "s'ha trobat %d error fatal"
     msgstr[1] "s'han trobat %d errors fatals"

   Here also, a 'msgctxt' context can be specified before 'msgid', like
above.

   Here, additional kinds of flags can be used:

'range:'
     This flag is followed by a range of non-negative numbers, using the
     syntax 'range: MINIMUM-VALUE..MAXIMUM-VALUE'.  It designates the
     possible values that the numeric parameter of the message can take.
     In some languages, translators may produce slightly better
     translations if they know that the value can only take on values
     between 0 and 10, for example.

   The PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING is optionally inserted by the
'msgmerge' program, at the same time when it marks a message fuzzy.  It
helps the translator to see which changes were done by the developers on
the UNTRANSLATED-STRING.

   It happens that some lines, usually whitespace or comments, follow
the very last entry of a PO file.  Such lines are not part of any entry,
and will be dropped when the PO file is processed by the tools, or may
disturb some PO file editors.

   The remainder of this section may be safely skipped by those using a
PO file editor, yet it may be interesting for everybody to have a better
idea of the precise format of a PO file.  On the other hand, those
wishing to modify PO files by hand should carefully continue reading on.

   An empty UNTRANSLATED-STRING is reserved to contain the header entry
with the meta information (*note Header Entry::).  This header entry
should be the first entry of the file.  The empty UNTRANSLATED-STRING is
reserved for this purpose and must not be used anywhere else.

   Each of UNTRANSLATED-STRING and TRANSLATED-STRING respects the C
syntax for a character string, including the surrounding quotes and
embedded backslashed escape sequences.  When the time comes to write
multi-line strings, one should not use escaped newlines.  Instead, a
closing quote should follow the last character on the line to be
continued, and an opening quote should resume the string at the
beginning of the following PO file line.  For example:

     msgid ""
     "Here is an example of how one might continue a very long string\n"
     "for the common case the string represents multi-line output.\n"

In this example, the empty string is used on the first line, to allow
better alignment of the 'H' from the word 'Here' over the 'f' from the
word 'for'.  In this example, the 'msgid' keyword is followed by three
strings, which are meant to be concatenated.  Concatenating the empty
string does not change the resulting overall string, but it is a way for
us to comply with the necessity of 'msgid' to be followed by a string on
the same line, while keeping the multi-line presentation left-justified,
as we find this to be a cleaner disposition.  The empty string could
have been omitted, but only if the string starting with 'Here' was
promoted on the first line, right after 'msgid'.(1)  It was not really
necessary either to switch between the two last quoted strings
immediately after the newline '\n', the switch could have occurred after
_any_ other character, we just did it this way because it is neater.

   One should carefully distinguish between end of lines marked as '\n'
_inside_ quotes, which are part of the represented string, and end of
lines in the PO file itself, outside string quotes, which have no
incidence on the represented string.

   Outside strings, white lines and comments may be used freely.
Comments start at the beginning of a line with '#' and extend until the
end of the PO file line.  Comments written by translators should have
the initial '#' immediately followed by some white space.  If the '#' is
not immediately followed by white space, this comment is most likely
generated and managed by specialized GNU tools, and might disappear or
be replaced unexpectedly when the PO file is given to 'msgmerge'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This limitation is not imposed by GNU 'gettext', but is for
compatibility with the 'msgfmt' implementation on Solaris.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Sources,  Next: Template,  Prev: PO Files,  Up: Top

4 Preparing Program Sources
***************************

   For the programmer, changes to the C source code fall into three
categories.  First, you have to make the localization functions known to
all modules needing message translation.  Second, you should properly
trigger the operation of GNU 'gettext' when the program initializes,
usually from the 'main' function.  Last, you should identify, adjust and
mark all constant strings in your program needing translation.

* Menu:

* Importing::                   Importing the 'gettext' declaration
* Triggering::                  Triggering 'gettext' Operations
* Preparing Strings::           Preparing Translatable Strings
* Mark Keywords::               How Marks Appear in Sources
* Marking::                     Marking Translatable Strings
* c-format Flag::               Telling something about the following string
* Special cases::               Special Cases of Translatable Strings
* Bug Report Address::          Letting Users Report Translation Bugs
* Names::                       Marking Proper Names for Translation
* Libraries::                   Preparing Library Sources

File: gettext.info,  Node: Importing,  Next: Triggering,  Prev: Sources,  Up: Sources

4.1 Importing the 'gettext' declaration
=======================================

   Presuming that your set of programs, or package, has been adjusted so
all needed GNU 'gettext' files are available, and your 'Makefile' files
are adjusted (*note Maintainers::), each C module having translated C
strings should contain the line:

     #include <libintl.h>

   Similarly, each C module containing 'printf()'/'fprintf()'/...  calls
with a format string that could be a translated C string (even if the C
string comes from a different C module) should contain the line:

     #include <libintl.h>

File: gettext.info,  Node: Triggering,  Next: Preparing Strings,  Prev: Importing,  Up: Sources

4.2 Triggering 'gettext' Operations
===================================

   The initialization of locale data should be done with more or less
the same code in every program, as demonstrated below:

     int
     main (int argc, char *argv[])
     {
       ...
       setlocale (LC_ALL, "");
       bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
       textdomain (PACKAGE);
       ...
     }

   PACKAGE and LOCALEDIR should be provided either by 'config.h' or by
the Makefile.  For now consult the 'gettext' or 'hello' sources for more
information.

   The use of 'LC_ALL' might not be appropriate for you.  'LC_ALL'
includes all locale categories and especially 'LC_CTYPE'.  This latter
category is responsible for determining character classes with the
'isalnum' etc.  functions from 'ctype.h' which could especially for
programs, which process some kind of input language, be wrong.  For
example this would mean that a source code using the c, (c-cedilla
character) is runnable in France but not in the U.S.

   Some systems also have problems with parsing numbers using the
'scanf' functions if an other but the 'LC_ALL' locale category is used.
The standards say that additional formats but the one known in the '"C"'
locale might be recognized.  But some systems seem to reject numbers in
the '"C"' locale format.  In some situation, it might also be a problem
with the notation itself which makes it impossible to recognize whether
the number is in the '"C"' locale or the local format.  This can happen
if thousands separator characters are used.  Some locales define this
character according to the national conventions to ''.'' which is the
same character used in the '"C"' locale to denote the decimal point.

   So it is sometimes necessary to replace the 'LC_ALL' line in the code
above by a sequence of 'setlocale' lines

     {
       ...
       setlocale (LC_CTYPE, "");
       setlocale (LC_MESSAGES, "");
       ...
     }

On all POSIX conformant systems the locale categories 'LC_CTYPE',
'LC_MESSAGES', 'LC_COLLATE', 'LC_MONETARY', 'LC_NUMERIC', and 'LC_TIME'
are available.  On some systems which are only ISO C compliant,
'LC_MESSAGES' is missing, but a substitute for it is defined in GNU
gettext's '<libintl.h>' and in GNU gnulib's '<locale.h>'.

   Note that changing the 'LC_CTYPE' also affects the functions declared
in the '<ctype.h>' standard header and some functions declared in the
'<string.h>' and '<stdlib.h>' standard headers.  If this is not
desirable in your application (for example in a compiler's parser), you
can use a set of substitute functions which hardwire the C locale, such
as found in the modules 'c-ctype', 'c-strcase', 'c-strcasestr',
'c-strtod', 'c-strtold' in the GNU gnulib source distribution.

   It is also possible to switch the locale forth and back between the
environment dependent locale and the C locale, but this approach is
normally avoided because a 'setlocale' call is expensive, because it is
tedious to determine the places where a locale switch is needed in a
large program's source, and because switching a locale is not
multithread-safe.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Preparing Strings,  Next: Mark Keywords,  Prev: Triggering,  Up: Sources

4.3 Preparing Translatable Strings
==================================

   Before strings can be marked for translations, they sometimes need to
be adjusted.  Usually preparing a string for translation is done right
before marking it, during the marking phase which is described in the
next sections.  What you have to keep in mind while doing that is the
following.

   * Decent English style.

   * Entire sentences.

   * Split at paragraphs.

   * Use format strings instead of string concatenation.

   * Avoid unusual markup and unusual control characters.

Let's look at some examples of these guidelines.

   Translatable strings should be in good English style.  If slang
language with abbreviations and shortcuts is used, often translators
will not understand the message and will produce very inappropriate
translations.

     "%s: is parameter\n"

This is nearly untranslatable: Is the displayed item _a_ parameter or
_the_ parameter?

     "No match"

The ambiguity in this message makes it unintelligible: Is the program
attempting to set something on fire?  Does it mean "The given object
does not match the template"?  Does it mean "The template does not fit
for any of the objects"?

   In both cases, adding more words to the message will help both the
translator and the English speaking user.

   Translatable strings should be entire sentences.  It is often not
possible to translate single verbs or adjectives in a substitutable way.

     printf ("File %s is %s protected", filename, rw ? "write" : "read");

Most translators will not look at the source and will thus only see the
string '"File %s is %s protected"', which is unintelligible.  Change
this to

     printf (rw ? "File %s is write protected" : "File %s is read protected",
             filename);

This way the translator will not only understand the message, she will
also be able to find the appropriate grammatical construction.  A French
translator for example translates "write protected" like "protected
against writing".

   Entire sentences are also important because in many languages, the
declination of some word in a sentence depends on the gender or the
number (singular/plural) of another part of the sentence.  There are
usually more interdependencies between words than in English.  The
consequence is that asking a translator to translate two half-sentences
and then combining these two half-sentences through dumb string
concatenation will not work, for many languages, even though it would
work for English.  That's why translators need to handle entire
sentences.

   Often sentences don't fit into a single line.  If a sentence is
output using two subsequent 'printf' statements, like this

     printf ("Locale charset \"%s\" is different from\n", lcharset);
     printf ("input file charset \"%s\".\n", fcharset);

the translator would have to translate two half sentences, but nothing
in the POT file would tell her that the two half sentences belong
together.  It is necessary to merge the two 'printf' statements so that
the translator can handle the entire sentence at once and decide at
which place to insert a line break in the translation (if at all):

     printf ("Locale charset \"%s\" is different from\n\
     input file charset \"%s\".\n", lcharset, fcharset);

   You may now ask: how about two or more adjacent sentences?  Like in
this case:

     puts ("Apollo 13 scenario: Stack overflow handling failed.");
     puts ("On the next stack overflow we will crash!!!");

Should these two statements merged into a single one?  I would recommend
to merge them if the two sentences are related to each other, because
then it makes it easier for the translator to understand and translate
both.  On the other hand, if one of the two messages is a stereotypic
one, occurring in other places as well, you will do a favour to the
translator by not merging the two.  (Identical messages occurring in
several places are combined by xgettext, so the translator has to handle
them once only.)

   Translatable strings should be limited to one paragraph; don't let a
single message be longer than ten lines.  The reason is that when the
translatable string changes, the translator is faced with the task of
updating the entire translated string.  Maybe only a single word will
have changed in the English string, but the translator doesn't see that
(with the current translation tools), therefore she has to proofread the
entire message.

   Many GNU programs have a '--help' output that extends over several
screen pages.  It is a courtesy towards the translators to split such a
message into several ones of five to ten lines each.  While doing that,
you can also attempt to split the documented options into groups, such
as the input options, the output options, and the informative output
options.  This will help every user to find the option he is looking
for.

   Hardcoded string concatenation is sometimes used to construct English
strings:

     strcpy (s, "Replace ");
     strcat (s, object1);
     strcat (s, " with ");
     strcat (s, object2);
     strcat (s, "?");

In order to present to the translator only entire sentences, and also
because in some languages the translator might want to swap the order of
'object1' and 'object2', it is necessary to change this to use a format
string:

     sprintf (s, "Replace %s with %s?", object1, object2);

   A similar case is compile time concatenation of strings.  The ISO C
99 include file '<inttypes.h>' contains a macro 'PRId64' that can be
used as a formatting directive for outputting an 'int64_t' integer
through 'printf'.  It expands to a constant string, usually "d" or "ld"
or "lld" or something like this, depending on the platform.  Assume you
have code like

     printf ("The amount is %0" PRId64 "\n", number);

The 'gettext' tools and library have special support for these
'<inttypes.h>' macros.  You can therefore simply write

     printf (gettext ("The amount is %0" PRId64 "\n"), number);

The PO file will contain the string "The amount is %0<PRId64>\n".  The
translators will provide a translation containing "%0<PRId64>" as well,
and at runtime the 'gettext' function's result will contain the
appropriate constant string, "d" or "ld" or "lld".

   This works only for the predefined '<inttypes.h>' macros.  If you
have defined your own similar macros, let's say 'MYPRId64', that are not
known to 'xgettext', the solution for this problem is to change the code
like this:

     char buf1[100];
     sprintf (buf1, "%0" MYPRId64, number);
     printf (gettext ("The amount is %s\n"), buf1);

   This means, you put the platform dependent code in one statement, and
the internationalization code in a different statement.  Note that a
buffer length of 100 is safe, because all available hardware integer
types are limited to 128 bits, and to print a 128 bit integer one needs
at most 54 characters, regardless whether in decimal, octal or
hexadecimal.

   All this applies to other programming languages as well.  For
example, in Java and C#, string concatenation is very frequently used,
because it is a compiler built-in operator.  Like in C, in Java, you
would change

     System.out.println("Replace "+object1+" with "+object2+"?");

into a statement involving a format string:

     System.out.println(
         MessageFormat.format("Replace {0} with {1}?",
                              new Object[] { object1, object2 }));

Similarly, in C#, you would change

     Console.WriteLine("Replace "+object1+" with "+object2+"?");

into a statement involving a format string:

     Console.WriteLine(
         String.Format("Replace {0} with {1}?", object1, object2));

   Unusual markup or control characters should not be used in
translatable strings.  Translators will likely not understand the
particular meaning of the markup or control characters.

   For example, if you have a convention that '|' delimits the left-hand
and right-hand part of some GUI elements, translators will often not
understand it without specific comments.  It might be better to have the
translator translate the left-hand and right-hand part separately.

   Another example is the 'argp' convention to use a single '\v'
(vertical tab) control character to delimit two sections inside a
string.  This is flawed.  Some translators may convert it to a simple
newline, some to blank lines.  With some PO file editors it may not be
easy to even enter a vertical tab control character.  So, you cannot be
sure that the translation will contain a '\v' character, at the
corresponding position.  The solution is, again, to let the translator
translate two separate strings and combine at run-time the two
translated strings with the '\v' required by the convention.

   HTML markup, however, is common enough that it's probably ok to use
in translatable strings.  But please bear in mind that the GNU gettext
tools don't verify that the translations are well-formed HTML.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Mark Keywords,  Next: Marking,  Prev: Preparing Strings,  Up: Sources

4.4 How Marks Appear in Sources
===============================

   All strings requiring translation should be marked in the C sources.
Marking is done in such a way that each translatable string appears to
be the sole argument of some function or preprocessor macro.  There are
only a few such possible functions or macros meant for translation, and
their names are said to be marking keywords.  The marking is attached to
strings themselves, rather than to what we do with them.  This approach
has more uses.  A blatant example is an error message produced by
formatting.  The format string needs translation, as well as some
strings inserted through some '%s' specification in the format, while
the result from 'sprintf' may have so many different instances that it
is impractical to list them all in some 'error_string_out()' routine,
say.

   This marking operation has two goals.  The first goal of marking is
for triggering the retrieval of the translation, at run time.  The
keyword is possibly resolved into a routine able to dynamically return
the proper translation, as far as possible or wanted, for the argument
string.  Most localizable strings are found in executable positions,
that is, attached to variables or given as parameters to functions.  But
this is not universal usage, and some translatable strings appear in
structured initializations.  *Note Special cases::.

   The second goal of the marking operation is to help 'xgettext' at
properly extracting all translatable strings when it scans a set of
program sources and produces PO file templates.

   The canonical keyword for marking translatable strings is 'gettext',
it gave its name to the whole GNU 'gettext' package.  For packages
making only light use of the 'gettext' keyword, macro or function, it is
easily used _as is_.  However, for packages using the 'gettext'
interface more heavily, it is usually more convenient to give the main
keyword a shorter, less obtrusive name.  Indeed, the keyword might
appear on a lot of strings all over the package, and programmers usually
do not want nor need their program sources to remind them forcefully,
all the time, that they are internationalized.  Further, a long keyword
has the disadvantage of using more horizontal space, forcing more
indentation work on sources for those trying to keep them within 79 or
80 columns.

   Many packages use '_' (a simple underline) as a keyword, and write
'_("Translatable string")' instead of 'gettext ("Translatable string")'.
Further, the coding rule, from GNU standards, wanting that there is a
space between the keyword and the opening parenthesis is relaxed, in
practice, for this particular usage.  So, the textual overhead per
translatable string is reduced to only three characters: the underline
and the two parentheses.  However, even if GNU 'gettext' uses this
convention internally, it does not offer it officially.  The real,
genuine keyword is truly 'gettext' indeed.  It is fairly easy for those
wanting to use '_' instead of 'gettext' to declare:

     #include <libintl.h>
     #define _(String) gettext (String)

instead of merely using '#include <libintl.h>'.

   The marking keywords 'gettext' and '_' take the translatable string
as sole argument.  It is also possible to define marking functions that
take it at another argument position.  It is even possible to make the
marked argument position depend on the total number of arguments of the
function call; this is useful in C++.  All this is achieved using
'xgettext''s '--keyword' option.  How to pass such an option to
'xgettext', assuming that 'gettextize' is used, is described in *note
po/Makevars:: and *note AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION::.

   Note also that long strings can be split across lines, into multiple
adjacent string tokens.  Automatic string concatenation is performed at
compile time according to ISO C and ISO C++; 'xgettext' also supports
this syntax.

   Later on, the maintenance is relatively easy.  If, as a programmer,
you add or modify a string, you will have to ask yourself if the new or
altered string requires translation, and include it within '_()' if you
think it should be translated.  For example, '"%s"' is an example of
string _not_ requiring translation.  But '"%s: %d"' _does_ require
translation, because in French, unlike in English, it's customary to put
a space before a colon.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Marking,  Next: c-format Flag,  Prev: Mark Keywords,  Up: Sources

4.5 Marking Translatable Strings
================================

   In PO mode, one set of features is meant more for the programmer than
for the translator, and allows him to interactively mark which strings,
in a set of program sources, are translatable, and which are not.  Even
if it is a fairly easy job for a programmer to find and mark such
strings by other means, using any editor of his choice, PO mode makes
this work more comfortable.  Further, this gives translators who feel a
little like programmers, or programmers who feel a little like
translators, a tool letting them work at marking translatable strings in
the program sources, while simultaneously producing a set of translation
in some language, for the package being internationalized.

   The set of program sources, targeted by the PO mode commands describe
here, should have an Emacs tags table constructed for your project,
prior to using these PO file commands.  This is easy to do.  In any
shell window, change the directory to the root of your project, then
execute a command resembling:

     etags src/*.[hc] lib/*.[hc]

presuming here you want to process all '.h' and '.c' files from the
'src/' and 'lib/' directories.  This command will explore all said files
and create a 'TAGS' file in your root directory, somewhat summarizing
the contents using a special file format Emacs can understand.

   For packages following the GNU coding standards, there is a make goal
'tags' or 'TAGS' which constructs the tag files in all directories and
for all files containing source code.

   Once your 'TAGS' file is ready, the following commands assist the
programmer at marking translatable strings in his set of sources.  But
these commands are necessarily driven from within a PO file window, and
it is likely that you do not even have such a PO file yet.  This is not
a problem at all, as you may safely open a new, empty PO file, mainly
for using these commands.  This empty PO file will slowly fill in while
you mark strings as translatable in your program sources.

','
     Search through program sources for a string which looks like a
     candidate for translation ('po-tags-search').

'M-,'
     Mark the last string found with '_()' ('po-mark-translatable').

'M-.'
     Mark the last string found with a keyword taken from a set of
     possible keywords.  This command with a prefix allows some
     management of these keywords ('po-select-mark-and-mark').

   The ',' ('po-tags-search') command searches for the next occurrence
of a string which looks like a possible candidate for translation, and
displays the program source in another Emacs window, positioned in such
a way that the string is near the top of this other window.  If the
string is too big to fit whole in this window, it is positioned so only
its end is shown.  In any case, the cursor is left in the PO file
window.  If the shown string would be better presented differently in
different native languages, you may mark it using 'M-,' or 'M-.'.
Otherwise, you might rather ignore it and skip to the next string by
merely repeating the ',' command.

   A string is a good candidate for translation if it contains a
sequence of three or more letters.  A string containing at most two
letters in a row will be considered as a candidate if it has more
letters than non-letters.  The command disregards strings containing no
letters, or isolated letters only.  It also disregards strings within
comments, or strings already marked with some keyword PO mode knows (see
below).

   If you have never told Emacs about some 'TAGS' file to use, the
command will request that you specify one from the minibuffer, the first
time you use the command.  You may later change your 'TAGS' file by
using the regular Emacs command 'M-x visit-tags-table', which will ask
you to name the precise 'TAGS' file you want to use.  *Note Tag Tables:
(emacs)Tags.

   Each time you use the ',' command, the search resumes from where it
was left by the previous search, and goes through all program sources,
obeying the 'TAGS' file, until all sources have been processed.
However, by giving a prefix argument to the command ('C-u ,'), you may
request that the search be restarted all over again from the first
program source; but in this case, strings that you recently marked as
translatable will be automatically skipped.

   Using this ',' command does not prevent using of other regular Emacs
tags commands.  For example, regular 'tags-search' or
'tags-query-replace' commands may be used without disrupting the
independent ',' search sequence.  However, as implemented, the _initial_
',' command (or the ',' command is used with a prefix) might also
reinitialize the regular Emacs tags searching to the first tags file,
this reinitialization might be considered spurious.

   The 'M-,' ('po-mark-translatable') command will mark the recently
found string with the '_' keyword.  The 'M-.'
('po-select-mark-and-mark') command will request that you type one
keyword from the minibuffer and use that keyword for marking the string.
Both commands will automatically create a new PO file untranslated entry
for the string being marked, and make it the current entry (making it
easy for you to immediately proceed to its translation, if you feel like
doing it right away).  It is possible that the modifications made to the
program source by 'M-,' or 'M-.' render some source line longer than 80
columns, forcing you to break and re-indent this line differently.  You
may use the 'O' command from PO mode, or any other window changing
command from Emacs, to break out into the program source window, and do
any needed adjustments.  You will have to use some regular Emacs command
to return the cursor to the PO file window, if you want command ',' for
the next string, say.

   The 'M-.' command has a few built-in speedups, so you do not have to
explicitly type all keywords all the time.  The first such speedup is
that you are presented with a _preferred_ keyword, which you may accept
by merely typing '<RET>' at the prompt.  The second speedup is that you
may type any non-ambiguous prefix of the keyword you really mean, and
the command will complete it automatically for you.  This also means
that PO mode has to _know_ all your possible keywords, and that it will
not accept mistyped keywords.

   If you reply '?' to the keyword request, the command gives a list of
all known keywords, from which you may choose.  When the command is
prefixed by an argument ('C-u M-.'), it inhibits updating any program
source or PO file buffer, and does some simple keyword management
instead.  In this case, the command asks for a keyword, written in full,
which becomes a new allowed keyword for later 'M-.' commands.  Moreover,
this new keyword automatically becomes the _preferred_ keyword for later
commands.  By typing an already known keyword in response to 'C-u M-.',
one merely changes the _preferred_ keyword and does nothing more.

   All keywords known for 'M-.' are recognized by the ',' command when
scanning for strings, and strings already marked by any of those known
keywords are automatically skipped.  If many PO files are opened
simultaneously, each one has its own independent set of known keywords.
There is no provision in PO mode, currently, for deleting a known
keyword, you have to quit the file (maybe using 'q') and reopen it
afresh.  When a PO file is newly brought up in an Emacs window, only
'gettext' and '_' are known as keywords, and 'gettext' is preferred for
the 'M-.' command.  In fact, this is not useful to prefer '_', as this
one is already built in the 'M-,' command.

File: gettext.info,  Node: c-format Flag,  Next: Special cases,  Prev: Marking,  Up: Sources

4.6 Special Comments preceding Keywords
=======================================

   In C programs strings are often used within calls of functions from
the 'printf' family.  The special thing about these format strings is
that they can contain format specifiers introduced with '%'.  Assume we
have the code

     printf (gettext ("String `%s' has %d characters\n"), s, strlen (s));

A possible German translation for the above string might be:

     "%d Zeichen lang ist die Zeichenkette `%s'"

   A C programmer, even if he cannot speak German, will recognize that
there is something wrong here.  The order of the two format specifiers
is changed but of course the arguments in the 'printf' don't have.  This
will most probably lead to problems because now the length of the string
is regarded as the address.

   To prevent errors at runtime caused by translations, the 'msgfmt'
tool can check statically whether the arguments in the original and the
translation string match in type and number.  If this is not the case
and the '-c' option has been passed to 'msgfmt', 'msgfmt' will give an
error and refuse to produce a MO file.  Thus consistent use of 'msgfmt
-c' will catch the error, so that it cannot cause problems at runtime.

If the word order in the above German translation would be correct one
would have to write

     "%2$d Zeichen lang ist die Zeichenkette `%1$s'"

The routines in 'msgfmt' know about this special notation.

   Because not all strings in a program will be format strings, it is
not useful for 'msgfmt' to test all the strings in the '.po' file.  This
might cause problems because the string might contain what looks like a
format specifier, but the string is not used in 'printf'.

   Therefore 'xgettext' adds a special tag to those messages it thinks
might be a format string.  There is no absolute rule for this, only a
heuristic.  In the '.po' file the entry is marked using the 'c-format'
flag in the '#,' comment line (*note PO Files::).

   The careful reader now might say that this again can cause problems.
The heuristic might guess it wrong.  This is true and therefore
'xgettext' knows about a special kind of comment which lets the
programmer take over the decision.  If in the same line as or the
immediately preceding line to the 'gettext' keyword the 'xgettext'
program finds a comment containing the words 'xgettext:c-format', it
will mark the string in any case with the 'c-format' flag.  This kind of
comment should be used when 'xgettext' does not recognize the string as
a format string but it really is one and it should be tested.  Please
note that when the comment is in the same line as the 'gettext' keyword,
it must be before the string to be translated.

   This situation happens quite often.  The 'printf' function is often
called with strings which do not contain a format specifier.  Of course
one would normally use 'fputs' but it does happen.  In this case
'xgettext' does not recognize this as a format string but what happens
if the translation introduces a valid format specifier?  The 'printf'
function will try to access one of the parameters but none exists
because the original code does not pass any parameters.

   'xgettext' of course could make a wrong decision the other way round,
i.e. a string marked as a format string actually is not a format string.
In this case the 'msgfmt' might give too many warnings and would prevent
translating the '.po' file.  The method to prevent this wrong decision
is similar to the one used above, only the comment to use must contain
the string 'xgettext:no-c-format'.

   If a string is marked with 'c-format' and this is not correct the
user can find out who is responsible for the decision.  See *note
xgettext Invocation:: to see how the '--debug' option can be used for
solving this problem.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Special cases,  Next: Bug Report Address,  Prev: c-format Flag,  Up: Sources

4.7 Special Cases of Translatable Strings
=========================================

   The attentive reader might now point out that it is not always
possible to mark translatable string with 'gettext' or something like
this.  Consider the following case:

     {
       static const char *messages[] = {
         "some very meaningful message",
         "and another one"
       };
       const char *string;
       ...
       string
         = index > 1 ? "a default message" : messages[index];

       fputs (string);
       ...
     }

   While it is no problem to mark the string '"a default message"' it is
not possible to mark the string initializers for 'messages'.  What is to
be done?  We have to fulfill two tasks.  First we have to mark the
strings so that the 'xgettext' program (*note xgettext Invocation::) can
find them, and second we have to translate the string at runtime before
printing them.

   The first task can be fulfilled by creating a new keyword, which
names a no-op.  For the second we have to mark all access points to a
string from the array.  So one solution can look like this:

     #define gettext_noop(String) String

     {
       static const char *messages[] = {
         gettext_noop ("some very meaningful message"),
         gettext_noop ("and another one")
       };
       const char *string;
       ...
       string
         = index > 1 ? gettext ("a default message") : gettext (messages[index]);

       fputs (string);
       ...
     }

   Please convince yourself that the string which is written by 'fputs'
is translated in any case.  How to get 'xgettext' know the additional
keyword 'gettext_noop' is explained in *note xgettext Invocation::.

   The above is of course not the only solution.  You could also come
along with the following one:

     #define gettext_noop(String) String

     {
       static const char *messages[] = {
         gettext_noop ("some very meaningful message"),
         gettext_noop ("and another one")
       };
       const char *string;
       ...
       string
         = index > 1 ? gettext_noop ("a default message") : messages[index];

       fputs (gettext (string));
       ...
     }

   But this has a drawback.  The programmer has to take care that he
uses 'gettext_noop' for the string '"a default message"'.  A use of
'gettext' could have in rare cases unpredictable results.

   One advantage is that you need not make control flow analysis to make
sure the output is really translated in any case.  But this analysis is
generally not very difficult.  If it should be in any situation you can
use this second method in this situation.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Bug Report Address,  Next: Names,  Prev: Special cases,  Up: Sources

4.8 Letting Users Report Translation Bugs
=========================================

   Code sometimes has bugs, but translations sometimes have bugs too.
The users need to be able to report them.  Reporting translation bugs to
the programmer or maintainer of a package is not very useful, since the
maintainer must never change a translation, except on behalf of the
translator.  Hence the translation bugs must be reported to the
translators.

   Here is a way to organize this so that the maintainer does not need
to forward translation bug reports, nor even keep a list of the
addresses of the translators or their translation teams.

   Every program has a place where is shows the bug report address.  For
GNU programs, it is the code which handles the "-help" option, typically
in a function called "usage".  In this place, instruct the translator to
add her own bug reporting address.  For example, if that code has a
statement

     printf (_("Report bugs to <%s>.\n"), PACKAGE_BUGREPORT);

   you can add some translator instructions like this:

     /* TRANSLATORS: The placeholder indicates the bug-reporting address
        for this package.  Please add _another line_ saying
        "Report translation bugs to <...>\n" with the address for translation
        bugs (typically your translation team's web or email address).  */
     printf (_("Report bugs to <%s>.\n"), PACKAGE_BUGREPORT);

   These will be extracted by 'xgettext', leading to a .pot file that
contains this:

     #. TRANSLATORS: The placeholder indicates the bug-reporting address
     #. for this package.  Please add _another line_ saying
     #. "Report translation bugs to <...>\n" with the address for translation
     #. bugs (typically your translation team's web or email address).
     #: src/hello.c:178
     #, c-format
     msgid "Report bugs to <%s>.\n"
     msgstr ""

File: gettext.info,  Node: Names,  Next: Libraries,  Prev: Bug Report Address,  Up: Sources

4.9 Marking Proper Names for Translation
========================================

   Should names of persons, cities, locations etc.  be marked for
translation or not?  People who only know languages that can be written
with Latin letters (English, Spanish, French, German, etc.)  are tempted
to say "no", because names usually do not change when transported
between these languages.  However, in general when translating from one
script to another, names are translated too, usually phonetically or by
transliteration.  For example, Russian or Greek names are converted to
the Latin alphabet when being translated to English, and English or
French names are converted to the Katakana script when being translated
to Japanese.  This is necessary because the speakers of the target
language in general cannot read the script the name is originally
written in.

   As a programmer, you should therefore make sure that names are marked
for translation, with a special comment telling the translators that it
is a proper name and how to pronounce it.  In its simple form, it looks
like this:

     printf (_("Written by %s.\n"),
             /* TRANSLATORS: This is a proper name.  See the gettext
                manual, section Names.  Note this is actually a non-ASCII
                name: The first name is (with Unicode escapes)
                "Fran\u00e7ois" or (with HTML entities) "Fran&ccedil;ois".
                Pronunciation is like "fraa-swa pee-nar".  */
             _("Francois Pinard"));

The GNU gnulib library offers a module 'propername'
(<http://www.gnu.org/software/gnulib/MODULES.html#module=propername>)
which takes care to automatically append the original name, in
parentheses, to the translated name.  For names that cannot be written
in ASCII, it also frees the translator from the task of entering the
appropriate non-ASCII characters if no script change is needed.  In this
more comfortable form, it looks like this:

     printf (_("Written by %s and %s.\n"),
             proper_name ("Ulrich Drepper"),
             /* TRANSLATORS: This is a proper name.  See the gettext
                manual, section Names.  Note this is actually a non-ASCII
                name: The first name is (with Unicode escapes)
                "Fran\u00e7ois" or (with HTML entities) "Fran&ccedil;ois".
                Pronunciation is like "fraa-swa pee-nar".  */
             proper_name_utf8 ("Francois Pinard", "Fran\303\247ois Pinard"));

You can also write the original name directly in Unicode (rather than
with Unicode escapes or HTML entities) and denote the pronunciation
using the International Phonetic Alphabet (see
<http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet>).

   As a translator, you should use some care when translating names,
because it is frustrating if people see their names mutilated or
distorted.

   If your language uses the Latin script, all you need to do is to
reproduce the name as perfectly as you can within the usual character
set of your language.  In this particular case, this means to provide a
translation containing the c-cedilla character.  If your language uses a
different script and the people speaking it don't usually read Latin
words, it means transliteration.  If the programmer used the simple
case, you should still give, in parentheses, the original writing of the
name - for the sake of the people that do read the Latin script.  If the
programmer used the 'propername' module mentioned above, you don't need
to give the original writing of the name in parentheses, because the
program will already do so.  Here is an example, using Greek as the
target script:

     #. This is a proper name.  See the gettext
     #. manual, section Names.  Note this is actually a non-ASCII
     #. name: The first name is (with Unicode escapes)
     #. "Fran\u00e7ois" or (with HTML entities) "Fran&ccedil;ois".
     #. Pronunciation is like "fraa-swa pee-nar".
     msgid "Francois Pinard"
     msgstr "\phi\rho\alpha\sigma\omicron\alpha \pi\iota\nu\alpha\rho"
            " (Francois Pinard)"

   Because translation of names is such a sensitive domain, it is a good
idea to test your translation before submitting it.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Libraries,  Prev: Names,  Up: Sources

4.10 Preparing Library Sources
==============================

   When you are preparing a library, not a program, for the use of
'gettext', only a few details are different.  Here we assume that the
library has a translation domain and a POT file of its own.  (If it uses
the translation domain and POT file of the main program, then the
previous sections apply without changes.)

  1. The library code doesn't call 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "")'.  It's the
     responsibility of the main program to set the locale.  The
     library's documentation should mention this fact, so that
     developers of programs using the library are aware of it.

  2. The library code doesn't call 'textdomain (PACKAGE)', because it
     would interfere with the text domain set by the main program.

  3. The initialization code for a program was

            setlocale (LC_ALL, "");
            bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
            textdomain (PACKAGE);

     For a library it is reduced to

            bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);

     If your library's API doesn't already have an initialization
     function, you need to create one, containing at least the
     'bindtextdomain' invocation.  However, you usually don't need to
     export and document this initialization function: It is sufficient
     that all entry points of the library call the initialization
     function if it hasn't been called before.  The typical idiom used
     to achieve this is a static boolean variable that indicates whether
     the initialization function has been called.  Like this:

          static bool libfoo_initialized;

          static void
          libfoo_initialize (void)
          {
            bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
            libfoo_initialized = true;
          }

          /* This function is part of the exported API.  */
          struct foo *
          create_foo (...)
          {
            /* Must ensure the initialization is performed.  */
            if (!libfoo_initialized)
              libfoo_initialize ();
            ...
          }

          /* This function is part of the exported API.  The argument must be
             non-NULL and have been created through create_foo().  */
          int
          foo_refcount (struct foo *argument)
          {
            /* No need to invoke the initialization function here, because
               create_foo() must already have been called before.  */
            ...
          }

  4. The usual declaration of the '_' macro in each source file was

          #include <libintl.h>
          #define _(String) gettext (String)

     for a program.  For a library, which has its own translation
     domain, it reads like this:

          #include <libintl.h>
          #define _(String) dgettext (PACKAGE, String)

     In other words, 'dgettext' is used instead of 'gettext'.
     Similarly, the 'dngettext' function should be used in place of the
     'ngettext' function.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Template,  Next: Creating,  Prev: Sources,  Up: Top

5 Making the PO Template File
*****************************

   After preparing the sources, the programmer creates a PO template
file.  This section explains how to use 'xgettext' for this purpose.

   'xgettext' creates a file named 'DOMAINNAME.po'.  You should then
rename it to 'DOMAINNAME.pot'.  (Why doesn't 'xgettext' create it under
the name 'DOMAINNAME.pot' right away?  The answer is: for historical
reasons.  When 'xgettext' was specified, the distinction between a PO
file and PO file template was fuzzy, and the suffix '.pot' wasn't in use
at that time.)

* Menu:

* xgettext Invocation::         Invoking the 'xgettext' Program

File: gettext.info,  Node: xgettext Invocation,  Prev: Template,  Up: Template

5.1 Invoking the 'xgettext' Program
===================================

     xgettext [OPTION] [INPUTFILE] ...

   The 'xgettext' program extracts translatable strings from given input
files.

5.1.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE ...'
     Input files.

'-f FILE'
'--files-from=FILE'
     Read the names of the input files from FILE instead of getting them
     from the command line.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If INPUTFILE is '-', standard input is read.

5.1.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-d NAME'
'--default-domain=NAME'
     Use 'NAME.po' for output (instead of 'messages.po').

'-o FILE'
'--output=FILE'
     Write output to specified file (instead of 'NAME.po' or
     'messages.po').

'-p DIR'
'--output-dir=DIR'
     Output files will be placed in directory DIR.

   If the output FILE is '-' or '/dev/stdout', the output is written to
standard output.

5.1.3 Choice of input file language
-----------------------------------

'-L NAME'
'--language=NAME'
     Specifies the language of the input files.  The supported languages
     are 'C', 'C++', 'ObjectiveC', 'PO', 'Shell', 'Python', 'Lisp',
     'EmacsLisp', 'librep', 'Scheme', 'Smalltalk', 'Java',
     'JavaProperties', 'C#', 'awk', 'YCP', 'Tcl', 'Perl', 'PHP',
     'GCC-source', 'NXStringTable', 'RST', 'Glade', 'Lua', 'JavaScript',
     'Vala', 'GSettings', 'Desktop'.

'-C'
'--c++'
     This is a shorthand for '--language=C++'.

   By default the language is guessed depending on the input file name
extension.

5.1.4 Input file interpretation
-------------------------------

'--from-code=NAME'
     Specifies the encoding of the input files.  This option is needed
     only if some untranslated message strings or their corresponding
     comments contain non-ASCII characters.  Note that Tcl and Glade
     input files are always assumed to be in UTF-8, regardless of this
     option.

   By default the input files are assumed to be in ASCII.

5.1.5 Operation mode
--------------------

'-j'
'--join-existing'
     Join messages with existing file.

'-x FILE'
'--exclude-file=FILE'
     Entries from FILE are not extracted.  FILE should be a PO or POT
     file.

'-c[TAG]'
'--add-comments[=TAG]'
     Place comment blocks starting with TAG and preceding keyword lines
     in the output file.  Without a TAG, the option means to put _all_
     comment blocks preceding keyword lines in the output file.

     Note that comment blocks supposed to be extracted must be adjacent
     to keyword lines.  For example, in the following C source code:

          /* This is the first comment.  */
          gettext ("foo");

          /* This is the second comment: not extracted  */
          gettext (
            "bar");

          gettext (
            /* This is the third comment.  */
            "baz");

     The second comment line will not be extracted, because there is one
     blank line between the comment line and the keyword.

'--check[=CHECK]'
     Perform a syntax check on msgid and msgid_plural.  The supported
     checks are:

     'ellipsis-unicode'
          Prefer Unicode ellipsis character over ASCII '...'

     'space-ellipsis'
          Prohibit whitespace before an ellipsis character

     'quote-unicode'
          Prefer Unicode quotation marks over ASCII '"'`'

     'bullet-unicode'
          Prefer Unicode bullet character over ASCII '*' or '-'

     The option has an effect on all input files.  To enable or disable
     checks for a certain string, you can mark it with an 'xgettext:'
     special comment in the source file.  For example, if you specify
     the '--check=space-ellipsis' option, but want to suppress the check
     on a particular string, add the following comment:

          /* xgettext: no-space-ellipsis-check */
          gettext ("We really want a space before ellipsis here ...");

     The 'xgettext:' comment can be followed by flags separated with a
     comma.  The possible flags are of the form '[no-]NAME-check', where
     NAME is the name of a valid syntax check.  If a flag is prefixed by
     'no-', the meaning is negated.

     Some tests apply the checks to each sentence within the msgid,
     rather than the whole string.  xgettext detects the end of sentence
     by performing a pattern match, which usually looks for a period
     followed by a certain number of spaces.  The number is specified
     with the '--sentence-end' option.

'--sentence-end[=TYPE]'
     The supported values are:

     'single-space'
          Expect at least one whitespace after a period

     'double-space'
          Expect at least two whitespaces after a period

5.1.6 Language specific options
-------------------------------

'-a'
'--extract-all'
     Extract all strings.

     This option has an effect with most languages, namely C, C++,
     ObjectiveC, Shell, Python, Lisp, EmacsLisp, librep, Java, C#, awk,
     Tcl, Perl, PHP, GCC-source, Glade, Lua, JavaScript, Vala,
     GSettings.

'-k[KEYWORDSPEC]'
'--keyword[=KEYWORDSPEC]'
     Specify KEYWORDSPEC as an additional keyword to be looked for.
     Without a KEYWORDSPEC, the option means to not use default
     keywords.

     If KEYWORDSPEC is a C identifier ID, 'xgettext' looks for strings
     in the first argument of each call to the function or macro ID.  If
     KEYWORDSPEC is of the form 'ID:ARGNUM', 'xgettext' looks for
     strings in the ARGNUMth argument of the call.  If KEYWORDSPEC is of
     the form 'ID:ARGNUM1,ARGNUM2', 'xgettext' looks for strings in the
     ARGNUM1st argument and in the ARGNUM2nd argument of the call, and
     treats them as singular/plural variants for a message with plural
     handling.  Also, if KEYWORDSPEC is of the form
     'ID:CONTEXTARGNUMc,ARGNUM' or 'ID:ARGNUM,CONTEXTARGNUMc',
     'xgettext' treats strings in the CONTEXTARGNUMth argument as a
     context specifier.  And, as a special-purpose support for GNOME, if
     KEYWORDSPEC is of the form 'ID:ARGNUMg', 'xgettext' recognizes the
     ARGNUMth argument as a string with context, using the GNOME 'glib'
     syntax '"msgctxt|msgid"'.
     Furthermore, if KEYWORDSPEC is of the form 'ID:...,TOTALNUMARGSt',
     'xgettext' recognizes this argument specification only if the
     number of actual arguments is equal to TOTALNUMARGS.  This is
     useful for disambiguating overloaded function calls in C++.
     Finally, if KEYWORDSPEC is of the form 'ID:ARGNUM...,"XCOMMENT"',
     'xgettext', when extracting a message from the specified argument
     strings, adds an extracted comment XCOMMENT to the message.  Note
     that when used through a normal shell command line, the
     double-quotes around the XCOMMENT need to be escaped.

     This option has an effect with most languages, namely C, C++,
     ObjectiveC, Shell, Python, Lisp, EmacsLisp, librep, Java, C#, awk,
     Tcl, Perl, PHP, GCC-source, Glade, Lua, JavaScript, Vala,
     GSettings, Desktop.

     The default keyword specifications, which are always looked for if
     not explicitly disabled, are language dependent.  They are:

        * For C, C++, and GCC-source: 'gettext', 'dgettext:2',
          'dcgettext:2', 'ngettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3',
          'dcngettext:2,3', 'gettext_noop', and 'pgettext:1c,2',
          'dpgettext:2c,3', 'dcpgettext:2c,3', 'npgettext:1c,2,3',
          'dnpgettext:2c,3,4', 'dcnpgettext:2c,3,4'.

        * For Objective C: Like for C, and also 'NSLocalizedString',
          '_', 'NSLocalizedStaticString', '__'.

        * For Shell scripts: 'gettext', 'ngettext:1,2', 'eval_gettext',
          'eval_ngettext:1,2'.

        * For Python: 'gettext', 'ugettext', 'dgettext:2',
          'ngettext:1,2', 'ungettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3', '_'.

        * For Lisp: 'gettext', 'ngettext:1,2', 'gettext-noop'.

        * For EmacsLisp: '_'.

        * For librep: '_'.

        * For Scheme: 'gettext', 'ngettext:1,2', 'gettext-noop'.

        * For Java: 'GettextResource.gettext:2',
          'GettextResource.ngettext:2,3',
          'GettextResource.pgettext:2c,3',
          'GettextResource.npgettext:2c,3,4', 'gettext', 'ngettext:1,2',
          'pgettext:1c,2', 'npgettext:1c,2,3', 'getString'.

        * For C#: 'GetString', 'GetPluralString:1,2',
          'GetParticularString:1c,2',
          'GetParticularPluralString:1c,2,3'.

        * For awk: 'dcgettext', 'dcngettext:1,2'.

        * For Tcl: '::msgcat::mc'.

        * For Perl: 'gettext', '%gettext', '$gettext', 'dgettext:2',
          'dcgettext:2', 'ngettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3',
          'dcngettext:2,3', 'gettext_noop'.

        * For PHP: '_', 'gettext', 'dgettext:2', 'dcgettext:2',
          'ngettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3', 'dcngettext:2,3'.

        * For Glade 1: 'label', 'title', 'text', 'format', 'copyright',
          'comments', 'preview_text', 'tooltip'.

        * For Lua: '_', 'gettext.gettext', 'gettext.dgettext:2',
          'gettext.dcgettext:2', 'gettext.ngettext:1,2',
          'gettext.dngettext:2,3', 'gettext.dcngettext:2,3'.

        * For JavaScript: '_', 'gettext', 'dgettext:2', 'dcgettext:2',
          'ngettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3', 'pgettext:1c,2',
          'dpgettext:2c,3'.

        * For Vala: '_', 'Q_', 'N_', 'NC_', 'dgettext:2', 'dcgettext:2',
          'ngettext:1,2', 'dngettext:2,3', 'dpgettext:2c,3',
          'dpgettext2:2c,3'.

        * For Desktop: 'Name', 'GenericName', 'Comment', 'Icon',
          'Keywords'.

     To disable the default keyword specifications, the option '-k' or
     '--keyword' or '--keyword=', without a KEYWORDSPEC, can be used.

'--flag=WORD:ARG:FLAG'
     Specifies additional flags for strings occurring as part of the
     ARGth argument of the function WORD.  The possible flags are the
     possible format string indicators, such as 'c-format', and their
     negations, such as 'no-c-format', possibly prefixed with 'pass-'.
     The meaning of '--flag=FUNCTION:ARG:LANG-format' is that in
     language LANG, the specified FUNCTION expects as ARGth argument a
     format string.  (For those of you familiar with GCC function
     attributes, '--flag=FUNCTION:ARG:c-format' is roughly equivalent to
     the declaration '__attribute__ ((__format__ (__printf__, ARG,
     ...)))' attached to FUNCTION in a C source file.)  For example, if
     you use the 'error' function from GNU libc, you can specify its
     behaviour through '--flag=error:3:c-format'.  The effect of this
     specification is that 'xgettext' will mark as format strings all
     'gettext' invocations that occur as ARGth argument of FUNCTION.
     This is useful when such strings contain no format string
     directives: together with the checks done by 'msgfmt -c' it will
     ensure that translators cannot accidentally use format string
     directives that would lead to a crash at runtime.
     The meaning of '--flag=FUNCTION:ARG:pass-LANG-format' is that in
     language LANG, if the FUNCTION call occurs in a position that must
     yield a format string, then its ARGth argument must yield a format
     string of the same type as well.  (If you know GCC function
     attributes, the '--flag=FUNCTION:ARG:pass-c-format' option is
     roughly equivalent to the declaration '__attribute__
     ((__format_arg__ (ARG)))' attached to FUNCTION in a C source file.)
     For example, if you use the '_' shortcut for the 'gettext'
     function, you should use '--flag=_:1:pass-c-format'.  The effect of
     this specification is that 'xgettext' will propagate a format
     string requirement for a '_("string")' call to its first argument,
     the literal '"string"', and thus mark it as a format string.  This
     is useful when such strings contain no format string directives:
     together with the checks done by 'msgfmt -c' it will ensure that
     translators cannot accidentally use format string directives that
     would lead to a crash at runtime.
     This option has an effect with most languages, namely C, C++,
     ObjectiveC, Shell, Python, Lisp, EmacsLisp, librep, Scheme, Java,
     C#, awk, YCP, Tcl, Perl, PHP, GCC-source, Lua, JavaScript, Vala.

'-T'
'--trigraphs'
     Understand ANSI C trigraphs for input.
     This option has an effect only with the languages C, C++,
     ObjectiveC.

'--qt'
     Recognize Qt format strings.
     This option has an effect only with the language C++.

'--kde'
     Recognize KDE 4 format strings.
     This option has an effect only with the language C++.

'--boost'
     Recognize Boost format strings.
     This option has an effect only with the language C++.

'--debug'
     Use the flags 'c-format' and 'possible-c-format' to show who was
     responsible for marking a message as a format string.  The latter
     form is used if the 'xgettext' program decided, the former form is
     used if the programmer prescribed it.

     By default only the 'c-format' form is used.  The translator should
     not have to care about these details.

   This implementation of 'xgettext' is able to process a few awkward
cases, like strings in preprocessor macros, ANSI concatenation of
adjacent strings, and escaped end of lines for continued strings.

5.1.7 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if no message is defined.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.  Note that using this option
     makes it harder for technically skilled translators to understand
     each message's context.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'--its=FILE'
     Use ITS rules defined in FILE.  Note that this is only effective
     with XML files.

'--itstool'
     Write out comments recognized by itstool (<http://itstool.org>).
     Note that this is only effective with XML files.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

'--omit-header'
     Don't write header with 'msgid ""' entry.

     This is useful for testing purposes because it eliminates a source
     of variance for generated '.gmo' files.  With '--omit-header', two
     invocations of 'xgettext' on the same files with the same options
     at different times are guaranteed to produce the same results.

     Note that using this option will lead to an error if the resulting
     file would not entirely be in ASCII.

'--copyright-holder=STRING'
     Set the copyright holder in the output.  STRING should be the
     copyright holder of the surrounding package.  (Note that the msgstr
     strings, extracted from the package's sources, belong to the
     copyright holder of the package.)  Translators are expected to
     transfer or disclaim the copyright for their translations, so that
     package maintainers can distribute them without legal risk.  If
     STRING is empty, the output files are marked as being in the public
     domain; in this case, the translators are expected to disclaim
     their copyright, again so that package maintainers can distribute
     them without legal risk.

     The default value for STRING is the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
     simply because 'xgettext' was first used in the GNU project.

'--foreign-user'
     Omit FSF copyright in output.  This option is equivalent to
     '--copyright-holder='''.  It can be useful for packages outside the
     GNU project that want their translations to be in the public
     domain.

'--package-name=PACKAGE'
     Set the package name in the header of the output.

'--package-version=VERSION'
     Set the package version in the header of the output.  This option
     has an effect only if the '--package-name' option is also used.

'--msgid-bugs-address=EMAIL@ADDRESS'
     Set the reporting address for msgid bugs.  This is the email
     address or URL to which the translators shall report bugs in the
     untranslated strings:

        - Strings which are not entire sentences; see the maintainer
          guidelines in *note Preparing Strings::.
        - Strings which use unclear terms or require additional context
          to be understood.
        - Strings which make invalid assumptions about notation of date,
          time or money.
        - Pluralisation problems.
        - Incorrect English spelling.
        - Incorrect formatting.

     It can be your email address, or a mailing list address where
     translators can write to without being subscribed, or the URL of a
     web page through which the translators can contact you.

     The default value is empty, which means that translators will be
     clueless!  Don't forget to specify this option.

'-m[STRING]'
'--msgstr-prefix[=STRING]'
     Use STRING (or "" if not specified) as prefix for msgstr values.

'-M[STRING]'
'--msgstr-suffix[=STRING]'
     Use STRING (or "" if not specified) as suffix for msgstr values.

5.1.8 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Creating,  Next: Updating,  Prev: Template,  Up: Top

6 Creating a New PO File
************************

   When starting a new translation, the translator creates a file called
'LANG.po', as a copy of the 'PACKAGE.pot' template file with
modifications in the initial comments (at the beginning of the file) and
in the header entry (the first entry, near the beginning of the file).

   The easiest way to do so is by use of the 'msginit' program.  For
example:

     $ cd PACKAGE-VERSION
     $ cd po
     $ msginit

   The alternative way is to do the copy and modifications by hand.  To
do so, the translator copies 'PACKAGE.pot' to 'LANG.po'.  Then she
modifies the initial comments and the header entry of this file.

* Menu:

* msginit Invocation::          Invoking the 'msginit' Program
* Header Entry::                Filling in the Header Entry

File: gettext.info,  Node: msginit Invocation,  Next: Header Entry,  Prev: Creating,  Up: Creating

6.1 Invoking the 'msginit' Program
==================================

     msginit [OPTION]

   The 'msginit' program creates a new PO file, initializing the meta
information with values from the user's environment.

   Here are more details.  The following header fields of a PO file are
automatically filled, when possible.

'Project-Id-Version'
     The value is guessed from the 'configure' script or any other files
     in the current directory.

'PO-Revision-Date'
     The value is taken from the 'PO-Creation-Data' in the input POT
     file, or the current date is used.

'Last-Translator'
     The value is taken from user's password file entry and the mailer
     configuration files.

'Language-Team, Language'
     These values are set according to the current locale and the
     predefined list of translation teams.

'MIME-Version, Content-Type, Content-Transfer-Encoding'
     These values are set according to the content of the POT file and
     the current locale.  If the POT file contains charset=UTF-8, it
     means that the POT file contains non-ASCII characters, and we keep
     the UTF-8 encoding.  Otherwise, when the POT file is plain ASCII,
     we use the locale's encoding.

'Plural-Forms'
     The value is first looked up from the embedded table.

     As an experimental feature, you can instruct 'msginit' to use the
     information from Unicode CLDR, by setting the 'GETTEXTCLDRDIR'
     environment variable.

6.1.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'-i INPUTFILE'
'--input=INPUTFILE'
     Input POT file.

   If no INPUTFILE is given, the current directory is searched for the
POT file.  If it is '-', standard input is read.

6.1.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified PO file.

   If no output file is given, it depends on the '--locale' option or
the user's locale setting.  If it is '-', the results are written to
standard output.

6.1.3 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

6.1.4 Output details
--------------------

'-l LL_CC'
'--locale=LL_CC'
     Set target locale.  LL should be a language code, and CC should be
     a country code.  The command 'locale -a' can be used to output a
     list of all installed locales.  The default is the user's locale
     setting.

'--no-translator'
     Declares that the PO file will not have a human translator and is
     instead automatically generated.

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

6.1.5 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Header Entry,  Prev: msginit Invocation,  Up: Creating

6.2 Filling in the Header Entry
===============================

   The initial comments "SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE", "YEAR" and "FIRST
AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR" ought to be replaced by sensible
information.  This can be done in any text editor; if Emacs is used and
it switched to PO mode automatically (because it has recognized the
file's suffix), you can disable it by typing 'M-x fundamental-mode'.

   Modifying the header entry can already be done using PO mode: in
Emacs, type 'M-x po-mode RET' and then 'RET' again to start editing the
entry.  You should fill in the following fields.

Project-Id-Version
     This is the name and version of the package.  Fill it in if it has
     not already been filled in by 'xgettext'.

Report-Msgid-Bugs-To
     This has already been filled in by 'xgettext'.  It contains an
     email address or URL where you can report bugs in the untranslated
     strings:

        - Strings which are not entire sentences, see the maintainer
          guidelines in *note Preparing Strings::.
        - Strings which use unclear terms or require additional context
          to be understood.
        - Strings which make invalid assumptions about notation of date,
          time or money.
        - Pluralisation problems.
        - Incorrect English spelling.
        - Incorrect formatting.

POT-Creation-Date
     This has already been filled in by 'xgettext'.

PO-Revision-Date
     You don't need to fill this in.  It will be filled by the PO file
     editor when you save the file.

Last-Translator
     Fill in your name and email address (without double quotes).

Language-Team
     Fill in the English name of the language, and the email address or
     homepage URL of the language team you are part of.

     Before starting a translation, it is a good idea to get in touch
     with your translation team, not only to make sure you don't do
     duplicated work, but also to coordinate difficult linguistic
     issues.

     In the Free Translation Project, each translation team has its own
     mailing list.  The up-to-date list of teams can be found at the
     Free Translation Project's homepage,
     <http://translationproject.org/>, in the "Teams" area.

Language
     Fill in the language code of the language.  This can be in one of
     three forms:

        - 'LL', an ISO 639 two-letter language code (lowercase).  See
          *note Language Codes:: for the list of codes.

        - 'LL_CC', where 'LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language code
          (lowercase) and 'CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code
          (uppercase).  The country code specification is not redundant:
          Some languages have dialects in different countries.  For
          example, 'de_AT' is used for Austria, and 'pt_BR' for Brazil.
          The country code serves to distinguish the dialects.  See
          *note Language Codes:: and *note Country Codes:: for the lists
          of codes.

        - 'LL_CC@VARIANT', where 'LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language
          code (lowercase), 'CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code
          (uppercase), and 'VARIANT' is a variant designator.  The
          variant designator (lowercase) can be a script designator,
          such as 'latin' or 'cyrillic'.

     The naming convention 'LL_CC' is also the way locales are named on
     systems based on GNU libc.  But there are three important
     differences:

        * In this PO file field, but not in locale names, 'LL_CC'
          combinations denoting a language's main dialect are
          abbreviated as 'LL'.  For example, 'de' is equivalent to
          'de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and 'pt' to 'pt_PT'
          (Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.

        * In this PO file field, suffixes like '.ENCODING' are not used.

        * In this PO file field, variant designators that are not
          relevant to message translation, such as '@euro', are not
          used.

     So, if your locale name is 'de_DE.UTF-8', the language
     specification in PO files is just 'de'.

Content-Type
     Replace 'CHARSET' with the character encoding used for your
     language, in your locale, or UTF-8.  This field is needed for
     correct operation of the 'msgmerge' and 'msgfmt' programs, as well
     as for users whose locale's character encoding differs from yours
     (see *note Charset conversion::).

     You get the character encoding of your locale by running the shell
     command 'locale charmap'.  If the result is 'C' or
     'ANSI_X3.4-1968', which is equivalent to 'ASCII' (= 'US-ASCII'), it
     means that your locale is not correctly configured.  In this case,
     ask your translation team which charset to use.  'ASCII' is not
     usable for any language except Latin.

     Because the PO files must be portable to operating systems with
     less advanced internationalization facilities, the character
     encodings that can be used are limited to those supported by both
     GNU 'libc' and GNU 'libiconv'.  These are: 'ASCII', 'ISO-8859-1',
     'ISO-8859-2', 'ISO-8859-3', 'ISO-8859-4', 'ISO-8859-5',
     'ISO-8859-6', 'ISO-8859-7', 'ISO-8859-8', 'ISO-8859-9',
     'ISO-8859-13', 'ISO-8859-14', 'ISO-8859-15', 'KOI8-R', 'KOI8-U',
     'KOI8-T', 'CP850', 'CP866', 'CP874', 'CP932', 'CP949', 'CP950',
     'CP1250', 'CP1251', 'CP1252', 'CP1253', 'CP1254', 'CP1255',
     'CP1256', 'CP1257', 'GB2312', 'EUC-JP', 'EUC-KR', 'EUC-TW', 'BIG5',
     'BIG5-HKSCS', 'GBK', 'GB18030', 'SHIFT_JIS', 'JOHAB', 'TIS-620',
     'VISCII', 'GEORGIAN-PS', 'UTF-8'.

     In the GNU system, the following encodings are frequently used for
     the corresponding languages.

        * 'ISO-8859-1' for Afrikaans, Albanian, Basque, Breton, Catalan,
          Cornish, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Faroese, Finnish,
          French, Galician, German, Greenlandic, Icelandic, Indonesian,
          Irish, Italian, Malay, Manx, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese,
          Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog, Uzbek, Walloon,
        * 'ISO-8859-2' for Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish,
          Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian,
        * 'ISO-8859-3' for Maltese,
        * 'ISO-8859-5' for Macedonian, Serbian,
        * 'ISO-8859-6' for Arabic,
        * 'ISO-8859-7' for Greek,
        * 'ISO-8859-8' for Hebrew,
        * 'ISO-8859-9' for Turkish,
        * 'ISO-8859-13' for Latvian, Lithuanian, Maori,
        * 'ISO-8859-14' for Welsh,
        * 'ISO-8859-15' for Basque, Catalan, Dutch, English, Finnish,
          French, Galician, German, Irish, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish,
          Swedish, Walloon,
        * 'KOI8-R' for Russian,
        * 'KOI8-U' for Ukrainian,
        * 'KOI8-T' for Tajik,
        * 'CP1251' for Bulgarian, Belarusian,
        * 'GB2312', 'GBK', 'GB18030' for simplified writing of Chinese,
        * 'BIG5', 'BIG5-HKSCS' for traditional writing of Chinese,
        * 'EUC-JP' for Japanese,
        * 'EUC-KR' for Korean,
        * 'TIS-620' for Thai,
        * 'GEORGIAN-PS' for Georgian,
        * 'UTF-8' for any language, including those listed above.

     When single quote characters or double quote characters are used in
     translations for your language, and your locale's encoding is one
     of the ISO-8859-* charsets, it is best if you create your PO files
     in UTF-8 encoding, instead of your locale's encoding.  This is
     because in UTF-8 the real quote characters can be represented
     (single quote characters: U+2018, U+2019, double quote characters:
     U+201C, U+201D), whereas none of ISO-8859-* charsets has them all.
     Users in UTF-8 locales will see the real quote characters, whereas
     users in ISO-8859-* locales will see the vertical apostrophe and
     the vertical double quote instead (because that's what the
     character set conversion will transliterate them to).

     To enter such quote characters under X11, you can change your
     keyboard mapping using the 'xmodmap' program.  The X11 names of the
     quote characters are "leftsinglequotemark", "rightsinglequotemark",
     "leftdoublequotemark", "rightdoublequotemark",
     "singlelowquotemark", "doublelowquotemark".

     Note that only recent versions of GNU Emacs support the UTF-8
     encoding: Emacs 20 with Mule-UCS, and Emacs 21.  As of January
     2001, XEmacs doesn't support the UTF-8 encoding.

     The character encoding name can be written in either upper or lower
     case.  Usually upper case is preferred.

Content-Transfer-Encoding
     Set this to '8bit'.

Plural-Forms
     This field is optional.  It is only needed if the PO file has
     plural forms.  You can find them by searching for the
     'msgid_plural' keyword.  The format of the plural forms field is
     described in *note Plural forms:: and *note Translating plural
     forms::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Updating,  Next: Editing,  Prev: Creating,  Up: Top

7 Updating Existing PO Files
****************************

* Menu:

* msgmerge Invocation::         Invoking the 'msgmerge' Program

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgmerge Invocation,  Prev: Updating,  Up: Updating

7.1 Invoking the 'msgmerge' Program
===================================

     msgmerge [OPTION] DEF.po REF.pot

   The 'msgmerge' program merges two Uniforum style .po files together.
The DEF.po file is an existing PO file with translations which will be
taken over to the newly created file as long as they still match;
comments will be preserved, but extracted comments and file positions
will be discarded.  The REF.pot file is the last created PO file with
up-to-date source references but old translations, or a PO Template file
(generally created by 'xgettext'); any translations or comments in the
file will be discarded, however dot comments and file positions will be
preserved.  Where an exact match cannot be found, fuzzy matching is used
to produce better results.

7.1.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'DEF.po'
     Translations referring to old sources.

'REF.pot'
     References to the new sources.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

'-C FILE'
'--compendium=FILE'
     Specify an additional library of message translations.  *Note
     Compendium::.  This option may be specified more than once.

7.1.2 Operation mode
--------------------

'-U'
'--update'
     Update DEF.po.  Do nothing if DEF.po is already up to date.

7.1.3 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

7.1.4 Output file location in update mode
-----------------------------------------

   The result is written back to DEF.po.

'--backup=CONTROL'
     Make a backup of DEF.po

'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Override the usual backup suffix.

   The version control method may be selected via the '--backup' option
or through the 'VERSION_CONTROL' environment variable.  Here are the
values:

'none'
'off'
     Never make backups (even if '--backup' is given).

'numbered'
't'
     Make numbered backups.

'existing'
'nil'
     Make numbered backups if numbered backups for this file already
     exist, otherwise make simple backups.

'simple'
'never'
     Always make simple backups.

   The backup suffix is '~', unless set with '--suffix' or the
'SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX' environment variable.

7.1.5 Operation modifiers
-------------------------

'-m'
'--multi-domain'
     Apply REF.pot to each of the domains in DEF.po.

'-N'
'--no-fuzzy-matching'
     Do not use fuzzy matching when an exact match is not found.  This
     may speed up the operation considerably.

'--previous'
     Keep the previous msgids of translated messages, marked with '#|',
     when adding the fuzzy marker to such messages.

7.1.6 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input files are NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource
     files in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

7.1.7 Output details
--------------------

'--lang=CATALOGNAME'
     Specify the 'Language' field to be used in the header entry.  See
     *note Header Entry:: for the meaning of this field.  Note: The
     'Language-Team' and 'Plural-Forms' fields are left unchanged.  If
     this option is not specified, the 'Language' field is inferred, as
     best as possible, from the 'Language-Team' field.

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

7.1.8 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Increase verbosity level.

'-q'
'--quiet'
'--silent'
     Suppress progress indicators.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Editing,  Next: Manipulating,  Prev: Updating,  Up: Top

8 Editing PO Files
******************

* Menu:

* KBabel::                      KDE's PO File Editor
* Gtranslator::                 GNOME's PO File Editor
* PO Mode::                     Emacs's PO File Editor
* Compendium::                  Using Translation Compendia

File: gettext.info,  Node: KBabel,  Next: Gtranslator,  Prev: Editing,  Up: Editing

8.1 KDE's PO File Editor
========================

File: gettext.info,  Node: Gtranslator,  Next: PO Mode,  Prev: KBabel,  Up: Editing

8.2 GNOME's PO File Editor
==========================

File: gettext.info,  Node: PO Mode,  Next: Compendium,  Prev: Gtranslator,  Up: Editing

8.3 Emacs's PO File Editor
==========================

   For those of you being the lucky users of Emacs, PO mode has been
specifically created for providing a cozy environment for editing or
modifying PO files.  While editing a PO file, PO mode allows for the
easy browsing of auxiliary and compendium PO files, as well as for
following references into the set of C program sources from which PO
files have been derived.  It has a few special features, among which are
the interactive marking of program strings as translatable, and the
validation of PO files with easy repositioning to PO file lines showing
errors.

   For the beginning, besides main PO mode commands (*note Main PO
Commands::), you should know how to move between entries (*note Entry
Positioning::), and how to handle untranslated entries (*note
Untranslated Entries::).

* Menu:

* Installation::                Completing GNU 'gettext' Installation
* Main PO Commands::            Main Commands
* Entry Positioning::           Entry Positioning
* Normalizing::                 Normalizing Strings in Entries
* Translated Entries::          Translated Entries
* Fuzzy Entries::               Fuzzy Entries
* Untranslated Entries::        Untranslated Entries
* Obsolete Entries::            Obsolete Entries
* Modifying Translations::      Modifying Translations
* Modifying Comments::          Modifying Comments
* Subedit::                     Mode for Editing Translations
* C Sources Context::           C Sources Context
* Auxiliary::                   Consulting Auxiliary PO Files

File: gettext.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Main PO Commands,  Prev: PO Mode,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.1 Completing GNU 'gettext' Installation
-------------------------------------------

   Once you have received, unpacked, configured and compiled the GNU
'gettext' distribution, the 'make install' command puts in place the
programs 'xgettext', 'msgfmt', 'gettext', and 'msgmerge', as well as
their available message catalogs.  To top off a comfortable
installation, you might also want to make the PO mode available to your
Emacs users.

   During the installation of the PO mode, you might want to modify your
file '.emacs', once and for all, so it contains a few lines looking
like:

     (setq auto-mode-alist
           (cons '("\\.po\\'\\|\\.po\\." . po-mode) auto-mode-alist))
     (autoload 'po-mode "po-mode" "Major mode for translators to edit PO files" t)

   Later, whenever you edit some '.po' file, or any file having the
string '.po.' within its name, Emacs loads 'po-mode.elc' (or
'po-mode.el') as needed, and automatically activates PO mode commands
for the associated buffer.  The string _PO_ appears in the mode line for
any buffer for which PO mode is active.  Many PO files may be active at
once in a single Emacs session.

   If you are using Emacs version 20 or newer, and have already
installed the appropriate international fonts on your system, you may
also tell Emacs how to determine automatically the coding system of
every PO file.  This will often (but not always) cause the necessary
fonts to be loaded and used for displaying the translations on your
Emacs screen.  For this to happen, add the lines:

     (modify-coding-system-alist 'file "\\.po\\'\\|\\.po\\."
                                 'po-find-file-coding-system)
     (autoload 'po-find-file-coding-system "po-mode")

to your '.emacs' file.  If, with this, you still see boxes instead of
international characters, try a different font set (via Shift Mouse
button 1).

File: gettext.info,  Node: Main PO Commands,  Next: Entry Positioning,  Prev: Installation,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.2 Main PO mode Commands
---------------------------

   After setting up Emacs with something similar to the lines in *note
Installation::, PO mode is activated for a window when Emacs finds a PO
file in that window.  This puts the window read-only and establishes a
po-mode-map, which is a genuine Emacs mode, in a way that is not derived
from text mode in any way.  Functions found on 'po-mode-hook', if any,
will be executed.

   When PO mode is active in a window, the letters 'PO' appear in the
mode line for that window.  The mode line also displays how many entries
of each kind are held in the PO file.  For example, the string
'132t+3f+10u+2o' would tell the translator that the PO mode contains 132
translated entries (*note Translated Entries::, 3 fuzzy entries (*note
Fuzzy Entries::), 10 untranslated entries (*note Untranslated Entries::)
and 2 obsolete entries (*note Obsolete Entries::).  Zero-coefficients
items are not shown.  So, in this example, if the fuzzy entries were
unfuzzied, the untranslated entries were translated and the obsolete
entries were deleted, the mode line would merely display '145t' for the
counters.

   The main PO commands are those which do not fit into the other
categories of subsequent sections.  These allow for quitting PO mode or
for managing windows in special ways.

'_'
     Undo last modification to the PO file ('po-undo').

'Q'
     Quit processing and save the PO file ('po-quit').

'q'
     Quit processing, possibly after confirmation
     ('po-confirm-and-quit').

'0'
     Temporary leave the PO file window ('po-other-window').

'?'
'h'
     Show help about PO mode ('po-help').

'='
     Give some PO file statistics ('po-statistics').

'V'
     Batch validate the format of the whole PO file ('po-validate').

   The command '_' ('po-undo') interfaces to the Emacs _undo_ facility.
*Note Undoing Changes: (emacs)Undo.  Each time '_' is typed,
modifications which the translator did to the PO file are undone a
little more.  For the purpose of undoing, each PO mode command is
atomic.  This is especially true for the '<RET>' command: the whole
edition made by using a single use of this command is undone at once,
even if the edition itself implied several actions.  However, while in
the editing window, one can undo the edition work quite parsimoniously.

   The commands 'Q' ('po-quit') and 'q' ('po-confirm-and-quit') are used
when the translator is done with the PO file.  The former is a bit less
verbose than the latter.  If the file has been modified, it is saved to
disk first.  In both cases, and prior to all this, the commands check if
any untranslated messages remain in the PO file and, if so, the
translator is asked if she really wants to leave off working with this
PO file.  This is the preferred way of getting rid of an Emacs PO file
buffer.  Merely killing it through the usual command 'C-x k'
('kill-buffer') is not the tidiest way to proceed.

   The command '0' ('po-other-window') is another, softer way, to leave
PO mode, temporarily.  It just moves the cursor to some other Emacs
window, and pops one if necessary.  For example, if the translator just
got PO mode to show some source context in some other, she might
discover some apparent bug in the program source that needs correction.
This command allows the translator to change sex, become a programmer,
and have the cursor right into the window containing the program she (or
rather _he_) wants to modify.  By later getting the cursor back in the
PO file window, or by asking Emacs to edit this file once again, PO mode
is then recovered.

   The command 'h' ('po-help') displays a summary of all available PO
mode commands.  The translator should then type any character to resume
normal PO mode operations.  The command '?' has the same effect as 'h'.

   The command '=' ('po-statistics') computes the total number of
entries in the PO file, the ordinal of the current entry (counted from
1), the number of untranslated entries, the number of obsolete entries,
and displays all these numbers.

   The command 'V' ('po-validate') launches 'msgfmt' in checking and
verbose mode over the current PO file.  This command first offers to
save the current PO file on disk.  The 'msgfmt' tool, from GNU
'gettext', has the purpose of creating a MO file out of a PO file, and
PO mode uses the features of this program for checking the overall
format of a PO file, as well as all individual entries.

   The program 'msgfmt' runs asynchronously with Emacs, so the
translator regains control immediately while her PO file is being
studied.  Error output is collected in the Emacs '*compilation*' buffer,
displayed in another window.  The regular Emacs command 'C-x`'
('next-error'), as well as other usual compile commands, allow the
translator to reposition quickly to the offending parts of the PO file.
Once the cursor is on the line in error, the translator may decide on
any PO mode action which would help correcting the error.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Entry Positioning,  Next: Normalizing,  Prev: Main PO Commands,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.3 Entry Positioning
-----------------------

   The cursor in a PO file window is almost always part of an entry.
The only exceptions are the special case when the cursor is after the
last entry in the file, or when the PO file is empty.  The entry where
the cursor is found to be is said to be the current entry.  Many PO mode
commands operate on the current entry, so moving the cursor does more
than allowing the translator to browse the PO file, this also selects on
which entry commands operate.

   Some PO mode commands alter the position of the cursor in a
specialized way.  A few of those special purpose positioning are
described here, the others are described in following sections (for a
complete list try 'C-h m'):

'.'
     Redisplay the current entry ('po-current-entry').

'n'
     Select the entry after the current one ('po-next-entry').

'p'
     Select the entry before the current one ('po-previous-entry').

'<'
     Select the first entry in the PO file ('po-first-entry').

'>'
     Select the last entry in the PO file ('po-last-entry').

'm'
     Record the location of the current entry for later use
     ('po-push-location').

'r'
     Return to a previously saved entry location ('po-pop-location').

'x'
     Exchange the current entry location with the previously saved one
     ('po-exchange-location').

   Any Emacs command able to reposition the cursor may be used to select
the current entry in PO mode, including commands which move by
characters, lines, paragraphs, screens or pages, and search commands.
However, there is a kind of standard way to display the current entry in
PO mode, which usual Emacs commands moving the cursor do not especially
try to enforce.  The command '.' ('po-current-entry') has the sole
purpose of redisplaying the current entry properly, after the current
entry has been changed by means external to PO mode, or the Emacs screen
otherwise altered.

   It is yet to be decided if PO mode helps the translator, or otherwise
irritates her, by forcing a rigid window disposition while she is doing
her work.  We originally had quite precise ideas about how windows
should behave, but on the other hand, anyone used to Emacs is often
happy to keep full control.  Maybe a fixed window disposition might be
offered as a PO mode option that the translator might activate or
deactivate at will, so it could be offered on an experimental basis.  If
nobody feels a real need for using it, or a compulsion for writing it,
we should drop this whole idea.  The incentive for doing it should come
from translators rather than programmers, as opinions from an
experienced translator are surely more worth to me than opinions from
programmers _thinking_ about how _others_ should do translation.

   The commands 'n' ('po-next-entry') and 'p' ('po-previous-entry') move
the cursor the entry following, or preceding, the current one.  If 'n'
is given while the cursor is on the last entry of the PO file, or if 'p'
is given while the cursor is on the first entry, no move is done.

   The commands '<' ('po-first-entry') and '>' ('po-last-entry') move
the cursor to the first entry, or last entry, of the PO file.  When the
cursor is located past the last entry in a PO file, most PO mode
commands will return an error saying 'After last entry'.  Moreover, the
commands '<' and '>' have the special property of being able to work
even when the cursor is not into some PO file entry, and one may use
them for nicely correcting this situation.  But even these commands will
fail on a truly empty PO file.  There are development plans for the PO
mode for it to interactively fill an empty PO file from sources.  *Note
Marking::.

   The translator may decide, before working at the translation of a
particular entry, that she needs to browse the remainder of the PO file,
maybe for finding the terminology or phraseology used in related
entries.  She can of course use the standard Emacs idioms for saving the
current cursor location in some register, and use that register for
getting back, or else, use the location ring.

   PO mode offers another approach, by which cursor locations may be
saved onto a special stack.  The command 'm' ('po-push-location') merely
adds the location of current entry to the stack, pushing the already
saved locations under the new one.  The command 'r' ('po-pop-location')
consumes the top stack element and repositions the cursor to the entry
associated with that top element.  This position is then lost, for the
next 'r' will move the cursor to the previously saved location, and so
on until no locations remain on the stack.

   If the translator wants the position to be kept on the location
stack, maybe for taking a look at the entry associated with the top
element, then go elsewhere with the intent of getting back later, she
ought to use 'm' immediately after 'r'.

   The command 'x' ('po-exchange-location') simultaneously repositions
the cursor to the entry associated with the top element of the stack of
saved locations, and replaces that top element with the location of the
current entry before the move.  Consequently, repeating the 'x' command
toggles alternatively between two entries.  For achieving this, the
translator will position the cursor on the first entry, use 'm', then
position to the second entry, and merely use 'x' for making the switch.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Normalizing,  Next: Translated Entries,  Prev: Entry Positioning,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.4 Normalizing Strings in Entries
------------------------------------

   There are many different ways for encoding a particular string into a
PO file entry, because there are so many different ways to split and
quote multi-line strings, and even, to represent special characters by
backslashed escaped sequences.  Some features of PO mode rely on the
ability for PO mode to scan an already existing PO file for a particular
string encoded into the 'msgid' field of some entry.  Even if PO mode
has internally all the built-in machinery for implementing this
recognition easily, doing it fast is technically difficult.  To
facilitate a solution to this efficiency problem, we decided on a
canonical representation for strings.

   A conventional representation of strings in a PO file is currently
under discussion, and PO mode experiments with a canonical
representation.  Having both 'xgettext' and PO mode converging towards a
uniform way of representing equivalent strings would be useful, as the
internal normalization needed by PO mode could be automatically
satisfied when using 'xgettext' from GNU 'gettext'.  An explicit PO mode
normalization should then be only necessary for PO files imported from
elsewhere, or for when the convention itself evolves.

   So, for achieving normalization of at least the strings of a given PO
file needing a canonical representation, the following PO mode command
is available:

'M-x po-normalize'
     Tidy the whole PO file by making entries more uniform.

   The special command 'M-x po-normalize', which has no associated keys,
revises all entries, ensuring that strings of both original and
translated entries use uniform internal quoting in the PO file.  It also
removes any crumb after the last entry.  This command may be useful for
PO files freshly imported from elsewhere, or if we ever improve on the
canonical quoting format we use.  This canonical format is not only
meant for getting cleaner PO files, but also for greatly speeding up
'msgid' string lookup for some other PO mode commands.

   'M-x po-normalize' presently makes three passes over the entries.
The first implements heuristics for converting PO files for GNU
'gettext' 0.6 and earlier, in which 'msgid' and 'msgstr' fields were
using K&R style C string syntax for multi-line strings.  These
heuristics may fail for comments not related to obsolete entries and
ending with a backslash; they also depend on subsequent passes for
finalizing the proper commenting of continued lines for obsolete
entries.  This first pass might disappear once all oldish PO files would
have been adjusted.  The second and third pass normalize all 'msgid' and
'msgstr' strings respectively.  They also clean out those trailing
backslashes used by XView's 'msgfmt' for continued lines.

   Having such an explicit normalizing command allows for importing PO
files from other sources, but also eases the evolution of the current
convention, evolution driven mostly by aesthetic concerns, as of now.
It is easy to make suggested adjustments at a later time, as the
normalizing command and eventually, other GNU 'gettext' tools should
greatly automate conformance.  A description of the canonical string
format is given below, for the particular benefit of those not having
Emacs handy, and who would nevertheless want to handcraft their PO files
in nice ways.

   Right now, in PO mode, strings are single line or multi-line.  A
string goes multi-line if and only if it has _embedded_ newlines, that
is, if it matches '[^\n]\n+[^\n]'.  So, we would have:

     msgstr "\n\nHello, world!\n\n\n"

   but, replacing the space by a newline, this becomes:

     msgstr ""
     "\n"
     "\n"
     "Hello,\n"
     "world!\n"
     "\n"
     "\n"

   We are deliberately using a caricatural example, here, to make the
point clearer.  Usually, multi-lines are not that bad looking.  It is
probable that we will implement the following suggestion.  We might lump
together all initial newlines into the empty string, and also all
newlines introducing empty lines (that is, for N > 1, the N-1'th last
newlines would go together on a separate string), so making the previous
example appear:

     msgstr "\n\n"
     "Hello,\n"
     "world!\n"
     "\n\n"

   There are a few yet undecided little points about string
normalization, to be documented in this manual, once these questions
settle.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Translated Entries,  Next: Fuzzy Entries,  Prev: Normalizing,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.5 Translated Entries
------------------------

   Each PO file entry for which the 'msgstr' field has been filled with
a translation, and which is not marked as fuzzy (*note Fuzzy Entries::),
is said to be a "translated" entry.  Only translated entries will later
be compiled by GNU 'msgfmt' and become usable in programs.  Other entry
types will be excluded; translation will not occur for them.

   Some commands are more specifically related to translated entry
processing.

't'
     Find the next translated entry ('po-next-translated-entry').

'T'
     Find the previous translated entry
     ('po-previous-translated-entry').

   The commands 't' ('po-next-translated-entry') and 'T'
('po-previous-translated-entry') move forwards or backwards, chasing for
an translated entry.  If none is found, the search is extended and wraps
around in the PO file buffer.

   Translated entries usually result from the translator having edited
in a translation for them, *note Modifying Translations::.  However, if
the variable 'po-auto-fuzzy-on-edit' is not 'nil', the entry having
received a new translation first becomes a fuzzy entry, which ought to
be later unfuzzied before becoming an official, genuine translated
entry.  *Note Fuzzy Entries::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Fuzzy Entries,  Next: Untranslated Entries,  Prev: Translated Entries,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.6 Fuzzy Entries
-------------------

   Each PO file entry may have a set of "attributes", which are
qualities given a name and explicitly associated with the translation,
using a special system comment.  One of these attributes has the name
'fuzzy', and entries having this attribute are said to have a fuzzy
translation.  They are called fuzzy entries, for short.

   Fuzzy entries, even if they account for translated entries for most
other purposes, usually call for revision by the translator.  Those may
be produced by applying the program 'msgmerge' to update an older
translated PO files according to a new PO template file, when this tool
hypothesises that some new 'msgid' has been modified only slightly out
of an older one, and chooses to pair what it thinks to be the old
translation for the new modified entry.  The slight alteration in the
original string (the 'msgid' string) should often be reflected in the
translated string, and this requires the intervention of the translator.
For this reason, 'msgmerge' might mark some entries as being fuzzy.

   Also, the translator may decide herself to mark an entry as fuzzy for
her own convenience, when she wants to remember that the entry has to be
later revisited.  So, some commands are more specifically related to
fuzzy entry processing.

'f'
     Find the next fuzzy entry ('po-next-fuzzy-entry').

'F'
     Find the previous fuzzy entry ('po-previous-fuzzy-entry').

'<TAB>'
     Remove the fuzzy attribute of the current entry ('po-unfuzzy').

   The commands 'f' ('po-next-fuzzy-entry') and 'F'
('po-previous-fuzzy-entry') move forwards or backwards, chasing for a
fuzzy entry.  If none is found, the search is extended and wraps around
in the PO file buffer.

   The command '<TAB>' ('po-unfuzzy') removes the fuzzy attribute
associated with an entry, usually leaving it translated.  Further, if
the variable 'po-auto-select-on-unfuzzy' has not the 'nil' value, the
'<TAB>' command will automatically chase for another interesting entry
to work on.  The initial value of 'po-auto-select-on-unfuzzy' is 'nil'.

   The initial value of 'po-auto-fuzzy-on-edit' is 'nil'.  However, if
the variable 'po-auto-fuzzy-on-edit' is set to 't', any entry edited
through the '<RET>' command is marked fuzzy, as a way to ensure some
kind of double check, later.  In this case, the usual paradigm is that
an entry becomes fuzzy (if not already) whenever the translator modifies
it.  If she is satisfied with the translation, she then uses '<TAB>' to
pick another entry to work on, clearing the fuzzy attribute on the same
blow.  If she is not satisfied yet, she merely uses '<SPC>' to chase
another entry, leaving the entry fuzzy.

   The translator may also use the '<DEL>' command ('po-fade-out-entry')
over any translated entry to mark it as being fuzzy, when she wants to
easily leave a trace she wants to later return working at this entry.

   Also, when time comes to quit working on a PO file buffer with the
'q' command, the translator is asked for confirmation, if fuzzy string
still exists.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Untranslated Entries,  Next: Obsolete Entries,  Prev: Fuzzy Entries,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.7 Untranslated Entries
--------------------------

   When 'xgettext' originally creates a PO file, unless told otherwise,
it initializes the 'msgid' field with the untranslated string, and
leaves the 'msgstr' string to be empty.  Such entries, having an empty
translation, are said to be "untranslated" entries.  Later, when the
programmer slightly modifies some string right in the program, this
change is later reflected in the PO file by the appearance of a new
untranslated entry for the modified string.

   The usual commands moving from entry to entry consider untranslated
entries on the same level as active entries.  Untranslated entries are
easily recognizable by the fact they end with 'msgstr ""'.

   The work of the translator might be (quite naively) seen as the
process of seeking for an untranslated entry, editing a translation for
it, and repeating these actions until no untranslated entries remain.
Some commands are more specifically related to untranslated entry
processing.

'u'
     Find the next untranslated entry ('po-next-untranslated-entry').

'U'
     Find the previous untranslated entry
     ('po-previous-untransted-entry').

'k'
     Turn the current entry into an untranslated one ('po-kill-msgstr').

   The commands 'u' ('po-next-untranslated-entry') and 'U'
('po-previous-untransted-entry') move forwards or backwards, chasing for
an untranslated entry.  If none is found, the search is extended and
wraps around in the PO file buffer.

   An entry can be turned back into an untranslated entry by merely
emptying its translation, using the command 'k' ('po-kill-msgstr').
*Note Modifying Translations::.

   Also, when time comes to quit working on a PO file buffer with the
'q' command, the translator is asked for confirmation, if some
untranslated string still exists.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Obsolete Entries,  Next: Modifying Translations,  Prev: Untranslated Entries,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.8 Obsolete Entries
----------------------

   By "obsolete" PO file entries, we mean those entries which are
commented out, usually by 'msgmerge' when it found that the translation
is not needed anymore by the package being localized.

   The usual commands moving from entry to entry consider obsolete
entries on the same level as active entries.  Obsolete entries are
easily recognizable by the fact that all their lines start with '#',
even those lines containing 'msgid' or 'msgstr'.

   Commands exist for emptying the translation or reinitializing it to
the original untranslated string.  Commands interfacing with the kill
ring may force some previously saved text into the translation.  The
user may interactively edit the translation.  All these commands may
apply to obsolete entries, carefully leaving the entry obsolete after
the fact.

   Moreover, some commands are more specifically related to obsolete
entry processing.

'o'
     Find the next obsolete entry ('po-next-obsolete-entry').

'O'
     Find the previous obsolete entry ('po-previous-obsolete-entry').

'<DEL>'
     Make an active entry obsolete, or zap out an obsolete entry
     ('po-fade-out-entry').

   The commands 'o' ('po-next-obsolete-entry') and 'O'
('po-previous-obsolete-entry') move forwards or backwards, chasing for
an obsolete entry.  If none is found, the search is extended and wraps
around in the PO file buffer.

   PO mode does not provide ways for un-commenting an obsolete entry and
making it active, because this would reintroduce an original
untranslated string which does not correspond to any marked string in
the program sources.  This goes with the philosophy of never introducing
useless 'msgid' values.

   However, it is possible to comment out an active entry, so making it
obsolete.  GNU 'gettext' utilities will later react to the disappearance
of a translation by using the untranslated string.  The command '<DEL>'
('po-fade-out-entry') pushes the current entry a little further towards
annihilation.  If the entry is active (it is a translated entry), then
it is first made fuzzy.  If it is already fuzzy, then the entry is
merely commented out, with confirmation.  If the entry is already
obsolete, then it is completely deleted from the PO file.  It is easy to
recycle the translation so deleted into some other PO file entry,
usually one which is untranslated.  *Note Modifying Translations::.

   Here is a quite interesting problem to solve for later development of
PO mode, for those nights you are not sleepy.  The idea would be that PO
mode might become bright enough, one of these days, to make good guesses
at retrieving the most probable candidate, among all obsolete entries,
for initializing the translation of a newly appeared string.  I think it
might be a quite hard problem to do this algorithmically, as we have to
develop good and efficient measures of string similarity.  Right now, PO
mode completely lets the decision to the translator, when the time comes
to find the adequate obsolete translation, it merely tries to provide
handy tools for helping her to do so.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Modifying Translations,  Next: Modifying Comments,  Prev: Obsolete Entries,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.9 Modifying Translations
----------------------------

   PO mode prevents direct modification of the PO file, by the usual
means Emacs gives for altering a buffer's contents.  By doing so, it
pretends helping the translator to avoid little clerical errors about
the overall file format, or the proper quoting of strings, as those
errors would be easily made.  Other kinds of errors are still possible,
but some may be caught and diagnosed by the batch validation process,
which the translator may always trigger by the 'V' command.  For all
other errors, the translator has to rely on her own judgment, and also
on the linguistic reports submitted to her by the users of the
translated package, having the same mother tongue.

   When the time comes to create a translation, correct an error
diagnosed mechanically or reported by a user, the translators have to
resort to using the following commands for modifying the translations.

'<RET>'
     Interactively edit the translation ('po-edit-msgstr').

'<LFD>'
'C-j'
     Reinitialize the translation with the original, untranslated string
     ('po-msgid-to-msgstr').

'k'
     Save the translation on the kill ring, and delete it
     ('po-kill-msgstr').

'w'
     Save the translation on the kill ring, without deleting it
     ('po-kill-ring-save-msgstr').

'y'
     Replace the translation, taking the new from the kill ring
     ('po-yank-msgstr').

   The command '<RET>' ('po-edit-msgstr') opens a new Emacs window meant
to edit in a new translation, or to modify an already existing
translation.  The new window contains a copy of the translation taken
from the current PO file entry, all ready for edition, expunged of all
quoting marks, fully modifiable and with the complete extent of Emacs
modifying commands.  When the translator is done with her modifications,
she may use 'C-c C-c' to close the subedit window with the automatically
requoted results, or 'C-c C-k' to abort her modifications.  *Note
Subedit::, for more information.

   The command '<LFD>' ('po-msgid-to-msgstr') initializes, or
reinitializes the translation with the original string.  This command is
normally used when the translator wants to redo a fresh translation of
the original string, disregarding any previous work.

   It is possible to arrange so, whenever editing an untranslated entry,
the '<LFD>' command be automatically executed.  If you set
'po-auto-edit-with-msgid' to 't', the translation gets initialised with
the original string, in case none exists already.  The default value for
'po-auto-edit-with-msgid' is 'nil'.

   In fact, whether it is best to start a translation with an empty
string, or rather with a copy of the original string, is a matter of
taste or habit.  Sometimes, the source language and the target language
are so different that is simply best to start writing on an empty page.
At other times, the source and target languages are so close that it
would be a waste to retype a number of words already being written in
the original string.  A translator may also like having the original
string right under her eyes, as she will progressively overwrite the
original text with the translation, even if this requires some extra
editing work to get rid of the original.

   The command 'k' ('po-kill-msgstr') merely empties the translation
string, so turning the entry into an untranslated one.  But while doing
so, its previous contents is put apart in a special place, known as the
kill ring.  The command 'w' ('po-kill-ring-save-msgstr') has also the
effect of taking a copy of the translation onto the kill ring, but it
otherwise leaves the entry alone, and does _not_ remove the translation
from the entry.  Both commands use exactly the Emacs kill ring, which is
shared between buffers, and which is well known already to Emacs lovers.

   The translator may use 'k' or 'w' many times in the course of her
work, as the kill ring may hold several saved translations.  From the
kill ring, strings may later be reinserted in various Emacs buffers.  In
particular, the kill ring may be used for moving translation strings
between different entries of a single PO file buffer, or if the
translator is handling many such buffers at once, even between PO files.

   To facilitate exchanges with buffers which are not in PO mode, the
translation string put on the kill ring by the 'k' command is fully
unquoted before being saved: external quotes are removed, multi-line
strings are concatenated, and backslash escaped sequences are turned
into their corresponding characters.  In the special case of obsolete
entries, the translation is also uncommented prior to saving.

   The command 'y' ('po-yank-msgstr') completely replaces the
translation of the current entry by a string taken from the kill ring.
Following Emacs terminology, we then say that the replacement string is
"yanked" into the PO file buffer.  *Note (emacs)Yanking::.  The first
time 'y' is used, the translation receives the value of the most recent
addition to the kill ring.  If 'y' is typed once again, immediately,
without intervening keystrokes, the translation just inserted is taken
away and replaced by the second most recent addition to the kill ring.
By repeating 'y' many times in a row, the translator may travel along
the kill ring for saved strings, until she finds the string she really
wanted.

   When a string is yanked into a PO file entry, it is fully and
automatically requoted for complying with the format PO files should
have.  Further, if the entry is obsolete, PO mode then appropriately
push the inserted string inside comments.  Once again, translators
should not burden themselves with quoting considerations besides, of
course, the necessity of the translated string itself respective to the
program using it.

   Note that 'k' or 'w' are not the only commands pushing strings on the
kill ring, as almost any PO mode command replacing translation strings
(or the translator comments) automatically saves the old string on the
kill ring.  The main exceptions to this general rule are the yanking
commands themselves.

   To better illustrate the operation of killing and yanking, let's use
an actual example, taken from a common situation.  When the programmer
slightly modifies some string right in the program, his change is later
reflected in the PO file by the appearance of a new untranslated entry
for the modified string, and the fact that the entry translating the
original or unmodified string becomes obsolete.  In many cases, the
translator might spare herself some work by retrieving the unmodified
translation from the obsolete entry, then initializing the untranslated
entry 'msgstr' field with this retrieved translation.  Once this done,
the obsolete entry is not wanted anymore, and may be safely deleted.

   When the translator finds an untranslated entry and suspects that a
slight variant of the translation exists, she immediately uses 'm' to
mark the current entry location, then starts chasing obsolete entries
with 'o', hoping to find some translation corresponding to the
unmodified string.  Once found, she uses the '<DEL>' command for
deleting the obsolete entry, knowing that '<DEL>' also _kills_ the
translation, that is, pushes the translation on the kill ring.  Then,
'r' returns to the initial untranslated entry, and 'y' then _yanks_ the
saved translation right into the 'msgstr' field.  The translator is then
free to use '<RET>' for fine tuning the translation contents, and maybe
to later use 'u', then 'm' again, for going on with the next
untranslated string.

   When some sequence of keys has to be typed over and over again, the
translator may find it useful to become better acquainted with the Emacs
capability of learning these sequences and playing them back under
request.  *Note (emacs)Keyboard Macros::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Modifying Comments,  Next: Subedit,  Prev: Modifying Translations,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.10 Modifying Comments
-------------------------

   Any translation work done seriously will raise many linguistic
difficulties, for which decisions have to be made, and the choices
further documented.  These documents may be saved within the PO file in
form of translator comments, which the translator is free to create,
delete, or modify at will.  These comments may be useful to herself when
she returns to this PO file after a while.

   Comments not having whitespace after the initial '#', for example,
those beginning with '#.' or '#:', are _not_ translator comments, they
are exclusively created by other 'gettext' tools.  So, the commands
below will never alter such system added comments, they are not meant
for the translator to modify.  *Note PO Files::.

   The following commands are somewhat similar to those modifying
translations, so the general indications given for those apply here.
*Note Modifying Translations::.

'#'
     Interactively edit the translator comments ('po-edit-comment').

'K'
     Save the translator comments on the kill ring, and delete it
     ('po-kill-comment').

'W'
     Save the translator comments on the kill ring, without deleting it
     ('po-kill-ring-save-comment').

'Y'
     Replace the translator comments, taking the new from the kill ring
     ('po-yank-comment').

   These commands parallel PO mode commands for modifying the
translation strings, and behave much the same way as they do, except
that they handle this part of PO file comments meant for translator
usage, rather than the translation strings.  So, if the descriptions
given below are slightly succinct, it is because the full details have
already been given.  *Note Modifying Translations::.

   The command '#' ('po-edit-comment') opens a new Emacs window
containing a copy of the translator comments on the current PO file
entry.  If there are no such comments, PO mode understands that the
translator wants to add a comment to the entry, and she is presented
with an empty screen.  Comment marks ('#') and the space following them
are automatically removed before edition, and reinstated after.  For
translator comments pertaining to obsolete entries, the uncommenting and
recommenting operations are done twice.  Once in the editing window, the
keys 'C-c C-c' allow the translator to tell she is finished with editing
the comment.  *Note Subedit::, for further details.

   Functions found on 'po-subedit-mode-hook', if any, are executed after
the string has been inserted in the edit buffer.

   The command 'K' ('po-kill-comment') gets rid of all translator
comments, while saving those comments on the kill ring.  The command 'W'
('po-kill-ring-save-comment') takes a copy of the translator comments on
the kill ring, but leaves them undisturbed in the current entry.  The
command 'Y' ('po-yank-comment') completely replaces the translator
comments by a string taken at the front of the kill ring.  When this
command is immediately repeated, the comments just inserted are
withdrawn, and replaced by other strings taken along the kill ring.

   On the kill ring, all strings have the same nature.  There is no
distinction between _translation_ strings and _translator comments_
strings.  So, for example, let's presume the translator has just
finished editing a translation, and wants to create a new translator
comment to document why the previous translation was not good, just to
remember what was the problem.  Foreseeing that she will do that in her
documentation, the translator may want to quote the previous translation
in her translator comments.  To do so, she may initialize the translator
comments with the previous translation, still at the head of the kill
ring.  Because editing already pushed the previous translation on the
kill ring, she merely has to type 'M-w' prior to '#', and the previous
translation will be right there, all ready for being introduced by some
explanatory text.

   On the other hand, presume there are some translator comments already
and that the translator wants to add to those comments, instead of
wholly replacing them.  Then, she should edit the comment right away
with '#'.  Once inside the editing window, she can use the regular Emacs
commands 'C-y' ('yank') and 'M-y' ('yank-pop') to get the previous
translation where she likes.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Subedit,  Next: C Sources Context,  Prev: Modifying Comments,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.11 Details of Sub Edition
-----------------------------

   The PO subedit minor mode has a few peculiarities worth being
described in fuller detail.  It installs a few commands over the usual
editing set of Emacs, which are described below.

'C-c C-c'
     Complete edition ('po-subedit-exit').

'C-c C-k'
     Abort edition ('po-subedit-abort').

'C-c C-a'
     Consult auxiliary PO files ('po-subedit-cycle-auxiliary').

   The window's contents represents a translation for a given message,
or a translator comment.  The translator may modify this window to her
heart's content.  Once this is done, the command 'C-c C-c'
('po-subedit-exit') may be used to return the edited translation into
the PO file, replacing the original translation, even if it moved out of
sight or if buffers were switched.

   If the translator becomes unsatisfied with her translation or
comment, to the extent she prefers keeping what was existent prior to
the '<RET>' or '#' command, she may use the command 'C-c C-k'
('po-subedit-abort') to merely get rid of edition, while preserving the
original translation or comment.  Another way would be for her to exit
normally with 'C-c C-c', then type 'U' once for undoing the whole effect
of last edition.

   The command 'C-c C-a' ('po-subedit-cycle-auxiliary') allows for
glancing through translations already achieved in other languages,
directly while editing the current translation.  This may be quite
convenient when the translator is fluent at many languages, but of
course, only makes sense when such completed auxiliary PO files are
already available to her (*note Auxiliary::).

   Functions found on 'po-subedit-mode-hook', if any, are executed after
the string has been inserted in the edit buffer.

   While editing her translation, the translator should pay attention to
not inserting unwanted '<RET>' (newline) characters at the end of the
translated string if those are not meant to be there, or to removing
such characters when they are required.  Since these characters are not
visible in the editing buffer, they are easily introduced by mistake.
To help her, '<RET>' automatically puts the character '<' at the end of
the string being edited, but this '<' is not really part of the string.
On exiting the editing window with 'C-c C-c', PO mode automatically
removes such '<' and all whitespace added after it.  If the translator
adds characters after the terminating '<', it looses its delimiting
property and integrally becomes part of the string.  If she removes the
delimiting '<', then the edited string is taken _as is_, with all
trailing newlines, even if invisible.  Also, if the translated string
ought to end itself with a genuine '<', then the delimiting '<' may not
be removed; so the string should appear, in the editing window, as
ending with two '<' in a row.

   When a translation (or a comment) is being edited, the translator may
move the cursor back into the PO file buffer and freely move to other
entries, browsing at will.  If, with an edition pending, the translator
wanders in the PO file buffer, she may decide to start modifying another
entry.  Each entry being edited has its own subedit buffer.  It is
possible to simultaneously edit the translation _and_ the comment of a
single entry, or to edit entries in different PO files, all at once.
Typing '<RET>' on a field already being edited merely resumes that
particular edit.  Yet, the translator should better be comfortable at
handling many Emacs windows!

   Pending subedits may be completed or aborted in any order, regardless
of how or when they were started.  When many subedits are pending and
the translator asks for quitting the PO file (with the 'q' command),
subedits are automatically resumed one at a time, so she may decide for
each of them.

File: gettext.info,  Node: C Sources Context,  Next: Auxiliary,  Prev: Subedit,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.12 C Sources Context
------------------------

   PO mode is particularly powerful when used with PO files created
through GNU 'gettext' utilities, as those utilities insert special
comments in the PO files they generate.  Some of these special comments
relate the PO file entry to exactly where the untranslated string
appears in the program sources.

   When the translator gets to an untranslated entry, she is fairly
often faced with an original string which is not as informative as it
normally should be, being succinct, cryptic, or otherwise ambiguous.
Before choosing how to translate the string, she needs to understand
better what the string really means and how tight the translation has to
be.  Most of the time, when problems arise, the only way left to make
her judgment is looking at the true program sources from where this
string originated, searching for surrounding comments the programmer
might have put in there, and looking around for helping clues of _any_
kind.

   Surely, when looking at program sources, the translator will receive
more help if she is a fluent programmer.  However, even if she is not
versed in programming and feels a little lost in C code, the translator
should not be shy at taking a look, once in a while.  It is most
probable that she will still be able to find some of the hints she
needs.  She will learn quickly to not feel uncomfortable in program
code, paying more attention to programmer's comments, variable and
function names (if he dared choosing them well), and overall
organization, than to the program code itself.

   The following commands are meant to help the translator at getting
program source context for a PO file entry.

's'
     Resume the display of a program source context, or cycle through
     them ('po-cycle-source-reference').

'M-s'
     Display of a program source context selected by menu
     ('po-select-source-reference').

'S'
     Add a directory to the search path for source files
     ('po-consider-source-path').

'M-S'
     Delete a directory from the search path for source files
     ('po-ignore-source-path').

   The commands 's' ('po-cycle-source-reference') and 'M-s'
('po-select-source-reference') both open another window displaying some
source program file, and already positioned in such a way that it shows
an actual use of the string to be translated.  By doing so, the command
gives source program context for the string.  But if the entry has no
source context references, or if all references are unresolved along the
search path for program sources, then the command diagnoses this as an
error.

   Even if 's' (or 'M-s') opens a new window, the cursor stays in the PO
file window.  If the translator really wants to get into the program
source window, she ought to do it explicitly, maybe by using command
'O'.

   When 's' is typed for the first time, or for a PO file entry which is
different of the last one used for getting source context, then the
command reacts by giving the first context available for this entry, if
any.  If some context has already been recently displayed for the
current PO file entry, and the translator wandered off to do other
things, typing 's' again will merely resume, in another window, the
context last displayed.  In particular, if the translator moved the
cursor away from the context in the source file, the command will bring
the cursor back to the context.  By using 's' many times in a row, with
no other commands intervening, PO mode will cycle to the next available
contexts for this particular entry, getting back to the first context
once the last has been shown.

   The command 'M-s' behaves differently.  Instead of cycling through
references, it lets the translator choose a particular reference among
many, and displays that reference.  It is best used with completion, if
the translator types '<TAB>' immediately after 'M-s', in response to the
question, she will be offered a menu of all possible references, as a
reminder of which are the acceptable answers.  This command is useful
only where there are really many contexts available for a single string
to translate.

   Program source files are usually found relative to where the PO file
stands.  As a special provision, when this fails, the file is also
looked for, but relative to the directory immediately above it.  Those
two cases take proper care of most PO files.  However, it might happen
that a PO file has been moved, or is edited in a different place than
its normal location.  When this happens, the translator should tell PO
mode in which directory normally sits the genuine PO file.  Many such
directories may be specified, and all together, they constitute what is
called the "search path" for program sources.  The command 'S'
('po-consider-source-path') is used to interactively enter a new
directory at the front of the search path, and the command 'M-S'
('po-ignore-source-path') is used to select, with completion, one of the
directories she does not want anymore on the search path.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Auxiliary,  Prev: C Sources Context,  Up: PO Mode

8.3.13 Consulting Auxiliary PO Files
------------------------------------

   PO mode is able to help the knowledgeable translator, being fluent in
many languages, at taking advantage of translations already achieved in
other languages she just happens to know.  It provides these other
language translations as additional context for her own work.  Moreover,
it has features to ease the production of translations for many
languages at once, for translators preferring to work in this way.

   An "auxiliary" PO file is an existing PO file meant for the same
package the translator is working on, but targeted to a different mother
tongue language.  Commands exist for declaring and handling auxiliary PO
files, and also for showing contexts for the entry under work.

   Here are the auxiliary file commands available in PO mode.

'a'
     Seek auxiliary files for another translation for the same entry
     ('po-cycle-auxiliary').

'C-c C-a'
     Switch to a particular auxiliary file ('po-select-auxiliary').

'A'
     Declare this PO file as an auxiliary file
     ('po-consider-as-auxiliary').

'M-A'
     Remove this PO file from the list of auxiliary files
     ('po-ignore-as-auxiliary').

   Command 'A' ('po-consider-as-auxiliary') adds the current PO file to
the list of auxiliary files, while command 'M-A'
('po-ignore-as-auxiliary' just removes it.

   The command 'a' ('po-cycle-auxiliary') seeks all auxiliary PO files,
round-robin, searching for a translated entry in some other language
having an 'msgid' field identical as the one for the current entry.  The
found PO file, if any, takes the place of the current PO file in the
display (its window gets on top).  Before doing so, the current PO file
is also made into an auxiliary file, if not already.  So, 'a' in this
newly displayed PO file will seek another PO file, and so on, so
repeating 'a' will eventually yield back the original PO file.

   The command 'C-c C-a' ('po-select-auxiliary') asks the translator for
her choice of a particular auxiliary file, with completion, and then
switches to that selected PO file.  The command also checks if the
selected file has an 'msgid' field identical as the one for the current
entry, and if yes, this entry becomes current.  Otherwise, the cursor of
the selected file is left undisturbed.

   For all this to work fully, auxiliary PO files will have to be
normalized, in that way that 'msgid' fields should be written _exactly_
the same way.  It is possible to write 'msgid' fields in various ways
for representing the same string, different writing would break the
proper behaviour of the auxiliary file commands of PO mode.  This is not
expected to be much a problem in practice, as most existing PO files
have their 'msgid' entries written by the same GNU 'gettext' tools.

   However, PO files initially created by PO mode itself, while marking
strings in source files, are normalised differently.  So are PO files
resulting of the 'M-x normalize' command.  Until these discrepancies
between PO mode and other GNU 'gettext' tools get fully resolved, the
translator should stay aware of normalisation issues.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Compendium,  Prev: PO Mode,  Up: Editing

8.4 Using Translation Compendia
===============================

   A "compendium" is a special PO file containing a set of translations
recurring in many different packages.  The translator can use gettext
tools to build a new compendium, to add entries to her compendium, and
to initialize untranslated entries, or to update already translated
entries, from translations kept in the compendium.

* Menu:

* Creating Compendia::          Merging translations for later use
* Using Compendia::             Using older translations if they fit

File: gettext.info,  Node: Creating Compendia,  Next: Using Compendia,  Prev: Compendium,  Up: Compendium

8.4.1 Creating Compendia
------------------------

   Basically every PO file consisting of translated entries only can be
declared as a valid compendium.  Often the translator wants to have
special compendia; let's consider two cases: 'concatenating PO files'
and 'extracting a message subset from a PO file'.

8.4.1.1 Concatenate PO Files
............................

   To concatenate several valid PO files into one compendium file you
can use 'msgcomm' or 'msgcat' (the latter preferred):

     msgcat -o compendium.po file1.po file2.po

   By default, 'msgcat' will accumulate divergent translations for the
same string.  Those occurrences will be marked as 'fuzzy' and highly
visible decorated; calling 'msgcat' on 'file1.po':

     #: src/hello.c:200
     #, c-format
     msgid "Report bugs to <%s>.\n"
     msgstr "Comunicar `bugs' a <%s>.\n"

and 'file2.po':

     #: src/bye.c:100
     #, c-format
     msgid "Report bugs to <%s>.\n"
     msgstr "Comunicar \"bugs\" a <%s>.\n"

will result in:

     #: src/hello.c:200 src/bye.c:100
     #, fuzzy, c-format
     msgid "Report bugs to <%s>.\n"
     msgstr ""
     "#-#-#-#-#  file1.po  #-#-#-#-#\n"
     "Comunicar `bugs' a <%s>.\n"
     "#-#-#-#-#  file2.po  #-#-#-#-#\n"
     "Comunicar \"bugs\" a <%s>.\n"

The translator will have to resolve this "conflict" manually; she has to
decide whether the first or the second version is appropriate (or
provide a new translation), to delete the "marker lines", and finally to
remove the 'fuzzy' mark.

   If the translator knows in advance the first found translation of a
message is always the best translation she can make use to the
'--use-first' switch:

     msgcat --use-first -o compendium.po file1.po file2.po

   A good compendium file must not contain 'fuzzy' or untranslated
entries.  If input files are "dirty" you must preprocess the input files
or postprocess the result using 'msgattrib --translated --no-fuzzy'.

8.4.1.2 Extract a Message Subset from a PO File
...............................................

   Nobody wants to translate the same messages again and again; thus you
may wish to have a compendium file containing 'getopt.c' messages.

   To extract a message subset (e.g., all 'getopt.c' messages) from an
existing PO file into one compendium file you can use 'msggrep':

     msggrep --location src/getopt.c -o compendium.po file.po

File: gettext.info,  Node: Using Compendia,  Prev: Creating Compendia,  Up: Compendium

8.4.2 Using Compendia
---------------------

   You can use a compendium file to initialize a translation from
scratch or to update an already existing translation.

8.4.2.1 Initialize a New Translation File
.........................................

   Since a PO file with translations does not exist the translator can
merely use '/dev/null' to fake the "old" translation file.

     msgmerge --compendium compendium.po -o file.po /dev/null file.pot

8.4.2.2 Update an Existing Translation File
...........................................

   Concatenate the compendium file(s) and the existing PO, merge the
result with the POT file and remove the obsolete entries (optional, here
done using 'msgattrib'):

     msgcat --use-first -o update.po compendium1.po compendium2.po file.po
     msgmerge update.po file.pot | msgattrib --no-obsolete > file.po

File: gettext.info,  Node: Manipulating,  Next: Binaries,  Prev: Editing,  Up: Top

9 Manipulating PO Files
***********************

   Sometimes it is necessary to manipulate PO files in a way that is
better performed automatically than by hand.  GNU 'gettext' includes a
complete set of tools for this purpose.

   When merging two packages into a single package, the resulting POT
file will be the concatenation of the two packages' POT files.  Thus the
maintainer must concatenate the two existing package translations into a
single translation catalog, for each language.  This is best performed
using 'msgcat'.  It is then the translators' duty to deal with any
possible conflicts that arose during the merge.

   When a translator takes over the translation job from another
translator, but she uses a different character encoding in her locale,
she will convert the catalog to her character encoding.  This is best
done through the 'msgconv' program.

   When a maintainer takes a source file with tagged messages from
another package, he should also take the existing translations for this
source file (and not let the translators do the same job twice).  One
way to do this is through 'msggrep', another is to create a POT file for
that source file and use 'msgmerge'.

   When a translator wants to adjust some translation catalog for a
special dialect or orthography -- for example, German as written in
Switzerland versus German as written in Germany -- she needs to apply
some text processing to every message in the catalog.  The tool for
doing this is 'msgfilter'.

   Another use of 'msgfilter' is to produce approximately the POT file
for which a given PO file was made.  This can be done through a filter
command like 'msgfilter sed -e d | sed -e '/^# /d''.  Note that the
original POT file may have had different comments and different plural
message counts, that's why it's better to use the original POT file if
available.

   When a translator wants to check her translations, for example
according to orthography rules or using a non-interactive spell checker,
she can do so using the 'msgexec' program.

   When third party tools create PO or POT files, sometimes duplicates
cannot be avoided.  But the GNU 'gettext' tools give an error when they
encounter duplicate msgids in the same file and in the same domain.  To
merge duplicates, the 'msguniq' program can be used.

   'msgcomm' is a more general tool for keeping or throwing away
duplicates, occurring in different files.

   'msgcmp' can be used to check whether a translation catalog is
completely translated.

   'msgattrib' can be used to select and extract only the fuzzy or
untranslated messages of a translation catalog.

   'msgen' is useful as a first step for preparing English translation
catalogs.  It copies each message's msgid to its msgstr.

   Finally, for those applications where all these various programs are
not sufficient, a library 'libgettextpo' is provided that can be used to
write other specialized programs that process PO files.

* Menu:

* msgcat Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgcat' Program
* msgconv Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgconv' Program
* msggrep Invocation::          Invoking the 'msggrep' Program
* msgfilter Invocation::        Invoking the 'msgfilter' Program
* msguniq Invocation::          Invoking the 'msguniq' Program
* msgcomm Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgcomm' Program
* msgcmp Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgcmp' Program
* msgattrib Invocation::        Invoking the 'msgattrib' Program
* msgen Invocation::            Invoking the 'msgen' Program
* msgexec Invocation::          Invoking the 'msgexec' Program
* Colorizing::                  Highlighting parts of PO files
* libgettextpo::                Writing your own programs that process PO files

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgcat Invocation,  Next: msgconv Invocation,  Prev: Manipulating,  Up: Manipulating

9.1 Invoking the 'msgcat' Program
=================================

     msgcat [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]...

   The 'msgcat' program concatenates and merges the specified PO files.
It finds messages which are common to two or more of the specified PO
files.  By using the '--more-than' option, greater commonality may be
requested before messages are printed.  Conversely, the '--less-than'
option may be used to specify less commonality before messages are
printed (i.e. '--less-than=2' will only print the unique messages).
Translations, comments, extracted comments, and file positions will be
cumulated, except that if '--use-first' is specified, they will be taken
from the first PO file to define them.

9.1.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE ...'
     Input files.

'-f FILE'
'--files-from=FILE'
     Read the names of the input files from FILE instead of getting them
     from the command line.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If INPUTFILE is '-', standard input is read.

9.1.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.1.3 Message selection
-----------------------

'-< NUMBER'
'--less-than=NUMBER'
     Print messages with less than NUMBER definitions, defaults to
     infinite if not set.

'-> NUMBER'
'--more-than=NUMBER'
     Print messages with more than NUMBER definitions, defaults to 0 if
     not set.

'-u'
'--unique'
     Shorthand for '--less-than=2'.  Requests that only unique messages
     be printed.

9.1.4 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input files are NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource
     files in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.1.5 Output details
--------------------

'-t'
'--to-code=NAME'
     Specify encoding for output.

'--use-first'
     Use first available translation for each message.  Don't merge
     several translations into one.

'--lang=CATALOGNAME'
     Specify the 'Language' field to be used in the header entry.  See
     *note Header Entry:: for the meaning of this field.  Note: The
     'Language-Team' and 'Plural-Forms' fields are left unchanged.

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.1.6 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgconv Invocation,  Next: msggrep Invocation,  Prev: msgcat Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.2 Invoking the 'msgconv' Program
==================================

     msgconv [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]

   The 'msgconv' program converts a translation catalog to a different
character encoding.

9.2.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.2.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.2.3 Conversion target
-----------------------

'-t'
'--to-code=NAME'
     Specify encoding for output.

   The default encoding is the current locale's encoding.

9.2.4 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.2.5 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.2.6 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msggrep Invocation,  Next: msgfilter Invocation,  Prev: msgconv Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.3 Invoking the 'msggrep' Program
==================================

     msggrep [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]

   The 'msggrep' program extracts all messages of a translation catalog
that match a given pattern or belong to some given source files.

9.3.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.3.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.3.3 Message selection
-----------------------

       [-N SOURCEFILE]... [-M DOMAINNAME]...
       [-J MSGCTXT-PATTERN] [-K MSGID-PATTERN] [-T MSGSTR-PATTERN]
       [-C COMMENT-PATTERN]

   A message is selected if
   * it comes from one of the specified source files,
   * or if it comes from one of the specified domains,
   * or if '-J' is given and its context (msgctxt) matches
     MSGCTXT-PATTERN,
   * or if '-K' is given and its key (msgid or msgid_plural) matches
     MSGID-PATTERN,
   * or if '-T' is given and its translation (msgstr) matches
     MSGSTR-PATTERN,
   * or if '-C' is given and the translator's comment matches
     COMMENT-PATTERN.

   When more than one selection criterion is specified, the set of
selected messages is the union of the selected messages of each
criterion.

   MSGCTXT-PATTERN or MSGID-PATTERN or MSGSTR-PATTERN syntax:
       [-E | -F] [-e PATTERN | -f FILE]...
   PATTERNs are basic regular expressions by default, or extended
regular expressions if -E is given, or fixed strings if -F is given.

'-N SOURCEFILE'
'--location=SOURCEFILE'
     Select messages extracted from SOURCEFILE.  SOURCEFILE can be
     either a literal file name or a wildcard pattern.

'-M DOMAINNAME'
'--domain=DOMAINNAME'
     Select messages belonging to domain DOMAINNAME.

'-J'
'--msgctxt'
     Start of patterns for the msgctxt.

'-K'
'--msgid'
     Start of patterns for the msgid.

'-T'
'--msgstr'
     Start of patterns for the msgstr.

'-C'
'--comment'
     Start of patterns for the translator's comment.

'-X'
'--extracted-comment'
     Start of patterns for the extracted comments.

'-E'
'--extended-regexp'
     Specify that PATTERN is an extended regular expression.

'-F'
'--fixed-strings'
     Specify that PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings.

'-e PATTERN'
'--regexp=PATTERN'
     Use PATTERN as a regular expression.

'-f FILE'
'--file=FILE'
     Obtain PATTERN from FILE.

'-i'
'--ignore-case'
     Ignore case distinctions.

'-v'
'--invert-match'
     Output only the messages that do not match any selection criterion,
     instead of the messages that match a selection criterion.

9.3.4 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.3.5 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.3.6 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

9.3.7 Examples
--------------

   To extract the messages that come from the source files
'gnulib-lib/error.c' and 'gnulib-lib/getopt.c':

     msggrep -N gnulib-lib/error.c -N gnulib-lib/getopt.c input.po

   To extract the messages that contain the string "Please specify" in
the original string:

     msggrep --msgid -F -e 'Please specify' input.po

   To extract the messages that have a context specifier of either
"Menu>File" or "Menu>Edit" or a submenu of them:

     msggrep --msgctxt -E -e '^Menu>(File|Edit)' input.po

   To extract the messages whose translation contains one of the strings
in the file 'wordlist.txt':

     msggrep --msgstr -F -f wordlist.txt input.po

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgfilter Invocation,  Next: msguniq Invocation,  Prev: msggrep Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.4 Invoking the 'msgfilter' Program
====================================

     msgfilter [OPTION] FILTER [FILTER-OPTION]

   The 'msgfilter' program applies a filter to all translations of a
translation catalog.

   During each FILTER invocation, the environment variable
'MSGFILTER_MSGID' is bound to the message's msgid, and the environment
variable 'MSGFILTER_LOCATION' is bound to the location in the PO file of
the message.  If the message has a context, the environment variable
'MSGFILTER_MSGCTXT' is bound to the message's msgctxt, otherwise it is
unbound.  If the message has a plural form, environment variable
'MSGFILTER_MSGID_PLURAL' is bound to the message's msgid_plural and
'MSGFILTER_PLURAL_FORM' is bound to the order number of the plural
actually processed (starting with 0), otherwise both are unbound.  If
the message has a previous msgid (added by 'msgmerge'), environment
variable 'MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGCTXT' is bound to the message's previous
msgctxt, 'MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGID' is bound to the previous msgid, and
'MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGID_PLURAL' is bound to the previous msgid_plural.

9.4.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'-i INPUTFILE'
'--input=INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.4.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.4.3 The filter
----------------

   The FILTER can be any program that reads a translation from standard
input and writes a modified translation to standard output.  A
frequently used filter is 'sed'.  A few particular built-in filters are
also recognized.

'--newline'
     Add newline at the end of each input line and also strip the ending
     newline from the output line.

   Note: If the filter is not a built-in filter, you have to care about
encodings: It is your responsibility to ensure that the FILTER can cope
with input encoded in the translation catalog's encoding.  If the FILTER
wants input in a particular encoding, you can in a first step convert
the translation catalog to that encoding using the 'msgconv' program,
before invoking 'msgfilter'.  If the FILTER wants input in the locale's
encoding, but you want to avoid the locale's encoding, then you can
first convert the translation catalog to UTF-8 using the 'msgconv'
program and then make 'msgfilter' work in an UTF-8 locale, by using the
'LC_ALL' environment variable.

   Note: Most translations in a translation catalog don't end with a
newline character.  For this reason, unless the '--newline' option is
used, it is important that the FILTER recognizes its last input line
even if it ends without a newline, and that it doesn't add an undesired
trailing newline at the end.  The 'sed' program on some platforms is
known to ignore the last line of input if it is not terminated with a
newline.  You can use GNU 'sed' instead; it does not have this
limitation.

9.4.4 Useful FILTER-OPTIONs when the FILTER is 'sed'
----------------------------------------------------

'-e SCRIPT'
'--expression=SCRIPT'
     Add SCRIPT to the commands to be executed.

'-f SCRIPTFILE'
'--file=SCRIPTFILE'
     Add the contents of SCRIPTFILE to the commands to be executed.

'-n'
'--quiet'
'--silent'
     Suppress automatic printing of pattern space.

9.4.5 Built-in FILTERs
----------------------

   The filter 'recode-sr-latin' is recognized as a built-in filter.  The
command 'recode-sr-latin' converts Serbian text, written in the Cyrillic
script, to the Latin script.  The command 'msgfilter recode-sr-latin'
applies this conversion to the translations of a PO file.  Thus, it can
be used to convert an 'sr.po' file to an 'sr AT latin.po' file.

   The filter 'quot' is recognized as a built-in filter.  The command
'msgfilter quot' converts any quotations surrounded by a pair of '"',
''', and '`'.

   The filter 'boldquot' is recognized as a built-in filter.  The
command 'msgfilter boldquot' converts any quotations surrounded by a
pair of '"', ''', and '`', also adding the VT100 escape sequences to the
text to decorate it as bold.

   The use of built-in filters is not sensitive to the current locale's
encoding.  Moreover, when used with a built-in filter, 'msgfilter' can
automatically convert the message catalog to the UTF-8 encoding when
needed.

9.4.6 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.4.7 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--keep-header'
     Keep the header entry, i.e. the message with 'msgid ""',
     unmodified, instead of filtering it.  By default, the header entry
     is subject to filtering like any other message.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.4.8 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

9.4.9 Examples
--------------

   To convert German translations to Swiss orthography (in an UTF-8
locale):

     msgconv -t UTF-8 de.po | msgfilter sed -e 's/ss/ss/g'

   To convert Serbian translations in Cyrillic script to Latin script:

     msgfilter recode-sr-latin < sr.po

File: gettext.info,  Node: msguniq Invocation,  Next: msgcomm Invocation,  Prev: msgfilter Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.5 Invoking the 'msguniq' Program
==================================

     msguniq [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]

   The 'msguniq' program unifies duplicate translations in a translation
catalog.  It finds duplicate translations of the same message ID. Such
duplicates are invalid input for other programs like 'msgfmt',
'msgmerge' or 'msgcat'.  By default, duplicates are merged together.
When using the '--repeated' option, only duplicates are output, and all
other messages are discarded.  Comments and extracted comments will be
cumulated, except that if '--use-first' is specified, they will be taken
from the first translation.  File positions will be cumulated.  When
using the '--unique' option, duplicates are discarded.

9.5.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.5.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.5.3 Message selection
-----------------------

'-d'
'--repeated'
     Print only duplicates.

'-u'
'--unique'
     Print only unique messages, discard duplicates.

9.5.4 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.5.5 Output details
--------------------

'-t'
'--to-code=NAME'
     Specify encoding for output.

'--use-first'
     Use first available translation for each message.  Don't merge
     several translations into one.

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.5.6 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgcomm Invocation,  Next: msgcmp Invocation,  Prev: msguniq Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.6 Invoking the 'msgcomm' Program
==================================

     msgcomm [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]...

   The 'msgcomm' program finds messages which are common to two or more
of the specified PO files.  By using the '--more-than' option, greater
commonality may be requested before messages are printed.  Conversely,
the '--less-than' option may be used to specify less commonality before
messages are printed (i.e. '--less-than=2' will only print the unique
messages).  Translations, comments and extracted comments will be
preserved, but only from the first PO file to define them.  File
positions from all PO files will be cumulated.

9.6.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE ...'
     Input files.

'-f FILE'
'--files-from=FILE'
     Read the names of the input files from FILE instead of getting them
     from the command line.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If INPUTFILE is '-', standard input is read.

9.6.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.6.3 Message selection
-----------------------

'-< NUMBER'
'--less-than=NUMBER'
     Print messages with less than NUMBER definitions, defaults to
     infinite if not set.

'-> NUMBER'
'--more-than=NUMBER'
     Print messages with more than NUMBER definitions, defaults to 1 if
     not set.

'-u'
'--unique'
     Shorthand for '--less-than=2'.  Requests that only unique messages
     be printed.

9.6.4 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input files are NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource
     files in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.6.5 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

'--omit-header'
     Don't write header with 'msgid ""' entry.

9.6.6 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgcmp Invocation,  Next: msgattrib Invocation,  Prev: msgcomm Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.7 Invoking the 'msgcmp' Program
=================================

     msgcmp [OPTION] DEF.po REF.pot

   The 'msgcmp' program compares two Uniforum style .po files to check
that both contain the same set of msgid strings.  The DEF.po file is an
existing PO file with the translations.  The REF.pot file is the last
created PO file, or a PO Template file (generally created by
'xgettext').  This is useful for checking that you have translated each
and every message in your program.  Where an exact match cannot be
found, fuzzy matching is used to produce better diagnostics.

9.7.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'DEF.po'
     Translations.

'REF.pot'
     References to the sources.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.

9.7.2 Operation modifiers
-------------------------

'-m'
'--multi-domain'
     Apply REF.pot to each of the domains in DEF.po.

'-N'
'--no-fuzzy-matching'
     Do not use fuzzy matching when an exact match is not found.  This
     may speed up the operation considerably.

'--use-fuzzy'
     Consider fuzzy messages in the DEF.po file like translated
     messages.  Note that using this option is usually wrong, because
     fuzzy messages are exactly those which have not been validated by a
     human translator.

'--use-untranslated'
     Consider untranslated messages in the DEF.po file like translated
     messages.  Note that using this option is usually wrong.

9.7.3 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input files are NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource
     files in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.7.4 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgattrib Invocation,  Next: msgen Invocation,  Prev: msgcmp Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.8 Invoking the 'msgattrib' Program
====================================

     msgattrib [OPTION] [INPUTFILE]

   The 'msgattrib' program filters the messages of a translation catalog
according to their attributes, and manipulates the attributes.

9.8.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.8.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.8.3 Message selection
-----------------------

'--translated'
     Keep translated messages, remove untranslated messages.

'--untranslated'
     Keep untranslated messages, remove translated messages.

'--no-fuzzy'
     Remove 'fuzzy' marked messages.

'--only-fuzzy'
     Keep 'fuzzy' marked messages, remove all other messages.

'--no-obsolete'
     Remove obsolete #~ messages.

'--only-obsolete'
     Keep obsolete #~ messages, remove all other messages.

9.8.4 Attribute manipulation
----------------------------

   Attributes are modified after the message selection/removal has been
performed.  If the '--only-file' or '--ignore-file' option is specified,
the attribute modification is applied only to those messages that are
listed in the ONLY-FILE and not listed in the IGNORE-FILE.

'--set-fuzzy'
     Set all messages 'fuzzy'.

'--clear-fuzzy'
     Set all messages non-'fuzzy'.

'--set-obsolete'
     Set all messages obsolete.

'--clear-obsolete'
     Set all messages non-obsolete.

'--previous'
     When setting 'fuzzy' mark, keep "previous msgid" of translated
     messages.

'--clear-previous'
     Remove the "previous msgid" ('#|') comments from all messages.

'--empty'
     When removing 'fuzzy' mark, also set msgstr empty.

'--only-file=FILE'
     Limit the attribute changes to entries that are listed in FILE.
     FILE should be a PO or POT file.

'--ignore-file=FILE'
     Limit the attribute changes to entries that are not listed in FILE.
     FILE should be a PO or POT file.

'--fuzzy'
     Synonym for '--only-fuzzy --clear-fuzzy': It keeps only the fuzzy
     messages and removes their 'fuzzy' mark.

'--obsolete'
     Synonym for '--only-obsolete --clear-obsolete': It keeps only the
     obsolete messages and makes them non-obsolete.

9.8.5 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.8.6 Output details
--------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.8.7 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgen Invocation,  Next: msgexec Invocation,  Prev: msgattrib Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.9 Invoking the 'msgen' Program
================================

     msgen [OPTION] INPUTFILE

   The 'msgen' program creates an English translation catalog.  The
input file is the last created English PO file, or a PO Template file
(generally created by xgettext).  Untranslated entries are assigned a
translation that is identical to the msgid.

   Note: 'msginit --no-translator --locale=en' performs a very similar
task.  The main difference is that 'msginit' cares specially about the
header entry, whereas 'msgen' doesn't.

9.9.1 Input file location
-------------------------

'INPUTFILE'
     Input PO or POT file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If INPUTFILE is '-', standard input is read.

9.9.2 Output file location
--------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

9.9.3 Input file syntax
-----------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.9.4 Output details
--------------------

'--lang=CATALOGNAME'
     Specify the 'Language' field to be used in the header entry.  See
     *note Header Entry:: for the meaning of this field.  Note: The
     'Language-Team' and 'Plural-Forms' fields are not set by this
     option.

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--no-location'
     Do not write '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines.

'-n'
'--add-location=TYPE'
     Generate '#: FILENAME:LINE' lines (default).

     The optional TYPE can be either 'full', 'file', or 'never'.  If it
     is not given or 'full', it generates the lines with both file name
     and line number.  If it is 'file', the line number part is omitted.
     If it is 'never', it completely suppresses the lines (same as
     '--no-location').

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

'-F'
'--sort-by-file'
     Sort output by file location.

9.9.5 Informative output
------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgexec Invocation,  Next: Colorizing,  Prev: msgen Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.10 Invoking the 'msgexec' Program
===================================

     msgexec [OPTION] COMMAND [COMMAND-OPTION]

   The 'msgexec' program applies a command to all translations of a
translation catalog.  The COMMAND can be any program that reads a
translation from standard input.  It is invoked once for each
translation.  Its output becomes msgexec's output.  'msgexec''s return
code is the maximum return code across all invocations.

   A special builtin command called '0' outputs the translation,
followed by a null byte.  The output of 'msgexec 0' is suitable as input
for 'xargs -0'.

'--newline'
     Add newline at the end of each input line.

   During each COMMAND invocation, the environment variable
'MSGEXEC_MSGID' is bound to the message's msgid, and the environment
variable 'MSGEXEC_LOCATION' is bound to the location in the PO file of
the message.  If the message has a context, the environment variable
'MSGEXEC_MSGCTXT' is bound to the message's msgctxt, otherwise it is
unbound.  If the message has a plural form, environment variable
'MSGEXEC_MSGID_PLURAL' is bound to the message's msgid_plural and
'MSGEXEC_PLURAL_FORM' is bound to the order number of the plural
actually processed (starting with 0), otherwise both are unbound.  If
the message has a previous msgid (added by 'msgmerge'), environment
variable 'MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGCTXT' is bound to the message's previous
msgctxt, 'MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGID' is bound to the previous msgid, and
'MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGID_PLURAL' is bound to the previous msgid_plural.

   Note: It is your responsibility to ensure that the COMMAND can cope
with input encoded in the translation catalog's encoding.  If the
COMMAND wants input in a particular encoding, you can in a first step
convert the translation catalog to that encoding using the 'msgconv'
program, before invoking 'msgexec'.  If the COMMAND wants input in the
locale's encoding, but you want to avoid the locale's encoding, then you
can first convert the translation catalog to UTF-8 using the 'msgconv'
program and then make 'msgexec' work in an UTF-8 locale, by using the
'LC_ALL' environment variable.

9.10.1 Input file location
--------------------------

'-i INPUTFILE'
'--input=INPUTFILE'
     Input PO file.

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting '.po'
     file will be written relative to the current directory, though.

   If no INPUTFILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

9.10.2 Input file syntax
------------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input file is a Java ResourceBundle in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input file is a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file
     in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

9.10.3 Informative output
-------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Colorizing,  Next: libgettextpo,  Prev: msgexec Invocation,  Up: Manipulating

9.11 Highlighting parts of PO files
===================================

   Translators are usually only interested in seeing the untranslated
and fuzzy messages of a PO file.  Also, when a message is set fuzzy
because the msgid changed, they want to see the differences between the
previous msgid and the current one (especially if the msgid is long and
only few words in it have changed).  Finally, it's always welcome to
highlight the different sections of a message in a PO file (comments,
msgid, msgstr, etc.).

   Such highlighting is possible through the 'msgcat' options '--color'
and '--style'.

* Menu:

* The --color option::          Triggering colorized output
* The TERM variable::           The environment variable 'TERM'
* The --style option::          The '--style' option
* Style rules::                 Style rules for PO files
* Customizing less::            Customizing 'less' for viewing PO files

File: gettext.info,  Node: The --color option,  Next: The TERM variable,  Prev: Colorizing,  Up: Colorizing

9.11.1 The '--color' option
---------------------------

   The '--color=WHEN' option specifies under which conditions colorized
output should be generated.  The WHEN part can be one of the following:

'always'
'yes'
     The output will be colorized.

'never'
'no'
     The output will not be colorized.

'auto'
'tty'
     The output will be colorized if the output device is a tty, i.e.
     when the output goes directly to a text screen or terminal emulator
     window.

'html'
     The output will be colorized and be in HTML format.

'--color' is equivalent to '--color=yes'.  The default is
'--color=auto'.

   Thus, a command like 'msgcat vi.po' will produce colorized output
when called by itself in a command window.  Whereas in a pipe, such as
'msgcat vi.po | less -R', it will not produce colorized output.  To get
colorized output in this situation nevertheless, use the command 'msgcat
--color vi.po | less -R'.

   The '--color=html' option will produce output that can be viewed in a
browser.  This can be useful, for example, for Indic languages, because
the renderic of Indic scripts in browser is usually better than in
terminal emulators.

   Note that the output produced with the '--color' option is _not_ a
valid PO file in itself.  It contains additional terminal-specific
escape sequences or HTML tags.  A PO file reader will give a syntax
error when confronted with such content.  Except for the '--color=html'
case, you therefore normally don't need to save output produced with the
'--color' option in a file.

File: gettext.info,  Node: The TERM variable,  Next: The --style option,  Prev: The --color option,  Up: Colorizing

9.11.2 The environment variable 'TERM'
--------------------------------------

   The environment variable 'TERM' contains a identifier for the text
window's capabilities.  You can get a detailed list of these
cababilities by using the 'infocmp' command, using 'man 5 terminfo' as a
reference.

   When producing text with embedded color directives, 'msgcat' looks at
the 'TERM' variable.  Text windows today typically support at least 8
colors.  Often, however, the text window supports 16 or more colors,
even though the 'TERM' variable is set to a identifier denoting only 8
supported colors.  It can be worth setting the 'TERM' variable to a
different value in these cases:

'xterm'
     'xterm' is in most cases built with support for 16 colors.  It can
     also be built with support for 88 or 256 colors (but not both).
     You can try to set 'TERM' to either 'xterm-16color',
     'xterm-88color', or 'xterm-256color'.

'rxvt'
     'rxvt' is often built with support for 16 colors.  You can try to
     set 'TERM' to 'rxvt-16color'.

'konsole'
     'konsole' too is often built with support for 16 colors.  You can
     try to set 'TERM' to 'konsole-16color' or 'xterm-16color'.

   After setting 'TERM', you can verify it by invoking 'msgcat
--color=test' and seeing whether the output looks like a reasonable
color map.

File: gettext.info,  Node: The --style option,  Next: Style rules,  Prev: The TERM variable,  Up: Colorizing

9.11.3 The '--style' option
---------------------------

   The '--style=STYLE_FILE' option specifies the style file to use when
colorizing.  It has an effect only when the '--color' option is
effective.

   If the '--style' option is not specified, the environment variable
'PO_STYLE' is considered.  It is meant to point to the user's preferred
style for PO files.

   The default style file is
'$prefix/share/gettext/styles/po-default.css', where '$prefix' is the
installation location.

   A few style files are predefined:
'po-vim.css'
     This style imitates the look used by vim 7.

'po-emacs-x.css'
     This style imitates the look used by GNU Emacs 21 and 22 in an X11
     window.

'po-emacs-xterm.css'
'po-emacs-xterm16.css'
'po-emacs-xterm256.css'
     This style imitates the look used by GNU Emacs 22 in a terminal of
     type 'xterm' (8 colors) or 'xterm-16color' (16 colors) or
     'xterm-256color' (256 colors), respectively.

You can use these styles without specifying a directory.  They are
actually located in '$prefix/share/gettext/styles/', where '$prefix' is
the installation location.

   You can also design your own styles.  This is described in the next
section.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Style rules,  Next: Customizing less,  Prev: The --style option,  Up: Colorizing

9.11.4 Style rules for PO files
-------------------------------

   The same style file can be used for styling of a PO file, for
terminal output and for HTML output.  It is written in CSS (Cascading
Style Sheet) syntax.  See <http://www.w3.org/TR/css2/cover.html> for a
formal definition of CSS. Many HTML authoring tutorials also contain
explanations of CSS.

   In the case of HTML output, the style file is embedded in the HTML
output.  In the case of text output, the style file is interpreted by
the 'msgcat' program.  This means, in particular, that when '@import' is
used with relative file names, the file names are

   - relative to the resulting HTML file, in the case of HTML output,

   - relative to the style sheet containing the '@import', in the case
     of text output.  (Actually, '@import's are not yet supported in
     this case, due to a limitation in 'libcroco'.)

   CSS rules are built up from selectors and declarations.  The
declarations specify graphical properties; the selectors specify specify
when they apply.

   In PO files, the following simple selectors (based on "CSS classes",
see the CSS2 spec, section 5.8.3) are supported.

   * Selectors that apply to entire messages:

     '.header'
          This matches the header entry of a PO file.

     '.translated'
          This matches a translated message.

     '.untranslated'
          This matches an untranslated message (i.e. a message with
          empty translation).

     '.fuzzy'
          This matches a fuzzy message (i.e. a message which has a
          translation that needs review by the translator).

     '.obsolete'
          This matches an obsolete message (i.e. a message that was
          translated but is not needed by the current POT file any
          more).

   * Selectors that apply to parts of a message in PO syntax.  Recall
     the general structure of a message in PO syntax:

          WHITE-SPACE
          #  TRANSLATOR-COMMENTS
          #. EXTRACTED-COMMENTS
          #: REFERENCE...
          #, FLAG...
          #| msgid PREVIOUS-UNTRANSLATED-STRING
          msgid UNTRANSLATED-STRING
          msgstr TRANSLATED-STRING

     '.comment'
          This matches all comments (translator comments, extracted
          comments, source file reference comments, flag comments,
          previous message comments, as well as the entire obsolete
          messages).

     '.translator-comment'
          This matches the translator comments.

     '.extracted-comment'
          This matches the extracted comments, i.e. the comments placed
          by the programmer at the attention of the translator.

     '.reference-comment'
          This matches the source file reference comments (entire
          lines).

     '.reference'
          This matches the individual source file references inside the
          source file reference comment lines.

     '.flag-comment'
          This matches the flag comment lines (entire lines).

     '.flag'
          This matches the individual flags inside flag comment lines.

     '.fuzzy-flag'
          This matches the 'fuzzy' flag inside flag comment lines.

     '.previous-comment'
          This matches the comments containing the previous untranslated
          string (entire lines).

     '.previous'
          This matches the previous untranslated string including the
          string delimiters, the associated keywords ('msgid' etc.)  and
          the spaces between them.

     '.msgid'
          This matches the untranslated string including the string
          delimiters, the associated keywords ('msgid' etc.)  and the
          spaces between them.

     '.msgstr'
          This matches the translated string including the string
          delimiters, the associated keywords ('msgstr' etc.)  and the
          spaces between them.

     '.keyword'
          This matches the keywords ('msgid', 'msgstr', etc.).

     '.string'
          This matches strings, including the string delimiters (double
          quotes).

   * Selectors that apply to parts of strings:

     '.text'
          This matches the entire contents of a string (excluding the
          string delimiters, i.e. the double quotes).

     '.escape-sequence'
          This matches an escape sequence (starting with a backslash).

     '.format-directive'
          This matches a format string directive (starting with a '%'
          sign in the case of most programming languages, with a '{' in
          the case of 'java-format' and 'csharp-format', with a '~' in
          the case of 'lisp-format' and 'scheme-format', or with '$' in
          the case of 'sh-format').

     '.invalid-format-directive'
          This matches an invalid format string directive.

     '.added'
          In an untranslated string, this matches a part of the string
          that was not present in the previous untranslated string.
          (Not yet implemented in this release.)

     '.changed'
          In an untranslated string or in a previous untranslated
          string, this matches a part of the string that is changed or
          replaced.  (Not yet implemented in this release.)

     '.removed'
          In a previous untranslated string, this matches a part of the
          string that is not present in the current untranslated string.
          (Not yet implemented in this release.)

   These selectors can be combined to hierarchical selectors.  For
example,

     .msgstr .invalid-format-directive { color: red; }

will highlight the invalid format directives in the translated strings.

   In text mode, pseudo-classes (CSS2 spec, section 5.11) and
pseudo-elements (CSS2 spec, section 5.12) are not supported.

   The declarations in HTML mode are not limited; any graphical
attribute supported by the browsers can be used.

   The declarations in text mode are limited to the following
properties.  Other properties will be silently ignored.

'color' (CSS2 spec, section 14.1)
'background-color' (CSS2 spec, section 14.2.1)
     These properties is supported.  Colors will be adjusted to match
     the terminal's capabilities.  Note that many terminals support only
     8 colors.

'font-weight' (CSS2 spec, section 15.2.3)
     This property is supported, but most terminals can only render two
     different weights: 'normal' and 'bold'.  Values >= 600 are rendered
     as 'bold'.

'font-style' (CSS2 spec, section 15.2.3)
     This property is supported.  The values 'italic' and 'oblique' are
     rendered the same way.

'text-decoration' (CSS2 spec, section 16.3.1)
     This property is supported, limited to the values 'none' and
     'underline'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Customizing less,  Prev: Style rules,  Up: Colorizing

9.11.5 Customizing 'less' for viewing PO files
----------------------------------------------

   The 'less' program is a popular text file browser for use in a text
screen or terminal emulator.  It also supports text with embedded escape
sequences for colors and text decorations.

   You can use 'less' to view a PO file like this (assuming an UTF-8
environment):

     msgcat --to-code=UTF-8 --color xyz.po | less -R

   You can simplify this to this simple command:

     less xyz.po

after these three preparations:

  1. Add the options '-R' and '-f' to the 'LESS' environment variable.
     In sh shells:
          $ LESS="$LESS -R -f"
          $ export LESS

  2. If your system does not already have the 'lessopen.sh' and
     'lessclose.sh' scripts, create them and set the 'LESSOPEN' and
     'LESSCLOSE' environment variables, as indicated in the manual page
     ('man less').

  3. Add to 'lessopen.sh' a piece of script that recognizes PO files
     through their file extension and invokes 'msgcat' on them,
     producing a temporary file.  Like this:

          case "$1" in
            *.po)
              tmpfile=`mktemp "${TMPDIR-/tmp}/less.XXXXXX"`
              msgcat --to-code=UTF-8 --color "$1" > "$tmpfile"
              echo "$tmpfile"
              exit 0
              ;;
          esac

File: gettext.info,  Node: libgettextpo,  Prev: Colorizing,  Up: Manipulating

9.12 Writing your own programs that process PO files
====================================================

   For the tasks for which a combination of 'msgattrib', 'msgcat' etc.
is not sufficient, a set of C functions is provided in a library, to
make it possible to process PO files in your own programs.  When you use
this library, you don't need to write routines to parse the PO file;
instead, you retrieve a pointer in memory to each of messages contained
in the PO file.  Functions for writing PO files are not provided at this
time.

   The functions are declared in the header file '<gettext-po.h>', and
are defined in a library called 'libgettextpo'.

 -- Data Type: po_file_t
     This is a pointer type that refers to the contents of a PO file,
     after it has been read into memory.

 -- Data Type: po_message_iterator_t
     This is a pointer type that refers to an iterator that produces a
     sequence of messages.

 -- Data Type: po_message_t
     This is a pointer type that refers to a message of a PO file,
     including its translation.

 -- Function: po_file_t po_file_read (const char *FILENAME)
     The 'po_file_read' function reads a PO file into memory.  The file
     name is given as argument.  The return value is a handle to the PO
     file's contents, valid until 'po_file_free' is called on it.  In
     case of error, the return value is 'NULL', and 'errno' is set.

 -- Function: void po_file_free (po_file_t FILE)
     The 'po_file_free' function frees a PO file's contents from memory,
     including all messages that are only implicitly accessible through
     iterators.

 -- Function: const char * const * po_file_domains (po_file_t FILE)
     The 'po_file_domains' function returns the domains for which the
     given PO file has messages.  The return value is a 'NULL'
     terminated array which is valid as long as the FILE handle is
     valid.  For PO files which contain no 'domain' directive, the
     return value contains only one domain, namely the default domain
     '"messages"'.

 -- Function: po_message_iterator_t po_message_iterator (po_file_t FILE,
          const char *DOMAIN)
     The 'po_message_iterator' returns an iterator that will produce the
     messages of FILE that belong to the given DOMAIN.  If DOMAIN is
     'NULL', the default domain is used instead.  To list the messages,
     use the function 'po_next_message' repeatedly.

 -- Function: void po_message_iterator_free (po_message_iterator_t
          ITERATOR)
     The 'po_message_iterator_free' function frees an iterator
     previously allocated through the 'po_message_iterator' function.

 -- Function: po_message_t po_next_message (po_message_iterator_t
          ITERATOR)
     The 'po_next_message' function returns the next message from
     ITERATOR and advances the iterator.  It returns 'NULL' when the
     iterator has reached the end of its message list.

   The following functions returns details of a 'po_message_t'.  Recall
that the results are valid as long as the FILE handle is valid.

 -- Function: const char * po_message_msgid (po_message_t MESSAGE)
     The 'po_message_msgid' function returns the 'msgid' (untranslated
     English string) of a message.  This is guaranteed to be non-'NULL'.

 -- Function: const char * po_message_msgid_plural (po_message_t
          MESSAGE)
     The 'po_message_msgid_plural' function returns the 'msgid_plural'
     (untranslated English plural string) of a message with plurals, or
     'NULL' for a message without plural.

 -- Function: const char * po_message_msgstr (po_message_t MESSAGE)
     The 'po_message_msgstr' function returns the 'msgstr' (translation)
     of a message.  For an untranslated message, the return value is an
     empty string.

 -- Function: const char * po_message_msgstr_plural (po_message_t
          MESSAGE, int INDEX)
     The 'po_message_msgstr_plural' function returns the 'msgstr[INDEX]'
     of a message with plurals, or 'NULL' when the INDEX is out of range
     or for a message without plural.

   Here is an example code how these functions can be used.

     const char *filename = ...;
     po_file_t file = po_file_read (filename);

     if (file == NULL)
       error (EXIT_FAILURE, errno, "couldn't open the PO file %s", filename);
     {
       const char * const *domains = po_file_domains (file);
       const char * const *domainp;

       for (domainp = domains; *domainp; domainp++)
         {
           const char *domain = *domainp;
           po_message_iterator_t iterator = po_message_iterator (file, domain);

           for (;;)
             {
               po_message_t *message = po_next_message (iterator);

               if (message == NULL)
                 break;
               {
                 const char *msgid = po_message_msgid (message);
                 const char *msgstr = po_message_msgstr (message);

                 ...
               }
             }
           po_message_iterator_free (iterator);
         }
     }
     po_file_free (file);

File: gettext.info,  Node: Binaries,  Next: Programmers,  Prev: Manipulating,  Up: Top

10 Producing Binary MO Files
****************************

* Menu:

* msgfmt Invocation::           Invoking the 'msgfmt' Program
* msgunfmt Invocation::         Invoking the 'msgunfmt' Program
* MO Files::                    The Format of GNU MO Files

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgfmt Invocation,  Next: msgunfmt Invocation,  Prev: Binaries,  Up: Binaries

10.1 Invoking the 'msgfmt' Program
==================================

     msgfmt [OPTION] FILENAME.po ...

   The 'msgfmt' programs generates a binary message catalog from a
textual translation description.

10.1.1 Input file location
--------------------------

'FILENAME.po ...'

'-D DIRECTORY'
'--directory=DIRECTORY'
     Add DIRECTORY to the list of directories.  Source files are
     searched relative to this list of directories.  The resulting
     binary file will be written relative to the current directory,
     though.

   If an input file is '-', standard input is read.

10.1.2 Operation mode
---------------------

'-j'
'--java'
     Java mode: generate a Java 'ResourceBundle' class.

'--java2'
     Like -java, and assume Java2 (JDK 1.2 or higher).

'--csharp'
     C# mode: generate a .NET .dll file containing a subclass of
     'GettextResourceSet'.

'--csharp-resources'
     C# resources mode: generate a .NET '.resources' file.

'--tcl'
     Tcl mode: generate a tcl/msgcat '.msg' file.

'--qt'
     Qt mode: generate a Qt '.qm' file.

'--desktop'
     Desktop Entry mode: generate a '.desktop' file.

'--xml'
     XML mode: generate an XML file.

10.1.3 Output file location
---------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

'--strict'
     Direct the program to work strictly following the Uniforum/Sun
     implementation.  Currently this only affects the naming of the
     output file.  If this option is not given the name of the output
     file is the same as the domain name.  If the strict Uniforum mode
     is enabled the suffix '.mo' is added to the file name if it is not
     already present.

     We find this behaviour of Sun's implementation rather silly and so
     by default this mode is _not_ selected.

   If the output FILE is '-', output is written to standard output.

10.1.4 Output file location in Java mode
----------------------------------------

'-r RESOURCE'
'--resource=RESOURCE'
     Specify the resource name.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory of classes directory hierarchy.

'--source'
     Produce a .java source file, instead of a compiled .class file.

   The class name is determined by appending the locale name to the
resource name, separated with an underscore.  The '-d' option is
mandatory.  The class is written under the specified directory.

10.1.5 Output file location in C# mode
--------------------------------------

'-r RESOURCE'
'--resource=RESOURCE'
     Specify the resource name.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory for locale dependent '.dll' files.

   The '-l' and '-d' options are mandatory.  The '.dll' file is written
in a subdirectory of the specified directory whose name depends on the
locale.

10.1.6 Output file location in Tcl mode
---------------------------------------

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory of '.msg' message catalogs.

   The '-l' and '-d' options are mandatory.  The '.msg' file is written
in the specified directory.

10.1.7 Desktop Entry mode operations
------------------------------------

'--template=TEMPLATE'
     Specify a .desktop file used as a template.

'-k[KEYWORDSPEC]'
'--keyword[=KEYWORDSPEC]'
     Specify KEYWORDSPEC as an additional keyword to be looked for.
     Without a KEYWORDSPEC, the option means to not use default
     keywords.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the directory where PO files are read.  The directory must
     contain the 'LINGUAS' file.

   To generate a '.desktop' file for a single locale, you can use it as
follows.

     msgfmt --desktop --template=TEMPLATE --locale=LOCALE \
       -o FILE FILENAME.po ...

   msgfmt provides a special "bulk" operation mode to process multiple
'.po' files at a time.

     msgfmt --desktop --template=TEMPLATE -d DIRECTORY -o FILE

   msgfmt first reads the 'LINGUAS' file under DIRECTORY, and then
processes all '.po' files listed there.  You can also limit the locales
to a subset, through the 'LINGUAS' environment variable.

   For either operation modes, the '-o' and '--template' options are
mandatory.

10.1.8 XML mode operations
--------------------------

'--template=TEMPLATE'
     Specify an XML file used as a template.

'-L NAME'
'--language=NAME'
     Specifies the language of the input files.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory of '.po' message catalogs.

   To generate an XML file for a single locale, you can use it as
follows.

     msgfmt --xml --template=TEMPLATE --locale=LOCALE \
       -o FILE FILENAME.po ...

   msgfmt provides a special "bulk" operation mode to process multiple
'.po' files at a time.

     msgfmt --xml --template=TEMPLATE -d DIRECTORY -o FILE

   msgfmt first reads the 'LINGUAS' file under DIRECTORY, and then
processes all '.po' files listed there.  You can also limit the locales
to a subset, through the 'LINGUAS' environment variable.

   For either operation modes, the '-o' and '--template' options are
mandatory.

10.1.9 Input file syntax
------------------------

'-P'
'--properties-input'
     Assume the input files are Java ResourceBundles in Java
     '.properties' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

'--stringtable-input'
     Assume the input files are NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource
     files in '.strings' syntax, not in PO file syntax.

10.1.10 Input file interpretation
---------------------------------

'-c'
'--check'
     Perform all the checks implied by '--check-format',
     '--check-header', '--check-domain'.

'--check-format'
     Check language dependent format strings.

     If the string represents a format string used in a 'printf'-like
     function both strings should have the same number of '%' format
     specifiers, with matching types.  If the flag 'c-format' or
     'possible-c-format' appears in the special comment <#,> for this
     entry a check is performed.  For example, the check will diagnose
     using '%.*s' against '%s', or '%d' against '%s', or '%d' against
     '%x'.  It can even handle positional parameters.

     Normally the 'xgettext' program automatically decides whether a
     string is a format string or not.  This algorithm is not perfect,
     though.  It might regard a string as a format string though it is
     not used in a 'printf'-like function and so 'msgfmt' might report
     errors where there are none.

     To solve this problem the programmer can dictate the decision to
     the 'xgettext' program (*note c-format::).  The translator should
     not consider removing the flag from the <#,> line.  This "fix"
     would be reversed again as soon as 'msgmerge' is called the next
     time.

'--check-header'
     Verify presence and contents of the header entry.  *Note Header
     Entry::, for a description of the various fields in the header
     entry.

'--check-domain'
     Check for conflicts between domain directives and the
     '--output-file' option

'-C'
'--check-compatibility'
     Check that GNU msgfmt behaves like X/Open msgfmt.  This will give
     an error when attempting to use the GNU extensions.

'--check-accelerators[=CHAR]'
     Check presence of keyboard accelerators for menu items.  This is
     based on the convention used in some GUIs that a keyboard
     accelerator in a menu item string is designated by an immediately
     preceding '&' character.  Sometimes a keyboard accelerator is also
     called "keyboard mnemonic".  This check verifies that if the
     untranslated string has exactly one '&' character, the translated
     string has exactly one '&' as well.  If this option is given with a
     CHAR argument, this CHAR should be a non-alphanumeric character and
     is used as keyboard accelerator mark instead of '&'.

'-f'
'--use-fuzzy'
     Use fuzzy entries in output.  Note that using this option is
     usually wrong, because fuzzy messages are exactly those which have
     not been validated by a human translator.

10.1.11 Output details
----------------------

'-a NUMBER'
'--alignment=NUMBER'
     Align strings to NUMBER bytes (default: 1).

'--endianness=BYTEORDER'
     Write out 32-bit numbers in the given byte order.  The possible
     values are 'big' and 'little'.  The default is 'little'.

     MO files of any endianness can be used on any platform.  When a MO
     file has an endianness other than the platform's one, the 32-bit
     numbers from the MO file are swapped at runtime.  The performance
     impact is negligible.

     This option can be useful to produce MO files that are optimized
     for one platform.

'--no-hash'
     Don't include a hash table in the binary file.  Lookup will be more
     expensive at run time (binary search instead of hash table lookup).

10.1.12 Informative output
--------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

'--statistics'
     Print statistics about translations.  When the option '--verbose'
     is used in combination with '--statistics', the input file name is
     printed in front of the statistics line.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Increase verbosity level.

File: gettext.info,  Node: msgunfmt Invocation,  Next: MO Files,  Prev: msgfmt Invocation,  Up: Binaries

10.2 Invoking the 'msgunfmt' Program
====================================

     msgunfmt [OPTION] [FILE]...

   The 'msgunfmt' program converts a binary message catalog to a
Uniforum style .po file.

10.2.1 Operation mode
---------------------

'-j'
'--java'
     Java mode: input is a Java 'ResourceBundle' class.

'--csharp'
     C# mode: input is a .NET .dll file containing a subclass of
     'GettextResourceSet'.

'--csharp-resources'
     C# resources mode: input is a .NET '.resources' file.

'--tcl'
     Tcl mode: input is a tcl/msgcat '.msg' file.

10.2.2 Input file location
--------------------------

'FILE ...'
     Input .mo files.

   If no input FILE is given or if it is '-', standard input is read.

10.2.3 Input file location in Java mode
---------------------------------------

'-r RESOURCE'
'--resource=RESOURCE'
     Specify the resource name.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

   The class name is determined by appending the locale name to the
resource name, separated with an underscore.  The class is located using
the 'CLASSPATH'.

10.2.4 Input file location in C# mode
-------------------------------------

'-r RESOURCE'
'--resource=RESOURCE'
     Specify the resource name.

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory for locale dependent '.dll' files.

   The '-l' and '-d' options are mandatory.  The '.msg' file is located
in a subdirectory of the specified directory whose name depends on the
locale.

10.2.5 Input file location in Tcl mode
--------------------------------------

'-l LOCALE'
'--locale=LOCALE'
     Specify the locale name, either a language specification of the
     form LL or a combined language and country specification of the
     form LL_CC.

'-d DIRECTORY'
     Specify the base directory of '.msg' message catalogs.

   The '-l' and '-d' options are mandatory.  The '.msg' file is located
in the specified directory.

10.2.6 Output file location
---------------------------

'-o FILE'
'--output-file=FILE'
     Write output to specified file.

   The results are written to standard output if no output file is
specified or if it is '-'.

10.2.7 Output details
---------------------

'--color'
'--color=WHEN'
     Specify whether or when to use colors and other text attributes.
     See *note The --color option:: for details.

'--style=STYLE_FILE'
     Specify the CSS style rule file to use for '--color'.  See *note
     The --style option:: for details.

'--force-po'
     Always write an output file even if it contains no message.

'-i'
'--indent'
     Write the .po file using indented style.

'--strict'
     Write out a strict Uniforum conforming PO file.  Note that this
     Uniforum format should be avoided because it doesn't support the
     GNU extensions.

'-p'
'--properties-output'
     Write out a Java ResourceBundle in Java '.properties' syntax.  Note
     that this file format doesn't support plural forms and silently
     drops obsolete messages.

'--stringtable-output'
     Write out a NeXTstep/GNUstep localized resource file in '.strings'
     syntax.  Note that this file format doesn't support plural forms.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'
     Set the output page width.  Long strings in the output files will
     be split across multiple lines in order to ensure that each line's
     width (= number of screen columns) is less or equal to the given
     NUMBER.

'--no-wrap'
     Do not break long message lines.  Message lines whose width exceeds
     the output page width will not be split into several lines.  Only
     file reference lines which are wider than the output page width
     will be split.

'-s'
'--sort-output'
     Generate sorted output.  Note that using this option makes it much
     harder for the translator to understand each message's context.

10.2.8 Informative output
-------------------------

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Increase verbosity level.

File: gettext.info,  Node: MO Files,  Prev: msgunfmt Invocation,  Up: Binaries

10.3 The Format of GNU MO Files
===============================

   The format of the generated MO files is best described by a picture,
which appears below.

   The first two words serve the identification of the file.  The magic
number will always signal GNU MO files.  The number is stored in the
byte order used when the MO file was generated, so the magic number
really is two numbers: '0x950412de' and '0xde120495'.

   The second word describes the current revision of the file format,
composed of a major and a minor revision number.  The revision numbers
ensure that the readers of MO files can distinguish new formats from old
ones and handle their contents, as far as possible.  For now the major
revision is 0 or 1, and the minor revision is also 0 or 1.  More
revisions might be added in the future.  A program seeing an unexpected
major revision number should stop reading the MO file entirely; whereas
an unexpected minor revision number means that the file can be read but
will not reveal its full contents, when parsed by a program that
supports only smaller minor revision numbers.

   The version is kept separate from the magic number, instead of using
different magic numbers for different formats, mainly because
'/etc/magic' is not updated often.

   Follow a number of pointers to later tables in the file, allowing for
the extension of the prefix part of MO files without having to recompile
programs reading them.  This might become useful for later inserting a
few flag bits, indication about the charset used, new tables, or other
things.

   Then, at offset O and offset T in the picture, two tables of string
descriptors can be found.  In both tables, each string descriptor uses
two 32 bits integers, one for the string length, another for the offset
of the string in the MO file, counting in bytes from the start of the
file.  The first table contains descriptors for the original strings,
and is sorted so the original strings are in increasing lexicographical
order.  The second table contains descriptors for the translated
strings, and is parallel to the first table: to find the corresponding
translation one has to access the array slot in the second array with
the same index.

   Having the original strings sorted enables the use of simple binary
search, for when the MO file does not contain an hashing table, or for
when it is not practical to use the hashing table provided in the MO
file.  This also has another advantage, as the empty string in a PO file
GNU 'gettext' is usually _translated_ into some system information
attached to that particular MO file, and the empty string necessarily
becomes the first in both the original and translated tables, making the
system information very easy to find.

   The size S of the hash table can be zero.  In this case, the hash
table itself is not contained in the MO file.  Some people might prefer
this because a precomputed hashing table takes disk space, and does not
win _that_ much speed.  The hash table contains indices to the sorted
array of strings in the MO file.  Conflict resolution is done by double
hashing.  The precise hashing algorithm used is fairly dependent on GNU
'gettext' code, and is not documented here.

   As for the strings themselves, they follow the hash file, and each is
terminated with a <NUL>, and this <NUL> is not counted in the length
which appears in the string descriptor.  The 'msgfmt' program has an
option selecting the alignment for MO file strings.  With this option,
each string is separately aligned so it starts at an offset which is a
multiple of the alignment value.  On some RISC machines, a correct
alignment will speed things up.

   Contexts are stored by storing the concatenation of the context, a
<EOT> byte, and the original string, instead of the original string.

   Plural forms are stored by letting the plural of the original string
follow the singular of the original string, separated through a <NUL>
byte.  The length which appears in the string descriptor includes both.
However, only the singular of the original string takes part in the hash
table lookup.  The plural variants of the translation are all stored
consecutively, separated through a <NUL> byte.  Here also, the length in
the string descriptor includes all of them.

   Nothing prevents a MO file from having embedded <NUL>s in strings.
However, the program interface currently used already presumes that
strings are <NUL> terminated, so embedded <NUL>s are somewhat useless.
But the MO file format is general enough so other interfaces would be
later possible, if for example, we ever want to implement wide
characters right in MO files, where <NUL> bytes may accidentally appear.
(No, we don't want to have wide characters in MO files.  They would make
the file unnecessarily large, and the 'wchar_t' type being platform
dependent, MO files would be platform dependent as well.)

   This particular issue has been strongly debated in the GNU 'gettext'
development forum, and it is expectable that MO file format will evolve
or change over time.  It is even possible that many formats may later be
supported concurrently.  But surely, we have to start somewhere, and the
MO file format described here is a good start.  Nothing is cast in
concrete, and the format may later evolve fairly easily, so we should
feel comfortable with the current approach.

             byte
                  +------------------------------------------+
               0  | magic number = 0x950412de                |
                  |                                          |
               4  | file format revision = 0                 |
                  |                                          |
               8  | number of strings                        |  == N
                  |                                          |
              12  | offset of table with original strings    |  == O
                  |                                          |
              16  | offset of table with translation strings |  == T
                  |                                          |
              20  | size of hashing table                    |  == S
                  |                                          |
              24  | offset of hashing table                  |  == H
                  |                                          |
                  .                                          .
                  .    (possibly more entries later)         .
                  .                                          .
                  |                                          |
               O  | length & offset 0th string  ----------------.
           O + 8  | length & offset 1st string  ------------------.
                   ...                                    ...   | |
     O + ((N-1)*8)| length & offset (N-1)th string           |  | |
                  |                                          |  | |
               T  | length & offset 0th translation  ---------------.
           T + 8  | length & offset 1st translation  -----------------.
                   ...                                    ...   | | | |
     T + ((N-1)*8)| length & offset (N-1)th translation      |  | | | |
                  |                                          |  | | | |
               H  | start hash table                         |  | | | |
                   ...                                    ...   | | | |
       H + S * 4  | end hash table                           |  | | | |
                  |                                          |  | | | |
                  | NUL terminated 0th string  <----------------' | | |
                  |                                          |    | | |
                  | NUL terminated 1st string  <------------------' | |
                  |                                          |      | |
                   ...                                    ...       | |
                  |                                          |      | |
                  | NUL terminated 0th translation  <---------------' |
                  |                                          |        |
                  | NUL terminated 1st translation  <-----------------'
                  |                                          |
                   ...                                    ...
                  |                                          |
                  +------------------------------------------+

File: gettext.info,  Node: Programmers,  Next: Translators,  Prev: Binaries,  Up: Top

11 The Programmer's View
************************

   One aim of the current message catalog implementation provided by GNU
'gettext' was to use the system's message catalog handling, if the
installer wishes to do so.  So we perhaps should first take a look at
the solutions we know about.  The people in the POSIX committee did not
manage to agree on one of the semi-official standards which we'll
describe below.  In fact they couldn't agree on anything, so they
decided only to include an example of an interface.  The major Unix
vendors are split in the usage of the two most important specifications:
X/Open's catgets vs.  Uniforum's gettext interface.  We'll describe them
both and later explain our solution of this dilemma.

* Menu:

* catgets::                     About 'catgets'
* gettext::                     About 'gettext'
* Comparison::                  Comparing the two interfaces
* Using libintl.a::             Using libintl.a in own programs
* gettext grok::                Being a 'gettext' grok
* Temp Programmers::            Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter

File: gettext.info,  Node: catgets,  Next: gettext,  Prev: Programmers,  Up: Programmers

11.1 About 'catgets'
====================

   The 'catgets' implementation is defined in the X/Open Portability
Guide, Volume 3, XSI Supplementary Definitions, Chapter 5.  But the
process of creating this standard seemed to be too slow for some of the
Unix vendors so they created their implementations on preliminary
versions of the standard.  Of course this leads again to problems while
writing platform independent programs: even the usage of 'catgets' does
not guarantee a unique interface.

   Another, personal comment on this that only a bunch of committee
members could have made this interface.  They never really tried to
program using this interface.  It is a fast, memory-saving
implementation, an user can happily live with it.  But programmers hate
it (at least I and some others do...)

   But we must not forget one point: after all the trouble with
transferring the rights on Unix(tm) they at last came to X/Open, the
very same who published this specification.  This leads me to making the
prediction that this interface will be in future Unix standards (e.g.
Spec1170) and therefore part of all Unix implementation
(implementations, which are _allowed_ to wear this name).

* Menu:

* Interface to catgets::        The interface
* Problems with catgets::       Problems with the 'catgets' interface?!

File: gettext.info,  Node: Interface to catgets,  Next: Problems with catgets,  Prev: catgets,  Up: catgets

11.1.1 The Interface
--------------------

   The interface to the 'catgets' implementation consists of three
functions which correspond to those used in file access: 'catopen' to
open the catalog for using, 'catgets' for accessing the message tables,
and 'catclose' for closing after work is done.  Prototypes for the
functions and the needed definitions are in the '<nl_types.h>' header
file.

   'catopen' is used like in this:

     nl_catd catd = catopen ("catalog_name", 0);

   The function takes as the argument the name of the catalog.  This
usual refers to the name of the program or the package.  The second
parameter is not further specified in the standard.  I don't even know
whether it is implemented consistently among various systems.  So the
common advice is to use '0' as the value.  The return value is a handle
to the message catalog, equivalent to handles to file returned by
'open'.

   This handle is of course used in the 'catgets' function which can be
used like this:

     char *translation = catgets (catd, set_no, msg_id, "original string");

   The first parameter is this catalog descriptor.  The second parameter
specifies the set of messages in this catalog, in which the message
described by 'msg_id' is obtained.  'catgets' therefore uses a
three-stage addressing:

     catalog name => set number => message ID => translation

   The fourth argument is not used to address the translation.  It is
given as a default value in case when one of the addressing stages fail.
One important thing to remember is that although the return type of
catgets is 'char *' the resulting string _must not_ be changed.  It
should better be 'const char *', but the standard is published in 1988,
one year before ANSI C.

The last of these functions is used and behaves as expected:

     catclose (catd);

   After this no 'catgets' call using the descriptor is legal anymore.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Problems with catgets,  Prev: Interface to catgets,  Up: catgets

11.1.2 Problems with the 'catgets' Interface?!
----------------------------------------------

   Now that this description seemed to be really easy -- where are the
problems we speak of?  In fact the interface could be used in a
reasonable way, but constructing the message catalogs is a pain.  The
reason for this lies in the third argument of 'catgets': the unique
message ID. This has to be a numeric value for all messages in a single
set.  Perhaps you could imagine the problems keeping such a list while
changing the source code.  Add a new message here, remove one there.  Of
course there have been developed a lot of tools helping to organize this
chaos but one as the other fails in one aspect or the other.  We don't
want to say that the other approach has no problems but they are far
more easy to manage.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gettext,  Next: Comparison,  Prev: catgets,  Up: Programmers

11.2 About 'gettext'
====================

   The definition of the 'gettext' interface comes from a Uniforum
proposal.  It was submitted there by Sun, who had implemented the
'gettext' function in SunOS 4, around 1990.  Nowadays, the 'gettext'
interface is specified by the OpenI18N standard.

   The main point about this solution is that it does not follow the
method of normal file handling (open-use-close) and that it does not
burden the programmer with so many tasks, especially the unique key
handling.  Of course here also a unique key is needed, but this key is
the message itself (how long or short it is).  See *note Comparison::
for a more detailed comparison of the two methods.

   The following section contains a rather detailed description of the
interface.  We make it that detailed because this is the interface we
chose for the GNU 'gettext' Library.  Programmers interested in using
this library will be interested in this description.

* Menu:

* Interface to gettext::        The interface
* Ambiguities::                 Solving ambiguities
* Locating Catalogs::           Locating message catalog files
* Charset conversion::          How to request conversion to Unicode
* Contexts::                    Solving ambiguities in GUI programs
* Plural forms::                Additional functions for handling plurals
* Optimized gettext::           Optimization of the *gettext functions

File: gettext.info,  Node: Interface to gettext,  Next: Ambiguities,  Prev: gettext,  Up: gettext

11.2.1 The Interface
--------------------

   The minimal functionality an interface must have is a) to select a
domain the strings are coming from (a single domain for all programs is
not reasonable because its construction and maintenance is difficult,
perhaps impossible) and b) to access a string in a selected domain.

   This is principally the description of the 'gettext' interface.  It
has a global domain which unqualified usages reference.  Of course this
domain is selectable by the user.

     char *textdomain (const char *domain_name);

   This provides the possibility to change or query the current status
of the current global domain of the 'LC_MESSAGE' category.  The argument
is a null-terminated string, whose characters must be legal in the use
in filenames.  If the DOMAIN_NAME argument is 'NULL', the function
returns the current value.  If no value has been set before, the name of
the default domain is returned: _messages_.  Please note that although
the return value of 'textdomain' is of type 'char *' no changing is
allowed.  It is also important to know that no checks of the
availability are made.  If the name is not available you will see this
by the fact that no translations are provided.

To use a domain set by 'textdomain' the function

     char *gettext (const char *msgid);

is to be used.  This is the simplest reasonable form one can imagine.
The translation of the string MSGID is returned if it is available in
the current domain.  If it is not available, the argument itself is
returned.  If the argument is 'NULL' the result is undefined.

   One thing which should come into mind is that no explicit dependency
to the used domain is given.  The current value of the domain is used.
If this changes between two executions of the same 'gettext' call in the
program, both calls reference a different message catalog.

   For the easiest case, which is normally used in internationalized
packages, once at the beginning of execution a call to 'textdomain' is
issued, setting the domain to a unique name, normally the package name.
In the following code all strings which have to be translated are
filtered through the gettext function.  That's all, the package speaks
your language.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Ambiguities,  Next: Locating Catalogs,  Prev: Interface to gettext,  Up: gettext

11.2.2 Solving Ambiguities
--------------------------

   While this single name domain works well for most applications there
might be the need to get translations from more than one domain.  Of
course one could switch between different domains with calls to
'textdomain', but this is really not convenient nor is it fast.  A
possible situation could be one case subject to discussion during this
writing: all error messages of functions in the set of common used
functions should go into a separate domain 'error'.  By this mean we
would only need to translate them once.  Another case are messages from
a library, as these _have_ to be independent of the current domain set
by the application.

For this reasons there are two more functions to retrieve strings:

     char *dgettext (const char *domain_name, const char *msgid);
     char *dcgettext (const char *domain_name, const char *msgid,
                      int category);

   Both take an additional argument at the first place, which
corresponds to the argument of 'textdomain'.  The third argument of
'dcgettext' allows to use another locale category but 'LC_MESSAGES'.
But I really don't know where this can be useful.  If the DOMAIN_NAME is
'NULL' or CATEGORY has an value beside the known ones, the result is
undefined.  It should also be noted that this function is not part of
the second known implementation of this function family, the one found
in Solaris.

   A second ambiguity can arise by the fact, that perhaps more than one
domain has the same name.  This can be solved by specifying where the
needed message catalog files can be found.

     char *bindtextdomain (const char *domain_name,
                           const char *dir_name);

   Calling this function binds the given domain to a file in the
specified directory (how this file is determined follows below).
Especially a file in the systems default place is not favored against
the specified file anymore (as it would be by solely using
'textdomain').  A 'NULL' pointer for the DIR_NAME parameter returns the
binding associated with DOMAIN_NAME.  If DOMAIN_NAME itself is 'NULL'
nothing happens and a 'NULL' pointer is returned.  Here again as for all
the other functions is true that none of the return value must be
changed!

   It is important to remember that relative path names for the DIR_NAME
parameter can be trouble.  Since the path is always computed relative to
the current directory different results will be achieved when the
program executes a 'chdir' command.  Relative paths should always be
avoided to avoid dependencies and unreliabilities.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Locating Catalogs,  Next: Charset conversion,  Prev: Ambiguities,  Up: gettext

11.2.3 Locating Message Catalog Files
-------------------------------------

   Because many different languages for many different packages have to
be stored we need some way to add these information to file message
catalog files.  The way usually used in Unix environments is have this
encoding in the file name.  This is also done here.  The directory name
given in 'bindtextdomain's second argument (or the default directory),
followed by the name of the locale, the locale category, and the domain
name are concatenated:

     DIR_NAME/LOCALE/LC_CATEGORY/DOMAIN_NAME.mo

   The default value for DIR_NAME is system specific.  For the GNU
library, and for packages adhering to its conventions, it's:
     /usr/local/share/locale

LOCALE is the name of the locale category which is designated by
'LC_CATEGORY'.  For 'gettext' and 'dgettext' this 'LC_CATEGORY' is
always 'LC_MESSAGES'.(1)  The name of the locale category is determined
through 'setlocale (LC_CATEGORY, NULL)'.  (2) When using the function
'dcgettext', you can specify the locale category through the third
argument.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Some system, e.g. mingw, don't have 'LC_MESSAGES'.  Here we use a
more or less arbitrary value for it, namely 1729, the smallest positive
integer which can be represented in two different ways as the sum of two
cubes.

   (2) When the system does not support 'setlocale' its behavior in
setting the locale values is simulated by looking at the environment
variables.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Charset conversion,  Next: Contexts,  Prev: Locating Catalogs,  Up: gettext

11.2.4 How to specify the output character set 'gettext' uses
-------------------------------------------------------------

   'gettext' not only looks up a translation in a message catalog.  It
also converts the translation on the fly to the desired output character
set.  This is useful if the user is working in a different character set
than the translator who created the message catalog, because it avoids
distributing variants of message catalogs which differ only in the
character set.

   The output character set is, by default, the value of 'nl_langinfo
(CODESET)', which depends on the 'LC_CTYPE' part of the current locale.
But programs which store strings in a locale independent way (e.g.
UTF-8) can request that 'gettext' and related functions return the
translations in that encoding, by use of the 'bind_textdomain_codeset'
function.

   Note that the MSGID argument to 'gettext' is not subject to character
set conversion.  Also, when 'gettext' does not find a translation for
MSGID, it returns MSGID unchanged - independently of the current output
character set.  It is therefore recommended that all MSGIDs be US-ASCII
strings.

 -- Function: char * bind_textdomain_codeset (const char *DOMAINNAME,
          const char *CODESET)
     The 'bind_textdomain_codeset' function can be used to specify the
     output character set for message catalogs for domain DOMAINNAME.
     The CODESET argument must be a valid codeset name which can be used
     for the 'iconv_open' function, or a null pointer.

     If the CODESET parameter is the null pointer,
     'bind_textdomain_codeset' returns the currently selected codeset
     for the domain with the name DOMAINNAME.  It returns 'NULL' if no
     codeset has yet been selected.

     The 'bind_textdomain_codeset' function can be used several times.
     If used multiple times with the same DOMAINNAME argument, the later
     call overrides the settings made by the earlier one.

     The 'bind_textdomain_codeset' function returns a pointer to a
     string containing the name of the selected codeset.  The string is
     allocated internally in the function and must not be changed by the
     user.  If the system went out of core during the execution of
     'bind_textdomain_codeset', the return value is 'NULL' and the
     global variable ERRNO is set accordingly.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Contexts,  Next: Plural forms,  Prev: Charset conversion,  Up: gettext

11.2.5 Using contexts for solving ambiguities
---------------------------------------------

   One place where the 'gettext' functions, if used normally, have big
problems is within programs with graphical user interfaces (GUIs).  The
problem is that many of the strings which have to be translated are very
short.  They have to appear in pull-down menus which restricts the
length.  But strings which are not containing entire sentences or at
least large fragments of a sentence may appear in more than one
situation in the program but might have different translations.  This is
especially true for the one-word strings which are frequently used in
GUI programs.

   As a consequence many people say that the 'gettext' approach is wrong
and instead 'catgets' should be used which indeed does not have this
problem.  But there is a very simple and powerful method to handle this
kind of problems with the 'gettext' functions.

   Contexts can be added to strings to be translated.  A context
dependent translation lookup is when a translation for a given string is
searched, that is limited to a given context.  The translation for the
same string in a different context can be different.  The different
translations of the same string in different contexts can be stored in
the in the same MO file, and can be edited by the translator in the same
PO file.

   The 'gettext.h' include file contains the lookup macros for strings
with contexts.  They are implemented as thin macros and inline functions
over the functions from '<libintl.h>'.

     const char *pgettext (const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid);

   In a call of this macro, MSGCTXT and MSGID must be string literals.
The macro returns the translation of MSGID, restricted to the context
given by MSGCTXT.

   The MSGCTXT string is visible in the PO file to the translator.  You
should try to make it somehow canonical and never changing.  Because
every time you change an MSGCTXT, the translator will have to review the
translation of MSGID.

   Finding a canonical MSGCTXT string that doesn't change over time can
be hard.  But you shouldn't use the file name or class name containing
the 'pgettext' call - because it is a common development task to rename
a file or a class, and it shouldn't cause translator work.  Also you
shouldn't use a comment in the form of a complete English sentence as
MSGCTXT - because orthography or grammar changes are often applied to
such sentences, and again, it shouldn't force the translator to do a
review.

   The 'p' in 'pgettext' stands for "particular": 'pgettext' fetches a
particular translation of the MSGID.

     const char *dpgettext (const char *domain_name,
                            const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid);
     const char *dcpgettext (const char *domain_name,
                             const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid,
                             int category);

   These are generalizations of 'pgettext'.  They behave similarly to
'dgettext' and 'dcgettext', respectively.  The DOMAIN_NAME argument
defines the translation domain.  The CATEGORY argument allows to use
another locale category than 'LC_MESSAGES'.

   As as example consider the following fictional situation.  A GUI
program has a menu bar with the following entries:

     +------------+------------+--------------------------------------+
     | File       | Printer    |                                      |
     +------------+------------+--------------------------------------+
     | Open     | | Select   |
     | New      | | Open     |
     +----------+ | Connect  |
                  +----------+

   To have the strings 'File', 'Printer', 'Open', 'New', 'Select', and
'Connect' translated there has to be at some point in the code a call to
a function of the 'gettext' family.  But in two places the string passed
into the function would be 'Open'.  The translations might not be the
same and therefore we are in the dilemma described above.

   What distinguishes the two places is the menu path from the menu root
to the particular menu entries:

     Menu|File
     Menu|Printer
     Menu|File|Open
     Menu|File|New
     Menu|Printer|Select
     Menu|Printer|Open
     Menu|Printer|Connect

   The context is thus the menu path without its last part.  So, the
calls look like this:

     pgettext ("Menu|", "File")
     pgettext ("Menu|", "Printer")
     pgettext ("Menu|File|", "Open")
     pgettext ("Menu|File|", "New")
     pgettext ("Menu|Printer|", "Select")
     pgettext ("Menu|Printer|", "Open")
     pgettext ("Menu|Printer|", "Connect")

   Whether or not to use the '|' character at the end of the context is
a matter of style.

   For more complex cases, where the MSGCTXT or MSGID are not string
literals, more general macros are available:

     const char *pgettext_expr (const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid);
     const char *dpgettext_expr (const char *domain_name,
                                 const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid);
     const char *dcpgettext_expr (const char *domain_name,
                                  const char *msgctxt, const char *msgid,
                                  int category);

   Here MSGCTXT and MSGID can be arbitrary string-valued expressions.
These macros are more general.  But in the case that both argument
expressions are string literals, the macros without the '_expr' suffix
are more efficient.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Plural forms,  Next: Optimized gettext,  Prev: Contexts,  Up: gettext

11.2.6 Additional functions for plural forms
--------------------------------------------

   The functions of the 'gettext' family described so far (and all the
'catgets' functions as well) have one problem in the real world which
have been neglected completely in all existing approaches.  What is
meant here is the handling of plural forms.

   Looking through Unix source code before the time anybody thought
about internationalization (and, sadly, even afterwards) one can often
find code similar to the following:

        printf ("%d file%s deleted", n, n == 1 ? "" : "s");

After the first complaints from people internationalizing the code
people either completely avoided formulations like this or used strings
like '"file(s)"'.  Both look unnatural and should be avoided.  First
tries to solve the problem correctly looked like this:

        if (n == 1)
          printf ("%d file deleted", n);
        else
          printf ("%d files deleted", n);

   But this does not solve the problem.  It helps languages where the
plural form of a noun is not simply constructed by adding an 's' but
that is all.  Once again people fell into the trap of believing the
rules their language is using are universal.  But the handling of plural
forms differs widely between the language families.  For example, Rafal
Maszkowski '<rzm AT mat.pl>' reports:

     In Polish we use e.g. plik (file) this way:
          1 plik
          2,3,4 pliki
          5-21 pliko'w
          22-24 pliki
          25-31 pliko'w
     and so on (o' means 8859-2 oacute which should be rather okreska,
     similar to aogonek).

   There are two things which can differ between languages (and even
inside language families);

   * The form how plural forms are built differs.  This is a problem
     with languages which have many irregularities.  German, for
     instance, is a drastic case.  Though English and German are part of
     the same language family (Germanic), the almost regular forming of
     plural noun forms (appending an 's') is hardly found in German.

   * The number of plural forms differ.  This is somewhat surprising for
     those who only have experiences with Romanic and Germanic languages
     since here the number is the same (there are two).

     But other language families have only one form or many forms.  More
     information on this in an extra section.

   The consequence of this is that application writers should not try to
solve the problem in their code.  This would be localization since it is
only usable for certain, hardcoded language environments.  Instead the
extended 'gettext' interface should be used.

   These extra functions are taking instead of the one key string two
strings and a numerical argument.  The idea behind this is that using
the numerical argument and the first string as a key, the implementation
can select using rules specified by the translator the right plural
form.  The two string arguments then will be used to provide a return
value in case no message catalog is found (similar to the normal
'gettext' behavior).  In this case the rules for Germanic language is
used and it is assumed that the first string argument is the singular
form, the second the plural form.

   This has the consequence that programs without language catalogs can
display the correct strings only if the program itself is written using
a Germanic language.  This is a limitation but since the GNU C library
(as well as the GNU 'gettext' package) are written as part of the GNU
package and the coding standards for the GNU project require program
being written in English, this solution nevertheless fulfills its
purpose.

 -- Function: char * ngettext (const char *MSGID1, const char *MSGID2,
          unsigned long int N)
     The 'ngettext' function is similar to the 'gettext' function as it
     finds the message catalogs in the same way.  But it takes two extra
     arguments.  The MSGID1 parameter must contain the singular form of
     the string to be converted.  It is also used as the key for the
     search in the catalog.  The MSGID2 parameter is the plural form.
     The parameter N is used to determine the plural form.  If no
     message catalog is found MSGID1 is returned if 'n == 1', otherwise
     'msgid2'.

     An example for the use of this function is:

          printf (ngettext ("%d file removed", "%d files removed", n), n);

     Please note that the numeric value N has to be passed to the
     'printf' function as well.  It is not sufficient to pass it only to
     'ngettext'.

     In the English singular case, the number - always 1 - can be
     replaced with "one":

          printf (ngettext ("One file removed", "%d files removed", n), n);

     This works because the 'printf' function discards excess arguments
     that are not consumed by the format string.

     If this function is meant to yield a format string that takes two
     or more arguments, you can not use it like this:

          printf (ngettext ("%d file removed from directory %s",
                            "%d files removed from directory %s",
                            n),
                  n, dir);

     because in many languages the translators want to replace the '%d'
     with an explicit word in the singular case, just like "one" in
     English, and C format strings cannot consume the second argument
     but skip the first argument.  Instead, you have to reorder the
     arguments so that 'n' comes last:

          printf (ngettext ("%2$d file removed from directory %1$s",
                            "%2$d files removed from directory %1$s",
                            n),
                  dir, n);

     See *note c-format:: for details about this argument reordering
     syntax.

     When you know that the value of 'n' is within a given range, you
     can specify it as a comment directed to the 'xgettext' tool.  This
     information may help translators to use more adequate translations.
     Like this:

          if (days > 7 && days < 14)
            /* xgettext: range: 1..6 */
            printf (ngettext ("one week and one day", "one week and %d days",
                              days - 7),
                    days - 7);

     It is also possible to use this function when the strings don't
     contain a cardinal number:

          puts (ngettext ("Delete the selected file?",
                          "Delete the selected files?",
                          n));

     In this case the number N is only used to choose the plural form.

 -- Function: char * dngettext (const char *DOMAIN, const char *MSGID1,
          const char *MSGID2, unsigned long int N)
     The 'dngettext' is similar to the 'dgettext' function in the way
     the message catalog is selected.  The difference is that it takes
     two extra parameter to provide the correct plural form.  These two
     parameters are handled in the same way 'ngettext' handles them.

 -- Function: char * dcngettext (const char *DOMAIN, const char *MSGID1,
          const char *MSGID2, unsigned long int N, int CATEGORY)
     The 'dcngettext' is similar to the 'dcgettext' function in the way
     the message catalog is selected.  The difference is that it takes
     two extra parameter to provide the correct plural form.  These two
     parameters are handled in the same way 'ngettext' handles them.

   Now, how do these functions solve the problem of the plural forms?
Without the input of linguists (which was not available) it was not
possible to determine whether there are only a few different forms in
which plural forms are formed or whether the number can increase with
every new supported language.

   Therefore the solution implemented is to allow the translator to
specify the rules of how to select the plural form.  Since the formula
varies with every language this is the only viable solution except for
hardcoding the information in the code (which still would require the
possibility of extensions to not prevent the use of new languages).

   The information about the plural form selection has to be stored in
the header entry of the PO file (the one with the empty 'msgid' string).
The plural form information looks like this:

     Plural-Forms: nplurals=2; plural=n == 1 ? 0 : 1;

   The 'nplurals' value must be a decimal number which specifies how
many different plural forms exist for this language.  The string
following 'plural' is an expression which is using the C language
syntax.  Exceptions are that no negative numbers are allowed, numbers
must be decimal, and the only variable allowed is 'n'.  Spaces are
allowed in the expression, but backslash-newlines are not; in the
examples below the backslash-newlines are present for formatting
purposes only.  This expression will be evaluated whenever one of the
functions 'ngettext', 'dngettext', or 'dcngettext' is called.  The
numeric value passed to these functions is then substituted for all uses
of the variable 'n' in the expression.  The resulting value then must be
greater or equal to zero and smaller than the value given as the value
of 'nplurals'.

The following rules are known at this point.  The language with families
are listed.  But this does not necessarily mean the information can be
generalized for the whole family (as can be easily seen in the table
below).(1)

Only one form:
     Some languages only require one single form.  There is no
     distinction between the singular and plural form.  An appropriate
     header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=1; plural=0;

     Languages with this property include:

     Asian family
          Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean
     Tai-Kadai family
          Thai

Two forms, singular used for one only
     This is the form used in most existing programs since it is what
     English is using.  A header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=2; plural=n != 1;

     (Note: this uses the feature of C expressions that boolean
     expressions have to value zero or one.)

     Languages with this property include:

     Germanic family
          English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Faroese
     Romanic family
          Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Bulgarian
     Latin/Greek family
          Greek
     Finno-Ugric family
          Finnish, Estonian
     Semitic family
          Hebrew
     Austronesian family
          Bahasa Indonesian
     Artificial
          Esperanto

     Other languages using the same header entry are:

     Finno-Ugric family
          Hungarian
     Turkic/Altaic family
          Turkish

     Hungarian does not appear to have a plural if you look at sentences
     involving cardinal numbers.  For example, "1 apple" is "1 alma",
     and "123 apples" is "123 alma".  But when the number is not
     explicit, the distinction between singular and plural exists: "the
     apple" is "az alma", and "the apples" is "az alm??k".  Since
     'ngettext' has to support both types of sentences, it is classified
     here, under "two forms".

     The same holds for Turkish: "1 apple" is "1 elma", and "123 apples"
     is "123 elma".  But when the number is omitted, the distinction
     between singular and plural exists: "the apple" is "elma", and "the
     apples" is "elmalar".

Two forms, singular used for zero and one
     Exceptional case in the language family.  The header entry would
     be:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=2; plural=n>1;

     Languages with this property include:

     Romanic family
          Brazilian Portuguese, French

Three forms, special case for zero
     The header entry would be:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; plural=n%10==1 && n%100!=11 ? 0 : n != 0 ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Baltic family
          Latvian

Three forms, special cases for one and two
     The header entry would be:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; plural=n==1 ? 0 : n==2 ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Celtic
          Gaeilge (Irish)

Three forms, special case for numbers ending in 00 or [2-9][0-9]
     The header entry would be:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; \
              plural=n==1 ? 0 : (n==0 || (n%100 > 0 && n%100 < 20)) ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Romanic family
          Romanian

Three forms, special case for numbers ending in 1[2-9]
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; \
              plural=n%10==1 && n%100!=11 ? 0 : \
                     n%10>=2 && (n%100<10 || n%100>=20) ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Baltic family
          Lithuanian

Three forms, special cases for numbers ending in 1 and 2, 3, 4, except those ending in 1[1-4]
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; \
              plural=n%10==1 && n%100!=11 ? 0 : \
                     n%10>=2 && n%10<=4 && (n%100<10 || n%100>=20) ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Slavic family
          Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Serbian, Croatian

Three forms, special cases for 1 and 2, 3, 4
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; \
              plural=(n==1) ? 0 : (n>=2 && n<=4) ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Slavic family
          Czech, Slovak

Three forms, special case for one and some numbers ending in 2, 3, or 4
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; \
              plural=n==1 ? 0 : \
                     n%10>=2 && n%10<=4 && (n%100<10 || n%100>=20) ? 1 : 2;

     Languages with this property include:

     Slavic family
          Polish

Four forms, special case for one and all numbers ending in 02, 03, or 04
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=4; \
              plural=n%100==1 ? 0 : n%100==2 ? 1 : n%100==3 || n%100==4 ? 2 : 3;

     Languages with this property include:

     Slavic family
          Slovenian

Six forms, special cases for one, two, all numbers ending in 02, 03, ... 10, all numbers ending in 11 ... 99, and others
     The header entry would look like this:

          Plural-Forms: nplurals=6; \
              plural=n==0 ? 0 : n==1 ? 1 : n==2 ? 2 : n%100>=3 && n%100<=10 ? 3 \
              : n%100>=11 ? 4 : 5;

     Languages with this property include:

     Afroasiatic family
          Arabic

   You might now ask, 'ngettext' handles only numbers N of type
'unsigned long'.  What about larger integer types?  What about negative
numbers?  What about floating-point numbers?

   About larger integer types, such as 'uintmax_t' or 'unsigned long
long': they can be handled by reducing the value to a range that fits in
an 'unsigned long'.  Simply casting the value to 'unsigned long' would
not do the right thing, since it would treat 'ULONG_MAX + 1' like zero,
'ULONG_MAX + 2' like singular, and the like.  Here you can exploit the
fact that all mentioned plural form formulas eventually become periodic,
with a period that is a divisor of 100 (or 1000 or 1000000).  So, when
you reduce a large value to another one in the range [1000000, 1999999]
that ends in the same 6 decimal digits, you can assume that it will lead
to the same plural form selection.  This code does this:

     #include <inttypes.h>
     uintmax_t nbytes = ...;
     printf (ngettext ("The file has %"PRIuMAX" byte.",
                       "The file has %"PRIuMAX" bytes.",
                       (nbytes > ULONG_MAX
                        ? (nbytes % 1000000) + 1000000
                        : nbytes)),
             nbytes);

   Negative and floating-point values usually represent physical
entities for which singular and plural don't clearly apply.  In such
cases, there is no need to use 'ngettext'; a simple 'gettext' call with
a form suitable for all values will do.  For example:

     printf (gettext ("Time elapsed: %.3f seconds"),
             num_milliseconds * 0.001);

Even if NUM_MILLISECONDS happens to be a multiple of 1000, the output
     Time elapsed: 1.000 seconds
is acceptable in English, and similarly for other languages.

   The translators' perspective regarding plural forms is explained in
*note Translating plural forms::.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Additions are welcome.  Send appropriate information to
<bug-gnu-gettext AT gnu.org> and <bug-glibc-manual AT gnu.org>.  The Unicode
CLDR Project (<http://cldr.unicode.org>) provides a comprehensive set of
plural forms in a different format.  The 'msginit' program has
preliminary support for the format so you can use it as a baseline
(*note msginit Invocation::).

File: gettext.info,  Node: Optimized gettext,  Prev: Plural forms,  Up: gettext

11.2.7 Optimization of the *gettext functions
---------------------------------------------

   At this point of the discussion we should talk about an advantage of
the GNU 'gettext' implementation.  Some readers might have pointed out
that an internationalized program might have a poor performance if some
string has to be translated in an inner loop.  While this is unavoidable
when the string varies from one run of the loop to the other it is
simply a waste of time when the string is always the same.  Take the
following example:

     {
       while (...)
         {
           puts (gettext ("Hello world"));
         }
     }

When the locale selection does not change between two runs the resulting
string is always the same.  One way to use this is:

     {
       str = gettext ("Hello world");
       while (...)
         {
           puts (str);
         }
     }

But this solution is not usable in all situation (e.g. when the locale
selection changes) nor does it lead to legible code.

   For this reason, GNU 'gettext' caches previous translation results.
When the same translation is requested twice, with no new message
catalogs being loaded in between, 'gettext' will, the second time, find
the result through a single cache lookup.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Comparison,  Next: Using libintl.a,  Prev: gettext,  Up: Programmers

11.3 Comparing the Two Interfaces
=================================

   The following discussion is perhaps a little bit colored.  As said
above we implemented GNU 'gettext' following the Uniforum proposal and
this surely has its reasons.  But it should show how we came to this
decision.

   First we take a look at the developing process.  When we write an
application using NLS provided by 'gettext' we proceed as always.  Only
when we come to a string which might be seen by the users and thus has
to be translated we use 'gettext("...")' instead of '"..."'.  At the
beginning of each source file (or in a central header file) we define

     #define gettext(String) (String)

   Even this definition can be avoided when the system supports the
'gettext' function in its C library.  When we compile this code the
result is the same as if no NLS code is used.  When you take a look at
the GNU 'gettext' code you will see that we use '_("...")' instead of
'gettext("...")'.  This reduces the number of additional characters per
translatable string to _3_ (in words: three).

   When now a production version of the program is needed we simply
replace the definition

     #define _(String) (String)

by

     #include <libintl.h>
     #define _(String) gettext (String)

Additionally we run the program 'xgettext' on all source code file which
contain translatable strings and that's it: we have a running program
which does not depend on translations to be available, but which can use
any that becomes available.

   The same procedure can be done for the 'gettext_noop' invocations
(*note Special cases::).  One usually defines 'gettext_noop' as a no-op
macro.  So you should consider the following code for your project:

     #define gettext_noop(String) String
     #define N_(String) gettext_noop (String)

   'N_' is a short form similar to '_'.  The 'Makefile' in the 'po/'
directory of GNU 'gettext' knows by default both of the mentioned short
forms so you are invited to follow this proposal for your own ease.

   Now to 'catgets'.  The main problem is the work for the programmer.
Every time he comes to a translatable string he has to define a number
(or a symbolic constant) which has also be defined in the message
catalog file.  He also has to take care for duplicate entries, duplicate
message IDs etc.  If he wants to have the same quality in the message
catalog as the GNU 'gettext' program provides he also has to put the
descriptive comments for the strings and the location in all source code
files in the message catalog.  This is nearly a Mission: Impossible.

   But there are also some points people might call advantages speaking
for 'catgets'.  If you have a single word in a string and this string is
used in different contexts it is likely that in one or the other
language the word has different translations.  Example:

     printf ("%s: %d", gettext ("number"), number_of_errors)

     printf ("you should see %d %s", number_count,
             number_count == 1 ? gettext ("number") : gettext ("numbers"))

   Here we have to translate two times the string '"number"'.  Even if
you do not speak a language beside English it might be possible to
recognize that the two words have a different meaning.  In German the
first appearance has to be translated to '"Anzahl"' and the second to
'"Zahl"'.

   Now you can say that this example is really esoteric.  And you are
right!  This is exactly how we felt about this problem and decide that
it does not weight that much.  The solution for the above problem could
be very easy:

     printf ("%s %d", gettext ("number:"), number_of_errors)

     printf (number_count == 1 ? gettext ("you should see %d number")
                               : gettext ("you should see %d numbers"),
             number_count)

   We believe that we can solve all conflicts with this method.  If it
is difficult one can also consider changing one of the conflicting
string a little bit.  But it is not impossible to overcome.

   'catgets' allows same original entry to have different translations,
but 'gettext' has another, scalable approach for solving ambiguities of
this kind: *Note Ambiguities::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Using libintl.a,  Next: gettext grok,  Prev: Comparison,  Up: Programmers

11.4 Using libintl.a in own programs
====================================

   Starting with version 0.9.4 the library 'libintl.h' should be
self-contained.  I.e., you can use it in your own programs without
providing additional functions.  The 'Makefile' will put the header and
the library in directories selected using the '$(prefix)'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gettext grok,  Next: Temp Programmers,  Prev: Using libintl.a,  Up: Programmers

11.5 Being a 'gettext' grok
===========================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   To fully exploit the functionality of the GNU 'gettext' library it is
surely helpful to read the source code.  But for those who don't want to
spend that much time in reading the (sometimes complicated) code here is
a list comments:

   * Changing the language at runtime

     For interactive programs it might be useful to offer a selection of
     the used language at runtime.  To understand how to do this one
     need to know how the used language is determined while executing
     the 'gettext' function.  The method which is presented here only
     works correctly with the GNU implementation of the 'gettext'
     functions.

     In the function 'dcgettext' at every call the current setting of
     the highest priority environment variable is determined and used.
     Highest priority means here the following list with decreasing
     priority:

       1. 'LANGUAGE'
       2. 'LC_ALL'
       3. 'LC_xxx', according to selected locale category
       4. 'LANG'

     Afterwards the path is constructed using the found value and the
     translation file is loaded if available.

     What happens now when the value for, say, 'LANGUAGE' changes?
     According to the process explained above the new value of this
     variable is found as soon as the 'dcgettext' function is called.
     But this also means the (perhaps) different message catalog file is
     loaded.  In other words: the used language is changed.

     But there is one little hook.  The code for gcc-2.7.0 and up
     provides some optimization.  This optimization normally prevents
     the calling of the 'dcgettext' function as long as no new catalog
     is loaded.  But if 'dcgettext' is not called the program also
     cannot find the 'LANGUAGE' variable be changed (*note Optimized
     gettext::).  A solution for this is very easy.  Include the
     following code in the language switching function.

            /* Change language.  */
            setenv ("LANGUAGE", "fr", 1);

            /* Make change known.  */
            {
              extern int  _nl_msg_cat_cntr;
              ++_nl_msg_cat_cntr;
            }

     The variable '_nl_msg_cat_cntr' is defined in 'loadmsgcat.c'.  You
     don't need to know what this is for.  But it can be used to detect
     whether a 'gettext' implementation is GNU gettext and not non-GNU
     system's native gettext implementation.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Temp Programmers,  Prev: gettext grok,  Up: Programmers

11.6 Temporary Notes for the Programmers Chapter
================================================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

* Menu:

* Temp Implementations::        Temporary - Two Possible Implementations
* Temp catgets::                Temporary - About 'catgets'
* Temp WSI::                    Temporary - Why a single implementation
* Temp Notes::                  Temporary - Notes

File: gettext.info,  Node: Temp Implementations,  Next: Temp catgets,  Prev: Temp Programmers,  Up: Temp Programmers

11.6.1 Temporary - Two Possible Implementations
-----------------------------------------------

   There are two competing methods for language independent messages:
the X/Open 'catgets' method, and the Uniforum 'gettext' method.  The
'catgets' method indexes messages by integers; the 'gettext' method
indexes them by their English translations.  The 'catgets' method has
been around longer and is supported by more vendors.  The 'gettext'
method is supported by Sun, and it has been heard that the COSE
multi-vendor initiative is supporting it.  Neither method is a POSIX
standard; the POSIX.1 committee had a lot of disagreement in this area.

   Neither one is in the POSIX standard.  There was much disagreement in
the POSIX.1 committee about using the 'gettext' routines vs.  'catgets'
(XPG). In the end the committee couldn't agree on anything, so no
messaging system was included as part of the standard.  I believe the
informative annex of the standard includes the XPG3 messaging
interfaces, "...as an example of a messaging system that has been
implemented..."

   They were very careful not to say anywhere that you should use one
set of interfaces over the other.  For more on this topic please see the
Programming for Internationalization FAQ.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Temp catgets,  Next: Temp WSI,  Prev: Temp Implementations,  Up: Temp Programmers

11.6.2 Temporary - About 'catgets'
----------------------------------

   There have been a few discussions of late on the use of 'catgets' as
a base.  I think it important to present both sides of the argument and
hence am opting to play devil's advocate for a little bit.

   I'll not deny the fact that 'catgets' could have been designed a lot
better.  It currently has quite a number of limitations and these have
already been pointed out.

   However there is a great deal to be said for consistency and
standardization.  A common recurring problem when writing Unix software
is the myriad portability problems across Unix platforms.  It seems as
if every Unix vendor had a look at the operating system and found parts
they could improve upon.  Undoubtedly, these modifications are probably
innovative and solve real problems.  However, software developers have a
hard time keeping up with all these changes across so many platforms.

   And this has prompted the Unix vendors to begin to standardize their
systems.  Hence the impetus for Spec1170.  Every major Unix vendor has
committed to supporting this standard and every Unix software developer
waits with glee the day they can write software to this standard and
simply recompile (without having to use autoconf) across different
platforms.

   As I understand it, Spec1170 is roughly based upon version 4 of the
X/Open Portability Guidelines (XPG4).  Because 'catgets' and friends are
defined in XPG4, I'm led to believe that 'catgets' is a part of Spec1170
and hence will become a standardized component of all Unix systems.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Temp WSI,  Next: Temp Notes,  Prev: Temp catgets,  Up: Temp Programmers

11.6.3 Temporary - Why a single implementation
----------------------------------------------

   Now it seems kind of wasteful to me to have two different systems
installed for accessing message catalogs.  If we do want to remedy
'catgets' deficiencies why don't we try to expand 'catgets' (in a
compatible manner) rather than implement an entirely new system.
Otherwise, we'll end up with two message catalog access systems
installed with an operating system - one set of routines for packages
using GNU 'gettext' for their internationalization, and another set of
routines (catgets) for all other software.  Bloated?

   Supposing another catalog access system is implemented.  Which do we
recommend?  At least for Linux, we need to attract as many software
developers as possible.  Hence we need to make it as easy for them to
port their software as possible.  Which means supporting 'catgets'.  We
will be implementing the 'libintl' code within our 'libc', but does this
mean we also have to incorporate another message catalog access scheme
within our 'libc' as well?  And what about people who are going to be
using the 'libintl' + non-'catgets' routines.  When they port their
software to other platforms, they're now going to have to include the
front-end ('libintl') code plus the back-end code (the non-'catgets'
access routines) with their software instead of just including the
'libintl' code with their software.

   Message catalog support is however only the tip of the iceberg.  What
about the data for the other locale categories?  They also have a number
of deficiencies.  Are we going to abandon them as well and develop
another duplicate set of routines (should 'libintl' expand beyond
message catalog support)?

   Like many parts of Unix that can be improved upon, we're stuck with
balancing compatibility with the past with useful improvements and
innovations for the future.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Temp Notes,  Prev: Temp WSI,  Up: Temp Programmers

11.6.4 Temporary - Notes
------------------------

   X/Open agreed very late on the standard form so that many
implementations differ from the final form.  Both of my system (old
Linux catgets and Ultrix-4) have a strange variation.

   OK. After incorporating the last changes I have to spend some time on
making the GNU/Linux 'libc' 'gettext' functions.  So in future Solaris
is not the only system having 'gettext'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Translators,  Next: Maintainers,  Prev: Programmers,  Up: Top

12 The Translator's View
************************

* Menu:

* Trans Intro 0::               Introduction 0
* Trans Intro 1::               Introduction 1
* Discussions::                 Discussions
* Organization::                Organization
* Information Flow::            Information Flow
* Translating plural forms::    How to fill in 'msgstr[0]', 'msgstr[1]'
* Prioritizing messages::       How to find which messages to translate first

File: gettext.info,  Node: Trans Intro 0,  Next: Trans Intro 1,  Prev: Translators,  Up: Translators

12.1 Introduction 0
===================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   Free software is going international!  The Translation Project is a
way to get maintainers, translators and users all together, so free
software will gradually become able to speak many native languages.

   The GNU 'gettext' tool set contains _everything_ maintainers need for
internationalizing their packages for messages.  It also contains quite
useful tools for helping translators at localizing messages to their
native language, once a package has already been internationalized.

   To achieve the Translation Project, we need many interested people
who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to
synergize with other translators speaking the same language.  If you'd
like to volunteer to _work_ at translating messages, please send mail to
your translating team.

   Each team has its own mailing list, courtesy of Linux International.
You may reach your translating team at the address 'LL AT li.org',
replacing LL by the two-letter ISO 639 code for your language.  Language
codes are _not_ the same as country codes given in ISO 3166.  The
following translating teams exist:

     Chinese 'zh', Czech 'cs', Danish 'da', Dutch 'nl', Esperanto 'eo',
     Finnish 'fi', French 'fr', Irish 'ga', German 'de', Greek 'el',
     Italian 'it', Japanese 'ja', Indonesian 'in', Norwegian 'no',
     Polish 'pl', Portuguese 'pt', Russian 'ru', Spanish 'es', Swedish
     'sv' and Turkish 'tr'.

For example, you may reach the Chinese translating team by writing to
'zh AT li.org'.  When you become a member of the translating team for your
own language, you may subscribe to its list.  For example, Swedish
people can send a message to 'sv-request AT li.org', having this message
body:

     subscribe

   Keep in mind that team members should be interested in _working_ at
translations, or at solving translational difficulties, rather than
merely lurking around.  If your team does not exist yet and you want to
start one, please write to 'coordinator AT translationproject.org'; you
will then reach the coordinator for all translator teams.

   A handful of GNU packages have already been adapted and provided with
message translations for several languages.  Translation teams have
begun to organize, using these packages as a starting point.  But there
are many more packages and many languages for which we have no volunteer
translators.  If you would like to volunteer to work at translating
messages, please send mail to 'coordinator AT translationproject.org'
indicating what language(s) you can work on.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Trans Intro 1,  Next: Discussions,  Prev: Trans Intro 0,  Up: Translators

12.2 Introduction 1
===================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   This is now official, GNU is going international!  Here is the
announcement submitted for the January 1995 GNU Bulletin:

     A handful of GNU packages have already been adapted and provided
     with message translations for several languages.  Translation teams
     have begun to organize, using these packages as a starting point.
     But there are many more packages and many languages for which we
     have no volunteer translators.  If you'd like to volunteer to work
     at translating messages, please send mail to
     'coordinator AT translationproject.org' indicating what language(s)
     you can work on.

   This document should answer many questions for those who are curious
about the process or would like to contribute.  Please at least skim
over it, hoping to cut down a little of the high volume of e-mail
generated by this collective effort towards internationalization of free
software.

   Most free programming which is widely shared is done in English, and
currently, English is used as the main communicating language between
national communities collaborating to free software.  This very document
is written in English.  This will not change in the foreseeable future.

   However, there is a strong appetite from national communities for
having more software able to write using national language and habits,
and there is an on-going effort to modify free software in such a way
that it becomes able to do so.  The experiments driven so far raised an
enthusiastic response from pretesters, so we believe that
internationalization of free software is dedicated to succeed.

   For suggestion clarifications, additions or corrections to this
document, please e-mail to 'coordinator AT translationproject.org'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Discussions,  Next: Organization,  Prev: Trans Intro 1,  Up: Translators

12.3 Discussions
================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   Facing this internationalization effort, a few users expressed their
concerns.  Some of these doubts are presented and discussed, here.

   * Smaller groups

     Some languages are not spoken by a very large number of people, so
     people speaking them sometimes consider that there may not be all
     that much demand such versions of free software packages.
     Moreover, many people being _into computers_, in some countries,
     generally seem to prefer English versions of their software.

     On the other end, people might enjoy their own language a lot, and
     be very motivated at providing to themselves the pleasure of having
     their beloved free software speaking their mother tongue.  They do
     themselves a personal favor, and do not pay that much attention to
     the number of people benefiting of their work.

   * Misinterpretation

     Other users are shy to push forward their own language, seeing in
     this some kind of misplaced propaganda.  Someone thought there must
     be some users of the language over the networks pestering other
     people with it.

     But any spoken language is worth localization, because there are
     people behind the language for whom the language is important and
     dear to their hearts.

   * Odd translations

     The biggest problem is to find the right translations so that
     everybody can understand the messages.  Translations are usually a
     little odd.  Some people get used to English, to the extent they
     may find translations into their own language "rather pushy,
     obnoxious and sometimes even hilarious." As a French speaking man,
     I have the experience of those instruction manuals for goods, so
     poorly translated in French in Korea or Taiwan...

     The fact is that we sometimes have to create a kind of national
     computer culture, and this is not easy without the collaboration of
     many people liking their mother tongue.  This is why translations
     are better achieved by people knowing and loving their own
     language, and ready to work together at improving the results they
     obtain.

   * Dependencies over the GPL or LGPL

     Some people wonder if using GNU 'gettext' necessarily brings their
     package under the protective wing of the GNU General Public License
     or the GNU Lesser General Public License, when they do not want to
     make their program free, or want other kinds of freedom.  The
     simplest answer is "normally not".

     The 'gettext-runtime' part of GNU 'gettext', i.e. the contents of
     'libintl', is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License.
     The 'gettext-tools' part of GNU 'gettext', i.e. the rest of the GNU
     'gettext' package, is covered by the GNU General Public License.

     The mere marking of localizable strings in a package, or
     conditional inclusion of a few lines for initialization, is not
     really including GPL'ed or LGPL'ed code.  However, since the
     localization routines in 'libintl' are under the LGPL, the LGPL
     needs to be considered.  It gives the right to distribute the
     complete unmodified source of 'libintl' even with non-free
     programs.  It also gives the right to use 'libintl' as a shared
     library, even for non-free programs.  But it gives the right to use
     'libintl' as a static library or to incorporate 'libintl' into
     another library only to free software.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Organization,  Next: Information Flow,  Prev: Discussions,  Up: Translators

12.4 Organization
=================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   On a larger scale, the true solution would be to organize some kind
of fairly precise set up in which volunteers could participate.  I gave
some thought to this idea lately, and realize there will be some touchy
points.  I thought of writing to Richard Stallman to launch such a
project, but feel it might be good to shake out the ideas between
ourselves first.  Most probably that Linux International has some
experience in the field already, or would like to orchestrate the
volunteer work, maybe.  Food for thought, in any case!

   I guess we have to setup something early, somehow, that will help
many possible contributors of the same language to interlock and avoid
work duplication, and further be put in contact for solving together
problems particular to their tongue (in most languages, there are many
difficulties peculiar to translating technical English).  My Swedish
contributor acknowledged these difficulties, and I'm well aware of them
for French.

   This is surely not a technical issue, but we should manage so the
effort of locale contributors be maximally useful, despite the national
team layer interface between contributors and maintainers.

   The Translation Project needs some setup for coordinating language
coordinators.  Localizing evolving programs will surely become a
permanent and continuous activity in the free software community, once
well started.  The setup should be minimally completed and tested before
GNU 'gettext' becomes an official reality.  The e-mail address
'coordinator AT translationproject.org' has been set up for receiving
offers from volunteers and general e-mail on these topics.  This address
reaches the Translation Project coordinator.

* Menu:

* Central Coordination::        Central Coordination
* National Teams::              National Teams
* Mailing Lists::               Mailing Lists

File: gettext.info,  Node: Central Coordination,  Next: National Teams,  Prev: Organization,  Up: Organization

12.4.1 Central Coordination
---------------------------

   I also think GNU will need sooner than it thinks, that someone set up
a way to organize and coordinate these groups.  Some kind of group of
groups.  My opinion is that it would be good that GNU delegates this
task to a small group of collaborating volunteers, shortly.  Perhaps in
'gnu.announce' a list of this national committee's can be published.

   My role as coordinator would simply be to refer to Ulrich any German
speaking volunteer interested to localization of free software packages,
and maybe helping national groups to initially organize, while
maintaining national registries for until national groups are ready to
take over.  In fact, the coordinator should ease volunteers to get in
contact with one another for creating national teams, which should then
select one coordinator per language, or country (regionalized language).
If well done, the coordination should be useful without being an
overwhelming task, the time to put delegations in place.

File: gettext.info,  Node: National Teams,  Next: Mailing Lists,  Prev: Central Coordination,  Up: Organization

12.4.2 National Teams
---------------------

   I suggest we look for volunteer coordinators/editors for individual
languages.  These people will scan contributions of translation files
for various programs, for their own languages, and will ensure high and
uniform standards of diction.

   From my current experience with other people in these days, those who
provide localizations are very enthusiastic about the process, and are
more interested in the localization process than in the program they
localize, and want to do many programs, not just one.  This seems to
confirm that having a coordinator/editor for each language is a good
idea.

   We need to choose someone who is good at writing clear and concise
prose in the language in question.  That is hard--we can't check it
ourselves.  So we need to ask a few people to judge each others' writing
and select the one who is best.

   I announce my prerelease to a few dozen people, and you would not
believe all the discussions it generated already.  I shudder to think
what will happen when this will be launched, for true, officially, world
wide.  Who am I to arbitrate between two Czekolsovak users contradicting
each other, for example?

   I assume that your German is not much better than my French so that I
would not be able to judge about these formulations.  What I would
suggest is that for each language there is a group for people who
maintain the PO files and judge about changes.  I suspect there will be
cultural differences between how such groups of people will behave.
Some will have relaxed ways, reach consensus easily, and have anyone of
the group relate to the maintainers, while others will fight to death,
organize heavy administrations up to national standards, and use strict
channels.

   The German team is putting out a good example.  Right now, they are
maybe half a dozen people revising translations of each other and
discussing the linguistic issues.  I do not even have all the names.
Ulrich Drepper is taking care of coordinating the German team.  He
subscribed to all my pretest lists, so I do not even have to warn him
specifically of incoming releases.

   I'm sure, that is a good idea to get teams for each language working
on translations.  That will make the translations better and more
consistent.

* Menu:

* Sub-Cultures::                Sub-Cultures
* Organizational Ideas::        Organizational Ideas

File: gettext.info,  Node: Sub-Cultures,  Next: Organizational Ideas,  Prev: National Teams,  Up: National Teams

12.4.2.1 Sub-Cultures
.....................

   Taking French for example, there are a few sub-cultures around
computers which developed diverging vocabularies.  Picking volunteers
here and there without addressing this problem in an organized way, soon
in the project, might produce a distasteful mix of internationalized
programs, and possibly trigger endless quarrels among those who really
care.

   Keeping some kind of unity in the way French localization of
internationalized programs is achieved is a difficult (and delicate)
job.  Knowing the latin character of French people (:-), if we take this
the wrong way, we could end up nowhere, or spoil a lot of energies.
Maybe we should begin to address this problem seriously _before_ GNU
'gettext' become officially published.  And I suspect that this means
soon!

File: gettext.info,  Node: Organizational Ideas,  Prev: Sub-Cultures,  Up: National Teams

12.4.2.2 Organizational Ideas
.............................

   I expect the next big changes after the official release.  Please
note that I use the German translation of the short GPL message.  We
need to set a few good examples before the localization goes out for
true in the free software community.  Here are a few points to discuss:

   * Each group should have one FTP server (at least one master).

   * The files on the server should reflect the latest version (of
     course!)  and it should also contain a RCS directory with the
     corresponding archives (I don't have this now).

   * There should also be a ChangeLog file (this is more useful than the
     RCS archive but can be generated automatically from the later by
     Emacs).

   * A "core group" should judge about questionable changes (for now
     this group consists solely by me but I ask some others
     occasionally; this also seems to work).

File: gettext.info,  Node: Mailing Lists,  Prev: National Teams,  Up: Organization

12.4.3 Mailing Lists
--------------------

   If we get any inquiries about GNU 'gettext', send them on to:

     coordinator AT translationproject.org

   The '*-pretest' lists are quite useful to me, maybe the idea could be
generalized to many GNU, and non-GNU packages.  But each maintainer
his/her way!

   Franc,ois, we have a mechanism in place here at 'gnu.ai.mit.edu' to
track teams, support mailing lists for them and log members.  We have a
slight preference that you use it.  If this is OK with you, I can get
you clued in.

   Things are changing!  A few years ago, when Daniel Fekete and I asked
for a mailing list for GNU localization, nested at the FSF, we were
politely invited to organize it anywhere else, and so did we.  For
communicating with my pretesters, I later made a handful of mailing
lists located at iro.umontreal.ca and administrated by 'majordomo'.
These lists have been _very_ dependable so far...

   I suspect that the German team will organize itself a mailing list
located in Germany, and so forth for other countries.  But before they
organize for true, it could surely be useful to offer mailing lists
located at the FSF to each national team.  So yes, please explain me how
I should proceed to create and handle them.

   We should create temporary mailing lists, one per country, to help
people organize.  Temporary, because once regrouped and structured, it
would be fair the volunteers from country bring back _their_ list in
there and manage it as they want.  My feeling is that, in the long run,
each team should run its own list, from within their country.  There
also should be some central list to which all teams could subscribe as
they see fit, as long as each team is represented in it.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Information Flow,  Next: Translating plural forms,  Prev: Organization,  Up: Translators

12.5 Information Flow
=====================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   There will surely be some discussion about this messages after the
packages are finally released.  If people now send you some proposals
for better messages, how do you proceed?  Jim, please note that right
now, as I put forward nearly a dozen of localizable programs, I receive
both the translations and the coordination concerns about them.

   If I put one of my things to pretest, Ulrich receives the
announcement and passes it on to the German team, who make last minute
revisions.  Then he submits the translation files to me _as the
maintainer_.  For free packages I do not maintain, I would not even hear
about it.  This scheme could be made to work for the whole Translation
Project, I think.  For security reasons, maybe Ulrich (national
coordinators, in fact) should update central registry kept at the
Translation Project (Jim, me, or Len's recruits) once in a while.

   In December/January, I was aggressively ready to internationalize all
of GNU, giving myself the duty of one small GNU package per week or so,
taking many weeks or months for bigger packages.  But it does not work
this way.  I first did all the things I'm responsible for.  I've nothing
against some missionary work on other maintainers, but I'm also losing a
lot of energy over it--same debates over again.

   And when the first localized packages are released we'll get a lot of
responses about ugly translations :-).  Surely, and we need to have
beforehand a fairly good idea about how to handle the information flow
between the national teams and the package maintainers.

   Please start saving somewhere a quick history of each PO file.  I
know for sure that the file format will change, allowing for comments.
It would be nice that each file has a kind of log, and references for
those who want to submit comments or gripes, or otherwise contribute.  I
sent a proposal for a fast and flexible format, but it is not receiving
acceptance yet by the GNU deciders.  I'll tell you when I have more
information about this.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Translating plural forms,  Next: Prioritizing messages,  Prev: Information Flow,  Up: Translators

12.6 Translating plural forms
=============================

   Suppose you are translating a PO file, and it contains an entry like
this:

     #, c-format
     msgid "One file removed"
     msgid_plural "%d files removed"
     msgstr[0] ""
     msgstr[1] ""

What does this mean?  How do you fill it in?

   Such an entry denotes a message with plural forms, that is, a message
where the text depends on a cardinal number.  The general form of the
message, in English, is the 'msgid_plural' line.  The 'msgid' line is
the English singular form, that is, the form for when the number is
equal to 1.  More details about plural forms are explained in *note
Plural forms::.

   The first thing you need to look at is the 'Plural-Forms' line in the
header entry of the PO file.  It contains the number of plural forms and
a formula.  If the PO file does not yet have such a line, you have to
add it.  It only depends on the language into which you are translating.
You can get this info by using the 'msginit' command (see *note
Creating::) - it contains a database of known plural formulas - or by
asking other members of your translation team.

   Suppose the line looks as follows:

     "Plural-Forms: nplurals=3; plural=n%10==1 && n%100!=11 ? 0 : n%10>=2 && n"
     "%10<=4 && (n%100<10 || n%100>=20) ? 1 : 2;\n"

   It's logically one line; recall that the PO file formatting is
allowed to break long lines so that each physical line fits in 80
monospaced columns.

   The value of 'nplurals' here tells you that there are three plural
forms.  The first thing you need to do is to ensure that the entry
contains an 'msgstr' line for each of the forms:

     #, c-format
     msgid "One file removed"
     msgid_plural "%d files removed"
     msgstr[0] ""
     msgstr[1] ""
     msgstr[2] ""

   Then translate the 'msgid_plural' line and fill it in into each
'msgstr' line:

     #, c-format
     msgid "One file removed"
     msgid_plural "%d files removed"
     msgstr[0] "%d slika uklonjenih"
     msgstr[1] "%d slika uklonjenih"
     msgstr[2] "%d slika uklonjenih"

   Now you can refine the translation so that it matches the plural
form.  According to the formula above, 'msgstr[0]' is used when the
number ends in 1 but does not end in 11; 'msgstr[1]' is used when the
number ends in 2, 3, 4, but not in 12, 13, 14; and 'msgstr[2]' is used
in all other cases.  With this knowledge, you can refine the
translations:

     #, c-format
     msgid "One file removed"
     msgid_plural "%d files removed"
     msgstr[0] "%d slika je uklonjena"
     msgstr[1] "%d datoteke uklonjenih"
     msgstr[2] "%d slika uklonjenih"

   You noticed that in the English singular form ('msgid') the number
placeholder could be omitted and replaced by the numeral word "one".
Can you do this in your translation as well?

     msgstr[0] "jednom datotekom je uklonjen"

Well, it depends on whether 'msgstr[0]' applies only to the number 1, or
to other numbers as well.  If, according to the plural formula,
'msgstr[0]' applies only to 'n == 1', then you can use the specialized
translation without the number placeholder.  In our case, however,
'msgstr[0]' also applies to the numbers 21, 31, 41, etc., and therefore
you cannot omit the placeholder.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Prioritizing messages,  Prev: Translating plural forms,  Up: Translators

12.7 Prioritizing messages: How to determine which messages to translate first
==============================================================================

   A translator sometimes has only a limited amount of time per week to
spend on a package, and some packages have quite large message catalogs
(over 1000 messages).  Therefore she wishes to translate the messages
first that are the most visible to the user, or that occur most
frequently.  This section describes how to determine these "most urgent"
messages.  It also applies to determine the "next most urgent" messages
after the message catalog has already been partially translated.

   In a first step, she uses the programs like a user would do.  While
she does this, the GNU 'gettext' library logs into a file the not yet
translated messages for which a translation was requested from the
program.

   In a second step, she uses the PO mode to translate precisely this
set of messages.

   Here a more details.  The GNU 'libintl' library (but not the
corresponding functions in GNU 'libc') supports an environment variable
'GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED'.  The GNU 'libintl' library will log into
this file the messages for which 'gettext()' and related functions
couldn't find the translation.  If the file doesn't exist, it will be
created as needed.  On systems with GNU 'libc' a shared library
'preloadable_libintl.so' is provided that can be used with the ELF
'LD_PRELOAD' mechanism.

   So, in the first step, the translator uses these commands on systems
with GNU 'libc':

     $ LD_PRELOAD=/usr/local/lib/preloadable_libintl.so
     $ export LD_PRELOAD
     $ GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED=$HOME/gettextlogused
     $ export GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED

and these commands on other systems:

     $ GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED=$HOME/gettextlogused
     $ export GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED

   Then she uses and peruses the programs.  (It is a good and
recommended practice to use the programs for which you provide
translations: it gives you the needed context.)  When done, she removes
the environment variables:

     $ unset LD_PRELOAD
     $ unset GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED

   The second step starts with removing duplicates:

     $ msguniq $HOME/gettextlogused > missing.po

   The result is a PO file, but needs some preprocessing before a PO
file editor can be used with it.  First, it is a multi-domain PO file,
containing messages from many translation domains.  Second, it lacks all
translator comments and source references.  Here is how to get a list of
the affected translation domains:

     $ sed -n -e 's,^domain "\(.*\)"$,\1,p' < missing.po | sort | uniq

   Then the translator can handle the domains one by one.  For
simplicity, let's use environment variables to denote the language,
domain and source package.

     $ lang=nl             # your language
     $ domain=coreutils    # the name of the domain to be handled
     $ package=/usr/src/gnu/coreutils-4.5.4   # the package where it comes from

   She takes the latest copy of '$lang.po' from the Translation Project,
or from the package (in most cases, '$package/po/$lang.po'), or creates
a fresh one if she's the first translator (see *note Creating::).  She
then uses the following commands to mark the not urgent messages as
"obsolete".  (This doesn't mean that these messages - translated and
untranslated ones - will go away.  It simply means that the PO file
editor will ignore them in the following editing session.)

     $ msggrep --domain=$domain missing.po | grep -v '^domain' \
       > $domain-missing.po
     $ msgattrib --set-obsolete --ignore-file $domain-missing.po $domain.$lang.po \
       > $domain.$lang-urgent.po

   The she translates '$domain.$lang-urgent.po' by use of a PO file
editor (*note Editing::).  (FIXME: I don't know whether 'KBabel' and
'gtranslator' also preserve obsolete messages, as they should.)  Finally
she restores the not urgent messages (with their earlier translations,
for those which were already translated) through this command:

     $ msgmerge --no-fuzzy-matching $domain.$lang-urgent.po $package/po/$domain.pot \
       > $domain.$lang.po

   Then she can submit '$domain.$lang.po' and proceed to the next
domain.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Maintainers,  Next: Installers,  Prev: Translators,  Up: Top

13 The Maintainer's View
************************

   The maintainer of a package has many responsibilities.  One of them
is ensuring that the package will install easily on many platforms, and
that the magic we described earlier (*note Users::) will work for
installers and end users.

   Of course, there are many possible ways by which GNU 'gettext' might
be integrated in a distribution, and this chapter does not cover them in
all generality.  Instead, it details one possible approach which is
especially adequate for many free software distributions following GNU
standards, or even better, Gnits standards, because GNU 'gettext' is
purposely for helping the internationalization of the whole GNU project,
and as many other good free packages as possible.  So, the maintainer's
view presented here presumes that the package already has a
'configure.ac' file and uses GNU Autoconf.

   Nevertheless, GNU 'gettext' may surely be useful for free packages
not following GNU standards and conventions, but the maintainers of such
packages might have to show imagination and initiative in organizing
their distributions so 'gettext' work for them in all situations.  There
are surely many, out there.

   Even if 'gettext' methods are now stabilizing, slight adjustments
might be needed between successive 'gettext' versions, so you should
ideally revise this chapter in subsequent releases, looking for changes.

* Menu:

* Flat and Non-Flat::           Flat or Non-Flat Directory Structures
* Prerequisites::               Prerequisite Works
* gettextize Invocation::       Invoking the 'gettextize' Program
* Adjusting Files::             Files You Must Create or Alter
* autoconf macros::             Autoconf macros for use in 'configure.ac'
* Version Control Issues::
* Release Management::          Creating a Distribution Tarball

File: gettext.info,  Node: Flat and Non-Flat,  Next: Prerequisites,  Prev: Maintainers,  Up: Maintainers

13.1 Flat or Non-Flat Directory Structures
==========================================

   Some free software packages are distributed as 'tar' files which
unpack in a single directory, these are said to be "flat" distributions.
Other free software packages have a one level hierarchy of
subdirectories, using for example a subdirectory named 'doc/' for the
Texinfo manual and man pages, another called 'lib/' for holding
functions meant to replace or complement C libraries, and a subdirectory
'src/' for holding the proper sources for the package.  These other
distributions are said to be "non-flat".

   We cannot say much about flat distributions.  A flat directory
structure has the disadvantage of increasing the difficulty of updating
to a new version of GNU 'gettext'.  Also, if you have many PO files,
this could somewhat pollute your single directory.  Also, GNU
'gettext''s libintl sources consist of C sources, shell scripts, 'sed'
scripts and complicated Makefile rules, which don't fit well into an
existing flat structure.  For these reasons, we recommend to use
non-flat approach in this case as well.

   Maybe because GNU 'gettext' itself has a non-flat structure, we have
more experience with this approach, and this is what will be described
in the remaining of this chapter.  Some maintainers might use this as an
opportunity to unflatten their package structure.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Prerequisites,  Next: gettextize Invocation,  Prev: Flat and Non-Flat,  Up: Maintainers

13.2 Prerequisite Works
=======================

   There are some works which are required for using GNU 'gettext' in
one of your package.  These works have some kind of generality that
escape the point by point descriptions used in the remainder of this
chapter.  So, we describe them here.

   * Before attempting to use 'gettextize' you should install some other
     packages first.  Ensure that recent versions of GNU 'm4', GNU
     Autoconf and GNU 'gettext' are already installed at your site, and
     if not, proceed to do this first.  If you get to install these
     things, beware that GNU 'm4' must be fully installed before GNU
     Autoconf is even _configured_.

     To further ease the task of a package maintainer the 'automake'
     package was designed and implemented.  GNU 'gettext' now uses this
     tool and the 'Makefile's in the 'intl/' and 'po/' therefore know
     about all the goals necessary for using 'automake' and 'libintl' in
     one project.

     Those four packages are only needed by you, as a maintainer; the
     installers of your own package and end users do not really need any
     of GNU 'm4', GNU Autoconf, GNU 'gettext', or GNU 'automake' for
     successfully installing and running your package, with messages
     properly translated.  But this is not completely true if you
     provide internationalized shell scripts within your own package:
     GNU 'gettext' shall then be installed at the user site if the end
     users want to see the translation of shell script messages.

   * Your package should use Autoconf and have a 'configure.ac' or
     'configure.in' file.  If it does not, you have to learn how.  The
     Autoconf documentation is quite well written, it is a good idea
     that you print it and get familiar with it.

   * Your C sources should have already been modified according to
     instructions given earlier in this manual.  *Note Sources::.

   * Your 'po/' directory should receive all PO files submitted to you
     by the translator teams, each having 'LL.po' as a name.  This is
     not usually easy to get translation work done before your package
     gets internationalized and available!  Since the cycle has to start
     somewhere, the easiest for the maintainer is to start with
     absolutely no PO files, and wait until various translator teams get
     interested in your package, and submit PO files.

   It is worth adding here a few words about how the maintainer should
ideally behave with PO files submissions.  As a maintainer, your role is
to authenticate the origin of the submission as being the representative
of the appropriate translating teams of the Translation Project (forward
the submission to 'coordinator AT translationproject.org' in case of
doubt), to ensure that the PO file format is not severely broken and
does not prevent successful installation, and for the rest, to merely
put these PO files in 'po/' for distribution.

   As a maintainer, you do not have to take on your shoulders the
responsibility of checking if the translations are adequate or complete,
and should avoid diving into linguistic matters.  Translation teams
drive themselves and are fully responsible of their linguistic choices
for the Translation Project.  Keep in mind that translator teams are
_not_ driven by maintainers.  You can help by carefully redirecting all
communications and reports from users about linguistic matters to the
appropriate translation team, or explain users how to reach or join
their team.  The simplest might be to send them the 'ABOUT-NLS' file.

   Maintainers should _never ever_ apply PO file bug reports themselves,
short-cutting translation teams.  If some translator has difficulty to
get some of her points through her team, it should not be an option for
her to directly negotiate translations with maintainers.  Teams ought to
settle their problems themselves, if any.  If you, as a maintainer, ever
think there is a real problem with a team, please never try to _solve_ a
team's problem on your own.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gettextize Invocation,  Next: Adjusting Files,  Prev: Prerequisites,  Up: Maintainers

13.3 Invoking the 'gettextize' Program
======================================

   The 'gettextize' program is an interactive tool that helps the
maintainer of a package internationalized through GNU 'gettext'.  It is
used for two purposes:

   * As a wizard, when a package is modified to use GNU 'gettext' for
     the first time.

   * As a migration tool, for upgrading the GNU 'gettext' support in a
     package from a previous to a newer version of GNU 'gettext'.

   This program performs the following tasks:

   * It copies into the package some files that are consistently and
     identically needed in every package internationalized through GNU
     'gettext'.

   * It performs as many of the tasks mentioned in the next section
     *note Adjusting Files:: as can be performed automatically.

   * It removes obsolete files and idioms used for previous GNU
     'gettext' versions to the form recommended for the current GNU
     'gettext' version.

   * It prints a summary of the tasks that ought to be done manually and
     could not be done automatically by 'gettextize'.

   It can be invoked as follows:

     gettextize [ OPTION... ] [ DIRECTORY ]

and accepts the following options:

'-f'
'--force'
     Force replacement of files which already exist.

'--intl'
     Install the libintl sources in a subdirectory named 'intl/'.  This
     libintl will be used to provide internationalization on systems
     that don't have GNU libintl installed.  If this option is omitted,
     the call to 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' in 'configure.ac' should read:
     'AM_GNU_GETTEXT([external])', and internationalization will not be
     enabled on systems lacking GNU gettext.

'--po-dir=DIR'
     Specify a directory containing PO files.  Such a directory contains
     the translations into various languages of a particular POT file.
     This option can be specified multiple times, once for each
     translation domain.  If it is not specified, the directory named
     'po/' is updated.

'--no-changelog'
     Don't update or create ChangeLog files.  By default, 'gettextize'
     logs all changes (file additions, modifications and removals) in a
     file called 'ChangeLog' in each affected directory.

'--symlink'
     Make symbolic links instead of copying the needed files.  This can
     be useful to save a few kilobytes of disk space, but it requires
     extra effort to create self-contained tarballs, it may disturb some
     mechanism the maintainer applies to the sources, and it is likely
     to introduce bugs when a newer version of 'gettext' is installed on
     the system.

'-n'
'--dry-run'
     Print modifications but don't perform them.  All actions that
     'gettextize' would normally execute are inhibited and instead only
     listed on standard output.

'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

   If DIRECTORY is given, this is the top level directory of a package
to prepare for using GNU 'gettext'.  If not given, it is assumed that
the current directory is the top level directory of such a package.

   The program 'gettextize' provides the following files.  However, no
existing file will be replaced unless the option '--force' ('-f') is
specified.

  1. The 'ABOUT-NLS' file is copied in the main directory of your
     package, the one being at the top level.  This file gives the main
     indications about how to install and use the Native Language
     Support features of your program.  You might elect to use a more
     recent copy of this 'ABOUT-NLS' file than the one provided through
     'gettextize', if you have one handy.  You may also fetch a more
     recent copy of file 'ABOUT-NLS' from Translation Project sites, and
     from most GNU archive sites.

  2. A 'po/' directory is created for eventually holding all translation
     files, but initially only containing the file 'po/Makefile.in.in'
     from the GNU 'gettext' distribution (beware the double '.in' in the
     file name) and a few auxiliary files.  If the 'po/' directory
     already exists, it will be preserved along with the files it
     contains, and only 'Makefile.in.in' and the auxiliary files will be
     overwritten.

     If '--po-dir' has been specified, this holds for every directory
     specified through '--po-dir', instead of 'po/'.

  3. Only if '--intl' has been specified: A 'intl/' directory is created
     and filled with most of the files originally in the 'intl/'
     directory of the GNU 'gettext' distribution.  Also, if option
     '--force' ('-f') is given, the 'intl/' directory is emptied first.

  4. The file 'config.rpath' is copied into the directory containing
     configuration support files.  It is needed by the 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT'
     autoconf macro.

  5. Only if the project is using GNU 'automake': A set of 'autoconf'
     macro files is copied into the package's 'autoconf' macro
     repository, usually in a directory called 'm4/'.

   If your site support symbolic links, 'gettextize' will not actually
copy the files into your package, but establish symbolic links instead.
This avoids duplicating the disk space needed in all packages.  Merely
using the '-h' option while creating the 'tar' archive of your
distribution will resolve each link by an actual copy in the
distribution archive.  So, to insist, you really should use '-h' option
with 'tar' within your 'dist' goal of your main 'Makefile.in'.

   Furthermore, 'gettextize' will update all 'Makefile.am' files in each
affected directory, as well as the top level 'configure.ac' or
'configure.in' file.

   It is interesting to understand that most new files for supporting
GNU 'gettext' facilities in one package go in 'intl/', 'po/' and 'm4/'
subdirectories.  One distinction between 'intl/' and the two other
directories is that 'intl/' is meant to be completely identical in all
packages using GNU 'gettext', while the other directories will mostly
contain package dependent files.

   The 'gettextize' program makes backup files for all files it replaces
or changes, and also write ChangeLog entries about these changes.  This
way, the careful maintainer can check after running 'gettextize' whether
its changes are acceptable to him, and possibly adjust them.  An
exception to this rule is the 'intl/' directory, which is added or
replaced or removed as a whole.

   It is important to understand that 'gettextize' can not do the entire
job of adapting a package for using GNU 'gettext'.  The amount of
remaining work depends on whether the package uses GNU 'automake' or
not.  But in any case, the maintainer should still read the section
*note Adjusting Files:: after invoking 'gettextize'.

   In particular, if after using 'gettexize', you get an error
'AC_COMPILE_IFELSE was called before AC_GNU_SOURCE' or 'AC_RUN_IFELSE
was called before AC_GNU_SOURCE', you can fix it by modifying
'configure.ac', as described in *note configure.ac::.

   It is also important to understand that 'gettextize' is not part of
the GNU build system, in the sense that it should not be invoked
automatically, and not be invoked by someone who doesn't assume the
responsibilities of a package maintainer.  For the latter purpose, a
separate tool is provided, see *note autopoint Invocation::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Adjusting Files,  Next: autoconf macros,  Prev: gettextize Invocation,  Up: Maintainers

13.4 Files You Must Create or Alter
===================================

   Besides files which are automatically added through 'gettextize',
there are many files needing revision for properly interacting with GNU
'gettext'.  If you are closely following GNU standards for Makefile
engineering and auto-configuration, the adaptations should be easier to
achieve.  Here is a point by point description of the changes needed in
each.

   So, here comes a list of files, each one followed by a description of
all alterations it needs.  Many examples are taken out from the GNU
'gettext' 0.19.8.1 distribution itself, or from the GNU 'hello'
distribution (<http://www.gnu.org/software/hello>).  You may indeed
refer to the source code of the GNU 'gettext' and GNU 'hello' packages,
as they are intended to be good examples for using GNU gettext
functionality.

* Menu:

* po/POTFILES.in::              'POTFILES.in' in 'po/'
* po/LINGUAS::                  'LINGUAS' in 'po/'
* po/Makevars::                 'Makevars' in 'po/'
* po/Rules-*::                  Extending 'Makefile' in 'po/'
* configure.ac::                'configure.ac' at top level
* config.guess::                'config.guess', 'config.sub' at top level
* mkinstalldirs::               'mkinstalldirs' at top level
* aclocal::                     'aclocal.m4' at top level
* acconfig::                    'acconfig.h' at top level
* config.h.in::                 'config.h.in' at top level
* Makefile::                    'Makefile.in' at top level
* src/Makefile::                'Makefile.in' in 'src/'
* lib/gettext.h::               'gettext.h' in 'lib/'

File: gettext.info,  Node: po/POTFILES.in,  Next: po/LINGUAS,  Prev: Adjusting Files,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.1 'POTFILES.in' in 'po/'
-----------------------------

   The 'po/' directory should receive a file named 'POTFILES.in'.  This
file tells which files, among all program sources, have marked strings
needing translation.  Here is an example of such a file:

     # List of source files containing translatable strings.
     # Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     # Common library files
     lib/error.c
     lib/getopt.c
     lib/xmalloc.c

     # Package source files
     src/gettext.c
     src/msgfmt.c
     src/xgettext.c

Hash-marked comments and white lines are ignored.  All other lines list
those source files containing strings marked for translation (*note Mark
Keywords::), in a notation relative to the top level of your whole
distribution, rather than the location of the 'POTFILES.in' file itself.

   When a C file is automatically generated by a tool, like 'flex' or
'bison', that doesn't introduce translatable strings by itself, it is
recommended to list in 'po/POTFILES.in' the real source file (ending in
'.l' in the case of 'flex', or in '.y' in the case of 'bison'), not the
generated C file.

File: gettext.info,  Node: po/LINGUAS,  Next: po/Makevars,  Prev: po/POTFILES.in,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.2 'LINGUAS' in 'po/'
-------------------------

   The 'po/' directory should also receive a file named 'LINGUAS'.  This
file contains the list of available translations.  It is a whitespace
separated list.  Hash-marked comments and white lines are ignored.  Here
is an example file:

     # Set of available languages.
     de fr

This example means that German and French PO files are available, so
that these languages are currently supported by your package.  If you
want to further restrict, at installation time, the set of installed
languages, this should not be done by modifying the 'LINGUAS' file, but
rather by using the 'LINGUAS' environment variable (*note Installers::).

   It is recommended that you add the "languages" 'en@quot' and
'en@boldquot' to the 'LINGUAS' file.  'en@quot' is a variant of English
message catalogs ('en') which uses real quotation marks instead of the
ugly looking asymmetric ASCII substitutes '`' and '''.  'en@boldquot' is
a variant of 'en@quot' that additionally outputs quoted pieces of text
in a bold font, when used in a terminal emulator which supports the
VT100 escape sequences (such as 'xterm' or the Linux console, but not
Emacs in 'M-x shell' mode).

   These extra message catalogs 'en@quot' and 'en@boldquot' are
constructed automatically, not by translators; to support them, you need
the files 'Rules-quot', 'quot.sed', 'boldquot.sed', 'en AT quot.header',
'en AT boldquot.header', 'insert-header.sin' in the 'po/' directory.  You
can copy them from GNU gettext's 'po/' directory; they are also
installed by running 'gettextize'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: po/Makevars,  Next: po/Rules-*,  Prev: po/LINGUAS,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.3 'Makevars' in 'po/'
--------------------------

   The 'po/' directory also has a file named 'Makevars'.  It contains
variables that are specific to your project.  'po/Makevars' gets
inserted into the 'po/Makefile' when the latter is created.  The
variables thus take effect when the POT file is created or updated, and
when the message catalogs get installed.

   The first three variables can be left unmodified if your package has
a single message domain and, accordingly, a single 'po/' directory.
Only packages which have multiple 'po/' directories at different
locations need to adjust the three first variables defined in
'Makevars'.

   As an alternative to the 'XGETTEXT_OPTIONS' variables, it is also
possible to specify 'xgettext' options through the 'AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION'
autoconf macro.  See *note AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: po/Rules-*,  Next: configure.ac,  Prev: po/Makevars,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.4 Extending 'Makefile' in 'po/'
------------------------------------

   All files called 'Rules-*' in the 'po/' directory get appended to the
'po/Makefile' when it is created.  They present an opportunity to add
rules for special PO files to the Makefile, without needing to mess with
'po/Makefile.in.in'.

   GNU gettext comes with a 'Rules-quot' file, containing rules for
building catalogs 'en AT quot.po' and 'en AT boldquot.po'.  The effect of
'en AT quot.po' is that people who set their 'LANGUAGE' environment
variable to 'en@quot' will get messages with proper looking symmetric
Unicode quotation marks instead of abusing the ASCII grave accent and
the ASCII apostrophe for indicating quotations.  To enable this catalog,
simply add 'en@quot' to the 'po/LINGUAS' file.  The effect of
'en AT boldquot.po' is that people who set 'LANGUAGE' to 'en@boldquot' will
get not only proper quotation marks, but also the quoted text will be
shown in a bold font on terminals and consoles.  This catalog is useful
only for command-line programs, not GUI programs.  To enable it,
similarly add 'en@boldquot' to the 'po/LINGUAS' file.

   Similarly, you can create rules for building message catalogs for the
'sr@latin' locale - Serbian written with the Latin alphabet - from those
for the 'sr' locale - Serbian written with Cyrillic letters.  See *note
msgfilter Invocation::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: configure.ac,  Next: config.guess,  Prev: po/Rules-*,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.5 'configure.ac' at top level
----------------------------------

   'configure.ac' or 'configure.in' - this is the source from which
'autoconf' generates the 'configure' script.

  1. Declare the package and version.

     This is done by a set of lines like these:

          PACKAGE=gettext
          VERSION=0.19.8.1
          AC_DEFINE_UNQUOTED(PACKAGE, "$PACKAGE")
          AC_DEFINE_UNQUOTED(VERSION, "$VERSION")
          AC_SUBST(PACKAGE)
          AC_SUBST(VERSION)

     or, if you are using GNU 'automake', by a line like this:

          AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(gettext, 0.19.8.1)

     Of course, you replace 'gettext' with the name of your package, and
     '0.19.8.1' by its version numbers, exactly as they should appear in
     the packaged 'tar' file name of your distribution
     ('gettext-0.19.8.1.tar.gz', here).

  2. Check for internationalization support.

     Here is the main 'm4' macro for triggering internationalization
     support.  Just add this line to 'configure.ac':

          AM_GNU_GETTEXT

     This call is purposely simple, even if it generates a lot of
     configure time checking and actions.

     If you have suppressed the 'intl/' subdirectory by calling
     'gettextize' without '--intl' option, this call should read

          AM_GNU_GETTEXT([external])

  3. Have output files created.

     The 'AC_OUTPUT' directive, at the end of your 'configure.ac' file,
     needs to be modified in two ways:

          AC_OUTPUT([EXISTING CONFIGURATION FILES intl/Makefile po/Makefile.in],
          [EXISTING ADDITIONAL ACTIONS])

     The modification to the first argument to 'AC_OUTPUT' asks for
     substitution in the 'intl/' and 'po/' directories.  Note the '.in'
     suffix used for 'po/' only.  This is because the distributed file
     is really 'po/Makefile.in.in'.

     If you have suppressed the 'intl/' subdirectory by calling
     'gettextize' without '--intl' option, then you don't need to add
     'intl/Makefile' to the 'AC_OUTPUT' line.

   If, after doing the recommended modifications, a command like
'aclocal -I m4' or 'autoconf' or 'autoreconf' fails with a trace similar
to this:

     configure.ac:44: warning: AC_COMPILE_IFELSE was called before AC_GNU_SOURCE
     ../../lib/autoconf/specific.m4:335: AC_GNU_SOURCE is expanded from...
     m4/lock.m4:224: gl_LOCK is expanded from...
     m4/gettext.m4:571: gt_INTL_SUBDIR_CORE is expanded from...
     m4/gettext.m4:472: AM_INTL_SUBDIR is expanded from...
     m4/gettext.m4:347: AM_GNU_GETTEXT is expanded from...
     configure.ac:44: the top level
     configure.ac:44: warning: AC_RUN_IFELSE was called before AC_GNU_SOURCE

you need to add an explicit invocation of 'AC_GNU_SOURCE' in the
'configure.ac' file - after 'AC_PROG_CC' but before 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT',
most likely very close to the 'AC_PROG_CC' invocation.  This is
necessary because of ordering restrictions imposed by GNU autoconf.

File: gettext.info,  Node: config.guess,  Next: mkinstalldirs,  Prev: configure.ac,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.6 'config.guess', 'config.sub' at top level
------------------------------------------------

   If you haven't suppressed the 'intl/' subdirectory, you need to add
the GNU 'config.guess' and 'config.sub' files to your distribution.
They are needed because the 'intl/' directory has platform dependent
support for determining the locale's character encoding and therefore
needs to identify the platform.

   You can obtain the newest version of 'config.guess' and 'config.sub'
from the 'config' project at 'http://savannah.gnu.org/'.  The commands
to fetch them are
     $ wget -O config.guess 'http://git.savannah.gnu.org/gitweb/?p=config.git;a=blob_plain;f=config.guess;hb=HEAD'
     $ wget -O config.sub 'http://git.savannah.gnu.org/gitweb/?p=config.git;a=blob_plain;f=config.sub;hb=HEAD'
Less recent versions are also contained in the GNU 'automake' and GNU
'libtool' packages.

   Normally, 'config.guess' and 'config.sub' are put at the top level of
a distribution.  But it is also possible to put them in a subdirectory,
altogether with other configuration support files like 'install-sh',
'ltconfig', 'ltmain.sh' or 'missing'.  All you need to do, other than
moving the files, is to add the following line to your 'configure.ac'.

     AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR([SUBDIR])

File: gettext.info,  Node: mkinstalldirs,  Next: aclocal,  Prev: config.guess,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.7 'mkinstalldirs' at top level
-----------------------------------

   With earlier versions of GNU gettext, you needed to add the GNU
'mkinstalldirs' script to your distribution.  This is not needed any
more.  You can remove it if you not also using an automake version older
than automake 1.9.

File: gettext.info,  Node: aclocal,  Next: acconfig,  Prev: mkinstalldirs,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.8 'aclocal.m4' at top level
--------------------------------

   If you do not have an 'aclocal.m4' file in your distribution, the
simplest is to concatenate the files 'codeset.m4', 'fcntl-o.m4',
'gettext.m4', 'glibc2.m4', 'glibc21.m4', 'iconv.m4', 'intdiv0.m4',
'intl.m4', 'intldir.m4', 'intlmacosx.m4', 'intmax.m4', 'inttypes_h.m4',
'inttypes-pri.m4', 'lcmessage.m4', 'lib-ld.m4', 'lib-link.m4',
'lib-prefix.m4', 'lock.m4', 'longlong.m4', 'nls.m4', 'po.m4',
'printf-posix.m4', 'progtest.m4', 'size_max.m4', 'stdint_h.m4',
'threadlib.m4', 'uintmax_t.m4', 'visibility.m4', 'wchar_t.m4',
'wint_t.m4', 'xsize.m4' from GNU 'gettext''s 'm4/' directory into a
single file.  If you have suppressed the 'intl/' directory, only
'gettext.m4', 'iconv.m4', 'lib-ld.m4', 'lib-link.m4', 'lib-prefix.m4',
'nls.m4', 'po.m4', 'progtest.m4' need to be concatenated.

   If you are not using GNU 'automake' 1.8 or newer, you will need to
add a file 'mkdirp.m4' from a newer automake distribution to the list of
files above.

   If you already have an 'aclocal.m4' file, then you will have to merge
the said macro files into your 'aclocal.m4'.  Note that if you are
upgrading from a previous release of GNU 'gettext', you should most
probably _replace_ the macros ('AM_GNU_GETTEXT', etc.), as they usually
change a little from one release of GNU 'gettext' to the next.  Their
contents may vary as we get more experience with strange systems out
there.

   If you are using GNU 'automake' 1.5 or newer, it is enough to put
these macro files into a subdirectory named 'm4/' and add the line

     ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS = -I m4

to your top level 'Makefile.am'.

   If you are using GNU 'automake' 1.10 or newer, it is even easier: Add
the line

     ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS = --install -I m4

to your top level 'Makefile.am', and run 'aclocal --install -I m4'.
This will copy the needed files to the 'm4/' subdirectory automatically,
before updating 'aclocal.m4'.

   These macros check for the internationalization support functions and
related informations.  Hopefully, once stabilized, these macros might be
integrated in the standard Autoconf set, because this piece of 'm4' code
will be the same for all projects using GNU 'gettext'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: acconfig,  Next: config.h.in,  Prev: aclocal,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.9 'acconfig.h' at top level
--------------------------------

   Earlier GNU 'gettext' releases required to put definitions for
'ENABLE_NLS', 'HAVE_GETTEXT' and 'HAVE_LC_MESSAGES', 'HAVE_STPCPY',
'PACKAGE' and 'VERSION' into an 'acconfig.h' file.  This is not needed
any more; you can remove them from your 'acconfig.h' file unless your
package uses them independently from the 'intl/' directory.

File: gettext.info,  Node: config.h.in,  Next: Makefile,  Prev: acconfig,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.10 'config.h.in' at top level
----------------------------------

   The include file template that holds the C macros to be defined by
'configure' is usually called 'config.h.in' and may be maintained either
manually or automatically.

   If 'gettextize' has created an 'intl/' directory, this file must be
called 'config.h.in' and must be at the top level.  If, however, you
have suppressed the 'intl/' directory by calling 'gettextize' without
'--intl' option, then you can choose the name of this file and its
location freely.

   If it is maintained automatically, by use of the 'autoheader'
program, you need to do nothing about it.  This is the case in
particular if you are using GNU 'automake'.

   If it is maintained manually, and if 'gettextize' has created an
'intl/' directory, you should switch to using 'autoheader'.  The list of
C macros to be added for the sake of the 'intl/' directory is just too
long to be maintained manually; it also changes between different
versions of GNU 'gettext'.

   If it is maintained manually, and if on the other hand you have
suppressed the 'intl/' directory by calling 'gettextize' without
'--intl' option, then you can get away by adding the following lines to
'config.h.in':

     /* Define to 1 if translation of program messages to the user's
        native language is requested. */
     #undef ENABLE_NLS

File: gettext.info,  Node: Makefile,  Next: src/Makefile,  Prev: config.h.in,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.11 'Makefile.in' at top level
----------------------------------

   Here are a few modifications you need to make to your main, top-level
'Makefile.in' file.

  1. Add the following lines near the beginning of your 'Makefile.in',
     so the 'dist:' goal will work properly (as explained further down):

          PACKAGE = @PACKAGE@
          VERSION = @VERSION@

  2. Add file 'ABOUT-NLS' to the 'DISTFILES' definition, so the file
     gets distributed.

  3. Wherever you process subdirectories in your 'Makefile.in', be sure
     you also process the subdirectories 'intl' and 'po'.  Special rules
     in the 'Makefiles' take care for the case where no
     internationalization is wanted.

     If you are using Makefiles, either generated by automake, or
     hand-written so they carefully follow the GNU coding standards, the
     effected goals for which the new subdirectories must be handled
     include 'installdirs', 'install', 'uninstall', 'clean',
     'distclean'.

     Here is an example of a canonical order of processing.  In this
     example, we also define 'SUBDIRS' in 'Makefile.in' for it to be
     further used in the 'dist:' goal.

          SUBDIRS = doc intl lib src po

     Note that you must arrange for 'make' to descend into the 'intl'
     directory before descending into other directories containing code
     which make use of the 'libintl.h' header file.  For this reason,
     here we mention 'intl' before 'lib' and 'src'.

  4. A delicate point is the 'dist:' goal, as both 'intl/Makefile' and
     'po/Makefile' will later assume that the proper directory has been
     set up from the main 'Makefile'.  Here is an example at what the
     'dist:' goal might look like:

          distdir = $(PACKAGE)-$(VERSION)
          dist: Makefile
          	rm -fr $(distdir)
          	mkdir $(distdir)
          	chmod 777 $(distdir)
          	for file in $(DISTFILES); do \
          	  ln $$file $(distdir) 2>/dev/null || cp -p $$file $(distdir); \
          	done
          	for subdir in $(SUBDIRS); do \
          	  mkdir $(distdir)/$$subdir || exit 1; \
          	  chmod 777 $(distdir)/$$subdir; \
          	  (cd $$subdir && $(MAKE) $@) || exit 1; \
          	done
          	tar chozf $(distdir).tar.gz $(distdir)
          	rm -fr $(distdir)

   Note that if you are using GNU 'automake', 'Makefile.in' is
automatically generated from 'Makefile.am', and all needed changes to
'Makefile.am' are already made by running 'gettextize'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: src/Makefile,  Next: lib/gettext.h,  Prev: Makefile,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.12 'Makefile.in' in 'src/'
-------------------------------

   Some of the modifications made in the main 'Makefile.in' will also be
needed in the 'Makefile.in' from your package sources, which we assume
here to be in the 'src/' subdirectory.  Here are all the modifications
needed in 'src/Makefile.in':

  1. In view of the 'dist:' goal, you should have these lines near the
     beginning of 'src/Makefile.in':

          PACKAGE = @PACKAGE@
          VERSION = @VERSION@

  2. If not done already, you should guarantee that 'top_srcdir' gets
     defined.  This will serve for 'cpp' include files.  Just add the
     line:

          top_srcdir = @top_srcdir@

  3. You might also want to define 'subdir' as 'src', later allowing for
     almost uniform 'dist:' goals in all your 'Makefile.in'.  At list,
     the 'dist:' goal below assume that you used:

          subdir = src

  4. The 'main' function of your program will normally call
     'bindtextdomain' (see *note Triggering::), like this:

          bindtextdomain (PACKAGE, LOCALEDIR);
          textdomain (PACKAGE);

     To make LOCALEDIR known to the program, add the following lines to
     'Makefile.in' if you are using Autoconf version 2.60 or newer:

          datadir = @datadir@
          datarootdir= @datarootdir@
          localedir = @localedir@
          DEFS = -DLOCALEDIR=\"$(localedir)\" @DEFS@

     or these lines if your version of Autoconf is older than 2.60:

          datadir = @datadir@
          localedir = $(datadir)/locale
          DEFS = -DLOCALEDIR=\"$(localedir)\" @DEFS@

     Note that '@datadir@' defaults to '$(prefix)/share', thus
     '$(localedir)' defaults to '$(prefix)/share/locale'.

  5. You should ensure that the final linking will use '@LIBINTL@' or
     '@LTLIBINTL@' as a library.  '@LIBINTL@' is for use without
     'libtool', '@LTLIBINTL@' is for use with 'libtool'.  An easy way to
     achieve this is to manage that it gets into 'LIBS', like this:

          LIBS = @LIBINTL@ @LIBS@

     In most packages internationalized with GNU 'gettext', one will
     find a directory 'lib/' in which a library containing some helper
     functions will be build.  (You need at least the few functions
     which the GNU 'gettext' Library itself needs.)  However some of the
     functions in the 'lib/' also give messages to the user which of
     course should be translated, too.  Taking care of this, the support
     library (say 'libsupport.a') should be placed before '@LIBINTL@'
     and '@LIBS@' in the above example.  So one has to write this:

          LIBS = ../lib/libsupport.a @LIBINTL@ @LIBS@

  6. You should also ensure that directory 'intl/' will be searched for
     C preprocessor include files in all circumstances.  So, you have to
     manage so both '-I../intl' and '-I$(top_srcdir)/intl' will be given
     to the C compiler.

  7. Your 'dist:' goal has to conform with others.  Here is a reasonable
     definition for it:

          distdir = ../$(PACKAGE)-$(VERSION)/$(subdir)
          dist: Makefile $(DISTFILES)
          	for file in $(DISTFILES); do \
          	  ln $$file $(distdir) 2>/dev/null || cp -p $$file $(distdir) || exit 1; \
          	done

   Note that if you are using GNU 'automake', 'Makefile.in' is
automatically generated from 'Makefile.am', and the first three changes
and the last change are not necessary.  The remaining needed
'Makefile.am' modifications are the following:

  1. To make LOCALEDIR known to the program, add the following to
     'Makefile.am':

          <module>_CPPFLAGS = -DLOCALEDIR=\"$(localedir)\"

     for each specific module or compilation unit, or

          AM_CPPFLAGS = -DLOCALEDIR=\"$(localedir)\"

     for all modules and compilation units together.  Furthermore, if
     you are using an Autoconf version older then 2.60, add this line to
     define 'localedir':

          localedir = $(datadir)/locale

  2. To ensure that the final linking will use '@LIBINTL@' or
     '@LTLIBINTL@' as a library, add the following to 'Makefile.am':

          <program>_LDADD = @LIBINTL@

     for each specific program, or

          LDADD = @LIBINTL@

     for all programs together.  Remember that when you use 'libtool' to
     link a program, you need to use @LTLIBINTL@ instead of @LIBINTL@
     for that program.

  3. If you have an 'intl/' directory, whose contents is created by
     'gettextize', then to ensure that it will be searched for C
     preprocessor include files in all circumstances, add something like
     this to 'Makefile.am':

          AM_CPPFLAGS = -I../intl -I$(top_srcdir)/intl

File: gettext.info,  Node: lib/gettext.h,  Prev: src/Makefile,  Up: Adjusting Files

13.4.13 'gettext.h' in 'lib/'
-----------------------------

   Internationalization of packages, as provided by GNU 'gettext', is
optional.  It can be turned off in two situations:

   * When the installer has specified './configure --disable-nls'.  This
     can be useful when small binaries are more important than features,
     for example when building utilities for boot diskettes.  It can
     also be useful in order to get some specific C compiler warnings
     about code quality with some older versions of GCC (older than
     3.0).

   * When the package does not include the 'intl/' subdirectory, and the
     libintl.h header (with its associated libintl library, if any) is
     not already installed on the system, it is preferable that the
     package builds without internationalization support, rather than to
     give a compilation error.

   A C preprocessor macro can be used to detect these two cases.
Usually, when 'libintl.h' was found and not explicitly disabled, the
'ENABLE_NLS' macro will be defined to 1 in the autoconf generated
configuration file (usually called 'config.h').  In the two negative
situations, however, this macro will not be defined, thus it will
evaluate to 0 in C preprocessor expressions.

   'gettext.h' is a convenience header file for conditional use of
'<libintl.h>', depending on the 'ENABLE_NLS' macro.  If 'ENABLE_NLS' is
set, it includes '<libintl.h>'; otherwise it defines no-op substitutes
for the libintl.h functions.  We recommend the use of '"gettext.h"' over
direct use of '<libintl.h>', so that portability to older systems is
guaranteed and installers can turn off internationalization if they want
to.  In the C code, you will then write

     #include "gettext.h"

instead of

     #include <libintl.h>

   The location of 'gettext.h' is usually in a directory containing
auxiliary include files.  In many GNU packages, there is a directory
'lib/' containing helper functions; 'gettext.h' fits there.  In other
packages, it can go into the 'src' directory.

   Do not install the 'gettext.h' file in public locations.  Every
package that needs it should contain a copy of it on its own.

File: gettext.info,  Node: autoconf macros,  Next: Version Control Issues,  Prev: Adjusting Files,  Up: Maintainers

13.5 Autoconf macros for use in 'configure.ac'
==============================================

   GNU 'gettext' installs macros for use in a package's 'configure.ac'
or 'configure.in'.  *Note Introduction: (autoconf)Top.  The primary
macro is, of course, 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT'.

* Menu:

* AM_GNU_GETTEXT::              AM_GNU_GETTEXT in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION::      AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED::         AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED in 'gettext.m4'
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR::  AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR in 'intldir.m4'
* AM_PO_SUBDIRS::               AM_PO_SUBDIRS in 'po.m4'
* AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION::          AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION in 'po.m4'
* AM_ICONV::                    AM_ICONV in 'iconv.m4'

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_GNU_GETTEXT,  Next: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION,  Prev: autoconf macros,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.1 AM_GNU_GETTEXT in 'gettext.m4'
-------------------------------------

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' macro tests for the presence of the GNU gettext
function family in either the C library or a separate 'libintl' library
(shared or static libraries are both supported) or in the package's
'intl/' directory.  It also invokes 'AM_PO_SUBDIRS', thus preparing the
'po/' directories of the package for building.

   'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' accepts up to three optional arguments.  The general
syntax is

     AM_GNU_GETTEXT([INTLSYMBOL], [NEEDSYMBOL], [INTLDIR])

   INTLSYMBOL can be 'external' or 'no-libtool'.  The default (if it is
not specified or empty) is 'no-libtool'.  INTLSYMBOL should be
'external' for packages with no 'intl/' directory.  For packages with an
'intl/' directory, you can either use an INTLSYMBOL equal to
'no-libtool', or you can use 'external' and override by using the macro
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR' elsewhere.  The two ways to specify the
existence of an 'intl/' directory are equivalent.  At build time, a
static library '$(top_builddir)/intl/libintl.a' will then be created.

   If NEEDSYMBOL is specified and is 'need-ngettext', then GNU gettext
implementations (in libc or libintl) without the 'ngettext()' function
will be ignored.  If NEEDSYMBOL is specified and is
'need-formatstring-macros', then GNU gettext implementations that don't
support the ISO C 99 '<inttypes.h>' formatstring macros will be ignored.
Only one NEEDSYMBOL can be specified.  These requirements can also be
specified by using the macro 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED' elsewhere.  To
specify more than one requirement, just specify the strongest one among
them, or invoke the 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED' macro several times.  The
hierarchy among the various alternatives is as follows:
'need-formatstring-macros' implies 'need-ngettext'.

   INTLDIR is used to find the intl libraries.  If empty, the value
'$(top_builddir)/intl/' is used.

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' macro determines whether GNU gettext is
available and should be used.  If so, it sets the 'USE_NLS' variable to
'yes'; it defines 'ENABLE_NLS' to 1 in the autoconf generated
configuration file (usually called 'config.h'); it sets the variables
'LIBINTL' and 'LTLIBINTL' to the linker options for use in a Makefile
('LIBINTL' for use without libtool, 'LTLIBINTL' for use with libtool);
it adds an '-I' option to 'CPPFLAGS' if necessary.  In the negative
case, it sets 'USE_NLS' to 'no'; it sets 'LIBINTL' and 'LTLIBINTL' to
empty and doesn't change 'CPPFLAGS'.

   The complexities that 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' deals with are the following:

   * Some operating systems have 'gettext' in the C library, for example
     glibc.  Some have it in a separate library 'libintl'.  GNU
     'libintl' might have been installed as part of the GNU 'gettext'
     package.

   * GNU 'libintl', if installed, is not necessarily already in the
     search path ('CPPFLAGS' for the include file search path, 'LDFLAGS'
     for the library search path).

   * Except for glibc, the operating system's native 'gettext' cannot
     exploit the GNU mo files, doesn't have the necessary locale
     dependency features, and cannot convert messages from the catalog's
     text encoding to the user's locale encoding.

   * GNU 'libintl', if installed, is not necessarily already in the run
     time library search path.  To avoid the need for setting an
     environment variable like 'LD_LIBRARY_PATH', the macro adds the
     appropriate run time search path options to the 'LIBINTL' and
     'LTLIBINTL' variables.  This works on most systems, but not on some
     operating systems with limited shared library support, like SCO.

   * GNU 'libintl' relies on POSIX/XSI 'iconv'.  The macro checks for
     linker options needed to use iconv and appends them to the
     'LIBINTL' and 'LTLIBINTL' variables.

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION,  Next: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED,  Prev: AM_GNU_GETTEXT,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.2 AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION in 'gettext.m4'
---------------------------------------------

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION' macro declares the version number of the
GNU gettext infrastructure that is used by the package.

   The use of this macro is optional; only the 'autopoint' program makes
use of it (*note Version Control Issues::).

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED,  Next: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR,  Prev: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.3 AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED in 'gettext.m4'
------------------------------------------

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED' macro declares a constraint regarding the
GNU gettext implementation.  The syntax is

     AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED([NEEDSYMBOL])

   If NEEDSYMBOL is 'need-ngettext', then GNU gettext implementations
(in libc or libintl) without the 'ngettext()' function will be ignored.
If NEEDSYMBOL is 'need-formatstring-macros', then GNU gettext
implementations that don't support the ISO C 99 '<inttypes.h>'
formatstring macros will be ignored.

   The optional second argument of 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' is also taken into
account.

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED' invocations can occur before or after the
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' invocation; the order doesn't matter.

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR,  Next: AM_PO_SUBDIRS,  Prev: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.4 AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR in 'intldir.m4'
-------------------------------------------------

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR' macro specifies that the
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' macro, although invoked with the first argument
'external', should also prepare for building the 'intl/' subdirectory.

   The 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR' invocation can occur before or after
the 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' invocation; the order doesn't matter.

   The use of this macro requires GNU automake 1.10 or newer and GNU
autoconf 2.61 or newer.

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_PO_SUBDIRS,  Next: AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION,  Prev: AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.5 AM_PO_SUBDIRS in 'po.m4'
-------------------------------

   The 'AM_PO_SUBDIRS' macro prepares the 'po/' directories of the
package for building.  This macro should be used in internationalized
programs written in other programming languages than C, C++, Objective
C, for example 'sh', 'Python', 'Lisp'.  See *note Programming
Languages:: for a list of programming languages that support
localization through PO files.

   The 'AM_PO_SUBDIRS' macro determines whether internationalization
should be used.  If so, it sets the 'USE_NLS' variable to 'yes',
otherwise to 'no'.  It also determines the right values for Makefile
variables in each 'po/' directory.

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION,  Next: AM_ICONV,  Prev: AM_PO_SUBDIRS,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.6 AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION in 'po.m4'
------------------------------------

   The 'AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION' macro registers a command-line option to be
used in the invocations of 'xgettext' in the 'po/' directories of the
package.

   For example, if you have a source file that defines a function
'error_at_line' whose fifth argument is a format string, you can use
     AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION([--flag=error_at_line:5:c-format])
to instruct 'xgettext' to mark all translatable strings in 'gettext'
invocations that occur as fifth argument to this function as 'c-format'.

   See *note xgettext Invocation:: for the list of options that
'xgettext' accepts.

   The use of this macro is an alternative to the use of the
'XGETTEXT_OPTIONS' variable in 'po/Makevars'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: AM_ICONV,  Prev: AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION,  Up: autoconf macros

13.5.7 AM_ICONV in 'iconv.m4'
-----------------------------

   The 'AM_ICONV' macro tests for the presence of the POSIX/XSI 'iconv'
function family in either the C library or a separate 'libiconv'
library.  If found, it sets the 'am_cv_func_iconv' variable to 'yes'; it
defines 'HAVE_ICONV' to 1 in the autoconf generated configuration file
(usually called 'config.h'); it defines 'ICONV_CONST' to 'const' or to
empty, depending on whether the second argument of 'iconv()' is of type
'const char **' or 'char **'; it sets the variables 'LIBICONV' and
'LTLIBICONV' to the linker options for use in a Makefile ('LIBICONV' for
use without libtool, 'LTLIBICONV' for use with libtool); it adds an '-I'
option to 'CPPFLAGS' if necessary.  If not found, it sets 'LIBICONV' and
'LTLIBICONV' to empty and doesn't change 'CPPFLAGS'.

   The complexities that 'AM_ICONV' deals with are the following:

   * Some operating systems have 'iconv' in the C library, for example
     glibc.  Some have it in a separate library 'libiconv', for example
     OSF/1 or FreeBSD. Regardless of the operating system, GNU
     'libiconv' might have been installed.  In that case, it should be
     used instead of the operating system's native 'iconv'.

   * GNU 'libiconv', if installed, is not necessarily already in the
     search path ('CPPFLAGS' for the include file search path, 'LDFLAGS'
     for the library search path).

   * GNU 'libiconv' is binary incompatible with some operating system's
     native 'iconv', for example on FreeBSD. Use of an 'iconv.h' and
     'libiconv.so' that don't fit together would produce program
     crashes.

   * GNU 'libiconv', if installed, is not necessarily already in the run
     time library search path.  To avoid the need for setting an
     environment variable like 'LD_LIBRARY_PATH', the macro adds the
     appropriate run time search path options to the 'LIBICONV'
     variable.  This works on most systems, but not on some operating
     systems with limited shared library support, like SCO.

   'iconv.m4' is distributed with the GNU gettext package because
'gettext.m4' relies on it.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Version Control Issues,  Next: Release Management,  Prev: autoconf macros,  Up: Maintainers

13.6 Integrating with Version Control Systems
=============================================

   Many projects use version control systems for distributed development
and source backup.  This section gives some advice how to manage the
uses of 'gettextize', 'autopoint' and 'autoconf' on version controlled
files.

* Menu:

* Distributed Development::     Avoiding version mismatch in distributed development
* Files under Version Control::  Files to put under version control
* Translations under Version Control::  Put PO Files under Version Control
* autopoint Invocation::        Invoking the 'autopoint' Program

File: gettext.info,  Node: Distributed Development,  Next: Files under Version Control,  Prev: Version Control Issues,  Up: Version Control Issues

13.6.1 Avoiding version mismatch in distributed development
-----------------------------------------------------------

   In a project development with multiple developers, there should be a
single developer who occasionally - when there is desire to upgrade to a
new 'gettext' version - runs 'gettextize' and performs the changes
listed in *note Adjusting Files::, and then commits his changes to the
repository.

   It is highly recommended that all developers on a project use the
same version of GNU 'gettext' in the package.  In other words, if a
developer runs 'gettextize', he should go the whole way, make the
necessary remaining changes and commit his changes to the repository.
Otherwise the following damages will likely occur:

   * Apparent version mismatch between developers.  Since some 'gettext'
     specific portions in 'configure.ac', 'configure.in' and
     'Makefile.am', 'Makefile.in' files depend on the 'gettext' version,
     the use of infrastructure files belonging to different 'gettext'
     versions can easily lead to build errors.

   * Hidden version mismatch.  Such version mismatch can also lead to
     malfunctioning of the package, that may be undiscovered by the
     developers.  The worst case of hidden version mismatch is that
     internationalization of the package doesn't work at all.

   * Release risks.  All developers implicitly perform constant testing
     on a package.  This is important in the days and weeks before a
     release.  If the guy who makes the release tar files uses a
     different version of GNU 'gettext' than the other developers, the
     distribution will be less well tested than if all had been using
     the same 'gettext' version.  For example, it is possible that a
     platform specific bug goes undiscovered due to this constellation.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Files under Version Control,  Next: Translations under Version Control,  Prev: Distributed Development,  Up: Version Control Issues

13.6.2 Files to put under version control
-----------------------------------------

   There are basically three ways to deal with generated files in the
context of a version controlled repository, such as 'configure'
generated from 'configure.ac', 'PARSER.c' generated from 'PARSER.y', or
'po/Makefile.in.in' autoinstalled by 'gettextize' or 'autopoint'.

  1. All generated files are always committed into the repository.

  2. All generated files are committed into the repository occasionally,
     for example each time a release is made.

  3. Generated files are never committed into the repository.

   Each of these three approaches has different advantages and
drawbacks.

  1. The advantage is that anyone can check out the source at any moment
     and gets a working build.  The drawbacks are: 1a.  It requires some
     frequent "push" actions by the maintainers.  1b.  The repository
     grows in size quite fast.

  2. The advantage is that anyone can check out the source, and the
     usual "./configure; make" will work.  The drawbacks are: 2a.  The
     one who checks out the repository needs tools like GNU 'automake',
     GNU 'autoconf', GNU 'm4' installed in his PATH; sometimes he even
     needs particular versions of them.  2b.  When a release is made and
     a commit is made on the generated files, the other developers get
     conflicts on the generated files when merging the local work back
     to the repository.  Although these conflicts are easy to resolve,
     they are annoying.

  3. The advantage is less work for the maintainers.  The drawback is
     that anyone who checks out the source not only needs tools like GNU
     'automake', GNU 'autoconf', GNU 'm4' installed in his PATH, but
     also that he needs to perform a package specific pre-build step
     before being able to "./configure; make".

   For the first and second approach, all files modified or brought in
by the occasional 'gettextize' invocation and update should be committed
into the repository.

   For the third approach, the maintainer can omit from the repository
all the files that 'gettextize' mentions as "copy".  Instead, he adds to
the 'configure.ac' or 'configure.in' a line of the form

     AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION(0.19.8)

and adds to the package's pre-build script an invocation of 'autopoint'.
For everyone who checks out the source, this 'autopoint' invocation will
copy into the right place the 'gettext' infrastructure files that have
been omitted from the repository.

   The version number used as argument to 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION' is
the version of the 'gettext' infrastructure that the package wants to
use.  It is also the minimum version number of the 'autopoint' program.
So, if you write 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION(0.11.5)' then the developers
can have any version >= 0.11.5 installed; the package will work with the
0.11.5 infrastructure in all developers' builds.  When the maintainer
then runs gettextize from, say, version 0.12.1 on the package, the
occurrence of 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION(0.11.5)' will be changed into
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION(0.12.1)', and all other developers that use the
CVS will henceforth need to have GNU 'gettext' 0.12.1 or newer
installed.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Translations under Version Control,  Next: autopoint Invocation,  Prev: Files under Version Control,  Up: Version Control Issues

13.6.3 Put PO Files under Version Control
-----------------------------------------

   Since translations are valuable assets as well as the source code, it
would make sense to put them under version control.  The GNU gettext
infrastructure supports two ways to deal with translations in the
context of a version controlled repository.

  1. Both POT file and PO files are committed into the repository.

  2. Only PO files are committed into the repository.

   If a POT file is absent when building, it will be generated by
scanning the source files with 'xgettext', and then the PO files are
regenerated as a dependency.  On the other hand, some maintainers want
to keep the POT file unchanged during the development phase.  So, even
if a POT file is present and older than the source code, it won't be
updated automatically.  You can manually update it with 'make
$(DOMAIN).pot-update', and commit it at certain point.

   Special advices for particular version control systems:

   * Recent version control systems, Git for instance, ignore file's
     timestamp.  In that case, PO files can be accidentally updated even
     if a POT file is not updated.  To prevent this, you can set
     'PO_DEPENDS_ON_POT' variable to 'no' in the 'Makevars' file and do
     'make update-po' manually.

   * Location comments such as '#: lib/error.c:116' are sometimes
     annoying, since these comments are volatile and may introduce
     unwanted change to the working copy when building.  To mitigate
     this, you can decide to omit those comments from the PO files in
     the repository.

     This is possible with the '--no-location' option of the 'msgmerge'
     command (1).  The drawback is that, if the location information is
     needed, translators have to recover the location comments by
     running 'msgmerge' again.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) you can also use it through the 'MSGMERGE_OPTIONS' option from
'Makevars'

File: gettext.info,  Node: autopoint Invocation,  Prev: Translations under Version Control,  Up: Version Control Issues

13.6.4 Invoking the 'autopoint' Program
---------------------------------------

     autopoint [OPTION]...

   The 'autopoint' program copies standard gettext infrastructure files
into a source package.  It extracts from a macro call of the form
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION(VERSION)', found in the package's 'configure.in'
or 'configure.ac' file, the gettext version used by the package, and
copies the infrastructure files belonging to this version into the
package.

   To extract the latest available infrastructure which satisfies a
version requirement, then you can use the form
'AM_GNU_GETTEXT_REQUIRE_VERSION(VERSION)' instead.  For example, if
gettext 0.19.8 is installed on your system and '0.19.1' is requested,
then the infrastructure files of version 0.19.8 will be copied into a
source package.

13.6.4.1 Options
................

'-f'
'--force'
     Force overwriting of files that already exist.

'-n'
'--dry-run'
     Print modifications but don't perform them.  All file copying
     actions that 'autopoint' would normally execute are inhibited and
     instead only listed on standard output.

13.6.4.2 Informative output
...........................

'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

   'autopoint' supports the GNU 'gettext' versions from 0.10.35 to the
current one, 0.19.8.  In order to apply 'autopoint' to a package using a
'gettext' version newer than 0.19.8, you need to install this same
version of GNU 'gettext' at least.

   In packages using GNU 'automake', an invocation of 'autopoint' should
be followed by invocations of 'aclocal' and then 'autoconf' and
'autoheader'.  The reason is that 'autopoint' installs some autoconf
macro files, which are used by 'aclocal' to create 'aclocal.m4', and the
latter is used by 'autoconf' to create the package's 'configure' script
and by 'autoheader' to create the package's 'config.h.in' include file
template.

   The name 'autopoint' is an abbreviation of 'auto-po-intl-m4'; the
tool copies or updates mostly files in the 'po', 'intl', 'm4'
directories.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Release Management,  Prev: Version Control Issues,  Up: Maintainers

13.7 Creating a Distribution Tarball
====================================

   In projects that use GNU 'automake', the usual commands for creating
a distribution tarball, 'make dist' or 'make distcheck', automatically
update the PO files as needed.

   If GNU 'automake' is not used, the maintainer needs to perform this
update before making a release:

     $ ./configure
     $ (cd po; make update-po)
     $ make distclean

File: gettext.info,  Node: Installers,  Next: Programming Languages,  Prev: Maintainers,  Up: Top

14 The Installer's and Distributor's View
*****************************************

   By default, packages fully using GNU 'gettext', internally, are
installed in such a way as to allow translation of messages.  At
_configuration_ time, those packages should automatically detect whether
the underlying host system already provides the GNU 'gettext' functions.
If not, the GNU 'gettext' library should be automatically prepared and
used.  Installers may use special options at configuration time for
changing this behavior.  The command './configure
--with-included-gettext' bypasses system 'gettext' to use the included
GNU 'gettext' instead, while './configure --disable-nls' produces
programs totally unable to translate messages.

   Internationalized packages have usually many 'LL.po' files.  Unless
translations are disabled, all those available are installed together
with the package.  However, the environment variable 'LINGUAS' may be
set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.  'LINGUAS'
should then contain a space separated list of two-letter codes, stating
which languages are allowed.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Programming Languages,  Next: Conclusion,  Prev: Installers,  Up: Top

15 Other Programming Languages
******************************

   While the presentation of 'gettext' focuses mostly on C and
implicitly applies to C++ as well, its scope is far broader than that:
Many programming languages, scripting languages and other textual data
like GUI resources or package descriptions can make use of the gettext
approach.

* Menu:

* Language Implementors::       The Language Implementor's View
* Programmers for other Languages::  The Programmer's View
* Translators for other Languages::  The Translator's View
* Maintainers for other Languages::  The Maintainer's View
* List of Programming Languages::  Individual Programming Languages
* List of Data Formats::        Internationalizable Data

File: gettext.info,  Node: Language Implementors,  Next: Programmers for other Languages,  Prev: Programming Languages,  Up: Programming Languages

15.1 The Language Implementor's View
====================================

   All programming and scripting languages that have the notion of
strings are eligible to supporting 'gettext'.  Supporting 'gettext'
means the following:

  1. You should add to the language a syntax for translatable strings.
     In principle, a function call of 'gettext' would do, but a
     shorthand syntax helps keeping the legibility of internationalized
     programs.  For example, in C we use the syntax '_("string")', and
     in GNU awk we use the shorthand '_"string"'.

  2. You should arrange that evaluation of such a translatable string at
     runtime calls the 'gettext' function, or performs equivalent
     processing.

  3. Similarly, you should make the functions 'ngettext', 'dcgettext',
     'dcngettext' available from within the language.  These functions
     are less often used, but are nevertheless necessary for particular
     purposes: 'ngettext' for correct plural handling, and 'dcgettext'
     and 'dcngettext' for obeying other locale-related environment
     variables than 'LC_MESSAGES', such as 'LC_TIME' or 'LC_MONETARY'.
     For these latter functions, you need to make the 'LC_*' constants,
     available in the C header '<locale.h>', referenceable from within
     the language, usually either as enumeration values or as strings.

  4. You should allow the programmer to designate a message domain,
     either by making the 'textdomain' function available from within
     the language, or by introducing a magic variable called
     'TEXTDOMAIN'.  Similarly, you should allow the programmer to
     designate where to search for message catalogs, by providing access
     to the 'bindtextdomain' function.

  5. You should either perform a 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "")' call during
     the startup of your language runtime, or allow the programmer to do
     so.  Remember that gettext will act as a no-op if the 'LC_MESSAGES'
     and 'LC_CTYPE' locale categories are not both set.

  6. A programmer should have a way to extract translatable strings from
     a program into a PO file.  The GNU 'xgettext' program is being
     extended to support very different programming languages.  Please
     contact the GNU 'gettext' maintainers to help them doing this.  If
     the string extractor is best integrated into your language's
     parser, GNU 'xgettext' can function as a front end to your string
     extractor.

  7. The language's library should have a string formatting facility
     where the arguments of a format string are denoted by a positional
     number or a name.  This is needed because for some languages and
     some messages with more than one substitutable argument, the
     translation will need to output the substituted arguments in
     different order.  *Note c-format Flag::.

  8. If the language has more than one implementation, and not all of
     the implementations use 'gettext', but the programs should be
     portable across implementations, you should provide a no-i18n
     emulation, that makes the other implementations accept programs
     written for yours, without actually translating the strings.

  9. To help the programmer in the task of marking translatable strings,
     which is sometimes performed using the Emacs PO mode (*note
     Marking::), you are welcome to contact the GNU 'gettext'
     maintainers, so they can add support for your language to
     'po-mode.el'.

   On the implementation side, three approaches are possible, with
different effects on portability and copyright:

   * You may integrate the GNU 'gettext''s 'intl/' directory in your
     package, as described in *note Maintainers::.  This allows you to
     have internationalization on all kinds of platforms.  Note that
     when you then distribute your package, it legally falls under the
     GNU General Public License, and the GNU project will be glad about
     your contribution to the Free Software pool.

   * You may link against GNU 'gettext' functions if they are found in
     the C library.  For example, an autoconf test for 'gettext()' and
     'ngettext()' will detect this situation.  For the moment, this test
     will succeed on GNU systems and not on other platforms.  No severe
     copyright restrictions apply.

   * You may emulate or reimplement the GNU 'gettext' functionality.
     This has the advantage of full portability and no copyright
     restrictions, but also the drawback that you have to reimplement
     the GNU 'gettext' features (such as the 'LANGUAGE' environment
     variable, the locale aliases database, the automatic charset
     conversion, and plural handling).

File: gettext.info,  Node: Programmers for other Languages,  Next: Translators for other Languages,  Prev: Language Implementors,  Up: Programming Languages

15.2 The Programmer's View
==========================

   For the programmer, the general procedure is the same as for the C
language.  The Emacs PO mode marking supports other languages, and the
GNU 'xgettext' string extractor recognizes other languages based on the
file extension or a command-line option.  In some languages, 'setlocale'
is not needed because it is already performed by the underlying language
runtime.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Translators for other Languages,  Next: Maintainers for other Languages,  Prev: Programmers for other Languages,  Up: Programming Languages

15.3 The Translator's View
==========================

   The translator works exactly as in the C language case.  The only
difference is that when translating format strings, she has to be aware
of the language's particular syntax for positional arguments in format
strings.

* Menu:

* c-format::                    C Format Strings
* objc-format::                 Objective C Format Strings
* sh-format::                   Shell Format Strings
* python-format::               Python Format Strings
* lisp-format::                 Lisp Format Strings
* elisp-format::                Emacs Lisp Format Strings
* librep-format::               librep Format Strings
* scheme-format::               Scheme Format Strings
* smalltalk-format::            Smalltalk Format Strings
* java-format::                 Java Format Strings
* csharp-format::               C# Format Strings
* awk-format::                  awk Format Strings
* object-pascal-format::        Object Pascal Format Strings
* ycp-format::                  YCP Format Strings
* tcl-format::                  Tcl Format Strings
* perl-format::                 Perl Format Strings
* php-format::                  PHP Format Strings
* gcc-internal-format::         GCC internal Format Strings
* gfc-internal-format::         GFC internal Format Strings
* qt-format::                   Qt Format Strings
* qt-plural-format::            Qt Plural Format Strings
* kde-format::                  KDE Format Strings
* kde-kuit-format::             KUIT Format Strings
* boost-format::                Boost Format Strings
* lua-format::                  Lua Format Strings
* javascript-format::           JavaScript Format Strings

File: gettext.info,  Node: c-format,  Next: objc-format,  Prev: Translators for other Languages,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.1 C Format Strings
-----------------------

   C format strings are described in POSIX (IEEE P1003.1 2001), section
XSH 3 fprintf(),
<http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/functions/fprintf.html>.
See also the fprintf() manual page,
<http://www.linuxvalley.it/encyclopedia/ldp/manpage/man3/printf.3.php>,
<http://informatik.fh-wuerzburg.de/student/i510/man/printf.html>.

   Although format strings with positions that reorder arguments, such
as

     "Only %2$d bytes free on '%1$s'."

which is semantically equivalent to

     "'%s' has only %d bytes free."

are a POSIX/XSI feature and not specified by ISO C 99, translators can
rely on this reordering ability: On the few platforms where 'printf()',
'fprintf()' etc.  don't support this feature natively, 'libintl.a' or
'libintl.so' provides replacement functions, and GNU '<libintl.h>'
activates these replacement functions automatically.

   As a special feature for Farsi (Persian) and maybe Arabic,
translators can insert an 'I' flag into numeric format directives.  For
example, the translation of '"%d"' can be '"%Id"'.  The effect of this
flag, on systems with GNU 'libc', is that in the output, the ASCII
digits are replaced with the 'outdigits' defined in the 'LC_CTYPE'
locale category.  On other systems, the 'gettext' function removes this
flag, so that it has no effect.

   Note that the programmer should _not_ put this flag into the
untranslated string.  (Putting the 'I' format directive flag into an
MSGID string would lead to undefined behaviour on platforms without
glibc when NLS is disabled.)

File: gettext.info,  Node: objc-format,  Next: sh-format,  Prev: c-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.2 Objective C Format Strings
---------------------------------

   Objective C format strings are like C format strings.  They support
an additional format directive: "%@", which when executed consumes an
argument of type 'Object *'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: sh-format,  Next: python-format,  Prev: objc-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.3 Shell Format Strings
---------------------------

   Shell format strings, as supported by GNU gettext and the 'envsubst'
program, are strings with references to shell variables in the form
'$VARIABLE' or '${VARIABLE}'.  References of the form
'${VARIABLE-DEFAULT}', '${VARIABLE:-DEFAULT}', '${VARIABLE=DEFAULT}',
'${VARIABLE:=DEFAULT}', '${VARIABLE+REPLACEMENT}',
'${VARIABLE:+REPLACEMENT}', '${VARIABLE?IGNORED}',
'${VARIABLE:?IGNORED}', that would be valid inside shell scripts, are
not supported.  The VARIABLE names must consist solely of alphanumeric
or underscore ASCII characters, not start with a digit and be nonempty;
otherwise such a variable reference is ignored.

File: gettext.info,  Node: python-format,  Next: lisp-format,  Prev: sh-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.4 Python Format Strings
----------------------------

   There are two kinds of format strings in Python: those acceptable to
the Python built-in format operator '%', labelled as 'python-format',
and those acceptable to the 'format' method of the 'str' object.

   Python '%' format strings are described in Python Library reference /
5. Built-in Types / 5.6. Sequence Types /
5.6.2. String Formatting Operations.
<http://docs.python.org/2/library/stdtypes.html#string-formatting-operations>.

   Python brace format strings are described in
PEP 3101 - Advanced String Formatting,
<http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3101/>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: lisp-format,  Next: elisp-format,  Prev: python-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.5 Lisp Format Strings
--------------------------

   Lisp format strings are described in the Common Lisp HyperSpec,
chapter 22.3 Formatted Output,
<http://www.lisp.org/HyperSpec/Body/sec_22-3.html>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: elisp-format,  Next: librep-format,  Prev: lisp-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.6 Emacs Lisp Format Strings
--------------------------------

   Emacs Lisp format strings are documented in the Emacs Lisp reference,
section Formatting Strings,
<http://www.gnu.org/manual/elisp-manual-21-2.8/html_chapter/elisp_4.html#SEC75>.
Note that as of version 21, XEmacs supports numbered argument
specifications in format strings while FSF Emacs doesn't.

File: gettext.info,  Node: librep-format,  Next: scheme-format,  Prev: elisp-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.7 librep Format Strings
----------------------------

   librep format strings are documented in the librep manual, section
Formatted Output,
<http://librep.sourceforge.net/librep-manual.html#Formatted%20Output>,
<http://www.gwinnup.org/research/docs/librep.html#SEC122>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: scheme-format,  Next: smalltalk-format,  Prev: librep-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.8 Scheme Format Strings
----------------------------

   Scheme format strings are documented in the SLIB manual, section
Format Specification.

File: gettext.info,  Node: smalltalk-format,  Next: java-format,  Prev: scheme-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.9 Smalltalk Format Strings
-------------------------------

   Smalltalk format strings are described in the GNU Smalltalk
documentation, class 'CharArray', methods 'bindWith:' and
'bindWithArguments:'.
<http://www.gnu.org/software/smalltalk/gst-manual/gst_68.html#SEC238>.
In summary, a directive starts with '%' and is followed by '%' or a
nonzero digit ('1' to '9').

File: gettext.info,  Node: java-format,  Next: csharp-format,  Prev: smalltalk-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.10 Java Format Strings
---------------------------

   Java format strings are described in the JDK documentation for class
'java.text.MessageFormat',
<http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api/java/text/MessageFormat.html>.
See also the ICU documentation
<http://oss.software.ibm.com/icu/apiref/classMessageFormat.html>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: csharp-format,  Next: awk-format,  Prev: java-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.11 C# Format Strings
-------------------------

   C# format strings are described in the .NET documentation for class
'System.String' and in
<http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/cpguide/html/cpConFormattingOverview.asp>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: awk-format,  Next: object-pascal-format,  Prev: csharp-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.12 awk Format Strings
--------------------------

   awk format strings are described in the gawk documentation, section
Printf, <http://www.gnu.org/manual/gawk/html_node/Printf.html#Printf>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: object-pascal-format,  Next: ycp-format,  Prev: awk-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.13 Object Pascal Format Strings
------------------------------------

   Object Pascal format strings are described in the documentation of
the Free Pascal runtime library, section Format,
<http://www.freepascal.org/docs-html/rtl/sysutils/format.html>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: ycp-format,  Next: tcl-format,  Prev: object-pascal-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.14 YCP Format Strings
--------------------------

   YCP sformat strings are described in the libycp documentation
<file:/usr/share/doc/packages/libycp/YCP-builtins.html>.  In summary, a
directive starts with '%' and is followed by '%' or a nonzero digit ('1'
to '9').

File: gettext.info,  Node: tcl-format,  Next: perl-format,  Prev: ycp-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.15 Tcl Format Strings
--------------------------

   Tcl format strings are described in the 'format.n' manual page,
<http://www.scriptics.com/man/tcl8.3/TclCmd/format.htm>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: perl-format,  Next: php-format,  Prev: tcl-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.16 Perl Format Strings
---------------------------

   There are two kinds format strings in Perl: those acceptable to the
Perl built-in function 'printf', labelled as 'perl-format', and those
acceptable to the 'libintl-perl' function '__x', labelled as
'perl-brace-format'.

   Perl 'printf' format strings are described in the 'sprintf' section
of 'man perlfunc'.

   Perl brace format strings are described in the
'Locale::TextDomain(3pm)' manual page of the CPAN package libintl-perl.
In brief, Perl format uses placeholders put between braces ('{' and
'}').  The placeholder must have the syntax of simple identifiers.

File: gettext.info,  Node: php-format,  Next: gcc-internal-format,  Prev: perl-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.17 PHP Format Strings
--------------------------

   PHP format strings are described in the documentation of the PHP
function 'sprintf', in 'phpdoc/manual/function.sprintf.html' or
<http://www.php.net/manual/en/function.sprintf.php>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gcc-internal-format,  Next: gfc-internal-format,  Prev: php-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.18 GCC internal Format Strings
-----------------------------------

   These format strings are used inside the GCC sources.  In such a
format string, a directive starts with '%', is optionally followed by a
size specifier 'l', an optional flag '+', another optional flag '#', and
is finished by a specifier: '%' denotes a literal percent sign, 'c'
denotes a character, 's' denotes a string, 'i' and 'd' denote an
integer, 'o', 'u', 'x' denote an unsigned integer, '.*s' denotes a
string preceded by a width specification, 'H' denotes a 'location_t *'
pointer, 'D' denotes a general declaration, 'F' denotes a function
declaration, 'T' denotes a type, 'A' denotes a function argument, 'C'
denotes a tree code, 'E' denotes an expression, 'L' denotes a
programming language, 'O' denotes a binary operator, 'P' denotes a
function parameter, 'Q' denotes an assignment operator, 'V' denotes a
const/volatile qualifier.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gfc-internal-format,  Next: qt-format,  Prev: gcc-internal-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.19 GFC internal Format Strings
-----------------------------------

   These format strings are used inside the GNU Fortran Compiler
sources, that is, the Fortran frontend in the GCC sources.  In such a
format string, a directive starts with '%' and is finished by a
specifier: '%' denotes a literal percent sign, 'C' denotes the current
source location, 'L' denotes a source location, 'c' denotes a character,
's' denotes a string, 'i' and 'd' denote an integer, 'u' denotes an
unsigned integer.  'i', 'd', and 'u' may be preceded by a size specifier
'l'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: qt-format,  Next: qt-plural-format,  Prev: gfc-internal-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.20 Qt Format Strings
-------------------------

   Qt format strings are described in the documentation of the QString
class <file:/usr/lib/qt-4.3.0/doc/html/qstring.html>.  In summary, a
directive consists of a '%' followed by a digit.  The same directive
cannot occur more than once in a format string.

File: gettext.info,  Node: qt-plural-format,  Next: kde-format,  Prev: qt-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.21 Qt Format Strings
-------------------------

   Qt format strings are described in the documentation of the
QObject::tr method <file:/usr/lib/qt-4.3.0/doc/html/qobject.html>.  In
summary, the only allowed directive is '%n'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: kde-format,  Next: kde-kuit-format,  Prev: qt-plural-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.22 KDE Format Strings
--------------------------

   KDE 4 format strings are defined as follows: A directive consists of
a '%' followed by a non-zero decimal number.  If a '%n' occurs in a
format strings, all of '%1', ..., '%(n-1)' must occur as well, except
possibly one of them.

File: gettext.info,  Node: kde-kuit-format,  Next: boost-format,  Prev: kde-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.23 KUIT Format Strings
---------------------------

   KUIT (KDE User Interface Text) is compatible with KDE 4 format
strings, while it also allows programmers to add semantic information to
a format string, through XML markup tags.  For example, if the first
format directive in a string is a filename, programmers could indicate
that with a 'filename' tag, like '<filename>%1</filename>'.

   KUIT format strings are described in
<http://api.kde.org/frameworks-api/frameworks5-apidocs/ki18n/html/prg_guide.html#kuit_markup>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: boost-format,  Next: lua-format,  Prev: kde-kuit-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.24 Boost Format Strings
----------------------------

   Boost format strings are described in the documentation of the
'boost::format' class, at
<http://www.boost.org/libs/format/doc/format.html>.  In summary, a
directive has either the same syntax as in a C format string, such as
'%1$+5d', or may be surrounded by vertical bars, such as '%|1$+5d|' or
'%|1$+5|', or consists of just an argument number between percent signs,
such as '%1%'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: lua-format,  Next: javascript-format,  Prev: boost-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.25 Lua Format Strings
--------------------------

   Lua format strings are described in the Lua reference manual, section
String Manipulation,
<http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/manual.html#pdf-string.format>.

File: gettext.info,  Node: javascript-format,  Prev: lua-format,  Up: Translators for other Languages

15.3.26 JavaScript Format Strings
---------------------------------

   Although JavaScript specification itself does not define any format
strings, many JavaScript implementations provide printf-like functions.
'xgettext' understands a set of common format strings used in popular
JavaScript implementations including Gjs, Seed, and Node.JS. In such a
format string, a directive starts with '%' and is finished by a
specifier: '%' denotes a literal percent sign, 'c' denotes a character,
's' denotes a string, 'b', 'd', 'o', 'x', 'X' denote an integer, 'f'
denotes floating-point number, 'j' denotes a JSON object.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Maintainers for other Languages,  Next: List of Programming Languages,  Prev: Translators for other Languages,  Up: Programming Languages

15.4 The Maintainer's View
==========================

   For the maintainer, the general procedure differs from the C language
case in two ways.

   * For those languages that don't use GNU gettext, the 'intl/'
     directory is not needed and can be omitted.  This means that the
     maintainer calls the 'gettextize' program without the '--intl'
     option, and that he invokes the 'AM_GNU_GETTEXT' autoconf macro via
     'AM_GNU_GETTEXT([external])'.

   * If only a single programming language is used, the
     'XGETTEXT_OPTIONS' variable in 'po/Makevars' (*note po/Makevars::)
     should be adjusted to match the 'xgettext' options for that
     particular programming language.  If the package uses more than one
     programming language with 'gettext' support, it becomes necessary
     to change the POT file construction rule in 'po/Makefile.in.in'.
     It is recommended to make one 'xgettext' invocation per programming
     language, each with the options appropriate for that language, and
     to combine the resulting files using 'msgcat'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: List of Programming Languages,  Next: List of Data Formats,  Prev: Maintainers for other Languages,  Up: Programming Languages

15.5 Individual Programming Languages
=====================================

* Menu:

* C::                           C, C++, Objective C
* sh::                          sh - Shell Script
* bash::                        bash - Bourne-Again Shell Script
* Python::                      Python
* Common Lisp::                 GNU clisp - Common Lisp
* clisp C::                     GNU clisp C sources
* Emacs Lisp::                  Emacs Lisp
* librep::                      librep
* Scheme::                      GNU guile - Scheme
* Smalltalk::                   GNU Smalltalk
* Java::                        Java
* C#::                          C#
* gawk::                        GNU awk
* Pascal::                      Pascal - Free Pascal Compiler
* wxWidgets::                   wxWidgets library
* YCP::                         YCP - YaST2 scripting language
* Tcl::                         Tcl - Tk's scripting language
* Perl::                        Perl
* PHP::                         PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
* Pike::                        Pike
* GCC-source::                  GNU Compiler Collection sources
* Lua::                         Lua
* JavaScript::                  JavaScript
* Vala::                        Vala

File: gettext.info,  Node: C,  Next: sh,  Prev: List of Programming Languages,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.1 C, C++, Objective C
--------------------------

RPMs
     gcc, gpp, gobjc, glibc, gettext

File extension
     For C: 'c', 'h'.
     For C++: 'C', 'c++', 'cc', 'cxx', 'cpp', 'hpp'.
     For Objective C: 'm'.

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext', 'ngettext', 'dngettext',
     'dcngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     Programmer must call 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "")'

Prerequisite
     '#include <libintl.h>'
     '#include <locale.h>'
     '#define _(string) gettext (string)'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     Use

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     'fprintf "%2$d %1$d"'
     In C++: 'autosprintf "%2$d %1$d"' (*note Introduction:
     (autosprintf)Top.)

Portability
     autoconf (gettext.m4) and #if ENABLE_NLS

po-mode marking
     yes

   The following examples are available in the 'examples' directory:
'hello-c', 'hello-c-gnome', 'hello-c++', 'hello-c++-qt',
'hello-c++-kde', 'hello-c++-gnome', 'hello-c++-wxwidgets', 'hello-objc',
'hello-objc-gnustep', 'hello-objc-gnome'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: sh,  Next: bash,  Prev: C,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.2 sh - Shell Script
------------------------

RPMs
     bash, gettext

File extension
     'sh'

String syntax
     '"abc"', ''abc'', 'abc'

gettext shorthand
     '"`gettext \"abc\"`"'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'ngettext' programs
     'eval_gettext', 'eval_ngettext' shell functions

textdomain
     environment variable 'TEXTDOMAIN'

bindtextdomain
     environment variable 'TEXTDOMAINDIR'

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     '. gettext.sh'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-sh'.

* Menu:

* Preparing Shell Scripts::     Preparing Shell Scripts for Internationalization
* gettext.sh::                  Contents of 'gettext.sh'
* gettext Invocation::          Invoking the 'gettext' program
* ngettext Invocation::         Invoking the 'ngettext' program
* envsubst Invocation::         Invoking the 'envsubst' program
* eval_gettext Invocation::     Invoking the 'eval_gettext' function
* eval_ngettext Invocation::    Invoking the 'eval_ngettext' function

File: gettext.info,  Node: Preparing Shell Scripts,  Next: gettext.sh,  Prev: sh,  Up: sh

15.5.2.1 Preparing Shell Scripts for Internationalization
.........................................................

   Preparing a shell script for internationalization is conceptually
similar to the steps described in *note Sources::.  The concrete steps
for shell scripts are as follows.

  1. Insert the line

          . gettext.sh

     near the top of the script.  'gettext.sh' is a shell function
     library that provides the functions 'eval_gettext' (see *note
     eval_gettext Invocation::) and 'eval_ngettext' (see *note
     eval_ngettext Invocation::).  You have to ensure that 'gettext.sh'
     can be found in the 'PATH'.

  2. Set and export the 'TEXTDOMAIN' and 'TEXTDOMAINDIR' environment
     variables.  Usually 'TEXTDOMAIN' is the package or program name,
     and 'TEXTDOMAINDIR' is the absolute pathname corresponding to
     '$prefix/share/locale', where '$prefix' is the installation
     location.

          TEXTDOMAIN=@PACKAGE@
          export TEXTDOMAIN
          TEXTDOMAINDIR=@LOCALEDIR@
          export TEXTDOMAINDIR

  3. Prepare the strings for translation, as described in *note
     Preparing Strings::.

  4. Simplify translatable strings so that they don't contain command
     substitution ('"`...`"' or '"$(...)"'), variable access with
     defaulting (like '${VARIABLE-DEFAULT}'), access to positional
     arguments (like '$0', '$1', ...)  or highly volatile shell
     variables (like '$?').  This can always be done through simple
     local code restructuring.  For example,

          echo "Usage: $0 [OPTION] FILE..."

     becomes

          program_name=$0
          echo "Usage: $program_name [OPTION] FILE..."

     Similarly,

          echo "Remaining files: `ls | wc -l`"

     becomes

          filecount="`ls | wc -l`"
          echo "Remaining files: $filecount"

  5. For each translatable string, change the output command 'echo' or
     '$echo' to 'gettext' (if the string contains no references to shell
     variables) or to 'eval_gettext' (if it refers to shell variables),
     followed by a no-argument 'echo' command (to account for the
     terminating newline).  Similarly, for cases with plural handling,
     replace a conditional 'echo' command with an invocation of
     'ngettext' or 'eval_ngettext', followed by a no-argument 'echo'
     command.

     When doing this, you also need to add an extra backslash before the
     dollar sign in references to shell variables, so that the
     'eval_gettext' function receives the translatable string before the
     variable values are substituted into it.  For example,

          echo "Remaining files: $filecount"

     becomes

          eval_gettext "Remaining files: \$filecount"; echo

     If the output command is not 'echo', you can make it use 'echo'
     nevertheless, through the use of backquotes.  However, note that
     inside backquotes, backslashes must be doubled to be effective
     (because the backquoting eats one level of backslashes).  For
     example, assuming that 'error' is a shell function that signals an
     error,

          error "file not found: $filename"

     is first transformed into

          error "`echo \"file not found: \$filename\"`"

     which then becomes

          error "`eval_gettext \"file not found: \\\$filename\"`"

File: gettext.info,  Node: gettext.sh,  Next: gettext Invocation,  Prev: Preparing Shell Scripts,  Up: sh

15.5.2.2 Contents of 'gettext.sh'
.................................

   'gettext.sh', contained in the run-time package of GNU gettext,
provides the following:

   * $echo The variable 'echo' is set to a command that outputs its
     first argument and a newline, without interpreting backslashes in
     the argument string.

   * eval_gettext See *note eval_gettext Invocation::.

   * eval_ngettext See *note eval_ngettext Invocation::.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gettext Invocation,  Next: ngettext Invocation,  Prev: gettext.sh,  Up: sh

15.5.2.3 Invoking the 'gettext' program
.......................................

     gettext [OPTION] [[TEXTDOMAIN] MSGID]
     gettext [OPTION] -s [MSGID]...

   The 'gettext' program displays the native language translation of a
textual message.

*Arguments*

'-d TEXTDOMAIN'
'--domain=TEXTDOMAIN'
     Retrieve translated messages from TEXTDOMAIN.  Usually a TEXTDOMAIN
     corresponds to a package, a program, or a module of a program.

'-e'
     Enable expansion of some escape sequences.  This option is for
     compatibility with the 'echo' program or shell built-in.  The
     escape sequences '\a', '\b', '\c', '\f', '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v',
     '\\', and '\' followed by one to three octal digits, are
     interpreted like the System V 'echo' program did.

'-E'
     This option is only for compatibility with the 'echo' program or
     shell built-in.  It has no effect.

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-n'
     Suppress trailing newline.  By default, 'gettext' adds a newline to
     the output.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

'[TEXTDOMAIN] MSGID'
     Retrieve translated message corresponding to MSGID from TEXTDOMAIN.

   If the TEXTDOMAIN parameter is not given, the domain is determined
from the environment variable 'TEXTDOMAIN'.  If the message catalog is
not found in the regular directory, another location can be specified
with the environment variable 'TEXTDOMAINDIR'.

   When used with the '-s' option the program behaves like the 'echo'
command.  But it does not simply copy its arguments to stdout.  Instead
those messages found in the selected catalog are translated.

   Note: 'xgettext' supports only the one-argument form of the 'gettext'
invocation, where no options are present and the TEXTDOMAIN is implicit,
from the environment.

File: gettext.info,  Node: ngettext Invocation,  Next: envsubst Invocation,  Prev: gettext Invocation,  Up: sh

15.5.2.4 Invoking the 'ngettext' program
........................................

     ngettext [OPTION] [TEXTDOMAIN] MSGID MSGID-PLURAL COUNT

   The 'ngettext' program displays the native language translation of a
textual message whose grammatical form depends on a number.

*Arguments*

'-d TEXTDOMAIN'
'--domain=TEXTDOMAIN'
     Retrieve translated messages from TEXTDOMAIN.  Usually a TEXTDOMAIN
     corresponds to a package, a program, or a module of a program.

'-e'
     Enable expansion of some escape sequences.  This option is for
     compatibility with the 'gettext' program.  The escape sequences
     '\a', '\b', '\c', '\f', '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v', '\\', and '\'
     followed by one to three octal digits, are interpreted like the
     System V 'echo' program did.

'-E'
     This option is only for compatibility with the 'gettext' program.
     It has no effect.

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

'TEXTDOMAIN'
     Retrieve translated message from TEXTDOMAIN.

'MSGID MSGID-PLURAL'
     Translate MSGID (English singular) / MSGID-PLURAL (English plural).

'COUNT'
     Choose singular/plural form based on this value.

   If the TEXTDOMAIN parameter is not given, the domain is determined
from the environment variable 'TEXTDOMAIN'.  If the message catalog is
not found in the regular directory, another location can be specified
with the environment variable 'TEXTDOMAINDIR'.

   Note: 'xgettext' supports only the three-arguments form of the
'ngettext' invocation, where no options are present and the TEXTDOMAIN
is implicit, from the environment.

File: gettext.info,  Node: envsubst Invocation,  Next: eval_gettext Invocation,  Prev: ngettext Invocation,  Up: sh

15.5.2.5 Invoking the 'envsubst' program
........................................

     envsubst [OPTION] [SHELL-FORMAT]

   The 'envsubst' program substitutes the values of environment
variables.

*Operation mode*

'-v'
'--variables'
     Output the variables occurring in SHELL-FORMAT.

*Informative output*

'-h'
'--help'
     Display this help and exit.

'-V'
'--version'
     Output version information and exit.

   In normal operation mode, standard input is copied to standard
output, with references to environment variables of the form '$VARIABLE'
or '${VARIABLE}' being replaced with the corresponding values.  If a
SHELL-FORMAT is given, only those environment variables that are
referenced in SHELL-FORMAT are substituted; otherwise all environment
variables references occurring in standard input are substituted.

   These substitutions are a subset of the substitutions that a shell
performs on unquoted and double-quoted strings.  Other kinds of
substitutions done by a shell, such as '${VARIABLE-DEFAULT}' or
'$(COMMAND-LIST)' or '`COMMAND-LIST`', are not performed by the
'envsubst' program, due to security reasons.

   When '--variables' is used, standard input is ignored, and the output
consists of the environment variables that are referenced in
SHELL-FORMAT, one per line.

File: gettext.info,  Node: eval_gettext Invocation,  Next: eval_ngettext Invocation,  Prev: envsubst Invocation,  Up: sh

15.5.2.6 Invoking the 'eval_gettext' function
.............................................

     eval_gettext MSGID

   This function outputs the native language translation of a textual
message, performing dollar-substitution on the result.  Note that only
shell variables mentioned in MSGID will be dollar-substituted in the
result.

File: gettext.info,  Node: eval_ngettext Invocation,  Prev: eval_gettext Invocation,  Up: sh

15.5.2.7 Invoking the 'eval_ngettext' function
..............................................

     eval_ngettext MSGID MSGID-PLURAL COUNT

   This function outputs the native language translation of a textual
message whose grammatical form depends on a number, performing
dollar-substitution on the result.  Note that only shell variables
mentioned in MSGID or MSGID-PLURAL will be dollar-substituted in the
result.

File: gettext.info,  Node: bash,  Next: Python,  Prev: sh,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.3 bash - Bourne-Again Shell Script
---------------------------------------

   GNU 'bash' 2.0 or newer has a special shorthand for translating a
string and substituting variable values in it: '$"msgid"'.  But the use
of this construct is *discouraged*, due to the security holes it opens
and due to its portability problems.

   The security holes of '$"..."' come from the fact that after looking
up the translation of the string, 'bash' processes it like it processes
any double-quoted string: dollar and backquote processing, like 'eval'
does.

  1. In a locale whose encoding is one of BIG5, BIG5-HKSCS, GBK,
     GB18030, SHIFT_JIS, JOHAB, some double-byte characters have a
     second byte whose value is '0x60'.  For example, the byte sequence
     '\xe0\x60' is a single character in these locales.  Many versions
     of 'bash' (all versions up to bash-2.05, and newer versions on
     platforms without 'mbsrtowcs()' function) don't know about
     character boundaries and see a backquote character where there is
     only a particular Chinese character.  Thus it can start executing
     part of the translation as a command list.  This situation can
     occur even without the translator being aware of it: if the
     translator provides translations in the UTF-8 encoding, it is the
     'gettext()' function which will, during its conversion from the
     translator's encoding to the user's locale's encoding, produce the
     dangerous '\x60' bytes.

  2. A translator could - voluntarily or inadvertently - use backquotes
     '"`...`"' or dollar-parentheses '"$(...)"' in her translations.
     The enclosed strings would be executed as command lists by the
     shell.

   The portability problem is that 'bash' must be built with
internationalization support; this is normally not the case on systems
that don't have the 'gettext()' function in libc.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Python,  Next: Common Lisp,  Prev: bash,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.4 Python
-------------

RPMs
     python

File extension
     'py'

String syntax
     ''abc'', 'u'abc'', 'r'abc'', 'ur'abc'',
     '"abc"', 'u"abc"', 'r"abc"', 'ur"abc"',
     ''''abc'''', 'u'''abc'''', 'r'''abc'''', 'ur'''abc'''',
     '"""abc"""', 'u"""abc"""', 'r"""abc"""', 'ur"""abc"""'

gettext shorthand
     '_('abc')' etc.

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext.gettext', 'gettext.dgettext', 'gettext.ngettext',
     'gettext.dngettext', also 'ugettext', 'ungettext'

textdomain
     'gettext.textdomain' function, or 'gettext.install(DOMAIN)'
     function

bindtextdomain
     'gettext.bindtextdomain' function, or
     'gettext.install(DOMAIN,LOCALEDIR)' function

setlocale
     not used by the gettext emulation

Prerequisite
     'import gettext'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     emulate

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     ''...%(ident)d...' % { 'ident': value }'

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-python'.

   A note about format strings: Python supports format strings with
unnamed arguments, such as ''...%d...'', and format strings with named
arguments, such as ''...%(ident)d...''.  The latter are preferable for
internationalized programs, for two reasons:

   * When a format string takes more than one argument, the translator
     can provide a translation that uses the arguments in a different
     order, if the format string uses named arguments.  For example, the
     translator can reformulate
          "'%(volume)s' has only %(freespace)d bytes free."
     to
          "Only %(freespace)d bytes free on '%(volume)s'."
     Additionally, the identifiers also provide some context to the
     translator.

   * In the context of plural forms, the format string used for the
     singular form does not use the numeric argument in many languages.
     Even in English, one prefers to write '"one hour"' instead of '"1
     hour"'.  Omitting individual arguments from format strings like
     this is only possible with the named argument syntax.  (With
     unnamed arguments, Python - unlike C - verifies that the format
     string uses all supplied arguments.)

File: gettext.info,  Node: Common Lisp,  Next: clisp C,  Prev: Python,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.5 GNU clisp - Common Lisp
------------------------------

RPMs
     clisp 2.28 or newer

File extension
     'lisp'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '(_ "abc")', '(ENGLISH "abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'i18n:gettext', 'i18n:ngettext'

textdomain
     'i18n:textdomain'

bindtextdomain
     'i18n:textdomaindir'

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_ -kENGLISH'

Formatting with positions
     'format "~1@*~D ~0@*~D"'

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, no translation.

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-clisp'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: clisp C,  Next: Emacs Lisp,  Prev: Common Lisp,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.6 GNU clisp C sources
--------------------------

RPMs
     clisp

File extension
     'd'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     'ENGLISH ? "abc" : ""'
     'GETTEXT("abc")'
     'GETTEXTL("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'clgettext', 'clgettextl'

textdomain
     --

bindtextdomain
     --

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     '#include "lispbibl.c"'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'clisp-xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'fprintf "%2$d %1$d"'

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, no translation.

po-mode marking
     --

File: gettext.info,  Node: Emacs Lisp,  Next: librep,  Prev: clisp C,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.7 Emacs Lisp
-----------------

RPMs
     emacs, xemacs

File extension
     'el'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '(_"abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext' (xemacs only)

textdomain
     'domain' special form (xemacs only)

bindtextdomain
     'bind-text-domain' function (xemacs only)

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'format "%2$d %1$d"'

Portability
     Only XEmacs.  Without 'I18N3' defined at build time, no
     translation.

po-mode marking
     --

File: gettext.info,  Node: librep,  Next: Scheme,  Prev: Emacs Lisp,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.8 librep
-------------

RPMs
     librep 0.15.3 or newer

File extension
     'jl'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '(_"abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     --

Prerequisite
     '(require 'rep.i18n.gettext)'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'format "%2$d %1$d"'

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, no translation.

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-librep'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Scheme,  Next: Smalltalk,  Prev: librep,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.9 GNU guile - Scheme
-------------------------

RPMs
     guile

File extension
     'scm'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '(_ "abc")', '_"abc"' (GIMP script-fu extension)

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'ngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain'

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain'

setlocale
     '(catch #t (lambda () (setlocale LC_ALL "")) (lambda args #f))'

Prerequisite
     '(use-modules (ice-9 format))'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, no translation.

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-guile'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Smalltalk,  Next: Java,  Prev: Scheme,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.10 GNU Smalltalk
---------------------

RPMs
     smalltalk

File extension
     'st'

String syntax
     ''abc''

gettext shorthand
     'NLS ? 'abc''

gettext/ngettext functions
     'LcMessagesDomain>>#at:', 'LcMessagesDomain>>#at:plural:with:'

textdomain
     'LcMessages>>#domain:localeDirectory:' (returns a
     'LcMessagesDomain' object).
     Example: 'I18N Locale default messages domain: 'gettext'
     localeDirectory: /usr/local/share/locale''

bindtextdomain
     'LcMessages>>#domain:localeDirectory:', see above.

setlocale
     Automatic if you use 'I18N Locale default'.

Prerequisite
     'PackageLoader fileInPackage: 'I18N'!'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     emulate

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     ''%1 %2' bindWith: 'Hello' with: 'world''

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory:
'hello-smalltalk'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Java,  Next: C#,  Prev: Smalltalk,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.11 Java
------------

RPMs
     java, java2

File extension
     'java'

String syntax
     "abc"

gettext shorthand
     _("abc")

gettext/ngettext functions
     'GettextResource.gettext', 'GettextResource.ngettext',
     'GettextResource.pgettext', 'GettextResource.npgettext'

textdomain
     --, use 'ResourceBundle.getResource' instead

bindtextdomain
     --, use CLASSPATH instead

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     --, uses a Java specific message catalog format

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     'MessageFormat.format "{1,number} {0,number}"'

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   Before marking strings as internationalizable, uses of the string
concatenation operator need to be converted to 'MessageFormat'
applications.  For example, '"file "+filename+" not found"' becomes
'MessageFormat.format("file {0} not found", new Object[] { filename })'.
Only after this is done, can the strings be marked and extracted.

   GNU gettext uses the native Java internationalization mechanism,
namely 'ResourceBundle's.  There are two formats of 'ResourceBundle's:
'.properties' files and '.class' files.  The '.properties' format is a
text file which the translators can directly edit, like PO files, but
which doesn't support plural forms.  Whereas the '.class' format is
compiled from '.java' source code and can support plural forms (provided
it is accessed through an appropriate API, see below).

   To convert a PO file to a '.properties' file, the 'msgcat' program
can be used with the option '--properties-output'.  To convert a
'.properties' file back to a PO file, the 'msgcat' program can be used
with the option '--properties-input'.  All the tools that manipulate PO
files can work with '.properties' files as well, if given the
'--properties-input' and/or '--properties-output' option.

   To convert a PO file to a ResourceBundle class, the 'msgfmt' program
can be used with the option '--java' or '--java2'.  To convert a
ResourceBundle back to a PO file, the 'msgunfmt' program can be used
with the option '--java'.

   Two different programmatic APIs can be used to access
ResourceBundles.  Note that both APIs work with all kinds of
ResourceBundles, whether GNU gettext generated classes, or other
'.class' or '.properties' files.

  1. The 'java.util.ResourceBundle' API.

     In particular, its 'getString' function returns a string
     translation.  Note that a missing translation yields a
     'MissingResourceException'.

     This has the advantage of being the standard API. And it does not
     require any additional libraries, only the 'msgcat' generated
     '.properties' files or the 'msgfmt' generated '.class' files.  But
     it cannot do plural handling, even if the resource was generated by
     'msgfmt' from a PO file with plural handling.

  2. The 'gnu.gettext.GettextResource' API.

     Reference documentation in Javadoc 1.1 style format is in the
     javadoc2 directory (javadoc2/index.html).

     Its 'gettext' function returns a string translation.  Note that
     when a translation is missing, the MSGID argument is returned
     unchanged.

     This has the advantage of having the 'ngettext' function for plural
     handling and the 'pgettext' and 'npgettext' for strings constraint
     to a particular context.

     To use this API, one needs the 'libintl.jar' file which is part of
     the GNU gettext package and distributed under the LGPL.

   Four examples, using the second API, are available in the 'examples'
directory: 'hello-java', 'hello-java-awt', 'hello-java-swing',
'hello-java-qtjambi'.

   Now, to make use of the API and define a shorthand for 'getString',
there are three idioms that you can choose from:

   * (This one assumes Java 1.5 or newer.)  In a unique class of your
     project, say 'Util', define a static variable holding the
     'ResourceBundle' instance and the shorthand:

          private static ResourceBundle myResources =
            ResourceBundle.getBundle("domain-name");
          public static String _(String s) {
            return myResources.getString(s);
          }

     All classes containing internationalized strings then contain

          import static Util._;

     and the shorthand is used like this:

          System.out.println(_("Operation completed."));

   * In a unique class of your project, say 'Util', define a static
     variable holding the 'ResourceBundle' instance:

          public static ResourceBundle myResources =
            ResourceBundle.getBundle("domain-name");

     All classes containing internationalized strings then contain

          private static ResourceBundle res = Util.myResources;
          private static String _(String s) { return res.getString(s); }

     and the shorthand is used like this:

          System.out.println(_("Operation completed."));

   * You add a class with a very short name, say 'S', containing just
     the definition of the resource bundle and of the shorthand:

          public class S {
            public static ResourceBundle myResources =
              ResourceBundle.getBundle("domain-name");
            public static String _(String s) {
              return myResources.getString(s);
            }
          }

     and the shorthand is used like this:

          System.out.println(S._("Operation completed."));

   Which of the three idioms you choose, will depend on whether your
project requires portability to Java versions prior to Java 1.5 and, if
so, whether copying two lines of codes into every class is more
acceptable in your project than a class with a single-letter name.

File: gettext.info,  Node: C#,  Next: gawk,  Prev: Java,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.12 C#
----------

RPMs
     pnet, pnetlib 0.6.2 or newer, or mono 0.29 or newer

File extension
     'cs'

String syntax
     '"abc"', '@"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     _("abc")

gettext/ngettext functions
     'GettextResourceManager.GetString',
     'GettextResourceManager.GetPluralString'
     'GettextResourceManager.GetParticularString'
     'GettextResourceManager.GetParticularPluralString'

textdomain
     'new GettextResourceManager(domain)'

bindtextdomain
     --, compiled message catalogs are located in subdirectories of the
     directory containing the executable

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     --, uses a C# specific message catalog format

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     'String.Format "{1} {0}"'

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   Before marking strings as internationalizable, uses of the string
concatenation operator need to be converted to 'String.Format'
invocations.  For example, '"file "+filename+" not found"' becomes
'String.Format("file {0} not found", filename)'.  Only after this is
done, can the strings be marked and extracted.

   GNU gettext uses the native C#/.NET internationalization mechanism,
namely the classes 'ResourceManager' and 'ResourceSet'.  Applications
use the 'ResourceManager' methods to retrieve the native language
translation of strings.  An instance of 'ResourceSet' is the in-memory
representation of a message catalog file.  The 'ResourceManager' loads
and accesses 'ResourceSet' instances as needed to look up the
translations.

   There are two formats of 'ResourceSet's that can be directly loaded
by the C# runtime: '.resources' files and '.dll' files.

   * The '.resources' format is a binary file usually generated through
     the 'resgen' or 'monoresgen' utility, but which doesn't support
     plural forms.  '.resources' files can also be embedded in .NET
     '.exe' files.  This only affects whether a file system access is
     performed to load the message catalog; it doesn't affect the
     contents of the message catalog.

   * On the other hand, the '.dll' format is a binary file that is
     compiled from '.cs' source code and can support plural forms
     (provided it is accessed through the GNU gettext API, see below).

   Note that these .NET '.dll' and '.exe' files are not tied to a
particular platform; their file format and GNU gettext for C# can be
used on any platform.

   To convert a PO file to a '.resources' file, the 'msgfmt' program can
be used with the option '--csharp-resources'.  To convert a '.resources'
file back to a PO file, the 'msgunfmt' program can be used with the
option '--csharp-resources'.  You can also, in some cases, use the
'resgen' program (from the 'pnet' package) or the 'monoresgen' program
(from the 'mono'/'mcs' package).  These programs can also convert a
'.resources' file back to a PO file.  But beware: as of this writing
(January 2004), the 'monoresgen' converter is quite buggy and the
'resgen' converter ignores the encoding of the PO files.

   To convert a PO file to a '.dll' file, the 'msgfmt' program can be
used with the option '--csharp'.  The result will be a '.dll' file
containing a subclass of 'GettextResourceSet', which itself is a
subclass of 'ResourceSet'.  To convert a '.dll' file containing a
'GettextResourceSet' subclass back to a PO file, the 'msgunfmt' program
can be used with the option '--csharp'.

   The advantages of the '.dll' format over the '.resources' format are:

  1. Freedom to localize: Users can add their own translations to an
     application after it has been built and distributed.  Whereas when
     the programmer uses a 'ResourceManager' constructor provided by the
     system, the set of '.resources' files for an application must be
     specified when the application is built and cannot be extended
     afterwards.

  2. Plural handling: A message catalog in '.dll' format supports the
     plural handling function 'GetPluralString'.  Whereas '.resources'
     files can only contain data and only support lookups that depend on
     a single string.

  3. Context handling: A message catalog in '.dll' format supports the
     query-with-context functions 'GetParticularString' and
     'GetParticularPluralString'.  Whereas '.resources' files can only
     contain data and only support lookups that depend on a single
     string.

  4. The 'GettextResourceManager' that loads the message catalogs in
     '.dll' format also provides for inheritance on a per-message basis.
     For example, in Austrian ('de_AT') locale, translations from the
     German ('de') message catalog will be used for messages not found
     in the Austrian message catalog.  This has the consequence that the
     Austrian translators need only translate those few messages for
     which the translation into Austrian differs from the German one.
     Whereas when working with '.resources' files, each message catalog
     must provide the translations of all messages by itself.

  5. The 'GettextResourceManager' that loads the message catalogs in
     '.dll' format also provides for a fallback: The English MSGID is
     returned when no translation can be found.  Whereas when working
     with '.resources' files, a language-neutral '.resources' file must
     explicitly be provided as a fallback.

   On the side of the programmatic APIs, the programmer can use either
the standard 'ResourceManager' API and the GNU 'GettextResourceManager'
API. The latter is an extension of the former, because
'GettextResourceManager' is a subclass of 'ResourceManager'.

  1. The 'System.Resources.ResourceManager' API.

     This API works with resources in '.resources' format.

     The creation of the 'ResourceManager' is done through
            new ResourceManager(domainname, Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly())

     The 'GetString' function returns a string's translation.  Note that
     this function returns null when a translation is missing (i.e. not
     even found in the fallback resource file).

  2. The 'GNU.Gettext.GettextResourceManager' API.

     This API works with resources in '.dll' format.

     Reference documentation is in the csharpdoc directory
     (csharpdoc/index.html).

     The creation of the 'ResourceManager' is done through
            new GettextResourceManager(domainname)

     The 'GetString' function returns a string's translation.  Note that
     when a translation is missing, the MSGID argument is returned
     unchanged.

     The 'GetPluralString' function returns a string translation with
     plural handling, like the 'ngettext' function in C.

     The 'GetParticularString' function returns a string's translation,
     specific to a particular context, like the 'pgettext' function in
     C. Note that when a translation is missing, the MSGID argument is
     returned unchanged.

     The 'GetParticularPluralString' function returns a string
     translation, specific to a particular context, with plural
     handling, like the 'npgettext' function in C.

     To use this API, one needs the 'GNU.Gettext.dll' file which is part
     of the GNU gettext package and distributed under the LGPL.

   You can also mix both approaches: use the
'GNU.Gettext.GettextResourceManager' constructor, but otherwise use only
the 'ResourceManager' type and only the 'GetString' method.  This is
appropriate when you want to profit from the tools for PO files, but
don't want to change an existing source code that uses 'ResourceManager'
and don't (yet) need the 'GetPluralString' method.

   Two examples, using the second API, are available in the 'examples'
directory: 'hello-csharp', 'hello-csharp-forms'.

   Now, to make use of the API and define a shorthand for 'GetString',
there are two idioms that you can choose from:

   * In a unique class of your project, say 'Util', define a static
     variable holding the 'ResourceManager' instance:

          public static GettextResourceManager MyResourceManager =
            new GettextResourceManager("domain-name");

     All classes containing internationalized strings then contain

          private static GettextResourceManager Res = Util.MyResourceManager;
          private static String _(String s) { return Res.GetString(s); }

     and the shorthand is used like this:

          Console.WriteLine(_("Operation completed."));

   * You add a class with a very short name, say 'S', containing just
     the definition of the resource manager and of the shorthand:

          public class S {
            public static GettextResourceManager MyResourceManager =
              new GettextResourceManager("domain-name");
            public static String _(String s) {
               return MyResourceManager.GetString(s);
            }
          }

     and the shorthand is used like this:

          Console.WriteLine(S._("Operation completed."));

   Which of the two idioms you choose, will depend on whether copying
two lines of codes into every class is more acceptable in your project
than a class with a single-letter name.

File: gettext.info,  Node: gawk,  Next: Pascal,  Prev: C#,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.13 GNU awk
---------------

RPMs
     gawk 3.1 or newer

File extension
     'awk', 'gawk', 'twjr'.  The file extension 'twjr' is used by
     TexiWeb Jr (<https://github.com/arnoldrobbins/texiwebjr>).

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '_"abc"'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'dcgettext', missing 'dcngettext' in gawk-3.1.0

textdomain
     'TEXTDOMAIN' variable

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     automatic, but missing 'setlocale (LC_MESSAGES, "")' in gawk-3.1.0

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'printf "%2$d %1$d"' (GNU awk only)

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, no translation.  On non-GNU awks, you
     must define 'dcgettext', 'dcngettext' and 'bindtextdomain'
     yourself.

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-gawk'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Pascal,  Next: wxWidgets,  Prev: gawk,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.14 Pascal - Free Pascal Compiler
-------------------------------------

RPMs
     fpk

File extension
     'pp', 'pas'

String syntax
     ''abc''

gettext shorthand
     automatic

gettext/ngettext functions
     --, use 'ResourceString' data type instead

textdomain
     --, use 'TranslateResourceStrings' function instead

bindtextdomain
     --, use 'TranslateResourceStrings' function instead

setlocale
     automatic, but uses only LANG, not LC_MESSAGES or LC_ALL

Prerequisite
     '{$mode delphi}' or '{$mode objfpc}'
     'uses gettext;'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     emulate partially

Extractor
     'ppc386' followed by 'xgettext' or 'rstconv'

Formatting with positions
     'uses sysutils;'
     'format "%1:d %0:d"'

Portability
     ?

po-mode marking
     --

   The Pascal compiler has special support for the 'ResourceString' data
type.  It generates a '.rst' file.  This is then converted to a '.pot'
file by use of 'xgettext' or 'rstconv'.  At runtime, a '.mo' file
corresponding to translations of this '.pot' file can be loaded using
the 'TranslateResourceStrings' function in the 'gettext' unit.

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-pascal'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: wxWidgets,  Next: YCP,  Prev: Pascal,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.15 wxWidgets library
-------------------------

RPMs
     wxGTK, gettext

File extension
     'cpp'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'wxLocale::GetString', 'wxGetTranslation'

textdomain
     'wxLocale::AddCatalog'

bindtextdomain
     'wxLocale::AddCatalogLookupPathPrefix'

setlocale
     'wxLocale::Init', 'wxSetLocale'

Prerequisite
     '#include <wx/intl.h>'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     emulate, see 'include/wx/intl.h' and 'src/common/intl.cpp'

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     wxString::Format supports positions if and only if the system has
     'wprintf()', 'vswprintf()' functions and they support positions
     according to POSIX.

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     yes

File: gettext.info,  Node: YCP,  Next: Tcl,  Prev: wxWidgets,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.16 YCP - YaST2 scripting language
--------------------------------------

RPMs
     libycp, libycp-devel, yast2-core, yast2-core-devel

File extension
     'ycp'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     '_()' with 1 or 3 arguments

textdomain
     'textdomain' statement

bindtextdomain
     --

setlocale
     --

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'sformat "%2 %1"'

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-ycp'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Tcl,  Next: Perl,  Prev: YCP,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.17 Tcl - Tk's scripting language
-------------------------------------

RPMs
     tcl

File extension
     'tcl'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '[_ "abc"]'

gettext/ngettext functions
     '::msgcat::mc'

textdomain
     --

bindtextdomain
     --, use '::msgcat::mcload' instead

setlocale
     automatic, uses LANG, but ignores LC_MESSAGES and LC_ALL

Prerequisite
     'package require msgcat'
     'proc _ {s} {return [::msgcat::mc $s]}'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     --, uses a Tcl specific message catalog format

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     'format "%2\$d %1\$d"'

Portability
     fully portable

po-mode marking
     --

   Two examples are available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-tcl',
'hello-tcl-tk'.

   Before marking strings as internationalizable, substitutions of
variables into the string need to be converted to 'format' applications.
For example, '"file $filename not found"' becomes '[format "file %s not
found" $filename]'.  Only after this is done, can the strings be marked
and extracted.  After marking, this example becomes '[format [_ "file %s
not found"] $filename]' or '[msgcat::mc "file %s not found" $filename]'.
Note that the 'msgcat::mc' function implicitly calls 'format' when more
than one argument is given.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Perl,  Next: PHP,  Prev: Tcl,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.18 Perl
------------

RPMs
     perl

File extension
     'pl', 'PL', 'pm', 'perl', 'cgi'

String syntax

        * '"abc"'

        * ''abc''

        * 'qq (abc)'

        * 'q (abc)'

        * 'qr /abc/'

        * 'qx (/bin/date)'

        * '/pattern match/'

        * '?pattern match?'

        * 's/substitution/operators/'

        * '$tied_hash{"message"}'

        * '$tied_hash_reference->{"message"}'

        * etc., issue the command 'man perlsyn' for details

gettext shorthand
     '__' (double underscore)

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext', 'ngettext', 'dngettext',
     'dcngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

bind_textdomain_codeset
     'bind_textdomain_codeset' function

setlocale
     Use 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "");'

Prerequisite
     'use POSIX;'
     'use Locale::TextDomain;' (included in the package libintl-perl
     which is available on the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network CPAN,
     http://www.cpan.org/).

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     platform dependent: gettext_pp emulates, gettext_xs uses GNU
     gettext

Extractor
     'xgettext -k__ -k\$__ -k%__ -k__x -k__n:1,2 -k__nx:1,2 -k__xn:1,2
     -kN__ -k'

Formatting with positions
     Both kinds of format strings support formatting with positions.
     'printf "%2\$d %1\$d", ...' (requires Perl 5.8.0 or newer)
     '__expand("[new] replaces [old]", old => $oldvalue, new =>
     $newvalue)'

Portability
     The 'libintl-perl' package is platform independent but is not part
     of the Perl core.  The programmer is responsible for providing a
     dummy implementation of the required functions if the package is
     not installed on the target system.

po-mode marking
     --

Documentation
     Included in 'libintl-perl', available on CPAN
     (http://www.cpan.org/).

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-perl'.

   The 'xgettext' parser backend for Perl differs significantly from the
parser backends for other programming languages, just as Perl itself
differs significantly from other programming languages.  The Perl parser
backend offers many more string marking facilities than the other
backends but it also has some Perl specific limitations, the worst
probably being its imperfectness.

* Menu:

* General Problems::            General Problems Parsing Perl Code
* Default Keywords::            Which Keywords Will xgettext Look For?
* Special Keywords::            How to Extract Hash Keys
* Quote-like Expressions::      What are Strings And Quote-like Expressions?
* Interpolation I::             Invalid String Interpolation
* Interpolation II::            Valid String Interpolation
* Parentheses::                 When To Use Parentheses
* Long Lines::                  How To Grok with Long Lines
* Perl Pitfalls::               Bugs, Pitfalls, and Things That Do Not Work

File: gettext.info,  Node: General Problems,  Next: Default Keywords,  Prev: Perl,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.1 General Problems Parsing Perl Code
............................................

   It is often heard that only Perl can parse Perl.  This is not true.
Perl cannot be _parsed_ at all, it can only be _executed_.  Perl has
various built-in ambiguities that can only be resolved at runtime.

   The following example may illustrate one common problem:

     print gettext "Hello World!";

   Although this example looks like a bullet-proof case of a function
invocation, it is not:

     open gettext, ">testfile" or die;
     print gettext "Hello world!"

   In this context, the string 'gettext' looks more like a file handle.
But not necessarily:

     use Locale::Messages qw (:libintl_h);
     open gettext ">testfile" or die;
     print gettext "Hello world!";

   Now, the file is probably syntactically incorrect, provided that the
module 'Locale::Messages' found first in the Perl include path exports a
function 'gettext'.  But what if the module 'Locale::Messages' really
looks like this?

     use vars qw (*gettext);

     1;

   In this case, the string 'gettext' will be interpreted as a file
handle again, and the above example will create a file 'testfile' and
write the string "Hello world!" into it.  Even advanced control flow
analysis will not really help:

     if (0.5 < rand) {
        eval "use Sane";
     } else {
        eval "use InSane";
     }
     print gettext "Hello world!";

   If the module 'Sane' exports a function 'gettext' that does what we
expect, and the module 'InSane' opens a file for writing and associates
the _handle_ 'gettext' with this output stream, we are clueless again
about what will happen at runtime.  It is completely unpredictable.  The
truth is that Perl has so many ways to fill its symbol table at runtime
that it is impossible to interpret a particular piece of code without
executing it.

   Of course, 'xgettext' will not execute your Perl sources while
scanning for translatable strings, but rather use heuristics in order to
guess what you meant.

   Another problem is the ambiguity of the slash and the question mark.
Their interpretation depends on the context:

     # A pattern match.
     print "OK\n" if /foobar/;

     # A division.
     print 1 / 2;

     # Another pattern match.
     print "OK\n" if ?foobar?;

     # Conditional.
     print $x ? "foo" : "bar";

   The slash may either act as the division operator or introduce a
pattern match, whereas the question mark may act as the ternary
conditional operator or as a pattern match, too.  Other programming
languages like 'awk' present similar problems, but the consequences of a
misinterpretation are particularly nasty with Perl sources.  In 'awk'
for instance, a statement can never exceed one line and the parser can
recover from a parsing error at the next newline and interpret the rest
of the input stream correctly.  Perl is different, as a pattern match is
terminated by the next appearance of the delimiter (the slash or the
question mark) in the input stream, regardless of the semantic context.
If a slash is really a division sign but mis-interpreted as a pattern
match, the rest of the input file is most probably parsed incorrectly.

   There are certain cases, where the ambiguity cannot be resolved at
all:

     $x = wantarray ? 1 : 0;

   The Perl built-in function 'wantarray' does not accept any arguments.
The Perl parser therefore knows that the question mark does not start a
regular expression but is the ternary conditional operator.

     sub wantarrays {}
     $x = wantarrays ? 1 : 0;

   Now the situation is different.  The function 'wantarrays' takes a
variable number of arguments (like any non-prototyped Perl function).
The question mark is now the delimiter of a pattern match, and hence the
piece of code does not compile.

     sub wantarrays() {}
     $x = wantarrays ? 1 : 0;

   Now the function is prototyped, Perl knows that it does not accept
any arguments, and the question mark is therefore interpreted as the
ternaray operator again.  But that unfortunately outsmarts 'xgettext'.

   The Perl parser in 'xgettext' cannot know whether a function has a
prototype and what that prototype would look like.  It therefore makes
an educated guess.  If a function is known to be a Perl built-in and
this function does not accept any arguments, a following question mark
or slash is treated as an operator, otherwise as the delimiter of a
following regular expression.  The Perl built-ins that do not accept
arguments are 'wantarray', 'fork', 'time', 'times', 'getlogin',
'getppid', 'getpwent', 'getgrent', 'gethostent', 'getnetent',
'getprotoent', 'getservent', 'setpwent', 'setgrent', 'endpwent',
'endgrent', 'endhostent', 'endnetent', 'endprotoent', and 'endservent'.

   If you find that 'xgettext' fails to extract strings from portions of
your sources, you should therefore look out for slashes and/or question
marks preceding these sections.  You may have come across a bug in
'xgettext''s Perl parser (and of course you should report that bug).  In
the meantime you should consider to reformulate your code in a manner
less challenging to 'xgettext'.

   In particular, if the parser is too dumb to see that a function does
not accept arguments, use parentheses:

     $x = somefunc() ? 1 : 0;
     $y = (somefunc) ? 1 : 0;

   In fact the Perl parser itself has similar problems and warns you
about such constructs.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Default Keywords,  Next: Special Keywords,  Prev: General Problems,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.2 Which keywords will xgettext look for?
................................................

   Unless you instruct 'xgettext' otherwise by invoking it with one of
the options '--keyword' or '-k', it will recognize the following
keywords in your Perl sources:

   * 'gettext'

   * 'dgettext'

   * 'dcgettext'

   * 'ngettext:1,2'

     The first (singular) and the second (plural) argument will be
     extracted.

   * 'dngettext:1,2'

     The first (singular) and the second (plural) argument will be
     extracted.

   * 'dcngettext:1,2'

     The first (singular) and the second (plural) argument will be
     extracted.

   * 'gettext_noop'

   * '%gettext'

     The keys of lookups into the hash '%gettext' will be extracted.

   * '$gettext'

     The keys of lookups into the hash reference '$gettext' will be
     extracted.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Special Keywords,  Next: Quote-like Expressions,  Prev: Default Keywords,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.3 How to Extract Hash Keys
..................................

   Translating messages at runtime is normally performed by looking up
the original string in the translation database and returning the
translated version.  The "natural" Perl implementation is a hash lookup,
and, of course, 'xgettext' supports such practice.

     print __"Hello world!";
     print $__{"Hello world!"};
     print $__->{"Hello world!"};
     print $$__{"Hello world!"};

   The above four lines all do the same thing.  The Perl module
'Locale::TextDomain' exports by default a hash '%__' that is tied to the
function '__()'.  It also exports a reference '$__' to '%__'.

   If an argument to the 'xgettext' option '--keyword', resp.  '-k'
starts with a percent sign, the rest of the keyword is interpreted as
the name of a hash.  If it starts with a dollar sign, the rest of the
keyword is interpreted as a reference to a hash.

   Note that you can omit the quotation marks (single or double) around
the hash key (almost) whenever Perl itself allows it:

     print $gettext{Error};

   The exact rule is: You can omit the surrounding quotes, when the hash
key is a valid C (!)  identifier, i.e. when it starts with an underscore
or an ASCII letter and is followed by an arbitrary number of
underscores, ASCII letters or digits.  Other Unicode characters are
_not_ allowed, regardless of the 'use utf8' pragma.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Quote-like Expressions,  Next: Interpolation I,  Prev: Special Keywords,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.4 What are Strings And Quote-like Expressions?
......................................................

   Perl offers a plethora of different string constructs.  Those that
can be used either as arguments to functions or inside braces for hash
lookups are generally supported by 'xgettext'.

   * *double-quoted strings*
          print gettext "Hello World!";

   * *single-quoted strings*
          print gettext 'Hello World!';

   * *the operator qq*
          print gettext qq |Hello World!|;
          print gettext qq <E-mail: <guido\@imperia.net>>;

     The operator 'qq' is fully supported.  You can use arbitrary
     delimiters, including the four bracketing delimiters (round, angle,
     square, curly) that nest.

   * *the operator q*
          print gettext q |Hello World!|;
          print gettext q <E-mail: <guido AT imperia.net>>;

     The operator 'q' is fully supported.  You can use arbitrary
     delimiters, including the four bracketing delimiters (round, angle,
     square, curly) that nest.

   * *the operator qx*
          print gettext qx ;LANGUAGE=C /bin/date;
          print gettext qx [/usr/bin/ls | grep '^[A-Z]*'];

     The operator 'qx' is fully supported.  You can use arbitrary
     delimiters, including the four bracketing delimiters (round, angle,
     square, curly) that nest.

     The example is actually a useless use of 'gettext'.  It will invoke
     the 'gettext' function on the output of the command specified with
     the 'qx' operator.  The feature was included in order to make the
     interface consistent (the parser will extract all strings and
     quote-like expressions).

   * *here documents*
          print gettext <<'EOF';
          program not found in $PATH
          EOF

          print ngettext <<EOF, <<"EOF";
          one file deleted
          EOF
          several files deleted
          EOF

     Here-documents are recognized.  If the delimiter is enclosed in
     single quotes, the string is not interpolated.  If it is enclosed
     in double quotes or has no quotes at all, the string is
     interpolated.

     Delimiters that start with a digit are not supported!

File: gettext.info,  Node: Interpolation I,  Next: Interpolation II,  Prev: Quote-like Expressions,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.5 Invalid Uses Of String Interpolation
..............................................

   Perl is capable of interpolating variables into strings.  This offers
some nice features in localized programs but can also lead to problems.

   A common error is a construct like the following:

     print gettext "This is the program $0!\n";

   Perl will interpolate at runtime the value of the variable '$0' into
the argument of the 'gettext()' function.  Hence, this argument is not a
string constant but a variable argument ('$0' is a global variable that
holds the name of the Perl script being executed).  The interpolation is
performed by Perl before the string argument is passed to 'gettext()'
and will therefore depend on the name of the script which can only be
determined at runtime.  Consequently, it is almost impossible that a
translation can be looked up at runtime (except if, by accident, the
interpolated string is found in the message catalog).

   The 'xgettext' program will therefore terminate parsing with a fatal
error if it encounters a variable inside of an extracted string.  In
general, this will happen for all kinds of string interpolations that
cannot be safely performed at compile time.  If you absolutely know what
you are doing, you can always circumvent this behavior:

     my $know_what_i_am_doing = "This is program $0!\n";
     print gettext $know_what_i_am_doing;

   Since the parser only recognizes strings and quote-like expressions,
but not variables or other terms, the above construct will be accepted.
You will have to find another way, however, to let your original string
make it into your message catalog.

   If invoked with the option '--extract-all', resp.  '-a', variable
interpolation will be accepted.  Rationale: You will generally use this
option in order to prepare your sources for internationalization.

   Please see the manual page 'man perlop' for details of strings and
quote-like expressions that are subject to interpolation and those that
are not.  Safe interpolations (that will not lead to a fatal error) are:

   * the escape sequences '\t' (tab, HT, TAB), '\n' (newline, NL), '\r'
     (return, CR), '\f' (form feed, FF), '\b' (backspace, BS), '\a'
     (alarm, bell, BEL), and '\e' (escape, ESC).

   * octal chars, like '\033'
     Note that octal escapes in the range of 400-777 are translated into
     a UTF-8 representation, regardless of the presence of the 'use
     utf8' pragma.

   * hex chars, like '\x1b'

   * wide hex chars, like '\x{263a}'
     Note that this escape is translated into a UTF-8 representation,
     regardless of the presence of the 'use utf8' pragma.

   * control chars, like '\c[' (CTRL-[)

   * named Unicode chars, like '\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA}'

     Note that this escape is translated into a UTF-8 representation,
     regardless of the presence of the 'use utf8' pragma.

   The following escapes are considered partially safe:

   * '\l' lowercase next char

   * '\u' uppercase next char

   * '\L' lowercase till \E

   * '\U' uppercase till \E

   * '\E' end case modification

   * '\Q' quote non-word characters till \E

   These escapes are only considered safe if the string consists of
ASCII characters only.  Translation of characters outside the range
defined by ASCII is locale-dependent and can actually only be performed
at runtime; 'xgettext' doesn't do these locale-dependent translations at
extraction time.

   Except for the modifier '\Q', these translations, albeit valid, are
generally useless and only obfuscate your sources.  If a translation can
be safely performed at compile time you can just as well write what you
mean.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Interpolation II,  Next: Parentheses,  Prev: Interpolation I,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.6 Valid Uses Of String Interpolation
............................................

   Perl is often used to generate sources for other programming
languages or arbitrary file formats.  Web applications that output HTML
code make a prominent example for such usage.

   You will often come across situations where you want to intersperse
code written in the target (programming) language with translatable
messages, like in the following HTML example:

     print gettext <<EOF;
     <h1>My Homepage</h1>
     <script language="JavaScript"><!--
     for (i = 0; i < 100; ++i) {
         alert ("Thank you so much for visiting my homepage!");
     }
     //--></script>
     EOF

   The parser will extract the entire here document, and it will appear
entirely in the resulting PO file, including the JavaScript snippet
embedded in the HTML code.  If you exaggerate with constructs like the
above, you will run the risk that the translators of your package will
look out for a less challenging project.  You should consider an
alternative expression here:

     print <<EOF;
     <h1>$gettext{"My Homepage"}</h1>
     <script language="JavaScript"><!--
     for (i = 0; i < 100; ++i) {
         alert ("$gettext{'Thank you so much for visiting my homepage!'}");
     }
     //--></script>
     EOF

   Only the translatable portions of the code will be extracted here,
and the resulting PO file will begrudgingly improve in terms of
readability.

   You can interpolate hash lookups in all strings or quote-like
expressions that are subject to interpolation (see the manual page 'man
perlop' for details).  Double interpolation is invalid, however:

     # TRANSLATORS: Replace "the earth" with the name of your planet.
     print gettext qq{Welcome to $gettext->{"the earth"}};

   The 'qq'-quoted string is recognized as an argument to 'xgettext' in
the first place, and checked for invalid variable interpolation.  The
dollar sign of hash-dereferencing will therefore terminate the parser
with an "invalid interpolation" error.

   It is valid to interpolate hash lookups in regular expressions:

     if ($var =~ /$gettext{"the earth"}/) {
        print gettext "Match!\n";
     }
     s/$gettext{"U. S. A."}/$gettext{"U. S. A."} $gettext{"(dial +0)"}/g;

File: gettext.info,  Node: Parentheses,  Next: Long Lines,  Prev: Interpolation II,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.7 When To Use Parentheses
.................................

   In Perl, parentheses around function arguments are mostly optional.
'xgettext' will always assume that all recognized keywords (except for
hashes and hash references) are names of properly prototyped functions,
and will (hopefully) only require parentheses where Perl itself requires
them.  All constructs in the following example are therefore ok to use:

     print gettext ("Hello World!\n");
     print gettext "Hello World!\n";
     print dgettext ($package => "Hello World!\n");
     print dgettext $package, "Hello World!\n";

     # The "fat comma" => turns the left-hand side argument into a
     # single-quoted string!
     print dgettext smellovision => "Hello World!\n";

     # The following assignment only works with prototyped functions.
     # Otherwise, the functions will act as "greedy" list operators and
     # eat up all following arguments.
     my $anonymous_hash = {
        planet => gettext "earth",
        cakes => ngettext "one cake", "several cakes", $n,
        still => $works,
     };
     # The same without fat comma:
     my $other_hash = {
        'planet', gettext "earth",
        'cakes', ngettext "one cake", "several cakes", $n,
        'still', $works,
     };

     # Parentheses are only significant for the first argument.
     print dngettext 'package', ("one cake", "several cakes", $n), $discarded;

File: gettext.info,  Node: Long Lines,  Next: Perl Pitfalls,  Prev: Parentheses,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.8 How To Grok with Long Lines
.....................................

   The necessity of long messages can often lead to a cumbersome or
unreadable coding style.  Perl has several options that may prevent you
from writing unreadable code, and 'xgettext' does its best to do
likewise.  This is where the dot operator (the string concatenation
operator) may come in handy:

     print gettext ("This is a very long"
                    . " message that is still"
                    . " readable, because"
                    . " it is split into"
                    . " multiple lines.\n");

   Perl is smart enough to concatenate these constant string fragments
into one long string at compile time, and so is 'xgettext'.  You will
only find one long message in the resulting POT file.

   Note that the future Perl 6 will probably use the underscore ('_') as
the string concatenation operator, and the dot ('.') for dereferencing.
This new syntax is not yet supported by 'xgettext'.

   If embedded newline characters are not an issue, or even desired, you
may also insert newline characters inside quoted strings wherever you
feel like it:

     print gettext ("<em>In HTML output
     embedded newlines are generally no
     problem, since adjacent whitespace
     is always rendered into a single
     space character.</em>");

   You may also consider to use here documents:

     print gettext <<EOF;
     <em>In HTML output
     embedded newlines are generally no
     problem, since adjacent whitespace
     is always rendered into a single
     space character.</em>
     EOF

   Please do not forget that the line breaks are real, i.e. they
translate into newline characters that will consequently show up in the
resulting POT file.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Perl Pitfalls,  Prev: Long Lines,  Up: Perl

15.5.18.9 Bugs, Pitfalls, And Things That Do Not Work
.....................................................

   The foregoing sections should have proven that 'xgettext' is quite
smart in extracting translatable strings from Perl sources.  Yet, some
more or less exotic constructs that could be expected to work, actually
do not work.

   One of the more relevant limitations can be found in the
implementation of variable interpolation inside quoted strings.  Only
simple hash lookups can be used there:

     print <<EOF;
     $gettext{"The dot operator"
               . " does not work"
               . "here!"}
     Likewise, you cannot @{[ gettext ("interpolate function calls") ]}
     inside quoted strings or quote-like expressions.
     EOF

   This is valid Perl code and will actually trigger invocations of the
'gettext' function at runtime.  Yet, the Perl parser in 'xgettext' will
fail to recognize the strings.  A less obvious example can be found in
the interpolation of regular expressions:

     s/<!--START_OF_WEEK-->/gettext ("Sunday")/e;

   The modifier 'e' will cause the substitution to be interpreted as an
evaluable statement.  Consequently, at runtime the function 'gettext()'
is called, but again, the parser fails to extract the string "Sunday".
Use a temporary variable as a simple workaround if you really happen to
need this feature:

     my $sunday = gettext "Sunday";
     s/<!--START_OF_WEEK-->/$sunday/;

   Hash slices would also be handy but are not recognized:

     my @weekdays = @gettext{'Sunday', 'Monday', 'Tuesday', 'Wednesday',
                             'Thursday', 'Friday', 'Saturday'};
     # Or even:
     @weekdays = @gettext{qw (Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday
                              Friday Saturday) };

   This is perfectly valid usage of the tied hash '%gettext' but the
strings are not recognized and therefore will not be extracted.

   Another caveat of the current version is its rudimentary support for
non-ASCII characters in identifiers.  You may encounter serious problems
if you use identifiers with characters outside the range of 'A'-'Z',
'a'-'z', '0'-'9' and the underscore '_'.

   Maybe some of these missing features will be implemented in future
versions, but since you can always make do without them at minimal
effort, these todos have very low priority.

   A nasty problem are brace format strings that already contain braces
as part of the normal text, for example the usage strings typically
encountered in programs:

     die "usage: $0 {OPTIONS} FILENAME...\n";

   If you want to internationalize this code with Perl brace format
strings, you will run into a problem:

     die __x ("usage: {program} {OPTIONS} FILENAME...\n", program => $0);

   Whereas '{program}' is a placeholder, '{OPTIONS}' is not and should
probably be translated.  Yet, there is no way to teach the Perl parser
in 'xgettext' to recognize the first one, and leave the other one alone.

   There are two possible work-arounds for this problem.  If you are
sure that your program will run under Perl 5.8.0 or newer (these Perl
versions handle positional parameters in 'printf()') or if you are sure
that the translator will not have to reorder the arguments in her
translation - for example if you have only one brace placeholder in your
string, or if it describes a syntax, like in this one -, you can mark
the string as 'no-perl-brace-format' and use 'printf()':

     # xgettext: no-perl-brace-format
     die sprintf ("usage: %s {OPTIONS} FILENAME...\n", $0);

   If you want to use the more portable Perl brace format, you will have
to do put placeholders in place of the literal braces:

     die __x ("usage: {program} {[}OPTIONS{]} FILENAME...\n",
              program => $0, '[' => '{', ']' => '}');

   Perl brace format strings know no escaping mechanism.  No matter how
this escaping mechanism looked like, it would either give the programmer
a hard time, make translating Perl brace format strings heavy-going, or
result in a performance penalty at runtime, when the format directives
get executed.  Most of the time you will happily get along with
'printf()' for this special case.

File: gettext.info,  Node: PHP,  Next: Pike,  Prev: Perl,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.19 PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
----------------------------------

RPMs
     mod_php4, mod_php4-core, phpdoc

File extension
     'php', 'php3', 'php4'

String syntax
     '"abc"', ''abc''

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext'; starting with PHP 4.2.0 also
     'ngettext', 'dngettext', 'dcngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     Programmer must call 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "")'

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     'printf "%2\$d %1\$d"'

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, the functions are not available.

po-mode marking
     --

   An example is available in the 'examples' directory: 'hello-php'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Pike,  Next: GCC-source,  Prev: PHP,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.20 Pike
------------

RPMs
     roxen

File extension
     'pike'

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     --

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     'setlocale' function

Prerequisite
     'import Locale.Gettext;'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     --

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, the functions are not available.

po-mode marking
     --

File: gettext.info,  Node: GCC-source,  Next: Lua,  Prev: Pike,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.21 GNU Compiler Collection sources
---------------------------------------

RPMs
     gcc

File extension
     'c', 'h'.

String syntax
     '"abc"'

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext', 'ngettext', 'dngettext',
     'dcngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     Programmer must call 'setlocale (LC_ALL, "")'

Prerequisite
     '#include "intl.h"'

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     Use

Extractor
     'xgettext -k_'

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     Uses autoconf macros

po-mode marking
     yes

File: gettext.info,  Node: Lua,  Next: JavaScript,  Prev: GCC-source,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.22 Lua
-----------

RPMs
     lua

File extension
     'lua'

String syntax

        * '"abc"'

        * ''abc''

        * '[[abc]]'

        * '[=[abc]=]'

        * '[==[abc]==]'

        * ...

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext.gettext', 'gettext.dgettext', 'gettext.dcgettext',
     'gettext.ngettext', 'gettext.dngettext', 'gettext.dcngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     'require 'gettext'' or running lua interpreter with '-l gettext'
     option

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, the functions are not available.

po-mode marking
     --

File: gettext.info,  Node: JavaScript,  Next: Vala,  Prev: Lua,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.23 JavaScript
------------------

RPMs
     js

File extension
     'js'

String syntax

        * '"abc"'

        * ''abc''

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext', 'ngettext', 'dngettext'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function

setlocale
     automatic

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     use, or emulate

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     --

Portability
     On platforms without gettext, the functions are not available.

po-mode marking
     --

File: gettext.info,  Node: Vala,  Prev: JavaScript,  Up: List of Programming Languages

15.5.24 Vala
------------

RPMs
     vala

File extension
     'vala'

String syntax

        * '"abc"'

        * '"""abc"""'

gettext shorthand
     '_("abc")'

gettext/ngettext functions
     'gettext', 'dgettext', 'dcgettext', 'ngettext', 'dngettext',
     'dpgettext', 'dpgettext2'

textdomain
     'textdomain' function, defined under the 'Intl' namespace

bindtextdomain
     'bindtextdomain' function, defined under the 'Intl' namespace

setlocale
     Programmer must call 'Intl.setlocale (LocaleCategory.ALL, "")'

Prerequisite
     --

Use or emulate GNU gettext
     Use

Extractor
     'xgettext'

Formatting with positions
     Same as for the C language.

Portability
     autoconf (gettext.m4) and #if ENABLE_NLS

po-mode marking
     yes

File: gettext.info,  Node: List of Data Formats,  Prev: List of Programming Languages,  Up: Programming Languages

15.6 Internationalizable Data
=============================

   Here is a list of other data formats which can be internationalized
using GNU gettext.

* Menu:

* POT::                         POT - Portable Object Template
* RST::                         Resource String Table
* Glade::                       Glade - GNOME user interface description
* GSettings::                   GSettings - GNOME user configuration schema
* AppData::                     AppData - freedesktop.org application description
* Preparing ITS Rules::  Preparing Rules for XML Internationalization

File: gettext.info,  Node: POT,  Next: RST,  Prev: List of Data Formats,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.1 POT - Portable Object Template
-------------------------------------

RPMs
     gettext

File extension
     'pot', 'po'

Extractor
     'xgettext'

File: gettext.info,  Node: RST,  Next: Glade,  Prev: POT,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.2 Resource String Table
----------------------------

RPMs
     fpk

File extension
     'rst'

Extractor
     'xgettext', 'rstconv'

File: gettext.info,  Node: Glade,  Next: GSettings,  Prev: RST,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.3 Glade - GNOME user interface description
-----------------------------------------------

RPMs
     glade, libglade, glade2, libglade2, intltool

File extension
     'glade', 'glade2', 'ui'

Extractor
     'xgettext', 'libglade-xgettext', 'xml-i18n-extract',
     'intltool-extract'

File: gettext.info,  Node: GSettings,  Next: AppData,  Prev: Glade,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.4 GSettings - GNOME user configuration schema
--------------------------------------------------

RPMs
     glib2

File extension
     'gschema.xml'

Extractor
     'xgettext', 'intltool-extract'

File: gettext.info,  Node: AppData,  Next: Preparing ITS Rules,  Prev: GSettings,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.5 AppData - freedesktop.org application description
--------------------------------------------------------

RPMs
     appdata-tools, appstream, libappstream-glib,
     libappstream-glib-builder

File extension
     'appdata.xml'

Extractor
     'xgettext', 'intltool-extract', 'itstool'

* Menu:

File: gettext.info,  Node: Preparing ITS Rules,  Prev: AppData,  Up: List of Data Formats

15.6.6 Preparing Rules for XML Internationalization
---------------------------------------------------

   Marking translatable strings in an XML file is done through a
separate "rule" file, making use of the Internationalization Tag Set
standard (ITS, <http://www.w3.org/TR/its20/>).  The currently supported
ITS data categories are: 'Translate', 'Localization Note', 'Elements
Within Text', and 'Preserve Space'.  In addition to them, 'xgettext'
also recognizes the following extended data categories:

'Context'

     This data category associates 'msgctxt' to the extracted text.  In
     the global rule, the 'contextRule' element contains the following:

        * A required 'selector' attribute.  It contains an absolute
          selector that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

        * A required 'contextPointer' attribute that contains a relative
          selector pointing to a node that holds the 'msgctxt' value.

        * An optional 'textPointer' attribute that contains a relative
          selector pointing to a node that holds the 'msgid' value.

'Escape Special Characters'

     This data category indicates whether the special XML characters
     ('<', '>', '&', '"') are escaped with entity reference.  In the
     global rule, the 'escapeRule' element contains the following:

        * A required 'selector' attribute.  It contains an absolute
          selector that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

        * A required 'escape' attribute with the value 'yes' or 'no'.

'Extended Preserve Space'

     This data category extends the standard 'Preserve Space' data
     category with the additional value 'trim'.  The value means to
     remove the leading and trailing whitespaces of the content, but not
     to normalize whitespaces in the middle.  In the global rule, the
     'preserveSpaceRule' element contains the following:

        * A required 'selector' attribute.  It contains an absolute
          selector that selects the nodes to which this rule applies.

        * A required 'space' attribute with the value 'default',
          'preserve', or 'trim'.

   All those extended data categories can only be expressed with global
rules, and the rule elements have to have the
'https://www.gnu.org/s/gettext/ns/its/extensions/1.0' namespace.

   Given the following XML document in a file 'messages.xml':

     <?xml version="1.0"?>
     <messages>
       <message>
         <p>A translatable string</p>
       </message>
       <message>
         <p translatable="no">A non-translatable string</p>
       </message>
     </messages>

   To extract the first text content ("A translatable string"), but not
the second ("A non-translatable string"), the following ITS rules can be
used:

     <?xml version="1.0"?>
     <its:rules xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="1.0">
       <its:translateRule selector="/messages" translate="no"/>
       <its:translateRule selector="//message/p" translate="yes"/>

       <!-- If 'p' has an attribute 'translatable' with the value 'no', then
            the content is not translatable.  -->
       <its:translateRule selector="//message/p[@translatable = 'no']"
         translate="no"/>
     </its:rules>

   'xgettext' needs another file called "locating rule" to associate an
ITS rule with an XML file.  If the above ITS file is saved as
'messages.its', the locating rule would look like:

     <?xml version="1.0"?>
     <locatingRules>
       <locatingRule name="Messages" pattern="*.xml">
         <documentRule localName="messages" target="messages.its"/>
       </locatingRule>
       <locatingRule name="Messages" pattern="*.msg" target="messages.its"/>
     </locatingRules>

   The 'locatingRule' element must have a 'pattern' attribute, which
denotes either a literal file name or a wildcard pattern of the XML
file(1).  The 'locatingRule' element can have child 'documentRule'
element, which adds checks on the content of the XML file.

   The first rule matches any file with the '.xml' file extension, but
it only applies to XML files whose root element is '<messages>'.

   The second rule indicates that the same ITS rule file are also
applicable to any file with the '.msg' file extension.  The optional
'name' attribute of 'locatingRule' allows to choose rules by name,
typically with 'xgettext''s '-L' option.

   The associated ITS rule file is indicated by the 'target' attribute
of 'locatingRule' or 'documentRule'.  If it is specified in a
'documentRule' element, the parent 'locatingRule' shouldn't have the
'target' attribute.

   Locating rule files must have the '.loc' file extension.  Both ITS
rule files and locating rule files must be installed in the
'$prefix/share/gettext/its' directory.  Once those files are properly
installed, 'xgettext' can extract translatable strings from the matching
XML files.

15.6.6.1 Two Use-cases of Translated Strings in XML
...................................................

   For XML, there are two use-cases of translated strings.  One is the
case where the translated strings are directly consumed by programs, and
the other is the case where the translated strings are merged back to
the original XML document.  In the former case, special characters in
the extracted strings shouldn't be escaped, while they should in the
latter case.  To control wheter to escape special characters, the
'Escape Special Characters' data category can be used.

   To merge the translations, the 'msgfmt' program can be used with the
option '--xml'.  *Note msgfmt Invocation::, for more details about how
one calls the 'msgfmt' program.  'msgfmt''s '--xml' option doesn't
perform character escaping, so translated strings can have arbitrary XML
constructs, such as elements for markup.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Note that the file name matching is done after removing any '.in'
suffix from the input file name.  Thus the 'pattern' attribute must not
include a pattern matching '.in'.  For example, if the input file name
is 'foo.msg.in', the pattern should be either '*.msg' or just '*',
rather than '*.in'.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Conclusion,  Next: Language Codes,  Prev: Programming Languages,  Up: Top

16 Concluding Remarks
*********************

   We would like to conclude this GNU 'gettext' manual by presenting an
history of the Translation Project so far.  We finally give a few
pointers for those who want to do further research or readings about
Native Language Support matters.

* Menu:

* History::                     History of GNU 'gettext'
* References::                  Related Readings

File: gettext.info,  Node: History,  Next: References,  Prev: Conclusion,  Up: Conclusion

16.1 History of GNU 'gettext'
=============================

   Internationalization concerns and algorithms have been informally and
casually discussed for years in GNU, sometimes around GNU 'libc', maybe
around the incoming 'Hurd', or otherwise (nobody clearly remembers).
And even then, when the work started for real, this was somewhat
independently of these previous discussions.

   This all began in July 1994, when Patrick D'Cruze had the idea and
initiative of internationalizing version 3.9.2 of GNU 'fileutils'.  He
then asked Jim Meyering, the maintainer, how to get those changes folded
into an official release.  That first draft was full of '#ifdef's and
somewhat disconcerting, and Jim wanted to find nicer ways.  Patrick and
Jim shared some tries and experimentations in this area.  Then, feeling
that this might eventually have a deeper impact on GNU, Jim wanted to
know what standards were, and contacted Richard Stallman, who very
quickly and verbally described an overall design for what was meant to
become 'glocale', at that time.

   Jim implemented 'glocale' and got a lot of exhausting feedback from
Patrick and Richard, of course, but also from Mitchum DSouza (who wrote
a 'catgets'-like package), Roland McGrath, maybe David MacKenzie,
Franc,ois Pinard, and Paul Eggert, all pushing and pulling in various
directions, not always compatible, to the extent that after a couple of
test releases, 'glocale' was torn apart.  In particular, Paul Eggert -
always keeping an eye on developments in Solaris - advocated the use of
the 'gettext' API over 'glocale''s 'catgets'-based API.

   While Jim took some distance and time and became dad for a second
time, Roland wanted to get GNU 'libc' internationalized, and got Ulrich
Drepper involved in that project.  Instead of starting from 'glocale',
Ulrich rewrote something from scratch, but more conforming to the set of
guidelines who emerged out of the 'glocale' effort.  Then, Ulrich got
people from the previous forum to involve themselves into this new
project, and the switch from 'glocale' to what was first named
'msgutils', renamed 'nlsutils', and later 'gettext', became officially
accepted by Richard in May 1995 or so.

   Let's summarize by saying that Ulrich Drepper wrote GNU 'gettext' in
April 1995.  The first official release of the package, including PO
mode, occurred in July 1995, and was numbered 0.7.  Other people
contributed to the effort by providing a discussion forum around Ulrich,
writing little pieces of code, or testing.  These are quoted in the
'THANKS' file which comes with the GNU 'gettext' distribution.

   While this was being done, Franc,ois adapted half a dozen of GNU
packages to 'glocale' first, then later to 'gettext', putting them in
pretest, so providing along the way an effective user environment for
fine tuning the evolving tools.  He also took the responsibility of
organizing and coordinating the Translation Project.  After nearly a
year of informal exchanges between people from many countries,
translator teams started to exist in May 1995, through the creation and
support by Patrick D'Cruze of twenty unmoderated mailing lists for that
many native languages, and two moderated lists: one for reaching all
teams at once, the other for reaching all willing maintainers of
internationalized free software packages.

   Franc,ois also wrote PO mode in June 1995 with the collaboration of
Greg McGary, as a kind of contribution to Ulrich's package.  He also
gave a hand with the GNU 'gettext' Texinfo manual.

   In 1997, Ulrich Drepper released the GNU libc 2.0, which included the
'gettext', 'textdomain' and 'bindtextdomain' functions.

   In 2000, Ulrich Drepper added plural form handling (the 'ngettext'
function) to GNU libc.  Later, in 2001, he released GNU libc 2.2.x,
which is the first free C library with full internationalization
support.

   Ulrich being quite busy in his role of General Maintainer of GNU
libc, he handed over the GNU 'gettext' maintenance to Bruno Haible in
2000.  Bruno added the plural form handling to the tools as well, added
support for UTF-8 and CJK locales, and wrote a few new tools for
manipulating PO files.

File: gettext.info,  Node: References,  Prev: History,  Up: Conclusion

16.2 Related Readings
=====================

   * NOTE: * This documentation section is outdated and needs to be
revised.

   Eugene H. Dorr ('dorre AT well.com') maintains an interesting
bibliography on internationalization matters, called
'Internationalization Reference List', which is available as:
     ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/doc/i18n-books.txt

   Michael Gschwind ('mike AT vlsivie.at') maintains a Frequently
Asked Questions (FAQ) list, entitled 'Programming for
Internationalisation'.  This FAQ discusses writing programs which can
handle different language conventions, character sets, etc.; and is
applicable to all character set encodings, with particular emphasis on
ISO 8859-1.  It is regularly published in Usenet groups
'comp.unix.questions', 'comp.std.internat',
'comp.software.international', 'comp.lang.c', 'comp.windows.x',
'comp.std.c', 'comp.answers' and 'news.answers'.  The home location of
this document is:
     ftp://ftp.vlsivie.tuwien.ac.at/pub/8bit/ISO-programming

   Patrick D'Cruze ('pdcruze AT li.org') wrote a tutorial about NLS
matters, and Jochen Hein ('Hein AT student.de') took over the
responsibility of maintaining it.  It may be found as:
     ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/nls/catalogs/Incoming/...
          ...locale-tutorial-0.8.txt.gz
This site is mirrored in:
     ftp://ftp.ibp.fr/pub/linux/sunsite/

   A French version of the same tutorial should be findable at:
     ftp://ftp.ibp.fr/pub/linux/french/docs/
together with French translations of many Linux-related documents.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Language Codes,  Next: Country Codes,  Prev: Conclusion,  Up: Top

Appendix A Language Codes
*************************

   The ISO 639 standard defines two-letter codes for many languages, and
three-letter codes for more rarely used languages.  All abbreviations
for languages used in the Translation Project should come from this
standard.

* Menu:

* Usual Language Codes::        Two-letter ISO 639 language codes
* Rare Language Codes::         Three-letter ISO 639 language codes

File: gettext.info,  Node: Usual Language Codes,  Next: Rare Language Codes,  Prev: Language Codes,  Up: Language Codes

A.1 Usual Language Codes
========================

   For the commonly used languages, the ISO 639-1 standard defines
two-letter codes.

'aa'
     Afar.
'ab'
     Abkhazian.
'ae'
     Avestan.
'af'
     Afrikaans.
'ak'
     Akan.
'am'
     Amharic.
'an'
     Aragonese.
'ar'
     Arabic.
'as'
     Assamese.
'av'
     Avaric.
'ay'
     Aymara.
'az'
     Azerbaijani.
'ba'
     Bashkir.
'be'
     Belarusian.
'bg'
     Bulgarian.
'bh'
     Bihari.
'bi'
     Bislama.
'bm'
     Bambara.
'bn'
     Bengali; Bangla.
'bo'
     Tibetan.
'br'
     Breton.
'bs'
     Bosnian.
'ca'
     Catalan.
'ce'
     Chechen.
'ch'
     Chamorro.
'co'
     Corsican.
'cr'
     Cree.
'cs'
     Czech.
'cu'
     Church Slavic.
'cv'
     Chuvash.
'cy'
     Welsh.
'da'
     Danish.
'de'
     German.
'dv'
     Divehi; Maldivian.
'dz'
     Dzongkha; Bhutani.
'ee'
     ??we'.
'el'
     Greek.
'en'
     English.
'eo'
     Esperanto.
'es'
     Spanish.
'et'
     Estonian.
'eu'
     Basque.
'fa'
     Persian.
'ff'
     Fulah.
'fi'
     Finnish.
'fj'
     Fijian; Fiji.
'fo'
     Faroese.
'fr'
     French.
'fy'
     Western Frisian.
'ga'
     Irish.
'gd'
     Scottish Gaelic.
'gl'
     Galician.
'gn'
     Guarani.
'gu'
     Gujarati.
'gv'
     Manx.
'ha'
     Hausa.
'he'
     Hebrew (formerly iw).
'hi'
     Hindi.
'ho'
     Hiri Motu.
'hr'
     Croatian.
'ht'
     Haitian; Haitian Creole.
'hu'
     Hungarian.
'hy'
     Armenian.
'hz'
     Herero.
'ia'
     Interlingua.
'id'
     Indonesian (formerly in).
'ie'
     Interlingue; Occidental.
'ig'
     Igbo.
'ii'
     Sichuan Yi; Nuosu.
'ik'
     Inupiak; Inupiaq.
'io'
     Ido.
'is'
     Icelandic.
'it'
     Italian.
'iu'
     Inuktitut.
'ja'
     Japanese.
'jv'
     Javanese.
'ka'
     Georgian.
'kg'
     Kongo.
'ki'
     Kikuyu; Gikuyu.
'kj'
     Kuanyama; Kwanyama.
'kk'
     Kazakh.
'kl'
     Kalaallisut; Greenlandic.
'km'
     Central Khmer; Cambodian.
'kn'
     Kannada.
'ko'
     Korean.
'kr'
     Kanuri.
'ks'
     Kashmiri.
'ku'
     Kurdish.
'kv'
     Komi.
'kw'
     Cornish.
'ky'
     Kirghiz.
'la'
     Latin.
'lb'
     Letzeburgesch; Luxembourgish.
'lg'
     Ganda.
'li'
     Limburgish; Limburger; Limburgan.
'ln'
     Lingala.
'lo'
     Lao; Laotian.
'lt'
     Lithuanian.
'lu'
     Luba-Katanga.
'lv'
     Latvian; Lettish.
'mg'
     Malagasy.
'mh'
     Marshallese.
'mi'
     Maori.
'mk'
     Macedonian.
'ml'
     Malayalam.
'mn'
     Mongolian.
'mo'
     Moldavian.
'mr'
     Marathi.
'ms'
     Malay.
'mt'
     Maltese.
'my'
     Burmese.
'na'
     Nauru.
'nb'
     Norwegian Bokm??l.
'nd'
     Ndebele, North.
'ne'
     Nepali.
'ng'
     Ndonga.
'nl'
     Dutch.
'nn'
     Norwegian Nynorsk.
'no'
     Norwegian.
'nr'
     Ndebele, South.
'nv'
     Navajo; Navaho.
'ny'
     Chichewa; Nyanja.
'oc'
     Occitan; Provenc,al.
'oj'
     Ojibwa.
'om'
     (Afan) Oromo.
'or'
     Oriya.
'os'
     Ossetian; Ossetic.
'pa'
     Panjabi; Punjabi.
'pi'
     Pali.
'pl'
     Polish.
'ps'
     Pashto; Pushto.
'pt'
     Portuguese.
'qu'
     Quechua.
'rm'
     Romansh.
'rn'
     Rundi; Kirundi.
'ro'
     Romanian.
'ru'
     Russian.
'rw'
     Kinyarwanda.
'sa'
     Sanskrit.
'sc'
     Sardinian.
'sd'
     Sindhi.
'se'
     Northern Sami.
'sg'
     Sango; Sangro.
'si'
     Sinhala; Sinhalese.
'sk'
     Slovak.
'sl'
     Slovenian.
'sm'
     Samoan.
'sn'
     Shona.
'so'
     Somali.
'sq'
     Albanian.
'sr'
     Serbian.
'ss'
     Swati; Siswati.
'st'
     Sesotho; Sotho, Southern.
'su'
     Sundanese.
'sv'
     Swedish.
'sw'
     Swahili.
'ta'
     Tamil.
'te'
     Telugu.
'tg'
     Tajik.
'th'
     Thai.
'ti'
     Tigrinya.
'tk'
     Turkmen.
'tl'
     Tagalog.
'tn'
     Tswana; Setswana.
'to'
     Tonga.
'tr'
     Turkish.
'ts'
     Tsonga.
'tt'
     Tatar.
'tw'
     Twi.
'ty'
     Tahitian.
'ug'
     Uighur.
'uk'
     Ukrainian.
'ur'
     Urdu.
'uz'
     Uzbek.
've'
     Venda.
'vi'
     Vietnamese.
'vo'
     Volapu"k; Volapuk.
'wa'
     Walloon.
'wo'
     Wolof.
'xh'
     Xhosa.
'yi'
     Yiddish (formerly ji).
'yo'
     Yoruba.
'za'
     Zhuang.
'zh'
     Chinese.
'zu'
     Zulu.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Rare Language Codes,  Prev: Usual Language Codes,  Up: Language Codes

A.2 Rare Language Codes
=======================

   For rarely used languages, the ISO 639-2 standard defines
three-letter codes.  Here is the current list, reduced to only living
languages with at least one million of speakers.

'ace'
     Achinese.
'awa'
     Awadhi.
'bal'
     Baluchi.
'ban'
     Balinese.
'bej'
     Beja; Bedawiyet.
'bem'
     Bemba.
'bho'
     Bhojpuri.
'bik'
     Bikol.
'bin'
     Bini; Edo.
'bug'
     Buginese.
'ceb'
     Cebuano.
'din'
     Dinka.
'doi'
     Dogri.
'fil'
     Filipino; Pilipino.
'fon'
     Fon.
'gon'
     Gondi.
'gsw'
     Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian.
'hil'
     Hiligaynon.
'hmn'
     Hmong.
'ilo'
     Iloko.
'kab'
     Kabyle.
'kam'
     Kamba.
'kbd'
     Kabardian.
'kmb'
     Kimbundu.
'kok'
     Konkani.
'kru'
     Kurukh.
'lua'
     Luba-Lulua.
'luo'
     Luo (Kenya and Tanzania).
'mad'
     Madurese.
'mag'
     Magahi.
'mai'
     Maithili.
'mak'
     Makasar.
'man'
     Mandingo.
'men'
     Mende.
'min'
     Minangkabau.
'mni'
     Manipuri.
'mos'
     Mossi.
'mwr'
     Marwari.
'nap'
     Neapolitan.
'nso'
     Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho.
'nym'
     Nyamwezi.
'nyn'
     Nyankole.
'pag'
     Pangasinan.
'pam'
     Pampanga; Kapampangan.
'raj'
     Rajasthani.
'sas'
     Sasak.
'sat'
     Santali.
'scn'
     Sicilian.
'shn'
     Shan.
'sid'
     Sidamo.
'srr'
     Serer.
'suk'
     Sukuma.
'sus'
     Susu.
'tem'
     Timne.
'tiv'
     Tiv.
'tum'
     Tumbuka.
'umb'
     Umbundu.
'wal'
     Walamo.
'war'
     Waray.
'yao'
     Yao.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Country Codes,  Next: Licenses,  Prev: Language Codes,  Up: Top

Appendix B Country Codes
************************

   The ISO 3166 standard defines two character codes for many countries
and territories.  All abbreviations for countries used in the
Translation Project should come from this standard.

'AD'
     Andorra.
'AE'
     United Arab Emirates.
'AF'
     Afghanistan.
'AG'
     Antigua and Barbuda.
'AI'
     Anguilla.
'AL'
     Albania.
'AM'
     Armenia.
'AO'
     Angola.
'AQ'
     Antarctica.
'AR'
     Argentina.
'AS'
     American Samoa.
'AT'
     Austria.
'AU'
     Australia.
'AW'
     Aruba.
'AX'
     Aaland Islands.
'AZ'
     Azerbaijan.
'BA'
     Bosnia and Herzegovina.
'BB'
     Barbados.
'BD'
     Bangladesh.
'BE'
     Belgium.
'BF'
     Burkina Faso.
'BG'
     Bulgaria.
'BH'
     Bahrain.
'BI'
     Burundi.
'BJ'
     Benin.
'BL'
     Saint Barthelemy.
'BM'
     Bermuda.
'BN'
     Brunei Darussalam.
'BO'
     Bolivia, Plurinational State of.
'BQ'
     Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
'BR'
     Brazil.
'BS'
     Bahamas.
'BT'
     Bhutan.
'BV'
     Bouvet Island.
'BW'
     Botswana.
'BY'
     Belarus.
'BZ'
     Belize.
'CA'
     Canada.
'CC'
     Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
'CD'
     Congo, The Democratic Republic of the.
'CF'
     Central African Republic.
'CG'
     Congo.
'CH'
     Switzerland.
'CI'
     C??te d'Ivoire.
'CK'
     Cook Islands.
'CL'
     Chile.
'CM'
     Cameroon.
'CN'
     China.
'CO'
     Colombia.
'CR'
     Costa Rica.
'CU'
     Cuba.
'CV'
     Cape Verde.
'CW'
     Curac,ao.
'CX'
     Christmas Island.
'CY'
     Cyprus.
'CZ'
     Czech Republic.
'DE'
     Germany.
'DJ'
     Djibouti.
'DK'
     Denmark.
'DM'
     Dominica.
'DO'
     Dominican Republic.
'DZ'
     Algeria.
'EC'
     Ecuador.
'EE'
     Estonia.
'EG'
     Egypt.
'EH'
     Western Sahara.
'ER'
     Eritrea.
'ES'
     Spain.
'ET'
     Ethiopia.
'FI'
     Finland.
'FJ'
     Fiji.
'FK'
     Falkland Islands (Malvinas).
'FM'
     Micronesia, Federated States of.
'FO'
     Faroe Islands.
'FR'
     France.
'GA'
     Gabon.
'GB'
     United Kingdom.
'GD'
     Grenada.
'GE'
     Georgia.
'GF'
     French Guiana.
'GG'
     Guernsey.
'GH'
     Ghana.
'GI'
     Gibraltar.
'GL'
     Greenland.
'GM'
     Gambia.
'GN'
     Guinea.
'GP'
     Guadeloupe.
'GQ'
     Equatorial Guinea.
'GR'
     Greece.
'GS'
     South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
'GT'
     Guatemala.
'GU'
     Guam.
'GW'
     Guinea-Bissau.
'GY'
     Guyana.
'HK'
     Hong Kong.
'HM'
     Heard Island and McDonald Islands.
'HN'
     Honduras.
'HR'
     Croatia.
'HT'
     Haiti.
'HU'
     Hungary.
'ID'
     Indonesia.
'IE'
     Ireland.
'IL'
     Israel.
'IM'
     Isle of Man.
'IN'
     India.
'IO'
     British Indian Ocean Territory.
'IQ'
     Iraq.
'IR'
     Iran, Islamic Republic of.
'IS'
     Iceland.
'IT'
     Italy.
'JE'
     Jersey.
'JM'
     Jamaica.
'JO'
     Jordan.
'JP'
     Japan.
'KE'
     Kenya.
'KG'
     Kyrgyzstan.
'KH'
     Cambodia.
'KI'
     Kiribati.
'KM'
     Comoros.
'KN'
     Saint Kitts and Nevis.
'KP'
     Korea, Democratic People's Republic of.
'KR'
     Korea, Republic of.
'KW'
     Kuwait.
'KY'
     Cayman Islands.
'KZ'
     Kazakhstan.
'LA'
     Lao People's Democratic Republic.
'LB'
     Lebanon.
'LC'
     Saint Lucia.
'LI'
     Liechtenstein.
'LK'
     Sri Lanka.
'LR'
     Liberia.
'LS'
     Lesotho.
'LT'
     Lithuania.
'LU'
     Luxembourg.
'LV'
     Latvia.
'LY'
     Libya.
'MA'
     Morocco.
'MC'
     Monaco.
'MD'
     Moldova, Republic of.
'ME'
     Montenegro.
'MF'
     Saint Martin (French part).
'MG'
     Madagascar.
'MH'
     Marshall Islands.
'MK'
     Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of.
'ML'
     Mali.
'MM'
     Myanmar.
'MN'
     Mongolia.
'MO'
     Macao.
'MP'
     Northern Mariana Islands.
'MQ'
     Martinique.
'MR'
     Mauritania.
'MS'
     Montserrat.
'MT'
     Malta.
'MU'
     Mauritius.
'MV'
     Maldives.
'MW'
     Malawi.
'MX'
     Mexico.
'MY'
     Malaysia.
'MZ'
     Mozambique.
'NA'
     Namibia.
'NC'
     New Caledonia.
'NE'
     Niger.
'NF'
     Norfolk Island.
'NG'
     Nigeria.
'NI'
     Nicaragua.
'NL'
     Netherlands.
'NO'
     Norway.
'NP'
     Nepal.
'NR'
     Nauru.
'NU'
     Niue.
'NZ'
     New Zealand.
'OM'
     Oman.
'PA'
     Panama.
'PE'
     Peru.
'PF'
     French Polynesia.
'PG'
     Papua New Guinea.
'PH'
     Philippines.
'PK'
     Pakistan.
'PL'
     Poland.
'PM'
     Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
'PN'
     Pitcairn.
'PR'
     Puerto Rico.
'PS'
     Palestine, State of.
'PT'
     Portugal.
'PW'
     Palau.
'PY'
     Paraguay.
'QA'
     Qatar.
'RE'
     Reunion.
'RO'
     Romania.
'RS'
     Serbia.
'RU'
     Russian Federation.
'RW'
     Rwanda.
'SA'
     Saudi Arabia.
'SB'
     Solomon Islands.
'SC'
     Seychelles.
'SD'
     Sudan.
'SE'
     Sweden.
'SG'
     Singapore.
'SH'
     Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
'SI'
     Slovenia.
'SJ'
     Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
'SK'
     Slovakia.
'SL'
     Sierra Leone.
'SM'
     San Marino.
'SN'
     Senegal.
'SO'
     Somalia.
'SR'
     Suriname.
'SS'
     South Sudan.
'ST'
     Sao Tome and Principe.
'SV'
     El Salvador.
'SX'
     Sint Maarten (Dutch part).
'SY'
     Syrian Arab Republic.
'SZ'
     Swaziland.
'TC'
     Turks and Caicos Islands.
'TD'
     Chad.
'TF'
     French Southern Territories.
'TG'
     Togo.
'TH'
     Thailand.
'TJ'
     Tajikistan.
'TK'
     Tokelau.
'TL'
     Timor-Leste.
'TM'
     Turkmenistan.
'TN'
     Tunisia.
'TO'
     Tonga.
'TR'
     Turkey.
'TT'
     Trinidad and Tobago.
'TV'
     Tuvalu.
'TW'
     Taiwan, Province of China.
'TZ'
     Tanzania, United Republic of.
'UA'
     Ukraine.
'UG'
     Uganda.
'UM'
     United States Minor Outlying Islands.
'US'
     United States.
'UY'
     Uruguay.
'UZ'
     Uzbekistan.
'VA'
     Holy See (Vatican City State).
'VC'
     Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
'VE'
     Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of.
'VG'
     Virgin Islands, British.
'VI'
     Virgin Islands, U.S..
'VN'
     Viet Nam.
'VU'
     Vanuatu.
'WF'
     Wallis and Futuna.
'WS'
     Samoa.
'YE'
     Yemen.
'YT'
     Mayotte.
'ZA'
     South Africa.
'ZM'
     Zambia.
'ZW'
     Zimbabwe.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Licenses,  Next: Program Index,  Prev: Country Codes,  Up: Top

Appendix C Licenses
*******************

   The files of this package are covered by the licenses indicated in
each particular file or directory.  Here is a summary:

   * The 'libintl' and 'libasprintf' libraries are covered by the GNU
     Lesser General Public License (LGPL). A copy of the license is
     included in *note GNU LGPL::.

   * The executable programs of this package and the 'libgettextpo'
     library are covered by the GNU General Public License (GPL). A copy
     of the license is included in *note GNU GPL::.

   * This manual is free documentation.  It is dually licensed under the
     GNU FDL and the GNU GPL. This means that you can redistribute this
     manual under either of these two licenses, at your choice.
     This manual is covered by the GNU FDL. Permission is granted to
     copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the
     GNU Free Documentation License (FDL), either version 1.2 of the
     License, or (at your option) any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation (FSF); with no Invariant Sections, with no
     Front-Cover Text, and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the
     license is included in *note GNU FDL::.
     This manual is covered by the GNU GPL. You can redistribute it
     and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
     (GPL), either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any
     later version published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). A
     copy of the license is included in *note GNU GPL::.

* Menu:

* GNU GPL::                     GNU General Public License
* GNU LGPL::                    GNU Lesser General Public License
* GNU FDL::                     GNU Free Documentation License

File: gettext.info,  Node: GNU GPL,  Next: GNU LGPL,  Prev: Licenses,  Up: Licenses

C.1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
==============================

                         Version 2, June 1991

     Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble
========

   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to
make sure the software is free for all its users.  This General Public
License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and
to any other program whose authors commit to using it.  (Some other Free
Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public
License instead.)  You can apply it to your programs, too.

   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if
you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software,
and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
===============================================================

  0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a
     notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
     under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program",
     below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the
     Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under
     copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a
     portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
     translated into another language.  (Hereinafter, translation is
     included without limitation in the term "modification".)  Each
     licensee is addressed as "you".

     Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are
     not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act
     of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
     Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
     the Program (independent of having been made by running the
     Program).  Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
     code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
     conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
     copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
     notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
     warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of
     this License along with the Program.

     You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
     and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange
     for a fee.

  2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of
     it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
     distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
     above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

       a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
          stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

       b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that
          in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or
          any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to
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       c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
          when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
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          an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and
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     These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
     identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the
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     when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a
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     regardless of who wrote it.

     Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or
     contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the
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     derivative or collective works based on the Program.

     In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the
     Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a
     volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
     work under the scope of this License.

  3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
     under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms
     of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
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       a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
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       b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
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  6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
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     If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable
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  9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
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  10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
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                              NO WARRANTY

  11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
     WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
     LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
     AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
     OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
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     FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
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     DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR
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  12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
     MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
     LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL,
     INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
     INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
     DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU
     OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY
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                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=======================================================

   If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YYYY  NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
     (at your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
     GNU General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
     Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.

   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

   If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like
this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands 'show w' and 'show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than 'show w' and 'show
c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your
program.

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program,
if necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

     Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
     `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

     SIGNATURE OF TY COON, 1 April 1989
     Ty Coon, President of Vice

   This General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.

File: gettext.info,  Node: GNU LGPL,  Next: GNU FDL,  Prev: GNU GPL,  Up: Licenses

C.2 GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
=====================================

                      Version 2.1, February 1999

     Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

     [This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL.  It also counts
     as the successor of the GNU Library Public License, version 2, hence the
     version number 2.1.]

Preamble
--------

   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
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TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
---------------------------------------------------------------

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     Library at all.  For example, if a patent license would not permit
     royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive
     copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you
     could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely
     from distribution of the Library.

     If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable
     under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is
     intended to apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply
     in other circumstances.

     It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
     patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of
     any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting
     the integrity of the free software distribution system which is
     implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
     generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
     through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
     system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
     willing to distribute software through any other system and a
     licensee cannot impose that choice.

     This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed
     to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  12. If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in
     certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces,
     the original copyright holder who places the Library under this
     License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation
     excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only
     in or among countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this
     License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
     this License.

  13. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the Lesser General Public License from time to time.
     Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version,
     but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Library specifies a version number of this License which applies to
     it and "any later version", you have the option of following the
     terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version
     published by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Library does not
     specify a license version number, you may choose any version ever
     published by the Free Software Foundation.

  14. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free
     programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these,
     write to the author to ask for permission.  For software which is
     copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free
     Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our
     decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free
     status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the
     sharing and reuse of software generally.

                              NO WARRANTY

  15. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
     WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
     LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
     AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
     OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
     LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
     FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
     PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE
     DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR
     OR CORRECTION.

  16. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
     MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
     LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL,
     INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
     INABILITY TO USE THE LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
     DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU
     OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY
     OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN
     ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
---------------------------

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
----------------------------------------------

   If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that
everyone can redistribute and change.  You can do so by permitting
redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of
the ordinary General Public License).

   To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library.
It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most
effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have
at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is
found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE LIBRARY'S NAME AND AN IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR  NAME OF AUTHOR

     This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
     under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.

     This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     Lesser General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
     License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
     Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301,
     USA.

   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the library,
if necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

     Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the library
     `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker.

     SIGNATURE OF TY COON, 1 April 1990
     Ty Coon, President of Vice

   That's all there is to it!

File: gettext.info,  Node: GNU FDL,  Prev: GNU LGPL,  Up: Licenses

C.3 GNU Free Documentation License
==================================

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
     recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
     be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept
     the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
     requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
     notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
     If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
     is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
     contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
     any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
     of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
     available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
     formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
     suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
     Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
     been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
     readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
     used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
     "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
     simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
     Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.
     Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
     edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
     the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
     the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
     conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
     equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
     covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
     long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
     conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
     Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
     each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
     network-using public has access to download using public-standard
     network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
     of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
     reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
     copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
     remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
     year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
     through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
     to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
     Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
     Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
     distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
     possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
     the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
          versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
          History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
          as a previous version if the original publisher of that
          version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
          Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the
          Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
          publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add
          an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
          previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
          "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
          that was published at least four years before the Document
          itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
          to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section
          all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
          in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
          equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
     some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
     titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
     license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other
     section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of
     a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
     the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
     of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
     through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
     already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
     by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on
     behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
     one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
     the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
     of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
     in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
     License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
     document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
     storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
     so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/>.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the
     Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
     choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
     Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

   To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.

File: gettext.info,  Node: Program Index,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Licenses,  Up: Top

Program Index
*************


* Menu:

* autopoint:                             autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* boldquot:                              msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 111)
* envsubst:                              envsubst Invocation. (line   6)
* gettext:                               sh.                  (line  19)
* gettext <1>:                           gettext Invocation.  (line   6)
* gettextize:                            gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* msgattrib:                             msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* msgcat:                                msgcat Invocation.   (line   6)
* msgcmp:                                msgcmp Invocation.   (line   6)
* msgcomm:                               msgcomm Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgconv:                               msgconv Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgen:                                 msgen Invocation.    (line   6)
* msgexec:                               msgexec Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgfilter:                             msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* msgfmt:                                msgfmt Invocation.   (line   6)
* msggrep:                               msggrep Invocation.  (line   6)
* msginit:                               msginit Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgmerge:                              msgmerge Invocation. (line   6)
* msgunfmt:                              msgunfmt Invocation. (line   6)
* msguniq:                               msguniq Invocation.  (line   6)
* ngettext:                              sh.                  (line  19)
* ngettext <1>:                          ngettext Invocation. (line   6)
* quot:                                  msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 107)
* recode-sr-latin:                       msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 101)
* xgettext:                              xgettext Invocation. (line   6)

File: gettext.info,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: Program Index,  Up: Top

Option Index
************


* Menu:

* --add-comments, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line  94)
* --add-location, 'msgattrib' option:    msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 138)
* --add-location, 'msgcat' option:       msgcat Invocation.   (line 114)
* --add-location, 'msgcomm' option:      msgcomm Invocation.  (line 100)
* --add-location, 'msgconv' option:      msgconv Invocation.  (line  80)
* --add-location, 'msgen' option:        msgen Invocation.    (line  83)
* --add-location, 'msgfilter' option:    msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 161)
* --add-location, 'msggrep' option:      msggrep Invocation.  (line 152)
* --add-location, 'msgmerge' option:     msgmerge Invocation. (line 150)
* --add-location, 'msguniq' option:      msguniq Invocation.  (line  97)
* --add-location, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line 371)
* --alignment, 'msgfmt' option:          msgfmt Invocation.   (line 288)
* --backup, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line  62)
* --boost, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 329)
* --c++, 'xgettext' option:              xgettext Invocation. (line  63)
* --check, 'msgfmt' option:              msgfmt Invocation.   (line 226)
* --check, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 116)
* --check-accelerators, 'msgfmt' option: msgfmt Invocation.   (line 267)
* --check-compatibility, 'msgfmt' option: msgfmt Invocation.  (line 263)
* --check-domain, 'msgfmt' option:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line 258)
* --check-format, 'msgfmt' option:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line 230)
* --check-header, 'msgfmt' option:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line 253)
* --clear-fuzzy, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  68)
* --clear-obsolete, 'msgattrib' option:  msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  74)
* --clear-previous, 'msgattrib' option:  msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  81)
* --color, 'msgattrib' option:           msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 119)
* --color, 'msgcat' option:              msgcat Invocation.   (line  95)
* --color, 'msgcat' option <1>:          The --color option.  (line   6)
* --color, 'msgcomm' option:             msgcomm Invocation.  (line  81)
* --color, 'msgconv' option:             msgconv Invocation.  (line  61)
* --color, 'msgen' option:               msgen Invocation.    (line  64)
* --color, 'msgfilter' option:           msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 138)
* --color, 'msggrep' option:             msggrep Invocation.  (line 134)
* --color, 'msginit' option:             msginit Invocation.  (line  93)
* --color, 'msgmerge' option:            msgmerge Invocation. (line 131)
* --color, 'msgunfmt' option:            msgunfmt Invocation. (line 103)
* --color, 'msguniq' option:             msguniq Invocation.  (line  78)
* --color, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 350)
* --comment, 'msggrep' option:           msggrep Invocation.  (line  86)
* --compendium, 'msgmerge' option:       msgmerge Invocation. (line  36)
* --copyright-holder, 'xgettext' option: xgettext Invocation. (line 435)
* --csharp, 'msgfmt' option:             msgfmt Invocation.   (line  36)
* --csharp, 'msgunfmt' option:           msgunfmt Invocation. (line  19)
* --csharp-resources, 'msgfmt' option:   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  40)
* --csharp-resources, 'msgunfmt' option: msgunfmt Invocation. (line  23)
* --debug, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 333)
* --default-domain, 'xgettext' option:   xgettext Invocation. (line  35)
* --desktop, 'msgfmt' option:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line  49)
* --directory, 'msgattrib' option:       msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  19)
* --directory, 'msgcat' option:          msgcat Invocation.   (line  31)
* --directory, 'msgcmp' option:          msgcmp Invocation.   (line  27)
* --directory, 'msgcomm' option:         msgcomm Invocation.  (line  30)
* --directory, 'msgconv' option:         msgconv Invocation.  (line  19)
* --directory, 'msgen' option:           msgen Invocation.    (line  25)
* --directory, 'msgexec' option:         msgexec Invocation.  (line  54)
* --directory, 'msgfilter' option:       msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* --directory, 'msgfmt' option:          msgfmt Invocation.   (line  18)
* --directory, 'msggrep' option:         msggrep Invocation.  (line  19)
* --directory, 'msgmerge' option:        msgmerge Invocation. (line  30)
* --directory, 'msguniq' option:         msguniq Invocation.  (line  26)
* --directory, 'xgettext' option:        xgettext Invocation. (line  24)
* --domain, 'gettext' option:            gettext Invocation.  (line  16)
* --domain, 'msggrep' option:            msggrep Invocation.  (line  70)
* --domain, 'ngettext' option:           ngettext Invocation. (line  15)
* --dry-run, 'autopoint' option:         autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  31)
* --dry-run, 'gettextize' option:        gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  72)
* --empty, 'msgattrib' option:           msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  84)
* --endianness, 'msgfmt' option:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 291)
* --exclude-file, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line  89)
* --expression, 'msgfilter' option:      msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  87)
* --extended-regexp, 'msggrep' option:   msggrep Invocation.  (line  94)
* --extract-all, 'xgettext' option:      xgettext Invocation. (line 165)
* --extracted-comment, 'msggrep' option: msggrep Invocation.  (line  90)
* --file, 'msgfilter' option:            msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  91)
* --file, 'msggrep' option:              msggrep Invocation.  (line 106)
* --files-from, 'msgcat' option:         msgcat Invocation.   (line  26)
* --files-from, 'msgcomm' option:        msgcomm Invocation.  (line  25)
* --files-from, 'xgettext' option:       xgettext Invocation. (line  19)
* --fixed-strings, 'msggrep' option:     msggrep Invocation.  (line  98)
* --flag, 'xgettext' option:             xgettext Invocation. (line 276)
* --force, 'autopoint' option:           autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  27)
* --force, 'gettextize' option:          gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* --force-po, 'msgattrib' option:        msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 127)
* --force-po, 'msgcat' option:           msgcat Invocation.   (line 103)
* --force-po, 'msgcomm' option:          msgcomm Invocation.  (line  89)
* --force-po, 'msgconv' option:          msgconv Invocation.  (line  69)
* --force-po, 'msgen' option:            msgen Invocation.    (line  72)
* --force-po, 'msgfilter' option:        msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 146)
* --force-po, 'msggrep' option:          msggrep Invocation.  (line 142)
* --force-po, 'msgmerge' option:         msgmerge Invocation. (line 139)
* --force-po, 'msgunfmt' option:         msgunfmt Invocation. (line 111)
* --force-po, 'msguniq' option:          msguniq Invocation.  (line  86)
* --force-po, 'xgettext' option:         xgettext Invocation. (line 358)
* --foreign-user, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line 450)
* --from-code, 'xgettext' option:        xgettext Invocation. (line  72)
* --fuzzy, 'msgattrib' option:           msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  95)
* --help, 'autopoint' option:            autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  39)
* --help, 'envsubst' option:             envsubst Invocation. (line  21)
* --help, 'gettext' option:              gettext Invocation.  (line  32)
* --help, 'gettextize' option:           gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  77)
* --help, 'msgattrib' option:            msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 188)
* --help, 'msgcat' option:               msgcat Invocation.   (line 164)
* --help, 'msgcmp' option:               msgcmp Invocation.   (line  69)
* --help, 'msgcomm' option:              msgcomm Invocation.  (line 153)
* --help, 'msgconv' option:              msgconv Invocation.  (line 130)
* --help, 'msgen' option:                msgen Invocation.    (line 133)
* --help, 'msgexec' option:              msgexec Invocation.  (line  77)
* --help, 'msgfilter' option:            msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 211)
* --help, 'msgfmt' option:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 311)
* --help, 'msggrep' option:              msggrep Invocation.  (line 200)
* --help, 'msginit' option:              msginit Invocation.  (line 128)
* --help, 'msgmerge' option:             msgmerge Invocation. (line 200)
* --help, 'msgunfmt' option:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line 155)
* --help, 'msguniq' option:              msguniq Invocation.  (line 147)
* --help, 'ngettext' option:             ngettext Invocation. (line  31)
* --help, 'xgettext' option:             xgettext Invocation. (line 497)
* --ignore-case, 'msggrep' option:       msggrep Invocation.  (line 110)
* --ignore-file, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  91)
* --indent, 'msgattrib' option:          msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 131)
* --indent, 'msgcat' option:             msgcat Invocation.   (line 107)
* --indent, 'msgcomm' option:            msgcomm Invocation.  (line  93)
* --indent, 'msgconv' option:            msgconv Invocation.  (line  73)
* --indent, 'msgen' option:              msgen Invocation.    (line  76)
* --indent, 'msgfilter' option:          msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 149)
* --indent, 'msggrep' option:            msggrep Invocation.  (line 145)
* --indent, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line 143)
* --indent, 'msgunfmt' option:           msgunfmt Invocation. (line 115)
* --indent, 'msguniq' option:            msguniq Invocation.  (line  90)
* --indent, 'xgettext' option:           xgettext Invocation. (line 362)
* --input, 'msgexec' option:             msgexec Invocation.  (line  50)
* --input, 'msgfilter' option:           msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  30)
* --input, 'msginit' option:             msginit Invocation.  (line  49)
* --intl, 'gettextize' option:           gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  43)
* --invert-match, 'msggrep' option:      msggrep Invocation.  (line 114)
* --its, 'xgettext' option:              xgettext Invocation. (line 394)
* --itstool, 'xgettext' option:          xgettext Invocation. (line 398)
* --java, 'msgfmt' option:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line  30)
* --java, 'msgunfmt' option:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line  16)
* --java2, 'msgfmt' option:              msgfmt Invocation.   (line  33)
* --join-existing, 'xgettext' option:    xgettext Invocation. (line  85)
* --kde, 'xgettext' option:              xgettext Invocation. (line 325)
* --keep-header, 'msgfilter' option:     msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 152)
* --keyword, 'msgfmt' option:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line 140)
* --keyword, 'xgettext' option:          xgettext Invocation. (line 174)
* --lang, 'msgcat' option:               msgcat Invocation.   (line  89)
* --lang, 'msgen' option:                msgen Invocation.    (line  57)
* --lang, 'msgmerge' option:             msgmerge Invocation. (line 123)
* --language, 'msgfmt' option:           msgfmt Invocation.   (line 180)
* --language, 'xgettext' option:         xgettext Invocation. (line  54)
* --less-than, 'msgcat' option:          msgcat Invocation.   (line  52)
* --less-than, 'msgcomm' option:         msgcomm Invocation.  (line  51)
* --locale, 'msgfmt' option:             msgfmt Invocation.   (line  83)
* --locale, 'msgfmt' option <1>:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 106)
* --locale, 'msgfmt' option <2>:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 122)
* --locale, 'msgfmt' option <3>:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 146)
* --locale, 'msgfmt' option <4>:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 184)
* --locale, 'msginit' option:            msginit Invocation.  (line  82)
* --locale, 'msgunfmt' option:           msgunfmt Invocation. (line  45)
* --locale, 'msgunfmt' option <1>:       msgunfmt Invocation. (line  62)
* --locale, 'msgunfmt' option <2>:       msgunfmt Invocation. (line  78)
* --location, 'msggrep' option:          msggrep Invocation.  (line  65)
* --more-than, 'msgcat' option:          msgcat Invocation.   (line  57)
* --more-than, 'msgcomm' option:         msgcomm Invocation.  (line  56)
* --msgctxt, 'msggrep' option:           msggrep Invocation.  (line  74)
* --msgid, 'msggrep' option:             msggrep Invocation.  (line  78)
* --msgid-bugs-address, 'xgettext' option: xgettext Invocation.
                                                              (line 463)
* --msgstr, 'msggrep' option:            msggrep Invocation.  (line  82)
* --msgstr-prefix, 'xgettext' option:    xgettext Invocation. (line 486)
* --msgstr-suffix, 'xgettext' option:    xgettext Invocation. (line 490)
* --multi-domain, 'msgcmp' option:       msgcmp Invocation.   (line  35)
* --multi-domain, 'msgmerge' option:     msgmerge Invocation. (line  96)
* --newline, 'msgfilter' option:         msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  59)
* --newline, 'msgfilter' option <1>:     msgexec Invocation.  (line  19)
* --no-changelog, 'gettextize' option:   gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  58)
* --no-fuzzy, 'msgattrib' option:        msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* --no-fuzzy-matching, 'msgcmp' option:  msgcmp Invocation.   (line  39)
* --no-fuzzy-matching, 'msgmerge' option: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line 100)
* --no-hash, 'msgfmt' option:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line 303)
* --no-location, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 134)
* --no-location, 'msgcat' option:        msgcat Invocation.   (line 110)
* --no-location, 'msgcomm' option:       msgcomm Invocation.  (line  96)
* --no-location, 'msgconv' option:       msgconv Invocation.  (line  76)
* --no-location, 'msgen' option:         msgen Invocation.    (line  79)
* --no-location, 'msgfilter' option:     msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 157)
* --no-location, 'msggrep' option:       msggrep Invocation.  (line 148)
* --no-location, 'msgmerge' option:      msgmerge Invocation. (line 146)
* --no-location, 'msguniq' option:       msguniq Invocation.  (line  93)
* --no-location, 'xgettext' option:      xgettext Invocation. (line 365)
* --no-obsolete, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  51)
* --no-translator, 'msginit' option:     msginit Invocation.  (line  88)
* --no-wrap, 'msgattrib' option:         msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 169)
* --no-wrap, 'msgcat' option:            msgcat Invocation.   (line 145)
* --no-wrap, 'msgcomm' option:           msgcomm Invocation.  (line 131)
* --no-wrap, 'msgconv' option:           msgconv Invocation.  (line 111)
* --no-wrap, 'msgen' option:             msgen Invocation.    (line 114)
* --no-wrap, 'msgfilter' option:         msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 192)
* --no-wrap, 'msggrep' option:           msggrep Invocation.  (line 183)
* --no-wrap, 'msginit' option:           msginit Invocation.  (line 118)
* --no-wrap, 'msgmerge' option:          msgmerge Invocation. (line 181)
* --no-wrap, 'msgunfmt' option:          msgunfmt Invocation. (line 140)
* --no-wrap, 'msguniq' option:           msguniq Invocation.  (line 128)
* --no-wrap, 'xgettext' option:          xgettext Invocation. (line 409)
* --obsolete, 'msgattrib' option:        msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  99)
* --omit-header, 'msgcomm' option:       msgcomm Invocation.  (line 146)
* --omit-header, 'xgettext' option:      xgettext Invocation. (line 424)
* --only-file, 'msgattrib' option:       msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  87)
* --only-fuzzy, 'msgattrib' option:      msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  48)
* --only-obsolete, 'msgattrib' option:   msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  54)
* --output, 'xgettext' option:           xgettext Invocation. (line  39)
* --output-dir, 'xgettext' option:       xgettext Invocation. (line  44)
* --output-file, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  30)
* --output-file, 'msgcat' option:        msgcat Invocation.   (line  42)
* --output-file, 'msgcomm' option:       msgcomm Invocation.  (line  41)
* --output-file, 'msgconv' option:       msgconv Invocation.  (line  30)
* --output-file, 'msgen' option:         msgen Invocation.    (line  36)
* --output-file, 'msgfilter' option:     msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* --output-file, 'msgfmt' option:        msgfmt Invocation.   (line  59)
* --output-file, 'msggrep' option:       msggrep Invocation.  (line  30)
* --output-file, 'msginit' option:       msginit Invocation.  (line  59)
* --output-file, 'msgmerge' option:      msgmerge Invocation. (line  51)
* --output-file, 'msgunfmt' option:      msgunfmt Invocation. (line  93)
* --output-file, 'msguniq' option:       msguniq Invocation.  (line  37)
* --package-name, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line 456)
* --package-version, 'xgettext' option:  xgettext Invocation. (line 459)
* --po-dir, 'gettextize' option:         gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  51)
* --previous, 'msgattrib' option:        msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  77)
* --previous, 'msgmerge' option:         msgmerge Invocation. (line 104)
* --properties-input, 'msgattrib' option: msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 107)
* --properties-input, 'msgcat' option:   msgcat Invocation.   (line  70)
* --properties-input, 'msgcmp' option:   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  57)
* --properties-input, 'msgcomm' option:  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  69)
* --properties-input, 'msgconv' option:  msgconv Invocation.  (line  49)
* --properties-input, 'msgen' option:    msgen Invocation.    (line  46)
* --properties-input, 'msgexec' option:  msgexec Invocation.  (line  65)
* --properties-input, 'msgfilter' option: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 126)
* --properties-input, 'msgfmt' option:   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 214)
* --properties-input, 'msggrep' option:  msggrep Invocation.  (line 122)
* --properties-input, 'msginit' option:  msginit Invocation.  (line  70)
* --properties-input, 'msgmerge' option: msgmerge Invocation. (line 112)
* --properties-input, 'msguniq' option:  msguniq Invocation.  (line  58)
* --properties-output, 'msgattrib' option: msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 153)
* --properties-output, 'msgcat' option:  msgcat Invocation.   (line 129)
* --properties-output, 'msgcomm' option: msgcomm Invocation.  (line 115)
* --properties-output, 'msgconv' option: msgconv Invocation.  (line  95)
* --properties-output, 'msgen' option:   msgen Invocation.    (line  98)
* --properties-output, 'msgfilter' option: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 176)
* --properties-output, 'msggrep' option: msggrep Invocation.  (line 167)
* --properties-output, 'msginit' option: msginit Invocation.  (line 102)
* --properties-output, 'msgmerge' option: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line 165)
* --properties-output, 'msgunfmt' option: msgunfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line 124)
* --properties-output, 'msguniq' option: msguniq Invocation.  (line 112)
* --properties-output, 'xgettext' option: xgettext Invocation.
                                                              (line 385)
* --qt, 'msgfmt' option:                 msgfmt Invocation.   (line  46)
* --qt, 'xgettext' option:               xgettext Invocation. (line 321)
* --quiet, 'msgfilter' option:           msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  96)
* --quiet, 'msgmerge' option:            msgmerge Invocation. (line 213)
* --regexp=, 'msggrep' option:           msggrep Invocation.  (line 102)
* --repeated, 'msguniq' option:          msguniq Invocation.  (line  47)
* --resource, 'msgfmt' option:           msgfmt Invocation.   (line  79)
* --resource, 'msgfmt' option <1>:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line 102)
* --resource, 'msgunfmt' option:         msgunfmt Invocation. (line  41)
* --resource, 'msgunfmt' option <1>:     msgunfmt Invocation. (line  58)
* --sentence-end, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line 152)
* --set-fuzzy, 'msgattrib' option:       msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  65)
* --set-obsolete, 'msgattrib' option:    msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  71)
* --silent, 'msgfilter' option:          msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  96)
* --silent, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line 213)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgattrib' option:    msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 181)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgcat' option:       msgcat Invocation.   (line 157)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgcomm' option:      msgcomm Invocation.  (line 143)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgconv' option:      msgconv Invocation.  (line 123)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgen' option:        msgen Invocation.    (line 126)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgfilter' option:    msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 204)
* --sort-by-file, 'msggrep' option:      msggrep Invocation.  (line 193)
* --sort-by-file, 'msgmerge' option:     msgmerge Invocation. (line 193)
* --sort-by-file, 'msguniq' option:      msguniq Invocation.  (line 140)
* --sort-by-file, 'xgettext' option:     xgettext Invocation. (line 421)
* --sort-output, 'msgattrib' option:     msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 176)
* --sort-output, 'msgcat' option:        msgcat Invocation.   (line 152)
* --sort-output, 'msgcomm' option:       msgcomm Invocation.  (line 138)
* --sort-output, 'msgconv' option:       msgconv Invocation.  (line 118)
* --sort-output, 'msgen' option:         msgen Invocation.    (line 121)
* --sort-output, 'msgfilter' option:     msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 199)
* --sort-output, 'msggrep' option:       msggrep Invocation.  (line 189)
* --sort-output, 'msgmerge' option:      msgmerge Invocation. (line 188)
* --sort-output, 'msgunfmt' option:      msgunfmt Invocation. (line 147)
* --sort-output, 'msguniq' option:       msguniq Invocation.  (line 135)
* --sort-output, 'xgettext' option:      xgettext Invocation. (line 416)
* --source, 'msgfmt' option:             msgfmt Invocation.   (line  91)
* --statistics, 'msgfmt' option:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 318)
* --strict, 'msgattrib' option:          msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 147)
* --strict, 'msgcat' option:             msgcat Invocation.   (line 123)
* --strict, 'msgcomm' option:            msgcomm Invocation.  (line 109)
* --strict, 'msgconv' option:            msgconv Invocation.  (line  89)
* --strict, 'msgen' option:              msgen Invocation.    (line  92)
* --strict, 'msgfilter' option:          msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 170)
* --strict, 'msgfmt' option:             msgfmt Invocation.   (line  62)
* --strict, 'msggrep' option:            msggrep Invocation.  (line 161)
* --strict, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line 159)
* --strict, 'msgunfmt' option:           msgunfmt Invocation. (line 118)
* --strict, 'msguniq' option:            msguniq Invocation.  (line 106)
* --strict, 'xgettext' option:           xgettext Invocation. (line 380)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgattrib' option: msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 111)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgcat' option:  msgcat Invocation.   (line  74)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgcmp' option:  msgcmp Invocation.   (line  61)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgcomm' option: msgcomm Invocation.  (line  73)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgen' option:   msgen Invocation.    (line  50)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgexec' option: msgexec Invocation.  (line  69)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgfilter' option: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 130)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgfmt' option:  msgfmt Invocation.   (line 218)
* --stringtable-input, 'msggrep' option: msggrep Invocation.  (line 126)
* --stringtable-input, 'msginit' option: msginit Invocation.  (line  74)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgmerge' option: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line 116)
* --stringtable-input, 'msgonv' option:  msgconv Invocation.  (line  53)
* --stringtable-input, 'msguniq' option: msguniq Invocation.  (line  62)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgattrib' option: msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 158)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgcat' option: msgcat Invocation.   (line 134)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgcomm' option: msgcomm Invocation. (line 120)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgconv' option: msgconv Invocation. (line 100)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgen' option:  msgen Invocation.    (line 103)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgfilter' option: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 181)
* --stringtable-output, 'msggrep' option: msggrep Invocation. (line 172)
* --stringtable-output, 'msginit' option: msginit Invocation. (line 107)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgmerge' option: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line 170)
* --stringtable-output, 'msgunfmt' option: msgunfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line 129)
* --stringtable-output, 'msguniq' option: msguniq Invocation. (line 117)
* --stringtable-output, 'xgettext' option: xgettext Invocation.
                                                              (line 390)
* --style, 'msgattrib' option:           msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 123)
* --style, 'msgcat' option:              msgcat Invocation.   (line  99)
* --style, 'msgcat' option <1>:          The --style option.  (line   6)
* --style, 'msgcomm' option:             msgcomm Invocation.  (line  85)
* --style, 'msgconv' option:             msgconv Invocation.  (line  65)
* --style, 'msgen' option:               msgen Invocation.    (line  68)
* --style, 'msgfilter' option:           msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 142)
* --style, 'msggrep' option:             msggrep Invocation.  (line 138)
* --style, 'msginit' option:             msginit Invocation.  (line  97)
* --style, 'msgmerge' option:            msgmerge Invocation. (line 135)
* --style, 'msgunfmt' option:            msgunfmt Invocation. (line 107)
* --style, 'msguniq' option:             msguniq Invocation.  (line  82)
* --style, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 354)
* --suffix, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line  65)
* --symlink, 'gettextize' option:        gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  63)
* --tcl, 'msgfmt' option:                msgfmt Invocation.   (line  43)
* --tcl, 'msgunfmt' option:              msgunfmt Invocation. (line  26)
* --template, 'msgfmt' option:           msgfmt Invocation.   (line 136)
* --template, 'msgfmt' option <1>:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line 176)
* --to-code, 'msgcat' option:            msgcat Invocation.   (line  82)
* --to-code, 'msgconv' option:           msgconv Invocation.  (line  40)
* --to-code, 'msguniq' option:           msguniq Invocation.  (line  70)
* --translated, 'msgattrib' option:      msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  39)
* --trigraphs, 'xgettext' option:        xgettext Invocation. (line 316)
* --unique, 'msgcat' option:             msgcat Invocation.   (line  62)
* --unique, 'msgcomm' option:            msgcomm Invocation.  (line  61)
* --unique, 'msguniq' option:            msguniq Invocation.  (line  51)
* --untranslated, 'msgattrib' option:    msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  42)
* --update, 'msgmerge' option:           msgmerge Invocation. (line  44)
* --use-first, 'msgcat' option:          msgcat Invocation.   (line  85)
* --use-first, 'msguniq' option:         msguniq Invocation.  (line  73)
* --use-fuzzy, 'msgcmp' option:          msgcmp Invocation.   (line  43)
* --use-fuzzy, 'msgfmt' option:          msgfmt Invocation.   (line 279)
* --use-untranslated, 'msgcmp' option:   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  49)
* --variables, 'envsubst' option:        envsubst Invocation. (line  15)
* --verbose, 'msgfmt' option:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line 324)
* --verbose, 'msgmerge' option:          msgmerge Invocation. (line 208)
* --verbose, 'msgunfmt' option:          msgunfmt Invocation. (line 163)
* --version, 'autopoint' option:         autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  42)
* --version, 'envsubst' option:          envsubst Invocation. (line  25)
* --version, 'gettext' option:           gettext Invocation.  (line  40)
* --version, 'gettextize' option:        gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  80)
* --version, 'msgattrib' option:         msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 192)
* --version, 'msgcat' option:            msgcat Invocation.   (line 168)
* --version, 'msgcmp' option:            msgcmp Invocation.   (line  73)
* --version, 'msgcomm' option:           msgcomm Invocation.  (line 157)
* --version, 'msgconv' option:           msgconv Invocation.  (line 134)
* --version, 'msgen' option:             msgen Invocation.    (line 137)
* --version, 'msgexec' option:           msgexec Invocation.  (line  81)
* --version, 'msgfilter' option:         msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 215)
* --version, 'msgfmt' option:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line 315)
* --version, 'msggrep' option:           msggrep Invocation.  (line 204)
* --version, 'msginit' option:           msginit Invocation.  (line 132)
* --version, 'msgmerge' option:          msgmerge Invocation. (line 204)
* --version, 'msgunfmt' option:          msgunfmt Invocation. (line 159)
* --version, 'msguniq' option:           msguniq Invocation.  (line 151)
* --version, 'ngettext' option:          ngettext Invocation. (line  35)
* --version, 'xgettext' option:          xgettext Invocation. (line 501)
* --width, 'msgattrib' option:           msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 163)
* --width, 'msgcat' option:              msgcat Invocation.   (line 139)
* --width, 'msgcomm' option:             msgcomm Invocation.  (line 125)
* --width, 'msgconv' option:             msgconv Invocation.  (line 105)
* --width, 'msgen' option:               msgen Invocation.    (line 108)
* --width, 'msgfilter' option:           msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 186)
* --width, 'msggrep' option:             msggrep Invocation.  (line 177)
* --width, 'msginit' option:             msginit Invocation.  (line 112)
* --width, 'msgmerge' option:            msgmerge Invocation. (line 175)
* --width, 'msgunfmt' option:            msgunfmt Invocation. (line 134)
* --width, 'msguniq' option:             msguniq Invocation.  (line 122)
* --width, 'xgettext' option:            xgettext Invocation. (line 403)
* --xml, 'msgfmt' option:                msgfmt Invocation.   (line  52)
* -<, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  52)
* -<, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  51)
* ->, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  57)
* ->, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  56)
* -a, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 288)
* -a, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 165)
* -c, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 226)
* -C, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 263)
* -C, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  86)
* -C, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line  36)
* -C, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  63)
* -c, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  94)
* -d, 'autopoint' option:                autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  31)
* -d, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  16)
* -d, 'gettextize' option:               gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  72)
* -D, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  19)
* -D, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  31)
* -D, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  27)
* -D, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  30)
* -D, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  19)
* -D, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line  25)
* -D, 'msgexec' option:                  msgexec Invocation.  (line  54)
* -D, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* -D, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  18)
* -d, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  88)
* -d, 'msgfmt' option <1>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 111)
* -d, 'msgfmt' option <2>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 127)
* -d, 'msgfmt' option <3>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 151)
* -d, 'msgfmt' option <4>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 189)
* -D, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  19)
* -D, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line  30)
* -d, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line  67)
* -d, 'msgunfmt' option <1>:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line  83)
* -D, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  26)
* -d, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  47)
* -d, 'ngettext' option:                 ngettext Invocation. (line  15)
* -D, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  24)
* -d, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  35)
* -e, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  20)
* -E, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  27)
* -e, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  87)
* -E, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  94)
* -e, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 102)
* -e, 'ngettext' option:                 ngettext Invocation. (line  19)
* -E, 'ngettext' option:                 ngettext Invocation. (line  26)
* -f, 'autopoint' option:                autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line  27)
* -f, 'gettextize' option:               gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* -F, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 181)
* -f, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  26)
* -F, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 157)
* -f, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  25)
* -F, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 143)
* -F, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line 123)
* -F, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line 126)
* -f, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  91)
* -F, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 204)
* -f, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 279)
* -F, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  98)
* -f, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 106)
* -F, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 193)
* -F, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 140)
* -f, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  19)
* -F, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 421)
* -h, 'envsubst' option:                 envsubst Invocation. (line  21)
* -h, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  32)
* -h, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 188)
* -h, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 164)
* -h, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  69)
* -h, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 153)
* -h, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line 130)
* -h, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line 133)
* -h, 'msgexec' option:                  msgexec Invocation.  (line  77)
* -h, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 211)
* -h, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 311)
* -h, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 200)
* -h, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line 128)
* -h, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 200)
* -h, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 155)
* -h, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 147)
* -h, 'ngettext' option:                 ngettext Invocation. (line  31)
* -h, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 497)
* -i, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 131)
* -i, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 107)
* -i, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  93)
* -i, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  73)
* -i, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line  76)
* -i, 'msgexec' option:                  msgexec Invocation.  (line  50)
* -i, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  30)
* -i, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 110)
* -i, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line  49)
* -i, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 143)
* -i, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 115)
* -i, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  90)
* -i, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 362)
* -j, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  30)
* -J, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  74)
* -j, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line  16)
* -j, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  85)
* -k, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 140)
* -K, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  78)
* -k, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 174)
* -l, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  83)
* -l, 'msgfmt' option <1>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 106)
* -l, 'msgfmt' option <2>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 122)
* -l, 'msgfmt' option <3>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 146)
* -L, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 180)
* -l, 'msgfmt' option <4>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 184)
* -l, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line  82)
* -l, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line  45)
* -l, 'msgunfmt' option <1>:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line  62)
* -l, 'msgunfmt' option <2>:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line  78)
* -L, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  54)
* -m, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  35)
* -M, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  70)
* -m, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line  96)
* -m, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 486)
* -M, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 490)
* -n, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  35)
* -n, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 138)
* -n, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 114)
* -N, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  39)
* -n, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 100)
* -n, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  96)
* -N, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  65)
* -N, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 100)
* -n, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  97)
* -n, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 371)
* -o, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  30)
* -o, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  42)
* -o, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  41)
* -o, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  30)
* -o, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line  36)
* -o, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* -o, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  59)
* -o, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  30)
* -o, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line  59)
* -o, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line  51)
* -o, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line  93)
* -o, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  37)
* -o, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  39)
* -P, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 107)
* -p, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 153)
* -P, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  70)
* -p, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 129)
* -P, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  57)
* -P, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  69)
* -p, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 115)
* -P, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  49)
* -p, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  95)
* -P, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line  46)
* -p, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line  98)
* -P, 'msgexec' option:                  msgexec Invocation.  (line  65)
* -P, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 126)
* -p, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 176)
* -P, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 214)
* -P, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 122)
* -p, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 167)
* -P, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line  70)
* -p, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line 102)
* -P, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 112)
* -p, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 165)
* -p, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 124)
* -P, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  58)
* -p, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 112)
* -p, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  44)
* -q, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 213)
* -r, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line  79)
* -r, 'msgfmt' option <1>:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line 102)
* -r, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line  41)
* -r, 'msgunfmt' option <1>:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line  58)
* -s, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 176)
* -s, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 152)
* -s, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 138)
* -s, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line 118)
* -s, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line 121)
* -s, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 199)
* -s, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 188)
* -s, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 147)
* -s, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 135)
* -s, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 416)
* -t, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  82)
* -t, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line  40)
* -T, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  82)
* -t, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  70)
* -T, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 316)
* -u, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line  62)
* -u, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line  61)
* -U, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line  44)
* -u, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line  51)
* -v, 'envsubst' option:                 envsubst Invocation. (line  15)
* -V, 'envsubst' option:                 envsubst Invocation. (line  25)
* -V, 'gettext' option:                  gettext Invocation.  (line  40)
* -V, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 192)
* -V, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 168)
* -V, 'msgcmp' option:                   msgcmp Invocation.   (line  73)
* -V, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 157)
* -V, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line 134)
* -V, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line 137)
* -V, 'msgexec' option:                  msgexec Invocation.  (line  81)
* -V, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 215)
* -V, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 315)
* -v, 'msgfmt' option:                   msgfmt Invocation.   (line 324)
* -v, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 114)
* -V, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 204)
* -V, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line 132)
* -V, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 204)
* -v, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 208)
* -V, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 159)
* -v, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 163)
* -V, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 151)
* -V, 'ngettext' option:                 ngettext Invocation. (line  35)
* -V, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 501)
* -w, 'msgattrib' option:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line 163)
* -w, 'msgcat' option:                   msgcat Invocation.   (line 139)
* -w, 'msgcomm' option:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line 125)
* -w, 'msgconv' option:                  msgconv Invocation.  (line 105)
* -w, 'msgen' option:                    msgen Invocation.    (line 108)
* -w, 'msgfilter' option:                msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 186)
* -w, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line 177)
* -w, 'msginit' option:                  msginit Invocation.  (line 112)
* -w, 'msgmerge' option:                 msgmerge Invocation. (line 175)
* -w, 'msgunfmt' option:                 msgunfmt Invocation. (line 134)
* -w, 'msguniq' option:                  msguniq Invocation.  (line 122)
* -w, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line 403)
* -X, 'msggrep' option:                  msggrep Invocation.  (line  90)
* -x, 'xgettext' option:                 xgettext Invocation. (line  89)

File: gettext.info,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: PO Mode Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index
**************


* Menu:

* GETTEXT_LOG_UNTRANSLATED, environment variable: Prioritizing messages.
                                                               (line 22)
* LANG, environment variable:            Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 15)
* LANG, environment variable <1>:        gettext grok.         (line 30)
* LANGUAGE, environment variable:        Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 11)
* LANGUAGE, environment variable <1>:    gettext grok.         (line 28)
* LANGUAGE, environment variable <2>:    po/Rules-*.           (line 11)
* LC_ALL, environment variable:          Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 11)
* LC_ALL, environment variable <1>:      gettext grok.         (line 28)
* LC_COLLATE, environment variable:      Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_COLLATE, environment variable <1>:  gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LC_CTYPE, environment variable:        Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_CTYPE, environment variable <1>:    gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LC_MESSAGES, environment variable:     Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_MESSAGES, environment variable <1>: gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LC_MONETARY, environment variable:     Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_MONETARY, environment variable <1>: gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LC_NUMERIC, environment variable:      Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_NUMERIC, environment variable <1>:  gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LC_TIME, environment variable:         Locale Environment Variables.
                                                               (line 12)
* LC_TIME, environment variable <1>:     gettext grok.         (line 29)
* LINGUAS, environment variable:         Installers.           (line 17)
* MSGEXEC_LOCATION, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.  (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_MSGCTXT, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.   (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_MSGID, environment variable:   msgexec Invocation.   (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_MSGID_PLURAL, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.
                                                               (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_PLURAL_FORM, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.
                                                               (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGCTXT, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.
                                                               (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGID, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.
                                                               (line 21)
* MSGEXEC_PREV_MSGID_PLURAL, environment variable: msgexec Invocation.
                                                               (line 21)
* MSGFILTER_LOCATION, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_MSGCTXT, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_MSGID, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation. (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_MSGID_PLURAL, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_PLURAL_FORM, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGCTXT, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGID, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* MSGFILTER_PREV_MSGID_PLURAL, environment variable: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                               (line 11)
* PO_STYLE, environment variable:        The --style option.   (line 10)
* TERM, environment variable:            The TERM variable.    (line  6)
* TEXTDOMAIN, environment variable:      sh.                   (line 23)
* TEXTDOMAINDIR, environment variable:   sh.                   (line 26)

File: gettext.info,  Node: PO Mode Index,  Next: Autoconf Macro Index,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Top

PO Mode Index
*************


* Menu:

* #, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Comments.  (line  24)
* #, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Comments.  (line  45)
* ,, PO Mode command:                    Marking.             (line  43)
* ., PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  20)
* ., PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  45)
* '.emacs' customizations:               Installation.        (line  13)
* 0, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  40)
* 0, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  72)
* <, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  29)
* <, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  73)
* =, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  47)
* =, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  87)
* >, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  32)
* >, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  73)
* ?, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  44)
* ?, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  83)
* _, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  30)
* _, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  52)
* a, PO Mode command:                    Auxiliary.           (line  21)
* A, PO Mode command:                    Auxiliary.           (line  28)
* A, PO Mode command <1>:                Auxiliary.           (line  35)
* a, PO Mode command <1>:                Auxiliary.           (line  39)
* auxiliary PO file:                     Auxiliary.           (line  13)
* C-c C-a, PO Mode command:              Subedit.             (line  17)
* C-c C-a, PO Mode command <1>:          Subedit.             (line  36)
* C-c C-a, PO Mode command <2>:          Auxiliary.           (line  25)
* C-c C-a, PO Mode command <3>:          Auxiliary.           (line  48)
* C-c C-c, PO Mode command:              Subedit.             (line  11)
* C-c C-c, PO Mode command <1>:          Subedit.             (line  19)
* C-c C-k, PO Mode command:              Subedit.             (line  14)
* C-c C-k, PO Mode command <1>:          Subedit.             (line  27)
* C-j, PO Mode command:                  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  26)
* C-j, PO Mode command <1>:              Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  52)
* commands:                              Main PO Commands.    (line   6)
* comment out PO file entry:             Obsolete Entries.    (line  46)
* consulting program sources:            C Sources Context.   (line   6)
* consulting translations to other languages: Auxiliary.      (line   6)
* current entry of a PO file:            Entry Positioning.   (line   6)
* cut and paste for translated strings:  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  74)
* DEL, PO Mode command:                  Fuzzy Entries.       (line  58)
* DEL, PO Mode command <1>:              Obsolete Entries.    (line  32)
* DEL, PO Mode command <2>:              Obsolete Entries.    (line  46)
* editing comments:                      Modifying Comments.  (line   6)
* editing multiple entries:              Subedit.             (line  64)
* editing translations:                  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'etags', using for marking strings:    Marking.             (line  17)
* exiting PO subedit:                    Subedit.             (line  19)
* f, PO Mode command:                    Fuzzy Entries.       (line  29)
* F, PO Mode command:                    Fuzzy Entries.       (line  32)
* f, PO Mode command <1>:                Fuzzy Entries.       (line  37)
* F, PO Mode command <1>:                Fuzzy Entries.       (line  37)
* find source fragment for a PO file entry: C Sources Context.
                                                              (line  33)
* h, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  44)
* h, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  83)
* installing PO mode:                    Installation.        (line  13)
* k, PO Mode command:                    Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  33)
* k, PO Mode command <1>:                Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  40)
* k, PO Mode command <2>:                Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  30)
* k, PO Mode command <3>:                Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  74)
* K, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Comments.  (line  27)
* K, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Comments.  (line  60)
* LFD, PO Mode command:                  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  26)
* LFD, PO Mode command <1>:              Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  52)
* looking at the source to aid translation: C Sources Context.
                                                              (line   6)
* m, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  35)
* m, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  91)
* M-,, PO Mode command:                  Marking.             (line  47)
* M-., PO Mode command:                  Marking.             (line  50)
* M-A, PO Mode command:                  Auxiliary.           (line  32)
* M-A, PO Mode command <1>:              Auxiliary.           (line  35)
* M-s, PO Mode command:                  C Sources Context.   (line  41)
* M-S, PO Mode command:                  C Sources Context.   (line  49)
* M-s, PO Mode command <1>:              C Sources Context.   (line  52)
* M-S, PO Mode command <1>:              C Sources Context.   (line  88)
* marking strings for translation:       Marking.             (line   6)
* moving by fuzzy entries:               Fuzzy Entries.       (line  23)
* moving by obsolete entries:            Obsolete Entries.    (line  22)
* moving by translated entries:          Translated Entries.  (line  12)
* moving by untranslated entries:        Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  19)
* moving through a PO file:              Entry Positioning.   (line  14)
* n, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  23)
* n, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  68)
* next-error, stepping through PO file validation results: Main PO Commands.
                                                              (line  99)
* normalize, PO Mode command:            Auxiliary.           (line  63)
* o, PO Mode command:                    Obsolete Entries.    (line  26)
* O, PO Mode command:                    Obsolete Entries.    (line  29)
* o, PO Mode command <1>:                Obsolete Entries.    (line  35)
* O, PO Mode command <1>:                Obsolete Entries.    (line  35)
* obsolete active entry:                 Obsolete Entries.    (line  46)
* p, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  26)
* p, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  68)
* pending subedits:                      Subedit.             (line  75)
* po-auto-edit-with-msgid, PO Mode variable: Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  57)
* po-auto-fuzzy-on-edit, PO Mode variable: Translated Entries.
                                                              (line  27)
* po-auto-select-on-unfuzzy, PO Mode variable: Fuzzy Entries. (line  42)
* po-confirm-and-quit, PO Mode command:  Main PO Commands.    (line  61)
* po-consider-as-auxiliary, PO Mode command: Auxiliary.       (line  35)
* po-consider-source-path, PO Mode command: C Sources Context.
                                                              (line  88)
* po-current-entry, PO Mode command:     Entry Positioning.   (line  45)
* po-cycle-auxiliary, PO Mode command:   Auxiliary.           (line  39)
* po-cycle-source-reference, PO Mode command: C Sources Context.
                                                              (line  52)
* po-edit-comment, PO Mode command:      Modifying Comments.  (line  45)
* po-edit-msgstr, PO Mode command:       Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  41)
* po-exchange-location, PO Mode command: Entry Positioning.   (line 105)
* po-fade-out-entry, PO Mode command:    Fuzzy Entries.       (line  58)
* po-fade-out-entry, PO Mode command <1>: Obsolete Entries.   (line  46)
* po-first-entry, PO Mode command:       Entry Positioning.   (line  73)
* po-help, PO Mode command:              Main PO Commands.    (line  83)
* po-ignore-as-auxiliary, PO Mode command: Auxiliary.         (line  35)
* po-ignore-source-path, PO Mode command: C Sources Context.  (line  88)
* po-kill-comment, PO Mode command:      Modifying Comments.  (line  60)
* po-kill-msgstr, PO Mode command:       Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  40)
* po-kill-msgstr, PO Mode command <1>:   Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  74)
* po-kill-ring-save-comment, PO Mode command: Modifying Comments.
                                                              (line  60)
* po-kill-ring-save-msgstr, PO Mode command: Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  74)
* po-last-entry, PO Mode command:        Entry Positioning.   (line  73)
* po-mark-translatable, PO Mode command: Marking.             (line  98)
* po-msgid-to-msgstr, PO Mode command:   Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  52)
* po-next-entry, PO Mode command:        Entry Positioning.   (line  68)
* po-next-fuzzy-entry, PO Mode command:  Fuzzy Entries.       (line  37)
* po-next-obsolete-entry, PO Mode command: Obsolete Entries.  (line  35)
* po-next-translated-entry, PO Mode command: Translated Entries.
                                                              (line  22)
* po-next-untranslated-entry, PO Mode command: Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* po-normalize, PO Mode command:         Normalizing.         (line  31)
* po-other-window, PO Mode command:      Main PO Commands.    (line  72)
* po-pop-location, PO Mode command:      Entry Positioning.   (line  91)
* po-previous-entry, PO Mode command:    Entry Positioning.   (line  68)
* po-previous-fuzzy-entry, PO Mode command: Fuzzy Entries.    (line  37)
* po-previous-obsolete-entry, PO Mode command: Obsolete Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* po-previous-translated-entry, PO Mode command: Translated Entries.
                                                              (line  22)
* po-previous-untransted-entry, PO Mode command: Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* po-push-location, PO Mode command:     Entry Positioning.   (line  91)
* po-quit, PO Mode command:              Main PO Commands.    (line  61)
* po-select-auxiliary, PO Mode command:  Auxiliary.           (line  48)
* po-select-mark-and-mark, PO Mode command: Marking.          (line  98)
* po-select-source-reference, PO Mode command: C Sources Context.
                                                              (line  52)
* po-statistics, PO Mode command:        Main PO Commands.    (line  87)
* po-subedit-abort, PO Mode command:     Subedit.             (line  27)
* po-subedit-cycle-auxiliary, PO Mode command: Subedit.       (line  36)
* po-subedit-exit, PO Mode command:      Subedit.             (line  19)
* po-subedit-mode-hook, PO Mode variable: Modifying Comments. (line  57)
* po-tags-search, PO Mode command:       Marking.             (line  54)
* po-undo, PO Mode command:              Main PO Commands.    (line  52)
* po-unfuzzy, PO Mode command:           Fuzzy Entries.       (line  42)
* po-validate, PO Mode command:          Main PO Commands.    (line  92)
* po-yank-comment, PO Mode command:      Modifying Comments.  (line  60)
* po-yank-msgstr, PO Mode command:       Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  97)
* Q, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  33)
* q, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  36)
* Q, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  61)
* q, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  61)
* r, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  39)
* r, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line  91)
* RET, PO Mode command:                  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  22)
* RET, PO Mode command <1>:              Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  41)
* s, PO Mode command:                    C Sources Context.   (line  37)
* S, PO Mode command:                    C Sources Context.   (line  45)
* s, PO Mode command <1>:                C Sources Context.   (line  52)
* S, PO Mode command <1>:                C Sources Context.   (line  88)
* starting a string translation:         Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  63)
* string normalization in entries:       Normalizing.         (line  30)
* subedit minor mode:                    Subedit.             (line   6)
* t, PO Mode command:                    Translated Entries.  (line  16)
* T, PO Mode command:                    Translated Entries.  (line  19)
* t, PO Mode command <1>:                Translated Entries.  (line  22)
* T, PO Mode command <1>:                Translated Entries.  (line  22)
* TAB, PO Mode command:                  Fuzzy Entries.       (line  35)
* TAB, PO Mode command <1>:              Fuzzy Entries.       (line  42)
* 'TAGS', and marking translatable strings: Marking.          (line  30)
* u, PO Mode command:                    Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  26)
* U, PO Mode command:                    Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  29)
* u, PO Mode command <1>:                Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* U, PO Mode command <1>:                Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* use the source, Luke:                  C Sources Context.   (line   6)
* using obsolete translations to make new entries: Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line 123)
* using translation compendia:           Compendium.          (line   6)
* V, PO Mode command:                    Main PO Commands.    (line  50)
* V, PO Mode command <1>:                Main PO Commands.    (line  92)
* w, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  34)
* w, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  74)
* W, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Comments.  (line  31)
* W, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Comments.  (line  60)
* x, PO Mode command:                    Entry Positioning.   (line  42)
* x, PO Mode command <1>:                Entry Positioning.   (line 105)
* y, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  38)
* y, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line  97)
* Y, PO Mode command:                    Modifying Comments.  (line  35)
* Y, PO Mode command <1>:                Modifying Comments.  (line  60)

File: gettext.info,  Node: Autoconf Macro Index,  Next: Index,  Prev: PO Mode Index,  Up: Top

Autoconf Macro Index
********************


* Menu:

* AM_GNU_GETTEXT:                        AM_GNU_GETTEXT.        (line 6)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR:            AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR.
                                                                (line 6)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED:                   AM_GNU_GETTEXT_NEED.   (line 6)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION:                AM_GNU_GETTEXT_VERSION.
                                                                (line 6)
* AM_ICONV:                              AM_ICONV.              (line 6)
* AM_PO_SUBDIRS:                         AM_PO_SUBDIRS.         (line 6)
* AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION:                    AM_XGETTEXT_OPTION.    (line 6)

File: gettext.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: Autoconf Macro Index,  Up: Top

General Index
*************


* Menu:

* '_', a macro to mark strings for translation: Mark Keywords.
                                                              (line  45)
* '_nl_msg_cat_cntr':                    gettext grok.        (line  59)
* 'ABOUT-NLS' file:                      Installing Localizations.
                                                              (line  13)
* 'acconfig.h' file:                     acconfig.            (line   6)
* accumulating translations:             Creating Compendia.  (line  14)
* 'aclocal.m4' file:                     aclocal.             (line   6)
* adding keywords, 'xgettext':           xgettext Invocation. (line 178)
* ambiguities:                           Preparing Strings.   (line  41)
* apply a filter to translations:        msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* apply command to all translations in a catalog: msgexec Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* Arabic digits:                         c-format.            (line  28)
* attribute manipulation:                msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* attribute, fuzzy:                      Fuzzy Entries.       (line   6)
* attributes of a PO file entry:         Fuzzy Entries.       (line   6)
* attributes, manipulating:              Manipulating.        (line  56)
* autoconf macros for 'gettext':         autoconf macros.     (line   6)
* 'autopoint' program, usage:            autopoint Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* auxiliary PO file:                     Auxiliary.           (line  13)
* available translations:                Installing Localizations.
                                                              (line   6)
* awk:                                   gawk.                (line   6)
* awk-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 151)
* backup old file, and 'msgmerge' program: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line  62)
* bash:                                  bash.                (line   6)
* bibliography:                          References.          (line   6)
* big picture:                           Overview.            (line   6)
* bind_textdomain_codeset:               Charset conversion.  (line  26)
* Boost format strings:                  xgettext Invocation. (line 329)
* boost-format flag:                     PO Files.            (line 200)
* bug report address:                    Introduction.        (line  24)
* C and C-like languages:                C.                   (line   6)
* C trigraphs:                           xgettext Invocation. (line 316)
* C#:                                    C#.                  (line   6)
* C# mode, and 'msgfmt' program:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line  36)
* C# mode, and 'msgunfmt' program:       msgunfmt Invocation. (line  19)
* C# resources mode, and 'msgfmt' program: msgfmt Invocation. (line  40)
* C# resources mode, and 'msgunfmt' program: msgunfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line  23)
* C#, string concatenation:              Preparing Strings.   (line 168)
* c-format flag:                         PO Files.            (line  88)
* c-format, and 'xgettext':              c-format Flag.       (line  47)
* catalog encoding and 'msgexec' output: msgexec Invocation.  (line  35)
* 'catclose', a 'catgets' function:      Interface to catgets.
                                                              (line  44)
* 'catgets', a 'catgets' function:       Interface to catgets.
                                                              (line  25)
* 'catgets', X/Open specification:       catgets.             (line   6)
* 'catopen', a 'catgets' function:       Interface to catgets.
                                                              (line  13)
* character encoding:                    Aspects.             (line  67)
* charset conversion at runtime:         Charset conversion.  (line   6)
* charset of PO files:                   Header Entry.        (line 101)
* check format strings:                  msgfmt Invocation.   (line 230)
* checking of translations:              Manipulating.        (line  41)
* clisp:                                 Common Lisp.         (line   6)
* clisp C sources:                       clisp C.             (line   6)
* codeset:                               Aspects.             (line  67)
* comments in PO files:                  PO Files.            (line 320)
* comments, automatic:                   PO Files.            (line  36)
* comments, extracted:                   PO Files.            (line  36)
* comments, translator:                  PO Files.            (line  36)
* Common Lisp:                           Common Lisp.         (line   6)
* compare PO files:                      msgcmp Invocation.   (line   8)
* comparison of interfaces:              Comparison.          (line   6)
* compatibility with X/Open 'msgfmt':    msgfmt Invocation.   (line 263)
* compendium:                            Compendium.          (line   6)
* compendium, creating:                  Creating Compendia.  (line   6)
* concatenate PO files:                  msgcat Invocation.   (line   8)
* concatenating PO files into a compendium: Creating Compendia.
                                                              (line  14)
* concatenation of strings:              Preparing Strings.   (line 117)
* 'config.h.in' file:                    config.h.in.         (line   6)
* context:                               Contexts.            (line   6)
* context, argument specification in 'xgettext': xgettext Invocation.
                                                              (line 178)
* context, in MO files:                  MO Files.            (line  71)
* context, in PO files:                  PO Files.            (line 211)
* control characters:                    Preparing Strings.   (line 190)
* convert binary message catalog into PO file: msgunfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* convert translations to a different encoding: msgconv Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* converting a package to use 'gettext': Prerequisites.       (line   6)
* country codes:                         Country Codes.       (line   6)
* create new PO file:                    msginit Invocation.  (line   8)
* creating a new PO file:                Creating.            (line   6)
* creating compendia:                    Creating Compendia.  (line   6)
* csharp-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 147)
* currency symbols:                      Aspects.             (line  80)
* date format:                           Aspects.             (line  86)
* dcngettext:                            Plural forms.        (line 158)
* dcpgettext:                            Contexts.            (line  56)
* dcpgettext_expr:                       Contexts.            (line 112)
* debugging messages marked as format strings: xgettext Invocation.
                                                              (line 333)
* Desktop Entry mode, and 'msgfmt' program: msgfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line  49)
* dialect:                               Manipulating.        (line  28)
* disabling NLS:                         lib/gettext.h.       (line   6)
* distribution tarball:                  Release Management.  (line   6)
* dngettext:                             Plural forms.        (line 151)
* dollar substitution:                   envsubst Invocation. (line   8)
* domain ambiguities:                    Ambiguities.         (line   6)
* dpgettext:                             Contexts.            (line  56)
* dpgettext_expr:                        Contexts.            (line 112)
* duplicate elimination:                 Manipulating.        (line  45)
* duplicate removal:                     msguniq Invocation.  (line   8)
* editing comments in PO files:          Modifying Comments.  (line   6)
* Editing PO Files:                      Editing.             (line   6)
* editing translations:                  Modifying Translations.
                                                              (line   6)
* elisp-format flag:                     PO Files.            (line 127)
* Emacs Lisp:                            Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* Emacs PO Mode:                         PO Mode.             (line   6)
* encoding:                              Aspects.             (line  67)
* encoding conversion:                   Manipulating.        (line  17)
* encoding conversion at runtime:        Charset conversion.  (line   6)
* encoding for your language:            Header Entry.        (line 130)
* encoding list:                         Header Entry.        (line 114)
* encoding of PO files:                  Header Entry.        (line 101)
* environment variables:                 envsubst Invocation. (line   8)
* 'envsubst' program, usage:             envsubst Invocation. (line   6)
* 'eval_gettext' function, usage:        eval_gettext Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'eval_ngettext' function, usage:       eval_ngettext Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* evolution of packages:                 Overview.            (line 127)
* extracting parts of a PO file into a compendium: Creating Compendia.
                                                              (line  64)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License:   GNU FDL.             (line   6)
* file format, '.mo':                    MO Files.            (line   6)
* file format, '.po':                    PO Files.            (line   6)
* files, '.po' and '.mo':                Files.               (line   6)
* files, '.pot':                         Overview.            (line  67)
* filter messages according to attributes: msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* find common messages:                  msgcomm Invocation.  (line   8)
* force use of fuzzy entries:            msgfmt Invocation.   (line 279)
* format strings:                        c-format Flag.       (line   6)
* Free Pascal:                           Pascal.              (line   6)
* function attribute, __format_arg__:    xgettext Invocation. (line 294)
* function attribute, __format__:        xgettext Invocation. (line 280)
* fuzzy entries:                         Fuzzy Entries.       (line   6)
* fuzzy flag:                            PO Files.            (line  78)
* gawk:                                  gawk.                (line   6)
* gcc-internal-format flag:              PO Files.            (line 179)
* GCC-source:                            GCC-source.          (line   6)
* generate binary message catalog from PO file: msgfmt Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* generate translation catalog in English: msgen Invocation.  (line   8)
* 'gettext' files:                       Adjusting Files.     (line   6)
* 'gettext' installation:                Installation.        (line   6)
* 'gettext' interface:                   Interface to gettext.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'gettext' program, usage:              gettext Invocation.  (line   6)
* 'gettext' vs 'catgets':                Comparison.          (line   6)
* 'gettext', a programmer's view:        gettext.             (line   6)
* 'gettext.h' file:                      lib/gettext.h.       (line   6)
* 'gettextize' program, usage:           gettextize Invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* gfc-internal-format flag:              PO Files.            (line 183)
* GNOME PO file editor:                  Gtranslator.         (line   5)
* GPL, GNU General Public License:       GNU GPL.             (line   6)
* GUI programs:                          Contexts.            (line   6)
* guile:                                 Scheme.              (line   6)
* hash table, inside MO files:           MO Files.            (line  55)
* he, she, and they:                     Introduction.        (line  15)
* header entry of a PO file:             Header Entry.        (line   6)
* help option:                           Preparing Strings.   (line 109)
* history of GNU 'gettext':              History.             (line   6)
* i18n:                                  Concepts.            (line   6)
* importing PO files:                    Normalizing.         (line  54)
* include file 'libintl.h':              Overview.            (line  57)
* include file 'libintl.h' <1>:          Importing.           (line  11)
* include file 'libintl.h' <2>:          Comparison.          (line  33)
* include file 'libintl.h' <3>:          lib/gettext.h.       (line  29)
* initialization:                        Triggering.          (line   6)
* initialize new PO file:                msginit Invocation.  (line   8)
* initialize translations from a compendium: Using Compendia. (line  12)
* installing 'gettext':                  Installation.        (line   6)
* interface to 'catgets':                Interface to catgets.
                                                              (line   6)
* internationalization:                  Concepts.            (line  16)
* 'inttypes.h':                          Preparing Strings.   (line 133)
* ISO 3166:                              Country Codes.       (line   6)
* ISO 639:                               Language Codes.      (line   6)
* Java:                                  Java.                (line   6)
* Java mode, and 'msgfmt' program:       msgfmt Invocation.   (line  30)
* Java mode, and 'msgunfmt' program:     msgunfmt Invocation. (line  16)
* Java, string concatenation:            Preparing Strings.   (line 168)
* java-format flag:                      PO Files.            (line 143)
* javascript-format flag:                PO Files.            (line 208)
* KDE format strings:                    xgettext Invocation. (line 325)
* KDE PO file editor:                    KBabel.              (line   5)
* kde-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 196)
* keyboard accelerator checking:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 267)
* l10n:                                  Concepts.            (line   6)
* language codes:                        Language Codes.      (line   6)
* language selection:                    Locale Environment Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* language selection at runtime:         gettext grok.        (line  14)
* large package:                         Ambiguities.         (line   6)
* LGPL, GNU Lesser General Public License: GNU LGPL.          (line   6)
* 'libiconv' library:                    AM_ICONV.            (line  20)
* 'libintl' for C#:                      C#.                  (line 179)
* 'libintl' for Java:                    Java.                (line 105)
* 'libintl' library:                     AM_GNU_GETTEXT.      (line  53)
* 'librep' Lisp:                         librep.              (line   6)
* librep-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 131)
* License, GNU FDL:                      GNU FDL.             (line   6)
* License, GNU GPL:                      GNU GPL.             (line   6)
* License, GNU LGPL:                     GNU LGPL.            (line   6)
* Licenses:                              Licenses.            (line   6)
* 'LINGUAS' file:                        po/LINGUAS.          (line   6)
* link with 'libintl':                   Overview.            (line  62)
* Linux:                                 Aspects.             (line 129)
* Linux <1>:                             Overview.            (line  62)
* Linux <2>:                             Header Entry.        (line 127)
* Lisp:                                  Common Lisp.         (line   6)
* lisp-format flag:                      PO Files.            (line 123)
* list of translation teams, where to find: Header Entry.     (line  54)
* locale categories:                     Aspects.             (line  61)
* locale categories <1>:                 Aspects.             (line 118)
* locale category, LC_ALL:               Triggering.          (line  23)
* locale category, LC_COLLATE:           Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_CTYPE:             Aspects.             (line  67)
* locale category, LC_CTYPE <1>:         Triggering.          (line  23)
* locale category, LC_CTYPE <2>:         Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_MESSAGES:          Aspects.             (line 112)
* locale category, LC_MESSAGES <1>:      Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_MONETARY:          Aspects.             (line  80)
* locale category, LC_MONETARY <1>:      Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_NUMERIC:           Aspects.             (line  97)
* locale category, LC_NUMERIC <1>:       Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_RESPONSES:         Triggering.          (line  52)
* locale category, LC_TIME:              Aspects.             (line  86)
* locale category, LC_TIME <1>:          Triggering.          (line  52)
* 'locale' program:                      Header Entry.        (line 107)
* localization:                          Concepts.            (line  26)
* lookup message translation:            gettext Invocation.  (line   9)
* lookup message translation <1>:        eval_gettext Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* lookup plural message translation:     ngettext Invocation. (line   8)
* lookup plural message translation <1>: eval_ngettext Invocation.
                                                              (line   8)
* lua-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 204)
* magic signature of MO files:           MO Files.            (line   9)
* 'Makefile.in.in' extensions:           po/Rules-*.          (line   6)
* 'Makevars' file:                       po/Makevars.         (line   6)
* manipulating PO files:                 Manipulating.        (line   6)
* marking Perl sources:                  Perl.                (line  92)
* marking string initializers:           Special cases.       (line   6)
* marking strings that require translation: Mark Keywords.    (line   6)
* marking strings, preparations:         Preparing Strings.   (line   6)
* marking translatable strings:          Overview.            (line  34)
* markup:                                Preparing Strings.   (line 190)
* menu entries:                          Contexts.            (line   6)
* menu, keyboard accelerator support:    msgfmt Invocation.   (line 267)
* merge PO files:                        msgcat Invocation.   (line   8)
* merging two PO files:                  Manipulating.        (line  10)
* message catalog files location:        Locating Catalogs.   (line   6)
* messages:                              Aspects.             (line 112)
* migration from earlier versions of 'gettext': Prerequisites.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'mkinstalldirs' file:                  mkinstalldirs.       (line   6)
* mnemonics of menu entries:             msgfmt Invocation.   (line 267)
* MO file's format:                      MO Files.            (line   6)
* modify message attributes:             msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line  59)
* 'msgattrib' program, usage:            msgattrib Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'msgcat' program, usage:               msgcat Invocation.   (line   6)
* 'msgcmp' program, usage:               msgcmp Invocation.   (line   6)
* 'msgcomm' program, usage:              msgcomm Invocation.  (line   6)
* 'msgconv' program, usage:              msgconv Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgctxt:                               PO Files.            (line 211)
* 'msgen' program, usage:                msgen Invocation.    (line   6)
* 'msgexec' program, usage:              msgexec Invocation.  (line   6)
* 'msgfilter' filter and catalog encoding: msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  62)
* 'msgfilter' program, usage:            msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* 'msgfmt' program, usage:               msgfmt Invocation.   (line   6)
* 'msggrep' program, usage:              msggrep Invocation.  (line   6)
* msgid:                                 PO Files.            (line  55)
* msgid_plural:                          PO Files.            (line 231)
* 'msginit' program, usage:              msginit Invocation.  (line   6)
* 'msgmerge' program, usage:             msgmerge Invocation. (line   6)
* msgstr:                                PO Files.            (line  55)
* 'msgunfmt' program, usage:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line   6)
* 'msguniq' program, usage:              msguniq Invocation.  (line   6)
* multi-line strings:                    Normalizing.         (line  64)
* Native Language Support:               Concepts.            (line  51)
* Natural Language Support:              Concepts.            (line  51)
* newlines in PO files:                  PO Files.            (line 315)
* ngettext:                              Plural forms.        (line  82)
* 'ngettext' program, usage:             ngettext Invocation. (line   6)
* NLS:                                   Concepts.            (line  51)
* no-awk-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 152)
* no-boost-format flag:                  PO Files.            (line 201)
* no-c-format flag:                      PO Files.            (line  89)
* no-c-format, and 'xgettext':           c-format Flag.       (line  47)
* no-csharp-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 148)
* no-elisp-format flag:                  PO Files.            (line 128)
* no-gcc-internal-format flag:           PO Files.            (line 180)
* no-gfc-internal-format flag:           PO Files.            (line 184)
* no-java-format flag:                   PO Files.            (line 144)
* no-javascript-format flag:             PO Files.            (line 209)
* no-kde-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 197)
* no-librep-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 132)
* no-lisp-format flag:                   PO Files.            (line 124)
* no-lua-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 205)
* no-objc-format flag:                   PO Files.            (line 108)
* no-object-pascal-format flag:          PO Files.            (line 156)
* no-perl-brace-format flag:             PO Files.            (line 172)
* no-perl-format flag:                   PO Files.            (line 168)
* no-php-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 176)
* no-python-brace-format flag:           PO Files.            (line 120)
* no-python-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 116)
* no-qt-format flag:                     PO Files.            (line 189)
* no-qt-plural-format flag:              PO Files.            (line 193)
* no-scheme-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 136)
* no-sh-format flag:                     PO Files.            (line 112)
* no-smalltalk-format flag:              PO Files.            (line 140)
* no-tcl-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 164)
* no-ycp-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 160)
* nplurals, in a PO file header:         Plural forms.        (line 177)
* number format:                         Aspects.             (line  97)
* 'N_', a convenience macro:             Comparison.          (line  41)
* objc-format flag:                      PO Files.            (line 107)
* Object Pascal:                         Pascal.              (line   6)
* object-pascal-format flag:             PO Files.            (line 155)
* obsolete entries:                      Obsolete Entries.    (line   6)
* optimization of 'gettext' functions:   Optimized gettext.   (line   6)
* orthography:                           Manipulating.        (line  28)
* outdigits:                             c-format.            (line  28)
* output to stdout, 'xgettext':          xgettext Invocation. (line  46)
* overview of 'gettext':                 Overview.            (line   6)
* package and version declaration in 'configure.ac': configure.ac.
                                                              (line   9)
* package build and installation options: Installers.         (line   6)
* package distributor's view of 'gettext': Installers.        (line   6)
* package installer's view of 'gettext': Installers.          (line   6)
* package maintainer's view of 'gettext': Maintainers.        (line   6)
* paragraphs:                            Preparing Strings.   (line 101)
* Pascal:                                Pascal.              (line   6)
* Perl:                                  Perl.                (line   6)
* Perl default keywords:                 Default Keywords.    (line   6)
* Perl invalid string interpolation:     Interpolation I.     (line   6)
* Perl long lines:                       Long Lines.          (line   6)
* Perl parentheses:                      Parentheses.         (line   6)
* Perl pitfalls:                         Perl Pitfalls.       (line   6)
* Perl quote-like expressions:           Quote-like Expressions.
                                                              (line   6)
* Perl special keywords for hash-lookups: Special Keywords.   (line   6)
* Perl valid string interpolation:       Interpolation II.    (line   6)
* perl-brace-format flag:                PO Files.            (line 171)
* perl-format flag:                      PO Files.            (line 167)
* pgettext:                              Contexts.            (line  33)
* pgettext_expr:                         Contexts.            (line 112)
* PHP:                                   PHP.                 (line   6)
* php-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 175)
* Pike:                                  Pike.                (line   6)
* plural form formulas:                  Plural forms.        (line 197)
* plural forms:                          Plural forms.        (line   6)
* plural forms, in MO files:             MO Files.            (line  74)
* plural forms, in PO files:             PO Files.            (line 231)
* plural forms, translating:             Translating plural forms.
                                                              (line   6)
* plural, in a PO file header:           Plural forms.        (line 177)
* PO files' format:                      PO Files.            (line   6)
* PO mode (Emacs) commands:              Main PO Commands.    (line   6)
* PO template file:                      Template.            (line   6)
* portability problems with 'sed':       msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line  73)
* 'POTFILES.in' file:                    po/POTFILES.in.      (line   6)
* po_file_domains:                       libgettextpo.        (line  40)
* po_file_free:                          libgettextpo.        (line  35)
* po_file_read:                          libgettextpo.        (line  29)
* po_message_iterator:                   libgettextpo.        (line  48)
* po_message_iterator_free:              libgettextpo.        (line  55)
* po_message_msgid:                      libgettextpo.        (line  69)
* po_message_msgid_plural:               libgettextpo.        (line  73)
* po_message_msgstr:                     libgettextpo.        (line  79)
* po_message_msgstr_plural:              libgettextpo.        (line  84)
* po_next_message:                       libgettextpo.        (line  60)
* preparing programs for translation:    Sources.             (line   6)
* preparing rules for XML translation:   Preparing ITS Rules. (line   6)
* preparing shell scripts for translation: Preparing Shell Scripts.
                                                              (line   6)
* problems with 'catgets' interface:     Problems with catgets.
                                                              (line   6)
* programming languages:                 Language Implementors.
                                                              (line   6)
* Python:                                Python.              (line   6)
* python-brace-format flag:              PO Files.            (line 119)
* python-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 115)
* Qt format strings:                     xgettext Invocation. (line 321)
* Qt mode, and 'msgfmt' program:         msgfmt Invocation.   (line  46)
* qt-format flag:                        PO Files.            (line 188)
* qt-plural-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 192)
* quotation marks:                       Header Entry.        (line 160)
* quotation marks <1>:                   po/Rules-*.          (line  11)
* quote characters, use in PO files:     Header Entry.        (line 160)
* range: flag:                           PO Files.            (line 262)
* 'recode-sr-latin' program:             msgfilter Invocation.
                                                              (line 101)
* related reading:                       References.          (line   6)
* release:                               Release Management.  (line   6)
* RST:                                   RST.                 (line   6)
* Scheme:                                Scheme.              (line   6)
* scheme-format flag:                    PO Files.            (line 135)
* scripting languages:                   Language Implementors.
                                                              (line   6)
* search messages in a catalog:          msggrep Invocation.  (line   8)
* selecting message language:            Locale Environment Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* sentence end markers, 'xgettext':      xgettext Invocation. (line 152)
* sentences:                             Preparing Strings.   (line  44)
* setting up 'gettext' at build time:    Installers.          (line   6)
* setting up 'gettext' at run time:      Locale Environment Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* several domains:                       Ambiguities.         (line   6)
* sex:                                   Introduction.        (line  15)
* sh-format flag:                        PO Files.            (line 111)
* she, he, and they:                     Introduction.        (line  15)
* shell format string:                   envsubst Invocation. (line   8)
* shell scripts:                         sh.                  (line   6)
* Smalltalk:                             Smalltalk.           (line   6)
* smalltalk-format flag:                 PO Files.            (line 139)
* sorting 'msgcat' output:               msgcat Invocation.   (line 152)
* sorting 'msgmerge' output:             msgmerge Invocation. (line 188)
* sorting 'msgunfmt' output:             msgunfmt Invocation. (line 147)
* sorting output of 'xgettext':          xgettext Invocation. (line 416)
* specifying plural form in a PO file:   Plural forms.        (line 177)
* standard output, and 'msgcat':         msgcat Invocation.   (line  44)
* standard output, and 'msgmerge' program: msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line  53)
* string concatenation:                  Preparing Strings.   (line 117)
* string normalization in entries:       Normalizing.         (line   6)
* style:                                 Preparing Strings.   (line  24)
* supported languages, 'msgfmt':         msgfmt Invocation.   (line 180)
* supported languages, 'xgettext':       xgettext Invocation. (line  54)
* supported syntax checks, 'xgettext':   xgettext Invocation. (line 116)
* Tcl:                                   Tcl.                 (line   6)
* Tcl mode, and 'msgfmt' program:        msgfmt Invocation.   (line  43)
* Tcl mode, and 'msgunfmt' program:      msgunfmt Invocation. (line  26)
* tcl-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 163)
* template PO file:                      Overview.            (line  67)
* testing '.po' files for equivalence:   xgettext Invocation. (line 426)
* Tk's scripting language:               Tcl.                 (line   6)
* translated entries:                    Translated Entries.  (line   6)
* translating menu entries:              Contexts.            (line   6)
* translation aspects:                   Aspects.             (line   6)
* Translation Matrix:                    Installing Localizations.
                                                              (line   6)
* Translation Project:                   Why.                 (line  17)
* turning off NLS support:               lib/gettext.h.       (line   6)
* tutorial of 'gettext' usage:           Overview.            (line   6)
* unify duplicate translations:          msguniq Invocation.  (line   8)
* untranslated entries:                  Untranslated Entries.
                                                              (line   6)
* update translations from a compendium: Using Compendia.     (line  20)
* upgrading to new versions of 'gettext': Prerequisites.      (line   6)
* version control for backup files, 'msgmerge': msgmerge Invocation.
                                                              (line  67)
* 'wxWidgets' library:                   wxWidgets.           (line   6)
* 'xargs', and output from 'msgexec':    msgexec Invocation.  (line  14)
* 'xgettext' program, usage:             xgettext Invocation. (line   6)
* XML mode, and 'msgfmt' program:        msgfmt Invocation.   (line  52)
* 'xmodmap' program, and typing quotation marks: Header Entry.
                                                              (line 172)
* YaST2 scripting language:              YCP.                 (line   6)
* YCP:                                   YCP.                 (line   6)
* ycp-format flag:                       PO Files.            (line 159)



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