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File: dvips.info,  Node: Invoking Dvips,  Next: Paper size and landscape,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

3 Invoking Dvips

Dvips reads a DVI file as output by (for example) TeX, and converts it
to PostScript, taking care of builtin or downloaded PostScript fonts,
font reencoding, color, etc.  These features are described in other
chapters in this document.

   There many ways to control Dvips' behavior: configuration files,
environment variables, and command-line options.

* Menu:

* Basic usage::
* Command-line options::
* Environment variables::
* Config files::

File: dvips.info,  Node: Basic usage,  Next: Command-line options,  Up: Invoking Dvips

3.1 Basic usage of Dvips

To use Dvips at its simplest, simply type

     dvips foo

where 'foo.dvi' is the output of TeX that you want to print.  The
default output is to a corresponding file 'foo.ps'; Dvips may also have
been locally configured to output directly to a printer by default.

   If you use fonts that have not been used on your system before, they
may be automatically generated; this process can take a few minutes, so
progress reports appear by default.  The next time that document is
printed, these fonts will have been saved in the proper directories, so
printing will go much faster.  (If Dvips tries to endlessly generate the
same fonts over and over again, it hasn't been installed properly.
*Note (kpathsea)Unable to generate fonts::.)

   Many options are available (see the next section).  For a brief
summary of available options, just type

     dvips --help

File: dvips.info,  Node: Command-line options,  Next: Environment variables,  Prev: Basic usage,  Up: Invoking Dvips

3.2 Command-line options

Dvips has a plethora of command line options.  Reading through this
section will give a good idea of the capabilities of the driver.

* Menu:

* Option summary::              Quick listing, from Dvips -help.
* Option details::              More information about each option.

File: dvips.info,  Node: Option summary,  Next: Option details,  Up: Command-line options

3.2.1 Option summary

Here is a handy summary of the options; it is printed out when you run
Dvips with no arguments or with the standard '--help' option.

Usage: dvips [OPTION]... FILENAME[.dvi]
Convert DVI input files to PostScript.
See http://tug.org/dvips/ for the full manual and other information.

-a*  Conserve memory, not time       -A   Print only odd (TeX) pages
-b # Page copies, for posters e.g.   -B   Print only even (TeX) pages
-c # Uncollated copies               -C # Collated copies
-d # Debugging                       -D # Resolution
-e # Maxdrift value                  -E*  Try to create EPSF
-f*  Run as filter                   -F*  Send control-D at end
                                     -G*  Shift low chars to higher pos.
-h f Add header file
-i*  Separate file per section
-j*  Download fonts partially
-k*  Print crop marks                -K*  Pull comments from inclusions
-l # Last page                       -L*  Last special papersize wins
-m*  Manual feed                     -M*  Don't make fonts
-mode s Metafont device name
-n # Maximum number of pages         -N*  No structured comments
-noomega  Disable Omega extensions
-noptex   Disable pTeX extensions
-o f Output file                     -O c Set/change paper offset
-p # First page                      -P s Load config.$s
-pp l Print only pages listed
-q*  Run quietly
-r*  Reverse order of pages          -R*  Run securely
-s*  Enclose output in save/restore  -S # Max section size in pages
-t s Paper format                    -T c Specify desired page size
-u s PS mapfile                      -U*  Disable string param trick
-v   Print version number and quit   -V*  Send downloadable PS fonts as PK
-x # Override dvi magnification      -X # Horizontal resolution
-y # Multiply by dvi magnification   -Y # Vertical resolution
-z*  Hyper PS                        -Z*  Compress bitmap fonts
    # = number   f = file   s = string  * = suffix, `0' to turn off
    c = comma-separated dimension pair (e.g., 3.2in,-32.1cm)
    l = comma-separated list of page ranges (e.g., 1-4,7-9)

Email bug reports to tex-k AT mail.org.

File: dvips.info,  Node: Option details,  Prev: Option summary,  Up: Command-line options

3.2.2 Option details

Many of the parameterless options listed here can be turned off by
suffixing the option with a zero ('0'); for instance, to turn off page
reversal, use '-r0'.  Such options are marked with a trailing '*'.

     Read additional options from standard input after processing the
     command line.

     Print a usage message and exit.

     Print the version number and exit.

     Conserve memory by making three passes over the DVI file instead of
     two and only loading those characters actually used.  Generally
     only useful on machines with a very limited amount of memory, like
     some PCs.

     Print only the odd pages.  This option uses TeX page numbers, not
     physical page numbers.

'-b NUM'
     Generate NUM copies of each page, but duplicating the page body
     rather than using the '/#copies' PostScript variable.  This can be
     useful in conjunction with a header file setting 'bop-hook' to do
     color separations or other neat tricks.

     Print only the even pages.  This option uses TeX page numbers, not
     physical page numbers.

'-c NUM'
     Generate NUM consecutive copies of every page, i.e., the output is
     uncollated.  This merely sets the builtin PostScript variable

'-C NUM'
     Generate NUM copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the
     PostScript file).  Slower than the '-c' option, but easier on the
     hands, and faster than resubmitting the same PostScript file
     multiple times.

'-d NUM'
     Set the debug flags, showing what Dvips (thinks it) is doing.  This
     will work unless Dvips has been compiled without the 'DEBUG' option
     (not recommended).  *Note Debug options::, for the possible values
     of NUM.  Use '-d -1' as the first option for maximum output.

'-D NUM'
     Set both the horizontal and vertical resolution to NUM, given in
     dpi (dots per inch).  This affects the choice of bitmap fonts that
     are loaded and also the positioning of letters in resident
     PostScript fonts.  Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both
     the horizontal and vertical resolution.  If a high resolution
     (something greater than 400 dpi, say) is selected, the '-Z' flag
     should probably also be used.  If you are using fonts made with
     Metafont, such as Computer Modern, 'mktexpk' needs to know about
     the value for NUM that you use or Metafont will fail.  See the file
     <ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf> for a list of resolutions and mode
     names for most devices.

'-e NUM'
     Maximum drift in pixels of each character from its 'true'
     resolution-independent position on the page.  The default value of
     this parameter is resolution dependent (it is the number of entries
     in the list [100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1600,
     2000, 2400, 2800, 3200, ...] that are less than or equal to the
     resolution in dots per inch).  Allowing individual characters to
     'drift' from their correctly rounded positions by a few pixels,
     while regaining the true position at the beginning of each new
     word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

     Generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This only looks
     at marks made by characters and rules, not by any included
     graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the TFM
     file, so characters that print outside their enclosing TFM box may
     confuse it.  In addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose
     if the character glyph has significant left or right side bearings.
     Nonetheless, this option works well enough for creating small EPSF
     files for equations or tables or the like.  (Of course, Dvips
     output, especially when using bitmap fonts, is resolution-dependent
     and thus does not make very good EPSF files, especially if the
     images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with care.)  For
     multiple page input files, also specify '-i' to get each page as a
     separate EPSF file; otherwise, all the pages are overlaid in the
     single output file.

     Run as a filter.  Read the DVI file from standard input and write
     the PostScript to standard output.  The standard input must be
     seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.  If your input must be a pipe,
     write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a temporary
     file and then points Dvips at this file.  This option also disables
     the automatic reading of the 'PRINTER' environment variable; use
     '-P$PRINTER' after the '-f' to read it anyway.  It also turns off
     the automatic sending of control-D if it was turned on with the
     '-F' option or in the configuration file; use '-F' after the '-f'
     to send it anyway.

     Write control-D (ASCII code 4) as the very last character of the
     PostScript file.  This is useful when Dvips is driving the printer
     directly instead of working through a spooler, as is common on
     personal systems.  On systems shared by more than one person, this
     is not recommended.

     Shift non-printing characters (ASCII 0-32, 127) to higher-numbered
     positions.  This was useful to work around bugs in old versions of
     Adobe's PDF reader.  It's more likely to cause problems nowadays.

'-h NAME'
     Prepend NAME as an additional header file, or, if NAME is '-',
     suppress all header files.  Any definitions in the header file get
     added to the PostScript 'userdict'.

     Make each section be a separate file; a "section" is a part of the
     document processed independently, most often created to avoid
     memory overflow.  The filenames are created replacing the suffix of
     the supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.
     This option is most often used in conjunction with the '-S' option
     which sets the maximum section length in pages; if '-i' is
     specified and '-S' is not, each page is output as a separate file.
     For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more than ten or
     so consecutive pages before running out of steam; these options can
     be used to automatically split a book into ten-page sections, each
     to its own file.

     On the other hand, if your document uses very large fonts or very
     large included figures, Dvips might take it upon itself to split
     the output into unwanted sections, to try to avoid overflowing
     printer memory.  *Note Headers and memory usage::, for ways to
     handle this.

     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts.  This is the
     default in the current release.  Some debugging flags trace this
     operation (*note Debug options::).  You can also control partial
     downloading on a per-font basis (*note psfonts.map::).

     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which
     should be specified, either with a paper size special or with the
     '-T' option) by a half inch in each dimension.  It translates each
     page by a quarter inch and draws cross-style crop marks.  It is
     mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size
     automatically.  This works by downloading 'crop.pro'.

     Remove comments in included PostScript graphics, font files, and
     headers; only necessary to get around bugs in spoolers or
     PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the '%%Page'
     comments, when left in, often cause difficulties.  Use of this flag
     can cause other graphics to fail, however, since the PostScript
     header macros from some software packages read portion the input
     stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.

'-l [=]NUM'
     The last page printed will be the first one numbered NUM.  Default
     is the last page in the document.  If NUM is prefixed by an equals
     sign, then it (and the argument to the '-p' option, if specified)
     is treated as a physical (absolute) page number, rather than a
     value to compare with the TeX '\count0' values stored in the DVI
     file.  Thus, using '-l =9' will end with the ninth page of the
     document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

     By default or with '-L1', the last 'papersize' special wins; with
     '-L0', the first special wins.  *Note papersize special::.

     Specify manual feed, if supported by the output device.

'-mode MODE'
     Use MODE as the Metafont device name for path searching and font
     generation.  This overrides any value from configuration files.
     With the default paths, explicitly specifying the mode also makes
     the program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory named MODE.
     *Note TeX directory structure: (kpathsea)TeX directory structure.
     If Metafont does not understand the MODE name, see *note
     (kpathsea)Unable to generate fonts::.

     Turns off automatic font generation ('mktexpk').  If 'mktexpk', the
     invocation is appended to a file 'missfont.log' (by default) in the
     current directory.  You can then execute the log file to create the
     missing files after fixing the problem.  If the current directory
     is not writable and the environment variable or configuration file
     value 'TEXMFOUTPUT' is set, its value is used.  Otherwise, nothing
     is written.  The name 'missfont.log' is overridden by the
     'MISSFONT_LOG' environment variable or configuration file value.

'-n NUM'
     Print at most NUM pages.  Default is 100000.

     Turns off generation of structured comments such as '%%Page'; this
     may be necessary on some systems that try to interpret PostScript
     comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript printers.  Old
     versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern
     Encapsulated PostScript.  Beware: This also disables page movement,
     etc., in PostScript viewers such as Ghostview.

     Disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.
     By default, the additional opcodes '129' and '134' are recognized
     by Dvips as Omega or pTeX extensions and interpreted as requests to
     set 2-byte characters.

     Disable the use of pTeX extensions when interpreting DVI files.  By
     default, the additional opcodes '130' and '135' are recognized by
     Dvips as Omega extensions and interpreted as requests to set 3-byte
     characters, and '255' as request to change the typesetting

     The only drawback is that the virtual font array will (at least
     temporarily) require 65536 or more positions instead of the default
     256 positions, i.e., the memory requirements of Dvips will be
     somewhat larger.  If you find this unacceptable or encounter
     another problem with the Omega or pTeX extensions, you can switch
     off the pTeX extension by using '-noptex', or both by using
     '-noomega' (but please do send a bug report if you find such
     problems, *note (kpathsea)Bugs::).

'-o NAME'
     Send output to the file NAME.  If '-o' is specified without NAME
     (i.e., it is the last thing on the command line), the default is
     'FILE.ps' where the input DVI file was 'FILE.dvi'.  If '-o' isn't
     given at all, the configuration file default is used.

     If NAME is '-', output goes to standard output.  If the first
     character of NAME is '!' or '|', then the remainder will be used as
     an argument to 'popen'; thus, specifying '|lpr' as the output file
     will automatically queue the file for printing as usual.  (The
     MS-DOS version will print to the local printer device 'PRN' when
     NAME is '|lpr' and a program by that name cannot be found.)

     '-o' disables the automatic reading of the 'PRINTER' environment
     variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control-D. See the
     '-f' option for how to override this.

     Move the origin by X-OFFSET,Y-OFFSET, a comma-separated pair of
     dimensions such as '.1in,-.3cm' (*note papersize special::).  The
     origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one
     inch down, one inch to the right from the upper left corner of the
     paper) by this amount.  This is usually best specified in the
     printer-specific configuration file.

     This is useful for a printer that consistently offsets output pages
     by a certain amount.  You can use the file 'testpage.tex' to
     determine the correct value for your printer.  Be sure to do
     several runs with the same 'O' value--some printers vary widely
     from run to run.

     If your printer offsets every other page consistently, instead of
     every page, your best recourse is to use 'bop-hook' (*note
     PostScript hooks::).

'-p [=]NUM'
     The first page printed will be the first one numbered NUM.  Default
     is the first page in the document.  If NUM is prefixed by an equals
     sign, then it (and the argument to the '-l' option, if specified)
     is treated as a physical (absolute) page number, rather than a
     value to compare with the TeX '\count0' values stored in the DVI
     file.  Thus, using '-p =3' will start with the third page of the
     document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

     Print pages FIRST through LAST; equivalent to '-p FIRST -l LAST',
     except that multiple '-pp' options accumulate, unlike '-p' and
     '-l'.  The '-' separator can also be ':'.

     Read the configuration file 'config.PRINTER' ('PRINTER.cfg' on
     MS-DOS), which typically sets the output name (most likely 'o |lpr
     -PPRINTER'), resolution, Metafont mode, and perhaps other
     printer-specific defaults.  It works best to put sitewide defaults
     in the one master 'config.ps' file and only things that vary from
     printer to printer in the 'config.PRINTER' files; 'config.ps' is
     read before 'config.PRINTER'.

     A configuration file for eventual creation of Adobe PDF files is
     provided in 'config.pdf' and thus can be loaded with '-Ppdf'.  It
     will try to include Type 1 outline fonts into the PostScript file
     (*note Hypertext caveats::).

     If no '-P' or '-o' is given, the environment variable 'PRINTER' is
     checked.  If that variable exists, and a corresponding
     'config.PRINTER' ('PRINTER.cfg' on MS-DOS) file exists, it is read.
     *Note Configuration file searching::.

     Run quietly.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc., and report
     no warnings (only errors) to standard error.

     Output pages in reverse order.  By default, page 1 is output first.

     Run securely.  '-R2' disables both shell command execution in
     '\special' (via '`', *note Dynamic creation of graphics::) and
     config files (via the 'E' option, *note Configuration file
     commands::) and opening of any absolute or '..'-relative filenames.
     '-R1', the default, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute
     filenames.  '-R0' allows both.

     Enclose the output in a global save/restore pair.  This causes the
     file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but
     is useful if you are driving a deficient printer directly and thus
     don't care too much about the portability of the output to other

'-S NUM'
     Set the maximum number of pages in each 'section'.  This option is
     most commonly used with the '-i' option; see its description above
     for more information.

     Set the paper type to PAPERTYPE, usually defined in one of the
     configuration files, along with the appropriate PostScript code to
     select it (*note Config file paper sizes::).
        - You can also specify a PAPERTYPE of 'landscape', which rotates
          a document by 90 degrees.
        - To rotate a document whose paper type is not the default, you
          can use the '-t' option twice, once for the paper type, and
          once for 'landscape'.
        - In general, you should not use any '-t' option when using a
          'papersize' special, which some LaTeX packages (e.g.,
          'hyperref') insert.
        - One exception is when using a nonstandard paper size that is
          not already defined in 'config.ps'; in this case, you need to
          specify '-t unknown'.
        - Another exception is when producing multi-page files for
          further processing; use '-t nopaper' to omit any paper size
          information in the output.  (If you just have a single page
          document, you can use '-E' to get pure EPSF output.)

     Set the paper size to (HSIZE,VSIZE), a comma-separated pair of
     dimensions such as '.1in,-.3cm' (*note papersize special::).  It
     overrides any paper size special in the DVI file.  Be careful, as
     the paper size will stick to a predefined size if there is one
     close enough.  To disable this behavior, use '-tunknown'.

     Set PSMAPFILE to be the file that dvips uses for looking up
     PostScript font aliases.  If PSMAPFILE begins with a '+' character,
     then the rest of the name is used as the name of the map file, and
     the map file is appended to the list of map files (instead of
     replacing the list).  In either case, if the name has no extension,
     then '.map' is added at the end.

     Disable a PostScript virtual memory-saving optimization that stores
     the character metric information in the same string that is used to
     store the bitmap information.  This is only necessary when driving
     the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter, which has a bug that puts
     garbage on the bottom of each character.  Not recommended unless
     you must drive this printer.

     Print the dvips version number and exit.

     Download non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires
     use of 'mtpk' or 'gsftopk' or 'pstopk' or some combination thereof
     to generate the required bitmap fonts; these programs are supplied
     with Dvips.  The bitmap must be put into 'psfonts.map' as the
     downloadable file for that font.  This is useful only for those
     fonts for which you do not have real outlines, being downloaded to
     printers that have no resident fonts, i.e., very rarely.

'-x NUM'
     Set the magnification ratio to NUM/1000.  Overrides the
     magnification specified in the DVI file.  Must be between 10 and
     100000.  It is recommended that you use standard magstep values
     (1095, 1200, 1440, 1728, 2074, 2488, 2986, and so on) to help
     reduce the total number of PK files generated.  NUM may be a real
     number, not an integer, for increased precision.

'-X NUM'
     Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to NUM.

'-y NUM'
     Set the magnification ratio to NUM/1000 times the magnification
     specified in the DVI file.  See '-x' above.

'-Y NUM'
     Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to NU.

     Pass 'html' hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual
     distillation into PDF. This is not enabled by default to avoid
     including the header files unnecessarily, and use of temporary
     files in creating the output.  *Note Hypertext::.

     Compress bitmap fonts in the output file, thereby reducing the size
     of what gets downloaded.  Especially useful at high resolutions or
     when very large fonts are used.  May slow down printing, especially
     on early 68000-based PostScript printers.  Generally recommend
     today, and can be enabled in the configuration file (*note
     Configuration file commands::).

File: dvips.info,  Node: Environment variables,  Next: Config files,  Prev: Command-line options,  Up: Invoking Dvips

3.3 Environment variables

Dvips looks for many environment variables, to define search paths and
other things.  The path variables are read as needed, after all
configuration files are read, so they override values in the
configuration files.  (Except for 'TEXCONFIG', which defines where the
configuration files themselves are found.)

   *Note (kpathsea)Path specifications::, for details of interpretation
of path and other environment variables common to all Kpathsea-using
programs.  Only the environment variables specific to Dvips are
mentioned here.

     Write the absolute path names of any configuration or map files to
     standard output, for debugging.  This isn't done by default because
     these files are read even before the banner is printed.  For
     voluminous additional debugging, set the environment variable
     'KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to '-1' (*note (kpathsea)Debugging::).  (If
     'KPATHSEA_DEBUG' is set to any value, it automatically turns on

     Default path to search for all fonts.  Overrides all the font path
     config file options and other environment variables (*note
     (kpathsea)Supported file formats::).

     Default path to search for PostScript header files.  Overrides the
     'H' config file option (*note Configuration file commands::).

     Overrides 'mktexpk' as the name of the program to invoke to create
     missing PK fonts.  You can change the arguments passed to the
     'mktexpk' program with the 'MAKETEXPK' environment variable; *note
     (kpathsea)MakeTeX script arguments::.

     Specifies the name of the startup file (*note Configuration file
     searching::) which is read after 'config.ps' but before any
     printer-specific configuration files.

     Last-resort sizes for scaling of unfound fonts.  Overrides the 'R'
     definition in config files (*note Configuration file commands::).

     Determine the default printer configuration file.  (Dvips itself
     does not use 'PRINTER' to determine the output destination in any

     Path to search for Dvips' 'config.PRINTER' configuration files,
     including the base 'config.ps'.  Using this single environment
     variable, you can override everything else.  (The printer-specific
     configuration files are called 'PRINTER.cfg' on MS-DOS, but
     'config.ps' is called by that name on all platforms.)

     Path to search for included graphics files.  Overrides the 'S'
     config file option (*note Configuration file commands::).  If not
     set, 'TEXINPUTS' is looked for.  *Note (kpathsea)Supported file

File: dvips.info,  Node: Config files,  Prev: Environment variables,  Up: Invoking Dvips

3.4 Dvips configuration files

This section describes in detail the Dvips-specific 'config.*' device
configuration files (called '*.cfg' on MS-DOS), which override the
'texmf.cnf' configuration files generic to Kpathsea which Dvips also
reads (*note (kpathsea)Config files::).

   For information about installing these files, including a prototype
file you can copy, *note config.ps installation::.

* Menu:

* Configuration file searching:: Where config.* files are searched for.
* Configuration file commands::  What can go in a config.* file.

File: dvips.info,  Node: Configuration file searching,  Next: Configuration file commands,  Up: Config files

3.4.1 Configuration file searching

The Dvips program loads many different configuration files, so that
parameters can be set globally across the system, on a per-device basis,
or individually by each user.

  1. Dvips first reads (if it exists) 'config.ps'; it is searched for
     along the path for Dvips configuration files, as described in *note
     (kpathsea)Supported file formats::.

  2. A user-specific startup file is loaded, so individual users can
     override any options set in the global file.  The environment
     variable 'DVIPSRC', if defined, is used as the specification of the
     startup file.  If this variable is undefined, Dvips uses a
     platform-specific default name.  On Unix Dvips looks for the
     default startup file under the name '$HOME/.dvipsrc', which is in
     the user's home directory.  On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, where users
     generally don't have their private directories, the startup file is
     called 'dvips.ini' and it is searched for along the path for Dvips
     configuration files (as described in *note (kpathsea)Supported file
     formats::.); users are expected to set this path as they see fit
     for their taste.

  3. The command line is read and parsed: if the '-PDEVICE' option is
     encountered, at that point 'config.DEVICE' is loaded.  Thus, the
     printer configuration file can override anything in the site-wide
     or user configuration file, and it can also override options in the
     command line up to the point that the '-P' option was encountered.
     (On MS-DOS, the printer configuration files are called
     'DEVICE.cfg', since DOS doesn't allow more than 3 characters after
     the dot in filenames.)

  4. If no '-P' option was specified, and also the '-o' and '-f' command
     line options were not used, Dvips checks the environment variable
     'PRINTER'.  If it exists, then 'config.$PRINTER' ('$PRINTER.cfg' on
     MS-DOS) is loaded (if it exists).

   Because the '.dvipsrc' file is read before the printer-specific
configuration files, individual users cannot override settings in the
latter.  On the other hand, the 'TEXCONFIG' path can be set to anything,
so the users can always define their own printer-specific configuration
files to be found before the system's.

   A few command-line options are treated specially, in that they are
not overridden by configuration files:

     As well as setting the resolution, this unsets the mode, if the
     mode was previously set from a configuration file.  If
     'config.$PRINTER' is read, however, any 'D' or 'M' lines from there
     will take effect.

     This overrides any mode setting ('M' line) in configuration files.
     '-mode' does not affect the resolution.

     This overrides any output setting ('o' line) in configuration

   The purpose of these special cases is to (1) minimize the chance of
having a mismatched mode and resolution (which 'mktexpk' cannot
resolve), and (2) let command-line options override config files where

File: dvips.info,  Node: Configuration file commands,  Prev: Configuration file searching,  Up: Config files

3.4.2 Configuration file commands

Most of the configuration file commands are similar to corresponding
command line options, but there are a few exceptions.  When they are the
same, we omit the description here.

   As with command line options, many may be turned off by suffixing the
letter with a zero ('0').

   Within a configuration file, empty lines, and lines starting with a
space, asterisk, equal sign, percent sign, or pound sign are ignored.
There is no provision for continuation lines.

     Define paper sizes.  *Note Config file paper sizes::.

     Memory conservation.  Same as '-a', *note Option details::.

     Multiple copies.  Same as '-b', *note Option details::.

     Include FILENAME as an additional configuration file, read

     Output resolution.  Same as '-D', *note Option details::.

'e NUM'
     Max drift.  Same as '-e', *note Option details::.

     Executes the command listed with 'system'(3); can be used to get
     the current date into a header file for inclusion, for instance.
     Possibly dangerous; this may be disabled, in which case a warning
     will be printed if the option is used (and warnings are not

     Run as a filter.  Same as '-f', *note Option details::.

     Shift low-numbered characters; obsolete.  Same as '-G', *note
     Option details::.

     Prepend HEADER to output.  Same as 'h-', *note Option details::.

     Use PATH to search for PostScript header files.  The environment
     variable 'DVIPSHEADERS' overrides this.

'i N'
     Make multiple output files.  Same as '-i -S N', *note Option

     Partially download Type 1 fonts.  Same as '-j', *note Option

     Remove comments from included PostScript files.  Same as '-K',
     *note Option details::.

     If zero, the first paper size specified is effective, else the
     last.  Same as '-L', *note Option details::.

'm NUM'
     Declare NUM as the memory available for fonts and strings in the
     printer.  The compile-time default is 180000, but this is typically
     overridden by 'config.ps' or other configuration files.  This value
     must be accurate if memory conservation and document splitting is
     to work correctly.  To determine this value, send the following
     file to the printer:

          %! Hey, we're PostScript
          /Times-Roman findfont 30 scalefont setfont 144 432 moveto
          vmstatus exch sub 40 string cvs show pop showpage

     The number printed by this file is the total memory free; it is
     usually best to tell Dvips that the printer has slightly less
     memory, because many programs download permanent macros that can
     reduce the memory in the printer.  Some systems or printers can
     dynamically increase the memory available to a PostScript
     interpreter, in which case this file might return a ridiculously
     low number; for example, the NeXT computer and Ghostscript.  In
     these cases, a value of, say, 10 million is likely fine.

     To go all out: If NUM is zero or negative, Dvips sets the available
     memory to a very large number (the maximum integer value in C), the
     idea being that output is not to a printer and thus no splitting of
     the output is desirable.  The Dvips config file 'config.maxmem' is
     provided to do this conveniently, namely with 'dvips -Pmaxmem'.

     Metafont mode.  Same as '-mode', *note Option details::.

     Disable structured comments.  Beware: This also turns off
     displaying page numbers or changing to specific pagenumbers in
     PostScript viewers.  Same as '-N', *note Option details::.

'o NAME'
     Send output to NAME.  Same as '-o', *note Option details::.  In the
     file 'config.foo', a setting like this is probably appropriate:
          o |lpr -Pfoo
     The MS-DOS version will emulate spooling to 'lpr' by printing to
     the local printer device 'PRN' if it doesn't find an executable
     program by that name in the current directory or along the 'PATH'.

     Origin offset.  Same as '-O', *note Option details::.

'p [+]NAME'
     Examine NAME for PostScript font aliases.  Default is
     'psfonts.map'.  This option allows you to specify different
     resident fonts that different printers may have.  If NAME starts
     with a '+' character, then the rest of the name (after any leading
     spaces) is used as an additional map file; thus, it is possible to
     have local map files pointed to by local configuration files that
     append to the global map file.  This can be used for font families.

     Use PATH to search for bitmap PK font files is PATH.  The
     'PKFONTS', 'TEXPKS', 'GLYPHFONTS', and 'TEXFONTS' environment
     variables override this.  *Note (kpathsea)Supported file formats::.

     Run quietly.  Same as '-q', *note Option details::.

     Page reversal.  Same as '-r', *note Option details::.

'R NUM1 NUM2 ...'
     Define the list of default resolutions for PK fonts.  If a font
     size actually used in a document is not available and cannot be
     created, Dvips will scale the font found at the closest of these
     resolutions to the requested size, using PostScript scaling.  The
     resulting output may be ugly, and thus a warning is issued.  To
     turn this last-resort scaling off, use a line with just the 'R' and
     no numbers.

     The given numbers must be sorted in increasing order; any number
     smaller than the preceding one is ignored.  This is because it is
     better to scale a font up than down; scaling down can obliterate
     small features in the character shape.

     The environment and config file values 'DVIPSSIZES' or 'TEXSIZES'
     override this configuration file setting.

     If no 'R' settings or environment variables are specified, a list
     compiled in during installation is used.  This default list is
     defined by the Makefile variable 'default_texsizes', defined in the
     file 'make/paths.make'.

     Output global save/restore.  Same as '-s', *note Option details::.

     Use PATH to search for special illustrations (Encapsulated
     PostScript files or psfiles).  The 'TEXPICTS' and then 'TEXINPUTS'
     environment variables override this.

     Use PATH to search for TFM files.  The 'TFMFONTS' and then
     'TEXFONTS' environment variables overrides this.  This path is used
     for resident fonts and fonts that can't otherwise be found.

     Work around bug in Xerox 4045 printer.  Same as '-U', *note Option

     Use PATH to search for virtual font files.  This may be
     device-dependent if you use virtual fonts to simulate actual fonts
     on different devices.

     If STRING is supplied, write it to standard error after reading all
     the configuration files; with no STRING, cancel any previous 'W'
     message.  This is useful in the default configuration file to
     remind users to specify a printer, for instance, or to notify users
     about special characteristics of a particular printer.

     Horizontal resolution.  Same as '-X' (*note Option details::).

     Vertical resolution.  Same as '-Y' (*note Option details::).

     Compress bitmap fonts.  Same as '-Z' (*note Option details::).

     Disables execution of system commands, like '-R' (*note Option
     details::).  If '-R' is specified on the command line, that takes

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