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GNU Coreutils
*************

This manual documents version 8.28 of the GNU core utilities, including
the standard programs for text and file manipulation.

   Copyright (C) 1994-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
     and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in
     the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

* Menu:

* Introduction::                 Caveats, overview, and authors
* Common options::               Common options
* Output of entire files::       cat tac nl od base32 base64
* Formatting file contents::     fmt pr fold
* Output of parts of files::     head tail split csplit
* Summarizing files::            wc sum cksum b2sum md5sum sha1sum sha2
* Operating on sorted files::    sort shuf uniq comm ptx tsort
* Operating on fields::          cut paste join
* Operating on characters::      tr expand unexpand
* Directory listing::            ls dir vdir dircolors
* Basic operations::             cp dd install mv rm shred
* Special file types::         mkdir rmdir unlink mkfifo mknod ln link readlink
* Changing file attributes::     chgrp chmod chown touch
* Disk usage::                   df du stat sync truncate
* Printing text::                echo printf yes
* Conditions::                   false true test expr
* Redirection::                  tee
* File name manipulation::       dirname basename pathchk mktemp realpath
* Working context::              pwd stty printenv tty
* User information::             id logname whoami groups users who
* System context::               date arch nproc uname hostname hostid uptime
* SELinux context::              chcon runcon
* Modified command invocation::  chroot env nice nohup stdbuf timeout
* Process control::              kill
* Delaying::                     sleep
* Numeric operations::           factor numfmt seq
* File permissions::             Access modes
* File timestamps::              File timestamp issues
* Date input formats::           Specifying date strings
* Opening the software toolbox:: The software tools philosophy
* GNU Free Documentation License:: Copying and sharing this manual
* Concept index::                General index

 -- The Detailed Node Listing --

Common Options

* Exit status::                  Indicating program success or failure
* Backup options::               Backup options
* Block size::                   Block size
* Floating point::               Floating point number representation
* Signal specifications::        Specifying signals
* Disambiguating names and IDs:: chgrp, chown, chroot, id: user and group syntax
* Random sources::               Sources of random data
* Target directory::             Target directory
* Trailing slashes::             Trailing slashes
* Traversing symlinks::          Traversing symlinks to directories
* Treating / specially::         Treating / specially
* Standards conformance::        Standards conformance
* Multi-call invocation::        Multi-call program invocation

Output of entire files

* cat invocation::               Concatenate and write files
* tac invocation::               Concatenate and write files in reverse
* nl invocation::                Number lines and write files
* od invocation::                Write files in octal or other formats
* base32 invocation::            Transform data into printable data
* base64 invocation::            Transform data into printable data

Formatting file contents

* fmt invocation::               Reformat paragraph text
* pr invocation::                Paginate or columnate files for printing
* fold invocation::              Wrap input lines to fit in specified width

Output of parts of files

* head invocation::              Output the first part of files
* tail invocation::              Output the last part of files
* split invocation::             Split a file into fixed-size pieces
* csplit invocation::            Split a file into context-determined pieces

Summarizing files

* wc invocation::                Print newline, word, and byte counts
* sum invocation::               Print checksum and block counts
* cksum invocation::             Print CRC checksum and byte counts
* b2sum invocation::             Print or check BLAKE2 digests
* md5sum invocation::            Print or check MD5 digests
* sha1sum invocation::           Print or check SHA-1 digests
* sha2 utilities::               Print or check SHA-2 digests

Operating on sorted files

* sort invocation::              Sort text files
* shuf invocation::              Shuffle text files
* uniq invocation::              Uniquify files
* comm invocation::              Compare two sorted files line by line
* ptx invocation::               Produce a permuted index of file contents
* tsort invocation::             Topological sort

'ptx': Produce permuted indexes

* General options in ptx::       Options which affect general program behavior
* Charset selection in ptx::     Underlying character set considerations
* Input processing in ptx::      Input fields, contexts, and keyword selection
* Output formatting in ptx::     Types of output format, and sizing the fields
* Compatibility in ptx::         The GNU extensions to 'ptx'

Operating on fields

* cut invocation::               Print selected parts of lines
* paste invocation::             Merge lines of files
* join invocation::              Join lines on a common field

Operating on characters

* tr invocation::                Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
* expand invocation::            Convert tabs to spaces
* unexpand invocation::          Convert spaces to tabs

'tr': Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters

* Character sets::               Specifying sets of characters
* Translating::                  Changing one set of characters to another
* Squeezing and deleting::       Removing characters

Directory listing

* ls invocation::                List directory contents
* dir invocation::               Briefly list directory contents
* vdir invocation::              Verbosely list directory contents
* dircolors invocation::         Color setup for 'ls'

'ls':  List directory contents

* Which files are listed::       Which files are listed
* What information is listed::   What information is listed
* Sorting the output::           Sorting the output
* Details about version sort::   More details about version sort
* General output formatting::    General output formatting
* Formatting the file names::    Formatting the file names

Basic operations

* cp invocation::                Copy files and directories
* dd invocation::                Convert and copy a file
* install invocation::           Copy files and set attributes
* mv invocation::                Move (rename) files
* rm invocation::                Remove files or directories
* shred invocation::             Remove files more securely

Special file types

* link invocation::              Make a hard link via the link syscall
* ln invocation::                Make links between files
* mkdir invocation::             Make directories
* mkfifo invocation::            Make FIFOs (named pipes)
* mknod invocation::             Make block or character special files
* readlink invocation::          Print value of a symlink or canonical file name
* rmdir invocation::             Remove empty directories
* unlink invocation::            Remove files via unlink syscall

Changing file attributes

* chown invocation::             Change file owner and group
* chgrp invocation::             Change group ownership
* chmod invocation::             Change access permissions
* touch invocation::             Change file timestamps

Disk usage

* df invocation::                Report file system disk space usage
* du invocation::                Estimate file space usage
* stat invocation::              Report file or file system status
* sync invocation::              Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage
* truncate invocation::          Shrink or extend the size of a file

Printing text

* echo invocation::              Print a line of text
* printf invocation::            Format and print data
* yes invocation::               Print a string until interrupted

Conditions

* false invocation::             Do nothing, unsuccessfully
* true invocation::              Do nothing, successfully
* test invocation::              Check file types and compare values
* expr invocation::              Evaluate expressions

'test': Check file types and compare values

* File type tests::              File type tests
* Access permission tests::      Access permission tests
* File characteristic tests::    File characteristic tests
* String tests::                 String tests
* Numeric tests::                Numeric tests

'expr': Evaluate expression

* String expressions::           + : match substr index length
* Numeric expressions::          + - * / %
* Relations for expr::           | & < <= = == != >= >
* Examples of expr::             Examples of using 'expr'

Redirection

* tee invocation::               Redirect output to multiple files or processes

File name manipulation

* basename invocation::          Strip directory and suffix from a file name
* dirname invocation::           Strip last file name component
* pathchk invocation::           Check file name validity and portability
* mktemp invocation::            Create temporary file or directory
* realpath invocation::          Print resolved file names

Working context

* pwd invocation::               Print working directory
* stty invocation::              Print or change terminal characteristics
* printenv invocation::          Print all or some environment variables
* tty invocation::               Print file name of terminal on standard input

'stty': Print or change terminal characteristics

* Control::                      Control settings
* Input::                        Input settings
* Output::                       Output settings
* Local::                        Local settings
* Combination::                  Combination settings
* Characters::                   Special characters
* Special::                      Special settings

User information

* id invocation::                Print user identity
* logname invocation::           Print current login name
* whoami invocation::            Print effective user ID
* groups invocation::            Print group names a user is in
* users invocation::             Print login names of users currently logged in
* who invocation::               Print who is currently logged in

System context

* arch invocation::              Print machine hardware name
* date invocation::              Print or set system date and time
* nproc invocation::             Print the number of processors
* uname invocation::             Print system information
* hostname invocation::          Print or set system name
* hostid invocation::            Print numeric host identifier
* uptime invocation::            Print system uptime and load

'date': Print or set system date and time

* Time conversion specifiers::   %[HIklMNpPrRsSTXzZ]
* Date conversion specifiers::   %[aAbBcCdDeFgGhjmuUVwWxyY]
* Literal conversion specifiers:: %[%nt]
* Padding and other flags::      Pad with zeros, spaces, etc.
* Setting the time::             Changing the system clock
* Options for date::             Instead of the current time
* Date input formats::           Specifying date strings
* Examples of date::             Examples

SELinux context

* chcon invocation::             Change SELinux context of file
* runcon invocation::            Run a command in specified SELinux context

Modified command invocation

* chroot invocation::            Run a command with a different root directory
* env invocation::               Run a command in a modified environment
* nice invocation::              Run a command with modified niceness
* nohup invocation::             Run a command immune to hangups
* stdbuf invocation::            Run a command with modified I/O buffering
* timeout invocation::           Run a command with a time limit

Process control

* kill invocation::              Sending a signal to processes.

Delaying

* sleep invocation::             Delay for a specified time

Numeric operations

* factor invocation::            Print prime factors
* numfmt invocation::            Reformat numbers
* seq invocation::               Print numeric sequences


File timestamps

* File timestamps::              File timestamp issues

File permissions

* Mode Structure::               Structure of file mode bits
* Symbolic Modes::               Mnemonic representation of file mode bits
* Numeric Modes::                File mode bits as octal numbers
* Directory Setuid and Setgid::  Set-user-ID and set-group-ID on directories

Date input formats

* General date syntax::          Common rules
* Calendar date items::          19 Dec 1994
* Time of day items::            9:20pm
* Time zone items::              EST, PDT, UTC, ...
* Combined date and time of day items:: 1972-09-24T20:02:00,000000-0500
* Day of week items::            Monday and others
* Relative items in date strings:: next tuesday, 2 years ago
* Pure numbers in date strings:: 19931219, 1440
* Seconds since the Epoch::      @1078100502
* Specifying time zone rules::   TZ="America/New_York", TZ="UTC0"
* Authors of parse_datetime::    Bellovin, Eggert, Salz, Berets, et al.

Opening the software toolbox

* Toolbox introduction::         Toolbox introduction
* I/O redirection::              I/O redirection
* The who command::              The 'who' command
* The cut command::              The 'cut' command
* The sort command::             The 'sort' command
* The uniq command::             The 'uniq' command
* Putting the tools together::   Putting the tools together

Copying This Manual

* GNU Free Documentation License::     Copying and sharing this manual


File: coreutils.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Common options,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

This manual is a work in progress: many sections make no attempt to
explain basic concepts in a way suitable for novices.  Thus, if you are
interested, please get involved in improving this manual.  The entire
GNU community will benefit.

   The GNU utilities documented here are mostly compatible with the
POSIX standard.

   Please report bugs to <bug-coreutils AT gnu.org>.  Include the version
number, machine architecture, input files, and any other information
needed to reproduce the bug: your input, what you expected, what you
got, and why it is wrong.

   If you have a problem with 'sort' or 'date', try using the '--debug'
option, as it can can often help find and fix problems without having to
wait for an answer to a bug report.  If the debug output does not
suffice to fix the problem on your own, please compress and attach it to
the rest of your bug report.

   Although diffs are welcome, please include a description of the
problem as well, since this is sometimes difficult to infer.  *Note
(gcc)Bugs::.

   This manual was originally derived from the Unix man pages in the
distributions, which were written by David MacKenzie and updated by Jim
Meyering.  What you are reading now is the authoritative documentation
for these utilities; the man pages are no longer being maintained.  The
original 'fmt' man page was written by Ross Paterson.  Franc,ois Pinard
did the initial conversion to Texinfo format.  Karl Berry did the
indexing, some reorganization, and editing of the results.  Brian
Youmans of the Free Software Foundation office staff combined the
manuals for textutils, fileutils, and sh-utils to produce the present
omnibus manual.  Richard Stallman contributed his usual invaluable
insights to the overall process.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Common options,  Next: Output of entire files,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Common options
****************

Certain options are available in all of these programs.  Rather than
writing identical descriptions for each of the programs, they are
described here.  (In fact, every GNU program accepts (or should accept)
these options.)

   Normally options and operands can appear in any order, and programs
act as if all the options appear before any operands.  For example,
'sort -r passwd -t :' acts like 'sort -r -t : passwd', since ':' is an
option-argument of '-t'.  However, if the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
variable is set, options must appear before operands, unless otherwise
specified for a particular command.

   A few programs can usefully have trailing operands with leading '-'.
With such a program, options must precede operands even if
'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, and this fact is noted in the program
description.  For example, the 'env' command's options must appear
before its operands, since in some cases the operands specify a command
that itself contains options.

   Most programs that accept long options recognize unambiguous
abbreviations of those options.  For example, 'rmdir
--ignore-fail-on-non-empty' can be invoked as 'rmdir --ignore-fail' or
even 'rmdir --i'.  Ambiguous options, such as 'ls --h', are identified
as such.

   Some of these programs recognize the '--help' and '--version' options
only when one of them is the sole command line argument.  For these
programs, abbreviations of the long options are not always recognized.

'--help'
     Print a usage message listing all available options, then exit
     successfully.

'--version'
     Print the version number, then exit successfully.

'--'
     Delimit the option list.  Later arguments, if any, are treated as
     operands even if they begin with '-'.  For example, 'sort -- -r'
     reads from the file named '-r'.

   A single '-' operand is not really an option, though it looks like
one.  It stands for a file operand, and some tools treat it as standard
input, or as standard output if that is clear from the context.  For
example, 'sort -' reads from standard input, and is equivalent to plain
'sort'.  Unless otherwise specified, a '-' can appear as any operand
that requires a file name.

* Menu:

* Exit status::                 Indicating program success or failure.
* Backup options::              -b -S, in some programs.
* Block size::                  BLOCK_SIZE and -block-size, in some programs.
* Floating point::              Floating point number representation.
* Signal specifications::       Specifying signals using the -signal option.
* Disambiguating names and IDs:: chgrp, chown, chroot, id: user and group syntax
* Random sources::              -random-source, in some programs.
* Target directory::            Specifying a target directory, in some programs.
* Trailing slashes::            -strip-trailing-slashes, in some programs.
* Traversing symlinks::         -H, -L, or -P, in some programs.
* Treating / specially::        -preserve-root and -no-preserve-root.
* Special built-in utilities::  'break', ':', ...
* Standards conformance::       Conformance to the POSIX standard.
* Multi-call invocation::       Multi-call program invocation.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Exit status,  Next: Backup options,  Up: Common options

2.1 Exit status
===============

Nearly every command invocation yields an integral "exit status" that
can be used to change how other commands work.  For the vast majority of
commands, an exit status of zero indicates success.  Failure is
indicated by a nonzero value--typically '1', though it may differ on
unusual platforms as POSIX requires only that it be nonzero.

   However, some of the programs documented here do produce other exit
status values and a few associate different meanings with the values '0'
and '1'.  Here are some of the exceptions: 'chroot', 'env', 'expr',
'nice', 'nohup', 'numfmt', 'printenv', 'sort', 'stdbuf', 'test',
'timeout', 'tty'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Backup options,  Next: Block size,  Prev: Exit status,  Up: Common options

2.2 Backup options
==================

Some GNU programs (at least 'cp', 'install', 'ln', and 'mv') optionally
make backups of files before writing new versions.  These options
control the details of these backups.  The options are also briefly
mentioned in the descriptions of the particular programs.

'-b'
'--backup[=METHOD]'
     Make a backup of each file that would otherwise be overwritten or
     removed.  Without this option, the original versions are destroyed.
     Use METHOD to determine the type of backups to make.  When this
     option is used but METHOD is not specified, then the value of the
     'VERSION_CONTROL' environment variable is used.  And if
     'VERSION_CONTROL' is not set, the default backup type is
     'existing'.

     Note that the short form of this option, '-b' does not accept any
     argument.  Using '-b' is equivalent to using '--backup=existing'.

     This option corresponds to the Emacs variable 'version-control';
     the values for METHOD are the same as those used in Emacs.  This
     option also accepts more descriptive names.  The valid METHODs are
     (unique abbreviations are accepted):

     'none'
     'off'
          Never make backups.

     'numbered'
     't'
          Always make numbered backups.

     'existing'
     'nil'
          Make numbered backups of files that already have them, simple
          backups of the others.

     'simple'
     'never'
          Always make simple backups.  Please note 'never' is not to be
          confused with 'none'.

'-S SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with '-b'.  If this option
     is not specified, the value of the 'SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX'
     environment variable is used.  And if 'SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX' is not
     set, the default is '~', just as in Emacs.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Block size,  Next: Floating point,  Prev: Backup options,  Up: Common options

2.3 Block size
==============

Some GNU programs (at least 'df', 'du', and 'ls') display sizes in
"blocks".  You can adjust the block size and method of display to make
sizes easier to read.  The block size used for display is independent of
any file system block size.  Fractional block counts are rounded up to
the nearest integer.

   The default block size is chosen by examining the following
environment variables in turn; the first one that is set determines the
block size.

'DF_BLOCK_SIZE'
     This specifies the default block size for the 'df' command.
     Similarly, 'DU_BLOCK_SIZE' specifies the default for 'du' and
     'LS_BLOCK_SIZE' for 'ls'.

'BLOCK_SIZE'
     This specifies the default block size for all three commands, if
     the above command-specific environment variables are not set.

'BLOCKSIZE'
     This specifies the default block size for all values that are
     normally printed as blocks, if neither 'BLOCK_SIZE' nor the above
     command-specific environment variables are set.  Unlike the other
     environment variables, 'BLOCKSIZE' does not affect values that are
     normally printed as byte counts, e.g., the file sizes contained in
     'ls -l' output.

'POSIXLY_CORRECT'
     If neither 'COMMAND_BLOCK_SIZE', nor 'BLOCK_SIZE', nor 'BLOCKSIZE'
     is set, but this variable is set, the block size defaults to 512.

   If none of the above environment variables are set, the block size
currently defaults to 1024 bytes in most contexts, but this number may
change in the future.  For 'ls' file sizes, the block size defaults to 1
byte.

   A block size specification can be a positive integer specifying the
number of bytes per block, or it can be 'human-readable' or 'si' to
select a human-readable format.  Integers may be followed by suffixes
that are upward compatible with the SI prefixes
(http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/si-brochure/chapter3.html) for
decimal multiples and with the ISO/IEC 80000-13 (formerly IEC 60027-2)
prefixes (http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html) for binary
multiples.

   With human-readable formats, output sizes are followed by a size
letter such as 'M' for megabytes.  'BLOCK_SIZE=human-readable' uses
powers of 1024; 'M' stands for 1,048,576 bytes.  'BLOCK_SIZE=si' is
similar, but uses powers of 1000 and appends 'B'; 'MB' stands for
1,000,000 bytes.

   A block size specification preceded by ''' causes output sizes to be
displayed with thousands separators.  The 'LC_NUMERIC' locale specifies
the thousands separator and grouping.  For example, in an American
English locale, '--block-size="'1kB"' would cause a size of 1234000
bytes to be displayed as '1,234'.  In the default C locale, there is no
thousands separator so a leading ''' has no effect.

   An integer block size can be followed by a suffix to specify a
multiple of that size.  A bare size letter, or one followed by 'iB',
specifies a multiple using powers of 1024.  A size letter followed by
'B' specifies powers of 1000 instead.  For example, '1M' and '1MiB' are
equivalent to '1048576', whereas '1MB' is equivalent to '1000000'.

   A plain suffix without a preceding integer acts as if '1' were
prepended, except that it causes a size indication to be appended to the
output.  For example, '--block-size="kB"' displays 3000 as '3kB'.

   The following suffixes are defined.  Large sizes like '1Y' may be
rejected by your computer due to limitations of its arithmetic.

'kB'
     kilobyte: 10^3 = 1000.
'k'
'K'
'KiB'
     kibibyte: 2^{10} = 1024.  'K' is special: the SI prefix is 'k' and
     the ISO/IEC 80000-13 prefix is 'Ki', but tradition and POSIX use
     'k' to mean 'KiB'.
'MB'
     megabyte: 10^6 = 1,000,000.
'M'
'MiB'
     mebibyte: 2^{20} = 1,048,576.
'GB'
     gigabyte: 10^9 = 1,000,000,000.
'G'
'GiB'
     gibibyte: 2^{30} = 1,073,741,824.
'TB'
     terabyte: 10^{12} = 1,000,000,000,000.
'T'
'TiB'
     tebibyte: 2^{40} = 1,099,511,627,776.
'PB'
     petabyte: 10^{15} = 1,000,000,000,000,000.
'P'
'PiB'
     pebibyte: 2^{50} = 1,125,899,906,842,624.
'EB'
     exabyte: 10^{18} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000.
'E'
'EiB'
     exbibyte: 2^{60} = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976.
'ZB'
     zettabyte: 10^{21} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
'Z'
'ZiB'
     2^{70} = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424.
'YB'
     yottabyte: 10^{24} = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.
'Y'
'YiB'
     2^{80} = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176.

   Block size defaults can be overridden by an explicit
'--block-size=SIZE' option.  The '-k' option is equivalent to
'--block-size=1K', which is the default unless the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT'
environment variable is set.  The '-h' or '--human-readable' option is
equivalent to '--block-size=human-readable'.  The '--si' option is
equivalent to '--block-size=si'.  Note for 'ls' the '-k' option does not
control the display of the apparent file sizes, whereas the
'--block-size' option does.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Floating point,  Next: Signal specifications,  Prev: Block size,  Up: Common options

2.4 Floating point numbers
==========================

Commands that accept or produce floating point numbers employ the
floating point representation of the underlying system, and suffer from
rounding error, overflow, and similar floating-point issues.  Almost all
modern systems use IEEE-754 floating point, and it is typically portable
to assume IEEE-754 behavior these days.  IEEE-754 has positive and
negative infinity, distinguishes positive from negative zero, and uses
special values called NaNs to represent invalid computations such as
dividing zero by itself.  For more information, please see David
Goldberg's paper What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About
Floating-Point Arithmetic (http://www.validlab.com/goldberg/paper.pdf).

   Commands that accept floating point numbers as options, operands or
input use the standard C functions 'strtod' and 'strtold' to convert
from text to floating point numbers.  These floating point numbers
therefore can use scientific notation like '1.0e-34' and '-10e100'.
Commands that parse floating point also understand case-insensitive
'inf', 'infinity', and 'NaN', although whether such values are useful
depends on the command in question.  Modern C implementations also
accept hexadecimal floating point numbers such as '-0x.ep-3', which
stands for -14/16 times 2^-3, which equals -0.109375.  The 'LC_NUMERIC'
locale determines the decimal-point character.  *Note (libc)Parsing of
Floats::.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Signal specifications,  Next: Disambiguating names and IDs,  Prev: Floating point,  Up: Common options

2.5 Signal specifications
=========================

A SIGNAL may be a signal name like 'HUP', or a signal number like '1',
or an exit status of a process terminated by the signal.  A signal name
can be given in canonical form or prefixed by 'SIG'.  The case of the
letters is ignored.  The following signal names and numbers are
supported on all POSIX compliant systems:

'HUP'
     1.  Hangup.
'INT'
     2.  Terminal interrupt.
'QUIT'
     3.  Terminal quit.
'ABRT'
     6.  Process abort.
'KILL'
     9.  Kill (cannot be caught or ignored).
'ALRM'
     14.  Alarm Clock.
'TERM'
     15.  Termination.

Other supported signal names have system-dependent corresponding
numbers.  All systems conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001 also support the
following signals:

'BUS'
     Access to an undefined portion of a memory object.
'CHLD'
     Child process terminated, stopped, or continued.
'CONT'
     Continue executing, if stopped.
'FPE'
     Erroneous arithmetic operation.
'ILL'
     Illegal Instruction.
'PIPE'
     Write on a pipe with no one to read it.
'SEGV'
     Invalid memory reference.
'STOP'
     Stop executing (cannot be caught or ignored).
'TSTP'
     Terminal stop.
'TTIN'
     Background process attempting read.
'TTOU'
     Background process attempting write.
'URG'
     High bandwidth data is available at a socket.
'USR1'
     User-defined signal 1.
'USR2'
     User-defined signal 2.

POSIX 1003.1-2001 systems that support the XSI extension also support
the following signals:

'POLL'
     Pollable event.
'PROF'
     Profiling timer expired.
'SYS'
     Bad system call.
'TRAP'
     Trace/breakpoint trap.
'VTALRM'
     Virtual timer expired.
'XCPU'
     CPU time limit exceeded.
'XFSZ'
     File size limit exceeded.

POSIX 1003.1-2001 systems that support the XRT extension also support at
least eight real-time signals called 'RTMIN', 'RTMIN+1', ..., 'RTMAX-1',
'RTMAX'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Disambiguating names and IDs,  Next: Random sources,  Prev: Signal specifications,  Up: Common options

2.6 chown, chgrp, chroot, id: Disambiguating user names and IDs
===============================================================

Since the USER and GROUP arguments to these commands may be specified as
names or numeric IDs, there is an apparent ambiguity.  What if a user or
group _name_ is a string of digits?  (1) Should the command interpret it
as a user name or as an ID?  POSIX requires that these commands first
attempt to resolve the specified string as a name, and only once that
fails, then try to interpret it as an ID.  This is troublesome when you
want to specify a numeric ID, say 42, and it must work even in a
pathological situation where '42' is a user name that maps to some other
user ID, say 1000.  Simply invoking 'chown 42 F', will set 'F's owner ID
to 1000--not what you intended.

   GNU 'chown', 'chgrp', 'chroot', and 'id' provide a way to work around
this, that at the same time may result in a significant performance
improvement by eliminating a database look-up.  Simply precede each
numeric user ID and/or group ID with a '+', in order to force its
interpretation as an integer:

     chown +42 F
     chgrp +$numeric_group_id another-file
     chown +0:+0 /

   The name look-up process is skipped for each '+'-prefixed string,
because a string containing '+' is never a valid user or group name.
This syntax is accepted on most common Unix systems, but not on Solaris
10.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Using a number as a user name is common in some environments.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Random sources,  Next: Target directory,  Prev: Disambiguating names and IDs,  Up: Common options

2.7 Sources of random data
==========================

The 'shuf', 'shred', and 'sort' commands sometimes need random data to
do their work.  For example, 'sort -R' must choose a hash function at
random, and it needs random data to make this selection.

   By default these commands use an internal pseudo-random generator
initialized by a small amount of entropy, but can be directed to use an
external source with the '--random-source=FILE' option.  An error is
reported if FILE does not contain enough bytes.

   For example, the device file '/dev/urandom' could be used as the
source of random data.  Typically, this device gathers environmental
noise from device drivers and other sources into an entropy pool, and
uses the pool to generate random bits.  If the pool is short of data,
the device reuses the internal pool to produce more bits, using a
cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator.  But be aware
that this device is not designed for bulk random data generation and is
relatively slow.

   '/dev/urandom' suffices for most practical uses, but applications
requiring high-value or long-term protection of private data may require
an alternate data source like '/dev/random' or '/dev/arandom'.  The set
of available sources depends on your operating system.

   To reproduce the results of an earlier invocation of a command, you
can save some random data into a file and then use that file as the
random source in earlier and later invocations of the command.  Rather
than depending on a file, one can generate a reproducible arbitrary
amount of pseudo-random data given a seed value, using for example:

     get_seeded_random()
     {
       seed="$1"
       openssl enc -aes-256-ctr -pass pass:"$seed" -nosalt \
         </dev/zero 2>/dev/null
     }

     shuf -i1-100 --random-source=<(get_seeded_random 42)

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Target directory,  Next: Trailing slashes,  Prev: Random sources,  Up: Common options

2.8 Target directory
====================

The 'cp', 'install', 'ln', and 'mv' commands normally treat the last
operand specially when it is a directory or a symbolic link to a
directory.  For example, 'cp source dest' is equivalent to 'cp source
dest/source' if 'dest' is a directory.  Sometimes this behavior is not
exactly what is wanted, so these commands support the following options
to allow more fine-grained control:

'-T'
'--no-target-directory'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a
     symbolic link to a directory.  This can help avoid race conditions
     in programs that operate in a shared area.  For example, when the
     command 'mv /tmp/source /tmp/dest' succeeds, there is no guarantee
     that '/tmp/source' was renamed to '/tmp/dest': it could have been
     renamed to '/tmp/dest/source' instead, if some other process
     created '/tmp/dest' as a directory.  However, if 'mv -T /tmp/source
     /tmp/dest' succeeds, there is no question that '/tmp/source' was
     renamed to '/tmp/dest'.

     In the opposite situation, where you want the last operand to be
     treated as a directory and want a diagnostic otherwise, you can use
     the '--target-directory' ('-t') option.

'-t DIRECTORY'
'--target-directory=DIRECTORY'
     Use DIRECTORY as the directory component of each destination file
     name.

     The interface for most programs is that after processing options
     and a finite (possibly zero) number of fixed-position arguments,
     the remaining argument list is either expected to be empty, or is a
     list of items (usually files) that will all be handled identically.
     The 'xargs' program is designed to work well with this convention.

     The commands in the 'mv'-family are unusual in that they take a
     variable number of arguments with a special case at the _end_
     (namely, the target directory).  This makes it nontrivial to
     perform some operations, e.g., "move all files from here to ../d/",
     because 'mv * ../d/' might exhaust the argument space, and 'ls |
     xargs ...' doesn't have a clean way to specify an extra final
     argument for each invocation of the subject command.  (It can be
     done by going through a shell command, but that requires more human
     labor and brain power than it should.)

     The '--target-directory' ('-t') option allows the 'cp', 'install',
     'ln', and 'mv' programs to be used conveniently with 'xargs'.  For
     example, you can move the files from the current directory to a
     sibling directory, 'd' like this:

          ls | xargs mv -t ../d --

     However, this doesn't move files whose names begin with '.'.  If
     you use the GNU 'find' program, you can move those files too, with
     this command:

          find . -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 \
            | xargs mv -t ../d

     But both of the above approaches fail if there are no files in the
     current directory, or if any file has a name containing a blank or
     some other special characters.  The following example removes those
     limitations and requires both GNU 'find' and GNU 'xargs':

          find . -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 -print0 \
            | xargs --null --no-run-if-empty \
                mv -t ../d

The '--target-directory' ('-t') and '--no-target-directory' ('-T')
options cannot be combined.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Trailing slashes,  Next: Traversing symlinks,  Prev: Target directory,  Up: Common options

2.9 Trailing slashes
====================

Some GNU programs (at least 'cp' and 'mv') allow you to remove any
trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument before operating on it.  The
'--strip-trailing-slashes' option enables this behavior.

   This is useful when a SOURCE argument may have a trailing slash and
specify a symbolic link to a directory.  This scenario is in fact rather
common because some shells can automatically append a trailing slash
when performing file name completion on such symbolic links.  Without
this option, 'mv', for example, (via the system's rename function) must
interpret a trailing slash as a request to dereference the symbolic link
and so must rename the indirectly referenced _directory_ and not the
symbolic link.  Although it may seem surprising that such behavior be
the default, it is required by POSIX and is consistent with other parts
of that standard.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Traversing symlinks,  Next: Treating / specially,  Prev: Trailing slashes,  Up: Common options

2.10 Traversing symlinks
========================

The following options modify how 'chown' and 'chgrp' traverse a
hierarchy when the '--recursive' ('-R') option is also specified.  If
more than one of the following options is specified, only the final one
takes effect.  These options specify whether processing a symbolic link
to a directory entails operating on just the symbolic link or on all
files in the hierarchy rooted at that directory.

   These options are independent of '--dereference' and
'--no-dereference' ('-h'), which control whether to modify a symlink or
its referent.

'-H'
     If '--recursive' ('-R') is specified and a command line argument is
     a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it.

'-L'
     In a recursive traversal, traverse every symbolic link to a
     directory that is encountered.

'-P'
     Do not traverse any symbolic links.  This is the default if none of
     '-H', '-L', or '-P' is specified.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Treating / specially,  Next: Special built-in utilities,  Prev: Traversing symlinks,  Up: Common options

2.11 Treating '/' specially
===========================

Certain commands can operate destructively on entire hierarchies.  For
example, if a user with appropriate privileges mistakenly runs 'rm -rf /
tmp/junk', that may remove all files on the entire system.  Since there
are so few legitimate uses for such a command, GNU 'rm' normally
declines to operate on any directory that resolves to '/'.  If you
really want to try to remove all the files on your system, you can use
the '--no-preserve-root' option, but the default behavior, specified by
the '--preserve-root' option, is safer for most purposes.

   The commands 'chgrp', 'chmod' and 'chown' can also operate
destructively on entire hierarchies, so they too support these options.
Although, unlike 'rm', they don't actually unlink files, these commands
are arguably more dangerous when operating recursively on '/', since
they often work much more quickly, and hence damage more files before an
alert user can interrupt them.  Tradition and POSIX require these
commands to operate recursively on '/', so they default to
'--no-preserve-root', but using the '--preserve-root' option makes them
safer for most purposes.  For convenience you can specify
'--preserve-root' in an alias or in a shell function.

   Note that the '--preserve-root' option also ensures that 'chgrp' and
'chown' do not modify '/' even when dereferencing a symlink pointing to
'/'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Special built-in utilities,  Next: Standards conformance,  Prev: Treating / specially,  Up: Common options

2.12 Special built-in utilities
===============================

Some programs like 'nice' can invoke other programs; for example, the
command 'nice cat file' invokes the program 'cat' by executing the
command 'cat file'.  However, "special built-in utilities" like 'exit'
cannot be invoked this way.  For example, the command 'nice exit' does
not have a well-defined behavior: it may generate an error message
instead of exiting.

   Here is a list of the special built-in utilities that are
standardized by POSIX 1003.1-2004.

     . : break continue eval exec exit export readonly return set shift
     times trap unset

   For example, because '.', ':', and 'exec' are special, the commands
'nice . foo.sh', 'nice :', and 'nice exec pwd' do not work as you might
expect.

   Many shells extend this list.  For example, Bash has several extra
special built-in utilities like 'history', and 'suspend', and with Bash
the command 'nice suspend' generates an error message instead of
suspending.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Standards conformance,  Next: Multi-call invocation,  Prev: Special built-in utilities,  Up: Common options

2.13 Standards conformance
==========================

In a few cases, the GNU utilities' default behavior is incompatible with
the POSIX standard.  To suppress these incompatibilities, define the
'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable.  Unless you are checking for
POSIX conformance, you probably do not need to define 'POSIXLY_CORRECT'.

   Newer versions of POSIX are occasionally incompatible with older
versions.  For example, older versions of POSIX required the command
'sort +1' to sort based on the second and succeeding fields in each
input line, but in POSIX 1003.1-2001 the same command is required to
sort the file named '+1', and you must instead use the command 'sort -k
2' to get the field-based sort.  To complicate things further, POSIX
1003.1-2008 allows an implementation to have either the old or the new
behavior.

   The GNU utilities normally conform to the version of POSIX that is
standard for your system.  To cause them to conform to a different
version of POSIX, define the '_POSIX2_VERSION' environment variable to a
value of the form YYYYMM specifying the year and month the standard was
adopted.  Three values are currently supported for '_POSIX2_VERSION':
'199209' stands for POSIX 1003.2-1992, '200112' stands for POSIX
1003.1-2001, and '200809' stands for POSIX 1003.1-2008.  For example, if
you have a POSIX 1003.1-2001 system but are running software containing
traditional usage like 'sort +1' or 'tail +10', you can work around the
compatibility problems by setting '_POSIX2_VERSION=200809' in your
environment.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Multi-call invocation,  Prev: Standards conformance,  Up: Common options

2.14 'coreutils': Multi-call program
====================================

The 'coreutils' command invokes an individual utility, either implicitly
selected by the last component of the name used to invoke 'coreutils',
or explicitly with the '--coreutils-prog' option.  Synopsis:

     coreutils --coreutils-prog=PROGRAM ...

   The 'coreutils' command is not installed by default, so portable
scripts should not rely on its existence.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Output of entire files,  Next: Formatting file contents,  Prev: Common options,  Up: Top

3 Output of entire files
************************

These commands read and write entire files, possibly transforming them
in some way.

* Menu:

* cat invocation::              Concatenate and write files.
* tac invocation::              Concatenate and write files in reverse.
* nl invocation::               Number lines and write files.
* od invocation::               Write files in octal or other formats.
* base32 invocation::           Transform data into printable data.
* base64 invocation::           Transform data into printable data.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: cat invocation,  Next: tac invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.1 'cat': Concatenate and write files
======================================

'cat' copies each FILE ('-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output.  Synopsis:

     cat [OPTION] [FILE]...

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-A'
'--show-all'
     Equivalent to '-vET'.

'-b'
'--number-nonblank'
     Number all nonempty output lines, starting with 1.

'-e'
     Equivalent to '-vE'.

'-E'
'--show-ends'
     Display a '$' after the end of each line.

'-n'
'--number'
     Number all output lines, starting with 1.  This option is ignored
     if '-b' is in effect.

'-s'
'--squeeze-blank'
     Suppress repeated adjacent blank lines; output just one empty line
     instead of several.

'-t'
     Equivalent to '-vT'.

'-T'
'--show-tabs'
     Display TAB characters as '^I'.

'-u'
     Ignored; for POSIX compatibility.

'-v'
'--show-nonprinting'
     Display control characters except for LFD and TAB using '^'
     notation and precede characters that have the high bit set with
     'M-'.

   On systems like MS-DOS that distinguish between text and binary
files, 'cat' normally reads and writes in binary mode.  However, 'cat'
reads in text mode if one of the options '-bensAE' is used or if 'cat'
is reading from standard input and standard input is a terminal.
Similarly, 'cat' writes in text mode if one of the options '-bensAE' is
used or if standard output is a terminal.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Output f's contents, then standard input, then g's contents.
     cat f - g

     # Copy standard input to standard output.
     cat

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tac invocation,  Next: nl invocation,  Prev: cat invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.2 'tac': Concatenate and write files in reverse
=================================================

'tac' copies each FILE ('-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output, reversing the records (lines by
default) in each separately.  Synopsis:

     tac [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   "Records" are separated by instances of a string (newline by
default).  By default, this separator string is attached to the end of
the record that it follows in the file.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--before'
     The separator is attached to the beginning of the record that it
     precedes in the file.

'-r'
'--regex'
     Treat the separator string as a regular expression.

'-s SEPARATOR'
'--separator=SEPARATOR'
     Use SEPARATOR as the record separator, instead of newline.  Note an
     empty SEPARATOR is treated as a zero byte.  I.e., input and output
     items are delimited with ASCII NUL.

   On systems like MS-DOS that distinguish between text and binary
files, 'tac' reads and writes in binary mode.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Example:

     # Reverse a file character by character.
     tac -r -s 'x\|[^x]'

File: coreutils.info,  Node: nl invocation,  Next: od invocation,  Prev: tac invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.3 'nl': Number lines and write files
======================================

'nl' writes each FILE ('-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output, with line numbers added to some or
all of the lines.  Synopsis:

     nl [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   'nl' decomposes its input into (logical) page sections; by default,
the line number is reset to 1 at each logical page section.  'nl' treats
all of the input files as a single document; it does not reset line
numbers or logical pages between files.

   A logical page consists of three sections: header, body, and footer.
Any of the sections can be empty.  Each can be numbered in a different
style from the others.

   The beginnings of the sections of logical pages are indicated in the
input file by a line containing exactly one of these delimiter strings:

'\:\:\:'
     start of header;
'\:\:'
     start of body;
'\:'
     start of footer.

   The two characters from which these strings are made can be changed
from '\' and ':' via options (see below), but the pattern and length of
each string cannot be changed.

   A section delimiter is replaced by an empty line on output.  Any text
that comes before the first section delimiter string in the input file
is considered to be part of a body section, so 'nl' treats a file that
contains no section delimiters as a single body section.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b STYLE'
'--body-numbering=STYLE'
     Select the numbering style for lines in the body section of each
     logical page.  When a line is not numbered, the current line number
     is not incremented, but the line number separator character is
     still prepended to the line.  The styles are:

     'a'
          number all lines,
     't'
          number only nonempty lines (default for body),
     'n'
          do not number lines (default for header and footer),
     'pBRE'
          number only lines that contain a match for the basic regular
          expression BRE.  *Note Regular Expressions: (grep)Regular
          Expressions.

'-d CD'
'--section-delimiter=CD'
     Set the section delimiter characters to CD; default is '\:'.  If
     only C is given, the second remains ':'.  (Remember to protect '\'
     or other metacharacters from shell expansion with quotes or extra
     backslashes.)

'-f STYLE'
'--footer-numbering=STYLE'
     Analogous to '--body-numbering'.

'-h STYLE'
'--header-numbering=STYLE'
     Analogous to '--body-numbering'.

'-i NUMBER'
'--line-increment=NUMBER'
     Increment line numbers by NUMBER (default 1).

'-l NUMBER'
'--join-blank-lines=NUMBER'
     Consider NUMBER (default 1) consecutive empty lines to be one
     logical line for numbering, and only number the last one.  Where
     fewer than NUMBER consecutive empty lines occur, do not number
     them.  An empty line is one that contains no characters, not even
     spaces or tabs.

'-n FORMAT'
'--number-format=FORMAT'
     Select the line numbering format (default is 'rn'):

     'ln'
          left justified, no leading zeros;
     'rn'
          right justified, no leading zeros;
     'rz'
          right justified, leading zeros.

'-p'
'--no-renumber'
     Do not reset the line number at the start of a logical page.

'-s STRING'
'--number-separator=STRING'
     Separate the line number from the text line in the output with
     STRING (default is the TAB character).

'-v NUMBER'
'--starting-line-number=NUMBER'
     Set the initial line number on each logical page to NUMBER (default
     1).

'-w NUMBER'
'--number-width=NUMBER'
     Use NUMBER characters for line numbers (default 6).

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: od invocation,  Next: base32 invocation,  Prev: nl invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.4 'od': Write files in octal or other formats
===============================================

'od' writes an unambiguous representation of each FILE ('-' means
standard input), or standard input if none are given.  Synopses:

     od [OPTION]... [FILE]...
     od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]
     od [OPTION]... --traditional [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [[+]LABEL[.][b]]]

   Each line of output consists of the offset in the input, followed by
groups of data from the file.  By default, 'od' prints the offset in
octal, and each group of file data is a C 'short int''s worth of input
printed as a single octal number.

   If OFFSET is given, it specifies how many input bytes to skip before
formatting and writing.  By default, it is interpreted as an octal
number, but the optional trailing decimal point causes it to be
interpreted as decimal.  If no decimal is specified and the offset
begins with '0x' or '0X' it is interpreted as a hexadecimal number.  If
there is a trailing 'b', the number of bytes skipped will be OFFSET
multiplied by 512.

   If a command is of both the first and second forms, the second form
is assumed if the last operand begins with '+' or (if there are two
operands) a digit.  For example, in 'od foo 10' and 'od +10' the '10' is
an offset, whereas in 'od 10' the '10' is a file name.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-A RADIX'
'--address-radix=RADIX'
     Select the base in which file offsets are printed.  RADIX can be
     one of the following:

     'd'
          decimal;
     'o'
          octal;
     'x'
          hexadecimal;
     'n'
          none (do not print offsets).

     The default is octal.

'--endian=ORDER'
     Reorder input bytes, to handle inputs with differing byte orders,
     or to provide consistent output independent of the endian
     convention of the current system.  Swapping is performed according
     to the specified '--type' size and endian ORDER, which can be
     'little' or 'big'.

'-j BYTES'
'--skip-bytes=BYTES'
     Skip BYTES input bytes before formatting and writing.  If BYTES
     begins with '0x' or '0X', it is interpreted in hexadecimal;
     otherwise, if it begins with '0', in octal; otherwise, in decimal.
     BYTES may be, or may be an integer optionally followed by, one of
     the following multiplicative suffixes:
          'b'  =>            512 ("blocks")
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

'-N BYTES'
'--read-bytes=BYTES'
     Output at most BYTES bytes of the input.  Prefixes and suffixes on
     'bytes' are interpreted as for the '-j' option.

'-S BYTES'
'--strings[=BYTES]'
     Instead of the normal output, output only "string constants": at
     least BYTES consecutive ASCII graphic characters, followed by a
     zero byte (ASCII NUL). Prefixes and suffixes on BYTES are
     interpreted as for the '-j' option.

     If BYTES is omitted with '--strings', the default is 3.

'-t TYPE'
'--format=TYPE'
     Select the format in which to output the file data.  TYPE is a
     string of one or more of the below type indicator characters.  If
     you include more than one type indicator character in a single TYPE
     string, or use this option more than once, 'od' writes one copy of
     each output line using each of the data types that you specified,
     in the order that you specified.

     Adding a trailing "z" to any type specification appends a display
     of the single byte character representation of the printable
     characters to the output line generated by the type specification.

     'a'
          named character, ignoring high-order bit
     'c'
          printable single byte character, C backslash escape or a 3
          digit octal sequence
     'd'
          signed decimal
     'f'
          floating point (*note Floating point::)
     'o'
          octal
     'u'
          unsigned decimal
     'x'
          hexadecimal

     The type 'a' outputs things like 'sp' for space, 'nl' for newline,
     and 'nul' for a zero byte.  Only the least significant seven bits
     of each byte is used; the high-order bit is ignored.  Type 'c'
     outputs ' ', '\n', and '\0', respectively.

     Except for types 'a' and 'c', you can specify the number of bytes
     to use in interpreting each number in the given data type by
     following the type indicator character with a decimal integer.
     Alternately, you can specify the size of one of the C compiler's
     built-in data types by following the type indicator character with
     one of the following characters.  For integers ('d', 'o', 'u',
     'x'):

     'C'
          char
     'S'
          short
     'I'
          int
     'L'
          long

     For floating point ('f'):

     F
          float
     D
          double
     L
          long double

'-v'
'--output-duplicates'
     Output consecutive lines that are identical.  By default, when two
     or more consecutive output lines would be identical, 'od' outputs
     only the first line, and puts just an asterisk on the following
     line to indicate the elision.

'-w[N]'
'--width[=N]'
     Dump 'n' input bytes per output line.  This must be a multiple of
     the least common multiple of the sizes associated with the
     specified output types.

     If this option is not given at all, the default is 16.  If N is
     omitted, the default is 32.

   The next several options are shorthands for format specifications.
GNU 'od' accepts any combination of shorthands and format specification
options.  These options accumulate.

'-a'
     Output as named characters.  Equivalent to '-t a'.

'-b'
     Output as octal bytes.  Equivalent to '-t o1'.

'-c'
     Output as printable single byte characters, C backslash escapes or
     3 digit octal sequences.  Equivalent to '-t c'.

'-d'
     Output as unsigned decimal two-byte units.  Equivalent to '-t u2'.

'-f'
     Output as floats.  Equivalent to '-t fF'.

'-i'
     Output as decimal ints.  Equivalent to '-t dI'.

'-l'
     Output as decimal long ints.  Equivalent to '-t dL'.

'-o'
     Output as octal two-byte units.  Equivalent to '-t o2'.

'-s'
     Output as decimal two-byte units.  Equivalent to '-t d2'.

'-x'
     Output as hexadecimal two-byte units.  Equivalent to '-t x2'.

'--traditional'
     Recognize the non-option label argument that traditional 'od'
     accepted.  The following syntax:

          od --traditional [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [[+]LABEL[.][b]]]

     can be used to specify at most one file and optional arguments
     specifying an offset and a pseudo-start address, LABEL.  The LABEL
     argument is interpreted just like OFFSET, but it specifies an
     initial pseudo-address.  The pseudo-addresses are displayed in
     parentheses following any normal address.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: base32 invocation,  Next: base64 invocation,  Prev: od invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.5 'base32': Transform data into printable data
================================================

'base32' transforms data read from a file, or standard input, into (or
from) base32 encoded form.  The base32 encoded form uses printable ASCII
characters to represent binary data.  The usage and options of this
command are precisely the same as for 'base64'.  *Note base64
invocation::.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: base64 invocation,  Prev: base32 invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.6 'base64': Transform data into printable data
================================================

'base64' transforms data read from a file, or standard input, into (or
from) base64 encoded form.  The base64 encoded form uses printable ASCII
characters to represent binary data.  Synopses:

     base64 [OPTION]... [FILE]
     base64 --decode [OPTION]... [FILE]

   The base64 encoding expands data to roughly 133% of the original.
The base32 encoding expands data to roughly 160% of the original.  The
format conforms to RFC 4648 (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc4648).

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-w COLS'
'--wrap=COLS'
     During encoding, wrap lines after COLS characters.  This must be a
     positive number.

     The default is to wrap after 76 characters.  Use the value 0 to
     disable line wrapping altogether.

'-d'
'--decode'
     Change the mode of operation, from the default of encoding data, to
     decoding data.  Input is expected to be base64 encoded data, and
     the output will be the original data.

'-i'
'--ignore-garbage'
     When decoding, newlines are always accepted.  During decoding,
     ignore unrecognized bytes, to permit distorted data to be decoded.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Formatting file contents,  Next: Output of parts of files,  Prev: Output of entire files,  Up: Top

4 Formatting file contents
**************************

These commands reformat the contents of files.

* Menu:

* fmt invocation::              Reformat paragraph text.
* pr invocation::               Paginate or columnate files for printing.
* fold invocation::             Wrap input lines to fit in specified width.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: fmt invocation,  Next: pr invocation,  Up: Formatting file contents

4.1 'fmt': Reformat paragraph text
==================================

'fmt' fills and joins lines to produce output lines of (at most) a given
number of characters (75 by default).  Synopsis:

     fmt [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   'fmt' reads from the specified FILE arguments (or standard input if
none are given), and writes to standard output.

   By default, blank lines, spaces between words, and indentation are
preserved in the output; successive input lines with different
indentation are not joined; tabs are expanded on input and introduced on
output.

   'fmt' prefers breaking lines at the end of a sentence, and tries to
avoid line breaks after the first word of a sentence or before the last
word of a sentence.  A "sentence break" is defined as either the end of
a paragraph or a word ending in any of '.?!', followed by two spaces or
end of line, ignoring any intervening parentheses or quotes.  Like TeX,
'fmt' reads entire "paragraphs" before choosing line breaks; the
algorithm is a variant of that given by Donald E. Knuth and Michael F.
Plass in "Breaking Paragraphs Into Lines", 'Software--Practice &
Experience' 11, 11 (November 1981), 1119-1184.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--crown-margin'
     "Crown margin" mode: preserve the indentation of the first two
     lines within a paragraph, and align the left margin of each
     subsequent line with that of the second line.

'-t'
'--tagged-paragraph'
     "Tagged paragraph" mode: like crown margin mode, except that if
     indentation of the first line of a paragraph is the same as the
     indentation of the second, the first line is treated as a one-line
     paragraph.

'-s'
'--split-only'
     Split lines only.  Do not join short lines to form longer ones.
     This prevents sample lines of code, and other such "formatted" text
     from being unduly combined.

'-u'
'--uniform-spacing'
     Uniform spacing.  Reduce spacing between words to one space, and
     spacing between sentences to two spaces.

'-WIDTH'
'-w WIDTH'
'--width=WIDTH'
     Fill output lines up to WIDTH characters (default 75 or GOAL plus
     10, if GOAL is provided).

'-g GOAL'
'--goal=GOAL'
     'fmt' initially tries to make lines GOAL characters wide.  By
     default, this is 7% shorter than WIDTH.

'-p PREFIX'
'--prefix=PREFIX'
     Only lines beginning with PREFIX (possibly preceded by whitespace)
     are subject to formatting.  The prefix and any preceding whitespace
     are stripped for the formatting and then re-attached to each
     formatted output line.  One use is to format certain kinds of
     program comments, while leaving the code unchanged.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: pr invocation,  Next: fold invocation,  Prev: fmt invocation,  Up: Formatting file contents

4.2 'pr': Paginate or columnate files for printing
==================================================

'pr' writes each FILE ('-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output, paginating and optionally outputting
in multicolumn format; optionally merges all FILEs, printing all in
parallel, one per column.  Synopsis:

     pr [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   By default, a 5-line header is printed at each page: two blank lines;
a line with the date, the file name, and the page count; and two more
blank lines.  A footer of five blank lines is also printed.  The default
PAGE_LENGTH is 66 lines.  The default number of text lines is therefore
56.  The text line of the header takes the form 'DATE STRING PAGE', with
spaces inserted around STRING so that the line takes up the full
PAGE_WIDTH.  Here, DATE is the date (see the '-D' or '--date-format'
option for details), STRING is the centered header string, and PAGE
identifies the page number.  The 'LC_MESSAGES' locale category affects
the spelling of PAGE; in the default C locale, it is 'Page NUMBER' where
NUMBER is the decimal page number.

   Form feeds in the input cause page breaks in the output.  Multiple
form feeds produce empty pages.

   Columns are of equal width, separated by an optional string (default
is 'space').  For multicolumn output, lines will always be truncated to
PAGE_WIDTH (default 72), unless you use the '-J' option.  For single
column output no line truncation occurs by default.  Use '-W' option to
truncate lines in that case.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'+FIRST_PAGE[:LAST_PAGE]'
'--pages=FIRST_PAGE[:LAST_PAGE]'
     Begin printing with page FIRST_PAGE and stop with LAST_PAGE.
     Missing ':LAST_PAGE' implies end of file.  While estimating the
     number of skipped pages each form feed in the input file results in
     a new page.  Page counting with and without '+FIRST_PAGE' is
     identical.  By default, counting starts with the first page of
     input file (not first page printed).  Line numbering may be altered
     by '-N' option.

'-COLUMN'
'--columns=COLUMN'
     With each single FILE, produce COLUMN columns of output (default is
     1) and print columns down, unless '-a' is used.  The column width
     is automatically decreased as COLUMN increases; unless you use the
     '-W/-w' option to increase PAGE_WIDTH as well.  This option might
     well cause some lines to be truncated.  The number of lines in the
     columns on each page are balanced.  The options '-e' and '-i' are
     on for multiple text-column output.  Together with '-J' option
     column alignment and line truncation is turned off.  Lines of full
     length are joined in a free field format and '-S' option may set
     field separators.  '-COLUMN' may not be used with '-m' option.

'-a'
'--across'
     With each single FILE, print columns across rather than down.  The
     '-COLUMN' option must be given with COLUMN greater than one.  If a
     line is too long to fit in a column, it is truncated.

'-c'
'--show-control-chars'
     Print control characters using hat notation (e.g., '^G'); print
     other nonprinting characters in octal backslash notation.  By
     default, nonprinting characters are not changed.

'-d'
'--double-space'
     Double space the output.

'-D FORMAT'
'--date-format=FORMAT'
     Format header dates using FORMAT, using the same conventions as for
     the command 'date +FORMAT'.  *Note date invocation::.  Except for
     directives, which start with '%', characters in FORMAT are printed
     unchanged.  You can use this option to specify an arbitrary string
     in place of the header date, e.g., '--date-format="Monday
     morning"'.

     The default date format is '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M' (for example,
     '2001-12-04 23:59'); but if the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
     variable is set and the 'LC_TIME' locale category specifies the
     POSIX locale, the default is '%b %e %H:%M %Y' (for example, 'Dec  4
     23:59 2001'.

     Timestamps are listed according to the time zone rules specified by
     the 'TZ' environment variable, or by the system default rules if
     'TZ' is not set.  *Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ':
     (libc)TZ Variable.

'-e[IN-TABCHAR[IN-TABWIDTH]]'
'--expand-tabs[=IN-TABCHAR[IN-TABWIDTH]]'
     Expand TABs to spaces on input.  Optional argument IN-TABCHAR is
     the input tab character (default is the TAB character).  Second
     optional argument IN-TABWIDTH is the input tab character's width
     (default is 8).

'-f'
'-F'
'--form-feed'
     Use a form feed instead of newlines to separate output pages.  This
     does not alter the default page length of 66 lines.

'-h HEADER'
'--header=HEADER'
     Replace the file name in the header with the centered string
     HEADER.  When using the shell, HEADER should be quoted and should
     be separated from '-h' by a space.

'-i[OUT-TABCHAR[OUT-TABWIDTH]]'
'--output-tabs[=OUT-TABCHAR[OUT-TABWIDTH]]'
     Replace spaces with TABs on output.  Optional argument OUT-TABCHAR
     is the output tab character (default is the TAB character).  Second
     optional argument OUT-TABWIDTH is the output tab character's width
     (default is 8).

'-J'
'--join-lines'
     Merge lines of full length.  Used together with the column options
     '-COLUMN', '-a -COLUMN' or '-m'.  Turns off '-W/-w' line
     truncation; no column alignment used; may be used with
     '--sep-string[=STRING]'.  '-J' has been introduced (together with
     '-W' and '--sep-string') to disentangle the old (POSIX-compliant)
     options '-w' and '-s' along with the three column options.

'-l PAGE_LENGTH'
'--length=PAGE_LENGTH'
     Set the page length to PAGE_LENGTH (default 66) lines, including
     the lines of the header [and the footer].  If PAGE_LENGTH is less
     than or equal to 10, the header and footer are omitted, as if the
     '-t' option had been given.

'-m'
'--merge'
     Merge and print all FILEs in parallel, one in each column.  If a
     line is too long to fit in a column, it is truncated, unless the
     '-J' option is used.  '--sep-string[=STRING]' may be used.  Empty
     pages in some FILEs (form feeds set) produce empty columns, still
     marked by STRING.  The result is a continuous line numbering and
     column marking throughout the whole merged file.  Completely empty
     merged pages show no separators or line numbers.  The default
     header becomes 'DATE PAGE' with spaces inserted in the middle; this
     may be used with the '-h' or '--header' option to fill up the
     middle blank part.

'-n[NUMBER-SEPARATOR[DIGITS]]'
'--number-lines[=NUMBER-SEPARATOR[DIGITS]]'
     Provide DIGITS digit line numbering (default for DIGITS is 5).
     With multicolumn output the number occupies the first DIGITS column
     positions of each text column or only each line of '-m' output.
     With single column output the number precedes each line just as
     '-m' does.  Default counting of the line numbers starts with the
     first line of the input file (not the first line printed, compare
     the '--page' option and '-N' option).  Optional argument
     NUMBER-SEPARATOR is the character appended to the line number to
     separate it from the text followed.  The default separator is the
     TAB character.  In a strict sense a TAB is always printed with
     single column output only.  The TAB width varies with the TAB
     position, e.g., with the left MARGIN specified by '-o' option.
     With multicolumn output priority is given to 'equal width of output
     columns' (a POSIX specification).  The TAB width is fixed to the
     value of the first column and does not change with different values
     of left MARGIN.  That means a fixed number of spaces is always
     printed in the place of the NUMBER-SEPARATOR TAB.  The tabification
     depends upon the output position.

'-N LINE_NUMBER'
'--first-line-number=LINE_NUMBER'
     Start line counting with the number LINE_NUMBER at first line of
     first page printed (in most cases not the first line of the input
     file).

'-o MARGIN'
'--indent=MARGIN'
     Indent each line with a margin MARGIN spaces wide (default is
     zero).  The total page width is the size of the margin plus the
     PAGE_WIDTH set with the '-W/-w' option.  A limited overflow may
     occur with numbered single column output (compare '-n' option).

'-r'
'--no-file-warnings'
     Do not print a warning message when an argument FILE cannot be
     opened.  (The exit status will still be nonzero, however.)

'-s[CHAR]'
'--separator[=CHAR]'
     Separate columns by a single character CHAR.  The default for CHAR
     is the TAB character without '-w' and 'no character' with '-w'.
     Without '-s' the default separator 'space' is set.  '-s[char]'
     turns off line truncation of all three column options
     ('-COLUMN'|'-a -COLUMN'|'-m') unless '-w' is set.  This is a
     POSIX-compliant formulation.

'-S[STRING]'
'--sep-string[=STRING]'
     Use STRING to separate output columns.  The '-S' option doesn't
     affect the '-W/-w' option, unlike the '-s' option which does.  It
     does not affect line truncation or column alignment.  Without '-S',
     and with '-J', 'pr' uses the default output separator, TAB.
     Without '-S' or '-J', 'pr' uses a 'space' (same as '-S" "').  If no
     'STRING' argument is specified, '""' is assumed.

'-t'
'--omit-header'
     Do not print the usual header [and footer] on each page, and do not
     fill out the bottom of pages (with blank lines or a form feed).  No
     page structure is produced, but form feeds set in the input files
     are retained.  The predefined pagination is not changed.  '-t' or
     '-T' may be useful together with other options; e.g.: '-t -e4',
     expand TAB characters in the input file to 4 spaces but don't make
     any other changes.  Use of '-t' overrides '-h'.

'-T'
'--omit-pagination'
     Do not print header [and footer].  In addition eliminate all form
     feeds set in the input files.

'-v'
'--show-nonprinting'
     Print nonprinting characters in octal backslash notation.

'-w PAGE_WIDTH'
'--width=PAGE_WIDTH'
     Set page width to PAGE_WIDTH characters for multiple text-column
     output only (default for PAGE_WIDTH is 72).  The specified
     PAGE_WIDTH is rounded down so that columns have equal width.
     '-s[CHAR]' turns off the default page width and any line truncation
     and column alignment.  Lines of full length are merged, regardless
     of the column options set.  No PAGE_WIDTH setting is possible with
     single column output.  A POSIX-compliant formulation.

'-W PAGE_WIDTH'
'--page_width=PAGE_WIDTH'
     Set the page width to PAGE_WIDTH characters, honored with and
     without a column option.  With a column option, the specified
     PAGE_WIDTH is rounded down so that columns have equal width.  Text
     lines are truncated, unless '-J' is used.  Together with one of the
     three column options ('-COLUMN', '-a -COLUMN' or '-m') column
     alignment is always used.  The separator options '-S' or '-s' don't
     disable the '-W' option.  Default is 72 characters.  Without '-W
     PAGE_WIDTH' and without any of the column options NO line
     truncation is used (defined to keep downward compatibility and to
     meet most frequent tasks).  That's equivalent to '-W 72 -J'.  The
     header line is never truncated.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: fold invocation,  Prev: pr invocation,  Up: Formatting file contents

4.3 'fold': Wrap input lines to fit in specified width
======================================================

'fold' writes each FILE ('-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output, breaking long lines.  Synopsis:

     fold [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   By default, 'fold' breaks lines wider than 80 columns.  The output is
split into as many lines as necessary.

   'fold' counts screen columns by default; thus, a tab may count more
than one column, backspace decreases the column count, and carriage
return sets the column to zero.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--bytes'
     Count bytes rather than columns, so that tabs, backspaces, and
     carriage returns are each counted as taking up one column, just
     like other characters.

'-s'
'--spaces'
     Break at word boundaries: the line is broken after the last blank
     before the maximum line length.  If the line contains no such
     blanks, the line is broken at the maximum line length as usual.

'-w WIDTH'
'--width=WIDTH'
     Use a maximum line length of WIDTH columns instead of 80.

     For compatibility 'fold' supports an obsolete option syntax
     '-WIDTH'.  New scripts should use '-w WIDTH' instead.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Output of parts of files,  Next: Summarizing files,  Prev: Formatting file contents,  Up: Top

5 Output of parts of files
**************************

These commands output pieces of the input.

* Menu:

* head invocation::             Output the first part of files.
* tail invocation::             Output the last part of files.
* split invocation::            Split a file into pieces.
* csplit invocation::           Split a file into context-determined pieces.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: head invocation,  Next: tail invocation,  Up: Output of parts of files

5.1 'head': Output the first part of files
==========================================

'head' prints the first part (10 lines by default) of each FILE; it
reads from standard input if no files are given or when given a FILE of
'-'.  Synopsis:

     head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   If more than one FILE is specified, 'head' prints a one-line header
consisting of:

     ==> FILE NAME <==

before the output for each FILE.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c [-]NUM'
'--bytes=[-]NUM'
     Print the first NUM bytes, instead of initial lines.  However, if
     NUM is prefixed with a '-', print all but the last NUM bytes of
     each file.  NUM may be, or may be an integer optionally followed
     by, one of the following multiplicative suffixes:
          'b'  =>            512 ("blocks")
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

'-n [-]NUM'
'--lines=[-]NUM'
     Output the first NUM lines.  However, if NUM is prefixed with a
     '-', print all but the last NUM lines of each file.  Size
     multiplier suffixes are the same as with the '-c' option.

'-q'
'--quiet'
'--silent'
     Never print file name headers.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Always print file name headers.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   For compatibility 'head' also supports an obsolete option syntax
'-[NUM][bkm][cqv]', which is recognized only if it is specified first.
NUM is a decimal number optionally followed by a size letter ('b', 'k',
'm') as in '-c', or 'l' to mean count by lines, or other option letters
('cqv').  Scripts intended for standard hosts should use '-c NUM' or '-n
NUM' instead.  If your script must also run on hosts that support only
the obsolete syntax, it is usually simpler to avoid 'head', e.g., by
using 'sed 5q' instead of 'head -5'.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tail invocation,  Next: split invocation,  Prev: head invocation,  Up: Output of parts of files

5.2 'tail': Output the last part of files
=========================================

'tail' prints the last part (10 lines by default) of each FILE; it reads
from standard input if no files are given or when given a FILE of '-'.
Synopsis:

     tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   If more than one FILE is specified, 'tail' prints a one-line header
before the output for each FILE, consisting of:

     ==> FILE NAME <==

   For further processing of tail output, it can be useful to convert
the file headers to line prefixes, which can be done like:

     tail ... |
     awk '
       /^==> .* <==$/ {prefix=substr($0,5,length-8)":"; next}
       {print prefix$0}
     ' | ...

   GNU 'tail' can output any amount of data (some other versions of
'tail' cannot).  It also has no '-r' option (print in reverse), since
reversing a file is really a different job from printing the end of a
file; BSD 'tail' (which is the one with '-r') can only reverse files
that are at most as large as its buffer, which is typically 32 KiB.  A
more reliable and versatile way to reverse files is the GNU 'tac'
command.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c [+]NUM'
'--bytes=[+]NUM'
     Output the last NUM bytes, instead of final lines.  However, if NUM
     is prefixed with a '+', start printing with byte NUM from the start
     of each file, instead of from the end.  NUM may be, or may be an
     integer optionally followed by, one of the following multiplicative
     suffixes:
          'b'  =>            512 ("blocks")
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

'-f'
'--follow[=HOW]'
     Loop forever trying to read more characters at the end of the file,
     presumably because the file is growing.  If more than one file is
     given, 'tail' prints a header whenever it gets output from a
     different file, to indicate which file that output is from.

     There are two ways to specify how you'd like to track files with
     this option, but that difference is noticeable only when a followed
     file is removed or renamed.  If you'd like to continue to track the
     end of a growing file even after it has been unlinked, use
     '--follow=descriptor'.  This is the default behavior, but it is not
     useful if you're tracking a log file that may be rotated (removed
     or renamed, then reopened).  In that case, use '--follow=name' to
     track the named file, perhaps by reopening it periodically to see
     if it has been removed and recreated by some other program.  Note
     that the inotify-based implementation handles this case without the
     need for any periodic reopening.

     No matter which method you use, if the tracked file is determined
     to have shrunk, 'tail' prints a message saying the file has been
     truncated and resumes tracking the end of the file from the
     newly-determined endpoint.

     When a file is removed, 'tail''s behavior depends on whether it is
     following the name or the descriptor.  When following by name, tail
     can detect that a file has been removed and gives a message to that
     effect, and if '--retry' has been specified it will continue
     checking periodically to see if the file reappears.  When following
     a descriptor, tail does not detect that the file has been unlinked
     or renamed and issues no message; even though the file may no
     longer be accessible via its original name, it may still be
     growing.

     The option values 'descriptor' and 'name' may be specified only
     with the long form of the option, not with '-f'.

     The '-f' option is ignored if no FILE operand is specified and
     standard input is a FIFO or a pipe.  Likewise, the '-f' option has
     no effect for any operand specified as '-', when standard input is
     a FIFO or a pipe.

     With kernel inotify support, output is triggered by file changes
     and is generally very prompt.  Otherwise, 'tail' sleeps for one
     second between checks-- use '--sleep-interval=N' to change that
     default--which can make the output appear slightly less responsive
     or bursty.  When using tail without inotify support, you can make
     it more responsive by using a sub-second sleep interval, e.g., via
     an alias like this:

          alias tail='tail -s.1'

'-F'
     This option is the same as '--follow=name --retry'.  That is, tail
     will attempt to reopen a file when it is removed.  Should this
     fail, tail will keep trying until it becomes accessible again.

'--max-unchanged-stats=N'
     When tailing a file by name, if there have been N (default n=5)
     consecutive iterations for which the file has not changed, then
     'open'/'fstat' the file to determine if that file name is still
     associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.  When
     following a log file that is rotated, this is approximately the
     number of seconds between when tail prints the last pre-rotation
     lines and when it prints the lines that have accumulated in the new
     log file.  This option is meaningful only when polling (i.e.,
     without inotify) and when following by name.

'-n [+]NUM'
'--lines=[+]'
     Output the last NUM lines.  However, if NUM is prefixed with a '+',
     start printing with line NUM from the start of each file, instead
     of from the end.  Size multiplier suffixes are the same as with the
     '-c' option.

'--pid=PID'
     When following by name or by descriptor, you may specify the
     process ID, PID, of the sole writer of all FILE arguments.  Then,
     shortly after that process terminates, tail will also terminate.
     This will work properly only if the writer and the tailing process
     are running on the same machine.  For example, to save the output
     of a build in a file and to watch the file grow, if you invoke
     'make' and 'tail' like this then the tail process will stop when
     your build completes.  Without this option, you would have had to
     kill the 'tail -f' process yourself.

          $ make >& makerr & tail --pid=$! -f makerr

     If you specify a PID that is not in use or that does not correspond
     to the process that is writing to the tailed files, then 'tail' may
     terminate long before any FILEs stop growing or it may not
     terminate until long after the real writer has terminated.  Note
     that '--pid' cannot be supported on some systems; 'tail' will print
     a warning if this is the case.

'-q'
'--quiet'
'--silent'
     Never print file name headers.

'--retry'
     Indefinitely try to open the specified file.  This option is useful
     mainly when following (and otherwise issues a warning).

     When following by file descriptor (i.e., with
     '--follow=descriptor'), this option only affects the initial open
     of the file, as after a successful open, 'tail' will start
     following the file descriptor.

     When following by name (i.e., with '--follow=name'), 'tail'
     infinitely retries to re-open the given files until killed.

     Without this option, when 'tail' encounters a file that doesn't
     exist or is otherwise inaccessible, it reports that fact and never
     checks it again.

'-s NUMBER'
'--sleep-interval=NUMBER'
     Change the number of seconds to wait between iterations (the
     default is 1.0).  During one iteration, every specified file is
     checked to see if it has changed size.  Historical implementations
     of 'tail' have required that NUMBER be an integer.  However, GNU
     'tail' accepts an arbitrary floating point number.  *Note Floating
     point::.  When 'tail' uses inotify, this polling-related option is
     usually ignored.  However, if you also specify '--pid=P', 'tail'
     checks whether process P is alive at least every NUMBER seconds.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Always print file name headers.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   For compatibility 'tail' also supports an obsolete usage 'tail
-[NUM][bcl][f] [FILE]', which is recognized only if it does not conflict
with the usage described above.  This obsolete form uses exactly one
option and at most one file.  In the option, NUM is an optional decimal
number optionally followed by a size letter ('b', 'c', 'l') to mean
count by 512-byte blocks, bytes, or lines, optionally followed by 'f'
which has the same meaning as '-f'.

   On systems not conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001, the leading '-' can
be replaced by '+' in the traditional option syntax with the same
meaning as in counts, and on obsolete systems predating POSIX
1003.1-2001 traditional usage overrides normal usage when the two
conflict.  This behavior can be controlled with the '_POSIX2_VERSION'
environment variable (*note Standards conformance::).

   Scripts intended for use on standard hosts should avoid traditional
syntax and should use '-c NUM[b]', '-n NUM', and/or '-f' instead.  If
your script must also run on hosts that support only the traditional
syntax, you can often rewrite it to avoid problematic usages, e.g., by
using 'sed -n '$p'' rather than 'tail -1'.  If that's not possible, the
script can use a test like 'if tail -c +1 </dev/null >/dev/null 2>&1;
then ...' to decide which syntax to use.

   Even if your script assumes the standard behavior, you should still
beware usages whose behaviors differ depending on the POSIX version.
For example, avoid 'tail - main.c', since it might be interpreted as
either 'tail main.c' or as 'tail -- - main.c'; avoid 'tail -c 4', since
it might mean either 'tail -c4' or 'tail -c 10 4'; and avoid 'tail +4',
since it might mean either 'tail ./+4' or 'tail -n +4'.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: split invocation,  Next: csplit invocation,  Prev: tail invocation,  Up: Output of parts of files

5.3 'split': Split a file into pieces.
======================================

'split' creates output files containing consecutive or interleaved
sections of INPUT (standard input if none is given or INPUT is '-').
Synopsis:

     split [OPTION] [INPUT [PREFIX]]

   By default, 'split' puts 1000 lines of INPUT (or whatever is left
over for the last section), into each output file.

   The output files' names consist of PREFIX ('x' by default) followed
by a group of characters ('aa', 'ab', ... by default), such that
concatenating the output files in traditional sorted order by file name
produces the original input file (except '-nr/N').  By default split
will initially create files with two generated suffix characters, and
will increase this width by two when the next most significant position
reaches the last character.  ('yz', 'zaaa', 'zaab', ...).  In this way
an arbitrary number of output files are supported, which sort as
described above, even in the presence of an '--additional-suffix'
option.  If the '-a' option is specified and the output file names are
exhausted, 'split' reports an error without deleting the output files
that it did create.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-l LINES'
'--lines=LINES'
     Put LINES lines of INPUT into each output file.  If '--separator'
     is specified, then LINES determines the number of records.

     For compatibility 'split' also supports an obsolete option syntax
     '-LINES'.  New scripts should use '-l LINES' instead.

'-b SIZE'
'--bytes=SIZE'
     Put SIZE bytes of INPUT into each output file.  SIZE may be, or may
     be an integer optionally followed by, one of the following
     multiplicative suffixes:
          'b'  =>            512 ("blocks")
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

'-C SIZE'
'--line-bytes=SIZE'
     Put into each output file as many complete lines of INPUT as
     possible without exceeding SIZE bytes.  Individual lines or records
     longer than SIZE bytes are broken into multiple files.  SIZE has
     the same format as for the '--bytes' option.  If '--separator' is
     specified, then LINES determines the number of records.

'--filter=COMMAND'
     With this option, rather than simply writing to each output file,
     write through a pipe to the specified shell COMMAND for each output
     file.  COMMAND should use the $FILE environment variable, which is
     set to a different output file name for each invocation of the
     command.  For example, imagine that you have a 1TiB compressed file
     that, if uncompressed, would be too large to reside on disk, yet
     you must split it into individually-compressed pieces of a more
     manageable size.  To do that, you might run this command:

          xz -dc BIG.xz | split -b200G --filter='xz > $FILE.xz' - big-

     Assuming a 10:1 compression ratio, that would create about fifty
     20GiB files with names 'big-aa.xz', 'big-ab.xz', 'big-ac.xz', etc.

'-n CHUNKS'
'--number=CHUNKS'

     Split INPUT to CHUNKS output files where CHUNKS may be:

          N      generate N files based on current size of INPUT
          K/N    only output Kth of N to stdout
          l/N    generate N files without splitting lines or records
          l/K/N  likewise but only output Kth of N to stdout
          r/N    like 'l' but use round robin distribution
          r/K/N  likewise but only output Kth of N to stdout

     Any excess bytes remaining after dividing the INPUT into N chunks,
     are assigned to the last chunk.  Any excess bytes appearing after
     the initial calculation are discarded (except when using 'r' mode).

     All N files are created even if there are fewer than N lines, or
     the INPUT is truncated.

     For 'l' mode, chunks are approximately INPUT size / N.  The INPUT
     is partitioned into N equal sized portions, with the last assigned
     any excess.  If a line _starts_ within a partition it is written
     completely to the corresponding file.  Since lines or records are
     not split even if they overlap a partition, the files written can
     be larger or smaller than the partition size, and even empty if a
     line/record is so long as to completely overlap the partition.

     For 'r' mode, the size of INPUT is irrelevant, and so can be a pipe
     for example.

'-a LENGTH'
'--suffix-length=LENGTH'
     Use suffixes of length LENGTH.  If a LENGTH of 0 is specified, this
     is the same as if (any previous) '-a' was not specified, and thus
     enables the default behavior, which starts the suffix length at 2,
     and unless '-n' or '--numeric-suffixes=FROM' is specified, will
     auto increase the length by 2 as required.

'-d'
'--numeric-suffixes[=FROM]'
     Use digits in suffixes rather than lower-case letters.  The
     numerical suffix counts from FROM if specified, 0 otherwise.

     FROM is supported with the long form option, and is used to either
     set the initial suffix for a single run, or to set the suffix
     offset for independently split inputs, and consequently the auto
     suffix length expansion described above is disabled.  Therefore you
     may also want to use option '-a' to allow suffixes beyond '99'.
     Note if option '--number' is specified and the number of files is
     less than FROM, a single run is assumed and the minimum suffix
     length required is automatically determined.

'-x'
'--hex-suffixes[=FROM]'
     Like '--numeric-suffixes', but use hexadecimal numbers (in lower
     case).

'--additional-suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append an additional SUFFIX to output file names.  SUFFIX must not
     contain slash.

'-e'
'--elide-empty-files'
     Suppress the generation of zero-length output files.  This can
     happen with the '--number' option if a file is (truncated to be)
     shorter than the number requested, or if a line is so long as to
     completely span a chunk.  The output file sequence numbers, always
     run consecutively even when this option is specified.

'-t SEPARATOR'
'--separator=SEPARATOR'
     Use character SEPARATOR as the record separator instead of the
     default newline character (ASCII LF). To specify ASCII NUL as the
     separator, use the two-character string '\0', e.g., 'split -t
     '\0''.

'-u'
'--unbuffered'
     Immediately copy input to output in '--number r/...' mode, which is
     a much slower mode of operation.

'--verbose'
     Write a diagnostic just before each output file is opened.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Here are a few examples to illustrate how the '--number' ('-n')
option works:

   Notice how, by default, one line may be split onto two or more:

     $ seq -w 6 10 > k; split -n3 k; head xa?
     ==> xaa <==
     06
     07
     ==> xab <==

     08
     0
     ==> xac <==
     9
     10

   Use the "l/" modifier to suppress that:

     $ seq -w 6 10 > k; split -nl/3 k; head xa?
     ==> xaa <==
     06
     07

     ==> xab <==
     08
     09

     ==> xac <==
     10

   Use the "r/" modifier to distribute lines in a round-robin fashion:

     $ seq -w 6 10 > k; split -nr/3 k; head xa?
     ==> xaa <==
     06
     09

     ==> xab <==
     07
     10

     ==> xac <==
     08

   You can also extract just the Kth chunk.  This extracts and prints
just the 7th "chunk" of 33:

     $ seq 100 > k; split -nl/7/33 k
     20
     21
     22

File: coreutils.info,  Node: csplit invocation,  Prev: split invocation,  Up: Output of parts of files

5.4 'csplit': Split a file into context-determined pieces
=========================================================

'csplit' creates zero or more output files containing sections of INPUT
(standard input if INPUT is '-').  Synopsis:

     csplit [OPTION]... INPUT PATTERN...

   The contents of the output files are determined by the PATTERN
arguments, as detailed below.  An error occurs if a PATTERN argument
refers to a nonexistent line of the input file (e.g., if no remaining
line matches a given regular expression).  After every PATTERN has been
matched, any remaining input is copied into one last output file.

   By default, 'csplit' prints the number of bytes written to each
output file after it has been created.

   The types of pattern arguments are:

'N'
     Create an output file containing the input up to but not including
     line N (a positive integer).  If followed by a repeat count, also
     create an output file containing the next N lines of the input file
     once for each repeat.

'/REGEXP/[OFFSET]'
     Create an output file containing the current line up to (but not
     including) the next line of the input file that contains a match
     for REGEXP.  The optional OFFSET is an integer.  If it is given,
     the input up to (but not including) the matching line plus or minus
     OFFSET is put into the output file, and the line after that begins
     the next section of input.

'%REGEXP%[OFFSET]'
     Like the previous type, except that it does not create an output
     file, so that section of the input file is effectively ignored.

'{REPEAT-COUNT}'
     Repeat the previous pattern REPEAT-COUNT additional times.  The
     REPEAT-COUNT can either be a positive integer or an asterisk,
     meaning repeat as many times as necessary until the input is
     exhausted.

   The output files' names consist of a prefix ('xx' by default)
followed by a suffix.  By default, the suffix is an ascending sequence
of two-digit decimal numbers from '00' to '99'.  In any case,
concatenating the output files in sorted order by file name produces the
original input file.

   By default, if 'csplit' encounters an error or receives a hangup,
interrupt, quit, or terminate signal, it removes any output files that
it has created so far before it exits.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-f PREFIX'
'--prefix=PREFIX'
     Use PREFIX as the output file name prefix.

'-b FORMAT'
'--suffix-format=FORMAT'
     Use FORMAT as the output file name suffix.  When this option is
     specified, the suffix string must include exactly one
     'printf(3)'-style conversion specification, possibly including
     format specification flags, a field width, a precision
     specifications, or all of these kinds of modifiers.  The format
     letter must convert a binary unsigned integer argument to readable
     form.  The format letters 'd' and 'i' are aliases for 'u', and the
     'u', 'o', 'x', and 'X' conversions are allowed.  The entire FORMAT
     is given (with the current output file number) to 'sprintf(3)' to
     form the file name suffixes for each of the individual output files
     in turn.  If this option is used, the '--digits' option is ignored.

'-n DIGITS'
'--digits=DIGITS'
     Use output file names containing numbers that are DIGITS digits
     long instead of the default 2.

'-k'
'--keep-files'
     Do not remove output files when errors are encountered.

'--suppress-matched'
     Do not output lines matching the specified PATTERN.  I.e., suppress
     the boundary line from the start of the second and subsequent
     splits.

'-z'
'--elide-empty-files'
     Suppress the generation of zero-length output files.  (In cases
     where the section delimiters of the input file are supposed to mark
     the first lines of each of the sections, the first output file will
     generally be a zero-length file unless you use this option.)  The
     output file sequence numbers always run consecutively starting from
     0, even when this option is specified.

'-s'
'-q'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Do not print counts of output file sizes.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Here is an example of its usage.  First, create an empty directory
for the exercise, and cd into it:

     $ mkdir d && cd d

   Now, split the sequence of 1..14 on lines that end with 0 or 5:

     $ seq 14 | csplit - '/[05]$/' '{*}'
     8
     10
     15

   Each number printed above is the size of an output file that csplit
has just created.  List the names of those output files:

     $ ls
     xx00  xx01  xx02

   Use 'head' to show their contents:

     $ head xx*
     ==> xx00 <==
     1
     2
     3
     4

     ==> xx01 <==
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9

     ==> xx02 <==
     10
     11
     12
     13
     14

   Example of splitting input by empty lines:

     $ csplit --suppress-matched INPUT.TXT '/^$/' '{*}'

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Summarizing files,  Next: Operating on sorted files,  Prev: Output of parts of files,  Up: Top

6 Summarizing files
*******************

These commands generate just a few numbers representing entire contents
of files.

* Menu:

* wc invocation::               Print newline, word, and byte counts.
* sum invocation::              Print checksum and block counts.
* cksum invocation::            Print CRC checksum and byte counts.
* b2sum invocation::            Print or check BLAKE2 digests.
* md5sum invocation::           Print or check MD5 digests.
* sha1sum invocation::          Print or check SHA-1 digests.
* sha2 utilities::              Print or check SHA-2 digests.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: wc invocation,  Next: sum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.1 'wc': Print newline, word, and byte counts
==============================================

'wc' counts the number of bytes, characters, whitespace-separated words,
and newlines in each given FILE, or standard input if none are given or
for a FILE of '-'.  Synopsis:

     wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   'wc' prints one line of counts for each file, and if the file was
given as an argument, it prints the file name following the counts.  If
more than one FILE is given, 'wc' prints a final line containing the
cumulative counts, with the file name 'total'.  The counts are printed
in this order: newlines, words, characters, bytes, maximum line length.
Each count is printed right-justified in a field with at least one space
between fields so that the numbers and file names normally line up
nicely in columns.  The width of the count fields varies depending on
the inputs, so you should not depend on a particular field width.
However, as a GNU extension, if only one count is printed, it is
guaranteed to be printed without leading spaces.

   By default, 'wc' prints three counts: the newline, words, and byte
counts.  Options can specify that only certain counts be printed.
Options do not undo others previously given, so

     wc --bytes --words

prints both the byte counts and the word counts.

   With the '--max-line-length' option, 'wc' prints the length of the
longest line per file, and if there is more than one file it prints the
maximum (not the sum) of those lengths.  The line lengths here are
measured in screen columns, according to the current locale and assuming
tab positions in every 8th column.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--bytes'
     Print only the byte counts.

'-m'
'--chars'
     Print only the character counts.

'-w'
'--words'
     Print only the word counts.

'-l'
'--lines'
     Print only the newline counts.

'-L'
'--max-line-length'
     Print only the maximum display widths.  Tabs are set at every 8th
     column.  Display widths of wide characters are considered.
     Non-printable characters are given 0 width.

'--files0-from=FILE'
     Disallow processing files named on the command line, and instead
     process those named in file FILE; each name being terminated by a
     zero byte (ASCII NUL). This is useful when the list of file names
     is so long that it may exceed a command line length limitation.  In
     such cases, running 'wc' via 'xargs' is undesirable because it
     splits the list into pieces and makes 'wc' print a total for each
     sublist rather than for the entire list.  One way to produce a list
     of ASCII NUL terminated file names is with GNU 'find', using its
     '-print0' predicate.  If FILE is '-' then the ASCII NUL terminated
     file names are read from standard input.

     For example, to find the length of the longest line in any '.c' or
     '.h' file in the current hierarchy, do this:

          find . -name '*.[ch]' -print0 |
            wc -L --files0-from=- | tail -n1

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sum invocation,  Next: cksum invocation,  Prev: wc invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.2 'sum': Print checksum and block counts
==========================================

'sum' computes a 16-bit checksum for each given FILE, or standard input
if none are given or for a FILE of '-'.  Synopsis:

     sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   'sum' prints the checksum for each FILE followed by the number of
blocks in the file (rounded up).  If more than one FILE is given, file
names are also printed (by default).  (With the '--sysv' option,
corresponding file names are printed when there is at least one file
argument.)

   By default, GNU 'sum' computes checksums using an algorithm
compatible with BSD 'sum' and prints file sizes in units of 1024-byte
blocks.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-r'
     Use the default (BSD compatible) algorithm.  This option is
     included for compatibility with the System V 'sum'.  Unless '-s'
     was also given, it has no effect.

'-s'
'--sysv'
     Compute checksums using an algorithm compatible with System V
     'sum''s default, and print file sizes in units of 512-byte blocks.

   'sum' is provided for compatibility; the 'cksum' program (see next
section) is preferable in new applications.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: cksum invocation,  Next: b2sum invocation,  Prev: sum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.3 'cksum': Print CRC checksum and byte counts
===============================================

'cksum' computes a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for each given
FILE, or standard input if none are given or for a FILE of '-'.
Synopsis:

     cksum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   'cksum' prints the CRC checksum for each file along with the number
of bytes in the file, and the file name unless no arguments were given.

   'cksum' is typically used to ensure that files transferred by
unreliable means (e.g., netnews) have not been corrupted, by comparing
the 'cksum' output for the received files with the 'cksum' output for
the original files (typically given in the distribution).

   The CRC algorithm is specified by the POSIX standard.  It is not
compatible with the BSD or System V 'sum' algorithms (see the previous
section); it is more robust.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: b2sum invocation,  Next: md5sum invocation,  Prev: cksum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.4 'b2sum': Print or check BLAKE2 digests
==========================================

'b2sum' computes a 512-bit checksum for each specified FILE.  The same
usage and options as the 'md5sum' command are supported.  *Note md5sum
invocation::.  In addition 'b2sum' supports the following options.

'-l'
'--length'
     Change (shorten) the default digest length.  This is specified in
     bits and thus must be a multiple of 8.  This option is ignored when
     '--check' is specified, as the length is automatically determined
     when checking.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: md5sum invocation,  Next: sha1sum invocation,  Prev: b2sum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.5 'md5sum': Print or check MD5 digests
========================================

'md5sum' computes a 128-bit checksum (or "fingerprint" or
"message-digest") for each specified FILE.

   Note: The MD5 digest is more reliable than a simple CRC (provided by
the 'cksum' command) for detecting accidental file corruption, as the
chances of accidentally having two files with identical MD5 are
vanishingly small.  However, it should not be considered secure against
malicious tampering: although finding a file with a given MD5
fingerprint is considered infeasible at the moment, it is known how to
modify certain files, including digital certificates, so that they
appear valid when signed with an MD5 digest.  For more secure hashes,
consider using SHA-2, or the newer 'b2sum' command.  *Note sha2
utilities::.  *Note b2sum invocation::.

   If a FILE is specified as '-' or if no files are given 'md5sum'
computes the checksum for the standard input.  'md5sum' can also
determine whether a file and checksum are consistent.  Synopsis:

     md5sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   For each FILE, 'md5sum' outputs by default, the MD5 checksum, a
space, a flag indicating binary or text input mode, and the file name.
Binary mode is indicated with '*', text mode with ' ' (space).  Binary
mode is the default on systems where it's significant, otherwise text
mode is the default.  If FILE contains a backslash or newline, the line
is started with a backslash, and each problematic character in the file
name is escaped with a backslash, making the output unambiguous even in
the presence of arbitrary file names.  If FILE is omitted or specified
as '-', standard input is read.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--binary'
     Treat each input file as binary, by reading it in binary mode and
     outputting a '*' flag.  This is the inverse of '--text'.  On
     systems like GNU that do not distinguish between binary and text
     files, this option merely flags each input mode as binary: the MD5
     checksum is unaffected.  This option is the default on systems like
     MS-DOS that distinguish between binary and text files, except for
     reading standard input when standard input is a terminal.

'-c'
'--check'
     Read file names and checksum information (not data) from each FILE
     (or from stdin if no FILE was specified) and report whether the
     checksums match the contents of the named files.  The input to this
     mode of 'md5sum' is usually the output of a prior,
     checksum-generating run of 'md5sum'.  Three input formats are
     supported.  Either the default output format described above, the
     '--tag' output format, or the BSD reversed mode format which is
     similar to the default mode, but doesn't use a character to
     distinguish binary and text modes.

     For each such line, 'md5sum' reads the named file and computes its
     MD5 checksum.  Then, if the computed message digest does not match
     the one on the line with the file name, the file is noted as having
     failed the test.  Otherwise, the file passes the test.  By default,
     for each valid line, one line is written to standard output
     indicating whether the named file passed the test.  After all
     checks have been performed, if there were any failures, a warning
     is issued to standard error.  Use the '--status' option to inhibit
     that output.  If any listed file cannot be opened or read, if any
     valid line has an MD5 checksum inconsistent with the associated
     file, or if no valid line is found, 'md5sum' exits with nonzero
     status.  Otherwise, it exits successfully.

'--ignore-missing'
     This option is useful only when verifying checksums.  When
     verifying checksums, don't fail or report any status for missing
     files.  This is useful when verifying a subset of downloaded files
     given a larger list of checksums.

'--quiet'
     This option is useful only when verifying checksums.  When
     verifying checksums, don't generate an 'OK' message per
     successfully checked file.  Files that fail the verification are
     reported in the default one-line-per-file format.  If there is any
     checksum mismatch, print a warning summarizing the failures to
     standard error.

'--status'
     This option is useful only when verifying checksums.  When
     verifying checksums, don't generate the default one-line-per-file
     diagnostic and don't output the warning summarizing any failures.
     Failures to open or read a file still evoke individual diagnostics
     to standard error.  If all listed files are readable and are
     consistent with the associated MD5 checksums, exit successfully.
     Otherwise exit with a status code indicating there was a failure.

'--tag'
     Output BSD style checksums, which indicate the checksum algorithm
     used.  As a GNU extension, file names with problematic characters
     are escaped as described above, with the same escaping indicator of
     '\' at the start of the line, being used.  The '--tag' option
     implies binary mode, and is disallowed with '--text' mode as
     supporting that would unnecessarily complicate the output format,
     while providing little benefit.

'-t'
'--text'
     Treat each input file as text, by reading it in text mode and
     outputting a ' ' flag.  This is the inverse of '--binary'.  This
     option is the default on systems like GNU that do not distinguish
     between binary and text files.  On other systems, it is the default
     for reading standard input when standard input is a terminal.  This
     mode is never defaulted to if '--tag' is used.

'-w'
'--warn'
     When verifying checksums, warn about improperly formatted MD5
     checksum lines.  This option is useful only if all but a few lines
     in the checked input are valid.

'--strict'
     When verifying checksums, if one or more input line is invalid,
     exit nonzero after all warnings have been issued.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sha1sum invocation,  Next: sha2 utilities,  Prev: md5sum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.6 'sha1sum': Print or check SHA-1 digests
===========================================

'sha1sum' computes a 160-bit checksum for each specified FILE.  The
usage and options of this command are precisely the same as for
'md5sum'.  *Note md5sum invocation::.

   Note: The SHA-1 digest is more reliable than a simple CRC (provided
by the 'cksum' command) for detecting accidental file corruption, as the
chances of accidentally having two files with identical SHA-1 are
vanishingly small.  However, it should not be considered secure against
malicious tampering: although finding a file with a given SHA-1
fingerprint is considered infeasible at the moment, it is known how to
modify certain files, including digital certificates, so that they
appear valid when signed with an SHA-1 digest.  For more secure hashes,
consider using SHA-2, or the newer 'b2sum' command.  *Note sha2
utilities::.  *Note b2sum invocation::.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sha2 utilities,  Prev: sha1sum invocation,  Up: Summarizing files

6.7 sha2 utilities: Print or check SHA-2 digests
================================================

The commands 'sha224sum', 'sha256sum', 'sha384sum' and 'sha512sum'
compute checksums of various lengths (respectively 224, 256, 384 and 512
bits), collectively known as the SHA-2 hashes.  The usage and options of
these commands are precisely the same as for 'md5sum' and 'sha1sum'.
*Note md5sum invocation::.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Operating on sorted files,  Next: Operating on fields,  Prev: Summarizing files,  Up: Top

7 Operating on sorted files
***************************

These commands work with (or produce) sorted files.

* Menu:

* sort invocation::             Sort text files.
* shuf invocation::             Shuffle text files.
* uniq invocation::             Uniquify files.
* comm invocation::             Compare two sorted files line by line.
* ptx invocation::              Produce a permuted index of file contents.
* tsort invocation::            Topological sort.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sort invocation,  Next: shuf invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.1 'sort': Sort text files
===========================

'sort' sorts, merges, or compares all the lines from the given files, or
standard input if none are given or for a FILE of '-'.  By default,
'sort' writes the results to standard output.  Synopsis:

     sort [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   Many options affect how 'sort' compares lines; if the results are
unexpected, try the '--debug' option to see what happened.  A pair of
lines is compared as follows: 'sort' compares each pair of fields (see
'--key'), in the order specified on the command line, according to the
associated ordering options, until a difference is found or no fields
are left.  If no key fields are specified, 'sort' uses a default key of
the entire line.  Finally, as a last resort when all keys compare equal,
'sort' compares entire lines as if no ordering options other than
'--reverse' ('-r') were specified.  The '--stable' ('-s') option
disables this "last-resort comparison" so that lines in which all fields
compare equal are left in their original relative order.  The '--unique'
('-u') option also disables the last-resort comparison.

   Unless otherwise specified, all comparisons use the character
collating sequence specified by the 'LC_COLLATE' locale.(1)  A line's
trailing newline is not part of the line for comparison purposes.  If
the final byte of an input file is not a newline, GNU 'sort' silently
supplies one.  GNU 'sort' (as specified for all GNU utilities) has no
limit on input line length or restrictions on bytes allowed within
lines.

   'sort' has three modes of operation: sort (the default), merge, and
check for sortedness.  The following options change the operation mode:

'-c'
'--check'
'--check=diagnose-first'
     Check whether the given file is already sorted: if it is not all
     sorted, print a diagnostic containing the first out-of-order line
     and exit with a status of 1.  Otherwise, exit successfully.  At
     most one input file can be given.

'-C'
'--check=quiet'
'--check=silent'
     Exit successfully if the given file is already sorted, and exit
     with status 1 otherwise.  At most one input file can be given.
     This is like '-c', except it does not print a diagnostic.

'-m'
'--merge'
     Merge the given files by sorting them as a group.  Each input file
     must always be individually sorted.  It always works to sort
     instead of merge; merging is provided because it is faster, in the
     case where it works.

   Exit status:

     0 if no error occurred
     1 if invoked with '-c' or '-C' and the input is not sorted
     2 if an error occurred

   If the environment variable 'TMPDIR' is set, 'sort' uses its value as
the directory for temporary files instead of '/tmp'.  The
'--temporary-directory' ('-T') option in turn overrides the environment
variable.

   The following options affect the ordering of output lines.  They may
be specified globally or as part of a specific key field.  If no key
fields are specified, global options apply to comparison of entire
lines; otherwise the global options are inherited by key fields that do
not specify any special options of their own.  In pre-POSIX versions of
'sort', global options affect only later key fields, so portable shell
scripts should specify global options first.

'-b'
'--ignore-leading-blanks'
     Ignore leading blanks when finding sort keys in each line.  By
     default a blank is a space or a tab, but the 'LC_CTYPE' locale can
     change this.  Note blanks may be ignored by your locale's collating
     rules, but without this option they will be significant for
     character positions specified in keys with the '-k' option.

'-d'
'--dictionary-order'
     Sort in "phone directory" order: ignore all characters except
     letters, digits and blanks when sorting.  By default letters and
     digits are those of ASCII and a blank is a space or a tab, but the
     'LC_CTYPE' locale can change this.

'-f'
'--ignore-case'
     Fold lowercase characters into the equivalent uppercase characters
     when comparing so that, for example, 'b' and 'B' sort as equal.
     The 'LC_CTYPE' locale determines character types.  When used with
     '--unique' those lower case equivalent lines are thrown away.
     (There is currently no way to throw away the upper case equivalent
     instead.  (Any '--reverse' given would only affect the final
     result, after the throwing away.))

'-g'
'--general-numeric-sort'
'--sort=general-numeric'
     Sort numerically, converting a prefix of each line to a long
     double-precision floating point number.  *Note Floating point::.
     Do not report overflow, underflow, or conversion errors.  Use the
     following collating sequence:

        * Lines that do not start with numbers (all considered to be
          equal).
        * NaNs ("Not a Number" values, in IEEE floating point
          arithmetic) in a consistent but machine-dependent order.
        * Minus infinity.
        * Finite numbers in ascending numeric order (with -0 and +0
          equal).
        * Plus infinity.

     Use this option only if there is no alternative; it is much slower
     than '--numeric-sort' ('-n') and it can lose information when
     converting to floating point.

'-h'
'--human-numeric-sort'
'--sort=human-numeric'
     Sort numerically, first by numeric sign (negative, zero, or
     positive); then by SI suffix (either empty, or 'k' or 'K', or one
     of 'MGTPEZY', in that order; *note Block size::); and finally by
     numeric value.  For example, '1023M' sorts before '1G' because 'M'
     (mega) precedes 'G' (giga) as an SI suffix.  This option sorts
     values that are consistently scaled to the nearest suffix,
     regardless of whether suffixes denote powers of 1000 or 1024, and
     it therefore sorts the output of any single invocation of the 'df',
     'du', or 'ls' commands that are invoked with their
     '--human-readable' or '--si' options.  The syntax for numbers is
     the same as for the '--numeric-sort' option; the SI suffix must
     immediately follow the number.  Note also the 'numfmt' command,
     which can be used to reformat numbers to human format _after_ the
     sort, thus often allowing sort to operate on more accurate numbers.

'-i'
'--ignore-nonprinting'
     Ignore nonprinting characters.  The 'LC_CTYPE' locale determines
     character types.  This option has no effect if the stronger
     '--dictionary-order' ('-d') option is also given.

'-M'
'--month-sort'
'--sort=month'
     An initial string, consisting of any amount of blanks, followed by
     a month name abbreviation, is folded to UPPER case and compared in
     the order 'JAN' < 'FEB' < ... < 'DEC'.  Invalid names compare low
     to valid names.  The 'LC_TIME' locale category determines the month
     spellings.  By default a blank is a space or a tab, but the
     'LC_CTYPE' locale can change this.

'-n'
'--numeric-sort'
'--sort=numeric'
     Sort numerically.  The number begins each line and consists of
     optional blanks, an optional '-' sign, and zero or more digits
     possibly separated by thousands separators, optionally followed by
     a decimal-point character and zero or more digits.  An empty number
     is treated as '0'.  The 'LC_NUMERIC' locale specifies the
     decimal-point character and thousands separator.  By default a
     blank is a space or a tab, but the 'LC_CTYPE' locale can change
     this.

     Comparison is exact; there is no rounding error.

     Neither a leading '+' nor exponential notation is recognized.  To
     compare such strings numerically, use the '--general-numeric-sort'
     ('-g') option.

'-V'
'--version-sort'
     Sort by version name and number.  It behaves like a standard sort,
     except that each sequence of decimal digits is treated numerically
     as an index/version number.  (*Note Details about version sort::.)

'-r'
'--reverse'
     Reverse the result of comparison, so that lines with greater key
     values appear earlier in the output instead of later.

'-R'
'--random-sort'
'--sort=random'
     Sort by hashing the input keys and then sorting the hash values.
     Choose the hash function at random, ensuring that it is free of
     collisions so that differing keys have differing hash values.  This
     is like a random permutation of the inputs (*note shuf
     invocation::), except that keys with the same value sort together.

     If multiple random sort fields are specified, the same random hash
     function is used for all fields.  To use different random hash
     functions for different fields, you can invoke 'sort' more than
     once.

     The choice of hash function is affected by the '--random-source'
     option.

   Other options are:

'--compress-program=PROG'
     Compress any temporary files with the program PROG.

     With no arguments, PROG must compress standard input to standard
     output, and when given the '-d' option it must decompress standard
     input to standard output.

     Terminate with an error if PROG exits with nonzero status.

     White space and the backslash character should not appear in PROG;
     they are reserved for future use.

'--files0-from=FILE'
     Disallow processing files named on the command line, and instead
     process those named in file FILE; each name being terminated by a
     zero byte (ASCII NUL). This is useful when the list of file names
     is so long that it may exceed a command line length limitation.  In
     such cases, running 'sort' via 'xargs' is undesirable because it
     splits the list into pieces and makes 'sort' print sorted output
     for each sublist rather than for the entire list.  One way to
     produce a list of ASCII NUL terminated file names is with GNU
     'find', using its '-print0' predicate.  If FILE is '-' then the
     ASCII NUL terminated file names are read from standard input.

'-k POS1[,POS2]'
'--key=POS1[,POS2]'
     Specify a sort field that consists of the part of the line between
     POS1 and POS2 (or the end of the line, if POS2 is omitted),
     _inclusive_.

     In its simplest form POS specifies a field number (starting with
     1), with fields being separated by runs of blank characters, and by
     default those blanks being included in the comparison at the start
     of each field.  To adjust the handling of blank characters see the
     '-b' and '-t' options.

     More generally, each POS has the form 'F[.C][OPTS]', where F is the
     number of the field to use, and C is the number of the first
     character from the beginning of the field.  Fields and character
     positions are numbered starting with 1; a character position of
     zero in POS2 indicates the field's last character.  If '.C' is
     omitted from POS1, it defaults to 1 (the beginning of the field);
     if omitted from POS2, it defaults to 0 (the end of the field).
     OPTS are ordering options, allowing individual keys to be sorted
     according to different rules; see below for details.  Keys can span
     multiple fields.

     Example: To sort on the second field, use '--key=2,2' ('-k 2,2').
     See below for more notes on keys and more examples.  See also the
     '--debug' option to help determine the part of the line being used
     in the sort.

'--debug'
     Highlight the portion of each line used for sorting.  Also issue
     warnings about questionable usage to stderr.

'--batch-size=NMERGE'
     Merge at most NMERGE inputs at once.

     When 'sort' has to merge more than NMERGE inputs, it merges them in
     groups of NMERGE, saving the result in a temporary file, which is
     then used as an input in a subsequent merge.

     A large value of NMERGE may improve merge performance and decrease
     temporary storage utilization at the expense of increased memory
     usage and I/O.  Conversely a small value of NMERGE may reduce
     memory requirements and I/O at the expense of temporary storage
     consumption and merge performance.

     The value of NMERGE must be at least 2.  The default value is
     currently 16, but this is implementation-dependent and may change
     in the future.

     The value of NMERGE may be bounded by a resource limit for open
     file descriptors.  The commands 'ulimit -n' or 'getconf OPEN_MAX'
     may display limits for your systems; these limits may be modified
     further if your program already has some files open, or if the
     operating system has other limits on the number of open files.  If
     the value of NMERGE exceeds the resource limit, 'sort' silently
     uses a smaller value.

'-o OUTPUT-FILE'
'--output=OUTPUT-FILE'
     Write output to OUTPUT-FILE instead of standard output.  Normally,
     'sort' reads all input before opening OUTPUT-FILE, so you can sort
     a file in place by using commands like 'sort -o F F' and 'cat F |
     sort -o F'.  However, it is often safer to output to an
     otherwise-unused file, as data may be lost if the system crashes or
     'sort' encounters an I/O or other serious error while a file is
     being sorted in place.  Also, 'sort' with '--merge' ('-m') can open
     the output file before reading all input, so a command like 'cat F
     | sort -m -o F - G' is not safe as 'sort' might start writing 'F'
     before 'cat' is done reading it.

     On newer systems, '-o' cannot appear after an input file if
     'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set, e.g., 'sort F -o F'.  Portable scripts
     should specify '-o OUTPUT-FILE' before any input files.

'--random-source=FILE'
     Use FILE as a source of random data used to determine which random
     hash function to use with the '-R' option.  *Note Random sources::.

'-s'
'--stable'

     Make 'sort' stable by disabling its last-resort comparison.  This
     option has no effect if no fields or global ordering options other
     than '--reverse' ('-r') are specified.

'-S SIZE'
'--buffer-size=SIZE'
     Use a main-memory sort buffer of the given SIZE.  By default, SIZE
     is in units of 1024 bytes.  Appending '%' causes SIZE to be
     interpreted as a percentage of physical memory.  Appending 'K'
     multiplies SIZE by 1024 (the default), 'M' by 1,048,576, 'G' by
     1,073,741,824, and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.
     Appending 'b' causes SIZE to be interpreted as a byte count, with
     no multiplication.

     This option can improve the performance of 'sort' by causing it to
     start with a larger or smaller sort buffer than the default.
     However, this option affects only the initial buffer size.  The
     buffer grows beyond SIZE if 'sort' encounters input lines larger
     than SIZE.

'-t SEPARATOR'
'--field-separator=SEPARATOR'
     Use character SEPARATOR as the field separator when finding the
     sort keys in each line.  By default, fields are separated by the
     empty string between a non-blank character and a blank character.
     By default a blank is a space or a tab, but the 'LC_CTYPE' locale
     can change this.

     That is, given the input line ' foo bar', 'sort' breaks it into
     fields ' foo' and ' bar'.  The field separator is not considered to
     be part of either the field preceding or the field following, so
     with 'sort -t " "' the same input line has three fields: an empty
     field, 'foo', and 'bar'.  However, fields that extend to the end of
     the line, as '-k 2', or fields consisting of a range, as '-k 2,3',
     retain the field separators present between the endpoints of the
     range.

     To specify ASCII NUL as the field separator, use the two-character
     string '\0', e.g., 'sort -t '\0''.

'-T TEMPDIR'
'--temporary-directory=TEMPDIR'
     Use directory TEMPDIR to store temporary files, overriding the
     'TMPDIR' environment variable.  If this option is given more than
     once, temporary files are stored in all the directories given.  If
     you have a large sort or merge that is I/O-bound, you can often
     improve performance by using this option to specify directories on
     different disks and controllers.

'--parallel=N'
     Set the number of sorts run in parallel to N.  By default, N is set
     to the number of available processors, but limited to 8, as there
     are diminishing performance gains after that.  Note also that using
     N threads increases the memory usage by a factor of log N.  Also
     see *note nproc invocation::.

'-u'
'--unique'

     Normally, output only the first of a sequence of lines that compare
     equal.  For the '--check' ('-c' or '-C') option, check that no pair
     of consecutive lines compares equal.

     This option also disables the default last-resort comparison.

     The commands 'sort -u' and 'sort | uniq' are equivalent, but this
     equivalence does not extend to arbitrary 'sort' options.  For
     example, 'sort -n -u' inspects only the value of the initial
     numeric string when checking for uniqueness, whereas 'sort -n |
     uniq' inspects the entire line.  *Note uniq invocation::.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   Historical (BSD and System V) implementations of 'sort' have differed
in their interpretation of some options, particularly '-b', '-f', and
'-n'.  GNU sort follows the POSIX behavior, which is usually (but not
always!)  like the System V behavior.  According to POSIX, '-n' no
longer implies '-b'.  For consistency, '-M' has been changed in the same
way.  This may affect the meaning of character positions in field
specifications in obscure cases.  The only fix is to add an explicit
'-b'.

   A position in a sort field specified with '-k' may have any of the
option letters 'MbdfghinRrV' appended to it, in which case no global
ordering options are inherited by that particular field.  The '-b'
option may be independently attached to either or both of the start and
end positions of a field specification, and if it is inherited from the
global options it will be attached to both.  If input lines can contain
leading or adjacent blanks and '-t' is not used, then '-k' is typically
combined with '-b' or an option that implicitly ignores leading blanks
('Mghn') as otherwise the varying numbers of leading blanks in fields
can cause confusing results.

   If the start position in a sort field specifier falls after the end
of the line or after the end field, the field is empty.  If the '-b'
option was specified, the '.C' part of a field specification is counted
from the first nonblank character of the field.

   On systems not conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001, 'sort' supports a
traditional origin-zero syntax '+POS1 [-POS2]' for specifying sort keys.
The traditional command 'sort +A.X -B.Y' is equivalent to 'sort -k
A+1.X+1,B' if Y is '0' or absent, otherwise it is equivalent to 'sort -k
A+1.X+1,B+1.Y'.

   This traditional behavior can be controlled with the
'_POSIX2_VERSION' environment variable (*note Standards conformance::);
it can also be enabled when 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set by using the
traditional syntax with '-POS2' present.

   Scripts intended for use on standard hosts should avoid traditional
syntax and should use '-k' instead.  For example, avoid 'sort +2', since
it might be interpreted as either 'sort ./+2' or 'sort -k 3'.  If your
script must also run on hosts that support only the traditional syntax,
it can use a test like 'if sort -k 1 </dev/null >/dev/null 2>&1; then
...' to decide which syntax to use.

   Here are some examples to illustrate various combinations of options.

   * Sort in descending (reverse) numeric order.

          sort -n -r

   * Run no more than 4 sorts concurrently, using a buffer size of 10M.

          sort --parallel=4 -S 10M

   * Sort alphabetically, omitting the first and second fields and the
     blanks at the start of the third field.  This uses a single key
     composed of the characters beginning at the start of the first
     nonblank character in field three and extending to the end of each
     line.

          sort -k 3b

   * Sort numerically on the second field and resolve ties by sorting
     alphabetically on the third and fourth characters of field five.
     Use ':' as the field delimiter.

          sort -t : -k 2,2n -k 5.3,5.4

     Note that if you had written '-k 2n' instead of '-k 2,2n' 'sort'
     would have used all characters beginning in the second field and
     extending to the end of the line as the primary _numeric_ key.  For
     the large majority of applications, treating keys spanning more
     than one field as numeric will not do what you expect.

     Also note that the 'n' modifier was applied to the field-end
     specifier for the first key.  It would have been equivalent to
     specify '-k 2n,2' or '-k 2n,2n'.  All modifiers except 'b' apply to
     the associated _field_, regardless of whether the modifier
     character is attached to the field-start and/or the field-end part
     of the key specifier.

   * Sort the password file on the fifth field and ignore any leading
     blanks.  Sort lines with equal values in field five on the numeric
     user ID in field three.  Fields are separated by ':'.

          sort -t : -k 5b,5 -k 3,3n /etc/passwd
          sort -t : -n -k 5b,5 -k 3,3 /etc/passwd
          sort -t : -b -k 5,5 -k 3,3n /etc/passwd

     These three commands have equivalent effect.  The first specifies
     that the first key's start position ignores leading blanks and the
     second key is sorted numerically.  The other two commands rely on
     global options being inherited by sort keys that lack modifiers.
     The inheritance works in this case because '-k 5b,5b' and '-k 5b,5'
     are equivalent, as the location of a field-end lacking a '.C'
     character position is not affected by whether initial blanks are
     skipped.

   * Sort a set of log files, primarily by IPv4 address and secondarily
     by timestamp.  If two lines' primary and secondary keys are
     identical, output the lines in the same order that they were input.
     The log files contain lines that look like this:

          4.150.156.3 - - [01/Apr/2004:06:31:51 +0000] message 1
          211.24.3.231 - - [24/Apr/2004:20:17:39 +0000] message 2

     Fields are separated by exactly one space.  Sort IPv4 addresses
     lexicographically, e.g., 212.61.52.2 sorts before 212.129.233.201
     because 61 is less than 129.

          sort -s -t ' ' -k 4.9n -k 4.5M -k 4.2n -k 4.14,4.21 file*.log |
          sort -s -t '.' -k 1,1n -k 2,2n -k 3,3n -k 4,4n

     This example cannot be done with a single 'sort' invocation, since
     IPv4 address components are separated by '.' while dates come just
     after a space.  So it is broken down into two invocations of
     'sort': the first sorts by timestamp and the second by IPv4
     address.  The timestamp is sorted by year, then month, then day,
     and finally by hour-minute-second field, using '-k' to isolate each
     field.  Except for hour-minute-second there's no need to specify
     the end of each key field, since the 'n' and 'M' modifiers sort
     based on leading prefixes that cannot cross field boundaries.  The
     IPv4 addresses are sorted lexicographically.  The second sort uses
     '-s' so that ties in the primary key are broken by the secondary
     key; the first sort uses '-s' so that the combination of the two
     sorts is stable.

   * Generate a tags file in case-insensitive sorted order.

          find src -type f -print0 | sort -z -f | xargs -0 etags --append

     The use of '-print0', '-z', and '-0' in this case means that file
     names that contain blanks or other special characters are not
     broken up by the sort operation.

   * Use the common DSU, Decorate Sort Undecorate idiom to sort lines
     according to their length.

          awk '{print length, $0}' /etc/passwd | sort -n | cut -f2- -d' '

     In general this technique can be used to sort data that the 'sort'
     command does not support, or is inefficient at, sorting directly.

   * Shuffle a list of directories, but preserve the order of files
     within each directory.  For instance, one could use this to
     generate a music playlist in which albums are shuffled but the
     songs of each album are played in order.

          ls */* | sort -t / -k 1,1R -k 2,2

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If you use a non-POSIX locale (e.g., by setting 'LC_ALL' to
'en_US'), then 'sort' may produce output that is sorted differently than
you're accustomed to.  In that case, set the 'LC_ALL' environment
variable to 'C'.  Note that setting only 'LC_COLLATE' has two problems.
First, it is ineffective if 'LC_ALL' is also set.  Second, it has
undefined behavior if 'LC_CTYPE' (or 'LANG', if 'LC_CTYPE' is unset) is
set to an incompatible value.  For example, you get undefined behavior
if 'LC_CTYPE' is 'ja_JP.PCK' but 'LC_COLLATE' is 'en_US.UTF-8'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: shuf invocation,  Next: uniq invocation,  Prev: sort invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.2 'shuf': Shuffling text
==========================

'shuf' shuffles its input by outputting a random permutation of its
input lines.  Each output permutation is equally likely.  Synopses:

     shuf [OPTION]... [FILE]
     shuf -e [OPTION]... [ARG]...
     shuf -i LO-HI [OPTION]...

   'shuf' has three modes of operation that affect where it obtains its
input lines.  By default, it reads lines from standard input.  The
following options change the operation mode:

'-e'
'--echo'
     Treat each command-line operand as an input line.

'-i LO-HI'
'--input-range=LO-HI'
     Act as if input came from a file containing the range of unsigned
     decimal integers LO...HI, one per line.

   'shuf''s other options can affect its behavior in all operation
modes:

'-n COUNT'
'--head-count=COUNT'
     Output at most COUNT lines.  By default, all input lines are
     output.

'-o OUTPUT-FILE'
'--output=OUTPUT-FILE'
     Write output to OUTPUT-FILE instead of standard output.  'shuf'
     reads all input before opening OUTPUT-FILE, so you can safely
     shuffle a file in place by using commands like 'shuf -o F <F' and
     'cat F | shuf -o F'.

'--random-source=FILE'
     Use FILE as a source of random data used to determine which
     permutation to generate.  *Note Random sources::.

'-r'
'--repeat'
     Repeat output values, that is, select with replacement.  With this
     option the output is not a permutation of the input; instead, each
     output line is randomly chosen from all the inputs.  This option is
     typically combined with '--head-count'; if '--head-count' is not
     given, 'shuf' repeats indefinitely.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   For example:

     shuf <<EOF
     A man,
     a plan,
     a canal:
     Panama!
     EOF

might produce the output

     Panama!
     A man,
     a canal:
     a plan,

Similarly, the command:

     shuf -e clubs hearts diamonds spades

might output:

     clubs
     diamonds
     spades
     hearts

and the command 'shuf -i 1-4' might output:

     4
     2
     1
     3

The above examples all have four input lines, so 'shuf' might produce
any of the twenty-four possible permutations of the input.  In general,
if there are N input lines, there are N!  (i.e., N factorial, or N * (N
- 1) * ... * 1) possible output permutations.

To output 50 random numbers each in the range 0 through 9, use:

     shuf -r -n 50 -i 0-9

To simulate 100 coin flips, use:

     shuf -r -n 100 -e Head Tail

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: uniq invocation,  Next: comm invocation,  Prev: shuf invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.3 'uniq': Uniquify files
==========================

'uniq' writes the unique lines in the given 'input', or standard input
if nothing is given or for an INPUT name of '-'.  Synopsis:

     uniq [OPTION]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

   By default, 'uniq' prints its input lines, except that it discards
all but the first of adjacent repeated lines, so that no output lines
are repeated.  Optionally, it can instead discard lines that are not
repeated, or all repeated lines.

   The input need not be sorted, but repeated input lines are detected
only if they are adjacent.  If you want to discard non-adjacent
duplicate lines, perhaps you want to use 'sort -u'.  *Note sort
invocation::.

   Comparisons honor the rules specified by the 'LC_COLLATE' locale
category.

   If no OUTPUT file is specified, 'uniq' writes to standard output.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-f N'
'--skip-fields=N'
     Skip N fields on each line before checking for uniqueness.  Use a
     null string for comparison if a line has fewer than N fields.
     Fields are sequences of non-space non-tab characters that are
     separated from each other by at least one space or tab.

     For compatibility 'uniq' supports a traditional option syntax '-N'.
     New scripts should use '-f N' instead.

'-s N'
'--skip-chars=N'
     Skip N characters before checking for uniqueness.  Use a null
     string for comparison if a line has fewer than N characters.  If
     you use both the field and character skipping options, fields are
     skipped over first.

     On systems not conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001, 'uniq' supports a
     traditional option syntax '+N'.  Although this traditional behavior
     can be controlled with the '_POSIX2_VERSION' environment variable
     (*note Standards conformance::), portable scripts should avoid
     commands whose behavior depends on this variable.  For example, use
     'uniq ./+10' or 'uniq -s 10' rather than the ambiguous 'uniq +10'.

'-c'
'--count'
     Print the number of times each line occurred along with the line.

'-i'
'--ignore-case'
     Ignore differences in case when comparing lines.

'-d'
'--repeated'
     Discard lines that are not repeated.  When used by itself, this
     option causes 'uniq' to print the first copy of each repeated line,
     and nothing else.

'-D'
'--all-repeated[=DELIMIT-METHOD]'
     Do not discard the second and subsequent repeated input lines, but
     discard lines that are not repeated.  This option is useful mainly
     in conjunction with other options e.g., to ignore case or to
     compare only selected fields.  The optional DELIMIT-METHOD,
     supported with the long form option, specifies how to delimit
     groups of repeated lines, and must be one of the following:

     'none'
          Do not delimit groups of repeated lines.  This is equivalent
          to '--all-repeated' ('-D').

     'prepend'
          Output a newline before each group of repeated lines.  With
          '--zero-terminated' ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL)
          instead of a newline as the delimiter.

     'separate'
          Separate groups of repeated lines with a single newline.  This
          is the same as using 'prepend', except that no delimiter is
          inserted before the first group, and hence may be better
          suited for output direct to users.  With '--zero-terminated'
          ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL) instead of a newline as
          the delimiter.

     Note that when groups are delimited and the input stream contains
     blank lines, then the output is ambiguous.  To avoid that, filter
     the input through 'tr -s '\n'' to remove blank lines.

     This is a GNU extension.

'--group[=DELIMIT-METHOD]'
     Output all lines, and delimit each unique group.  With
     '--zero-terminated' ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL) instead of
     a newline as the delimiter.  The optional DELIMIT-METHOD specifies
     how to delimit groups, and must be one of the following:

     'separate'
          Separate unique groups with a single delimiter.  This is the
          default delimiting method if none is specified, and better
          suited for output direct to users.

     'prepend'
          Output a delimiter before each group of unique items.

     'append'
          Output a delimiter after each group of unique items.

     'both'
          Output a delimiter around each group of unique items.

     Note that when groups are delimited and the input stream contains
     blank lines, then the output is ambiguous.  To avoid that, filter
     the input through 'tr -s '\n'' to remove blank lines.

     This is a GNU extension.

'-u'
'--unique'
     Discard the last line that would be output for a repeated input
     group.  When used by itself, this option causes 'uniq' to print
     unique lines, and nothing else.

'-w N'
'--check-chars=N'
     Compare at most N characters on each line (after skipping any
     specified fields and characters).  By default the entire rest of
     the lines are compared.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).  Note with
     '-z' the newline character is treated as a field separator.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: comm invocation,  Next: ptx invocation,  Prev: uniq invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.4 'comm': Compare two sorted files line by line
=================================================

'comm' writes to standard output lines that are common, and lines that
are unique, to two input files; a file name of '-' means standard input.
Synopsis:

     comm [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2

   Before 'comm' can be used, the input files must be sorted using the
collating sequence specified by the 'LC_COLLATE' locale.  If an input
file ends in a non-newline character, a newline is silently appended.
The 'sort' command with no options always outputs a file that is
suitable input to 'comm'.

   With no options, 'comm' produces three-column output.  Column one
contains lines unique to FILE1, column two contains lines unique to
FILE2, and column three contains lines common to both files.  Columns
are separated by a single TAB character.

   The options '-1', '-2', and '-3' suppress printing of the
corresponding columns (and separators).  Also see *note Common
options::.

   Unlike some other comparison utilities, 'comm' has an exit status
that does not depend on the result of the comparison.  Upon normal
completion 'comm' produces an exit code of zero.  If there is an error
it exits with nonzero status.

   If the '--check-order' option is given, unsorted inputs will cause a
fatal error message.  If the option '--nocheck-order' is given, unsorted
inputs will never cause an error message.  If neither of these options
is given, wrongly sorted inputs are diagnosed only if an input file is
found to contain unpairable lines.  If an input file is diagnosed as
being unsorted, the 'comm' command will exit with a nonzero status (and
the output should not be used).

   Forcing 'comm' to process wrongly sorted input files containing
unpairable lines by specifying '--nocheck-order' is not guaranteed to
produce any particular output.  The output will probably not correspond
with whatever you hoped it would be.

'--check-order'
     Fail with an error message if either input file is wrongly ordered.

'--nocheck-order'
     Do not check that both input files are in sorted order.

     Other options are:

'--output-delimiter=STR'
     Print STR between adjacent output columns, rather than the default
     of a single TAB character.

     The delimiter STR may not be empty.

'--total'
     Output a summary at the end.

     Similar to the regular output, column one contains the total number
     of lines unique to FILE1, column two contains the total number of
     lines unique to FILE2, and column three contains the total number
     of lines common to both files, followed by the word 'total' in the
     additional column four.

     In the following example, 'comm' omits the regular output ('-123'),
     thus just printing the summary:

          $ printf '%s\n' a b c d e     > file1
          $ printf '%s\n'   b c d e f g > file2
          $ comm --total -123 file1 file2
          1       2       4       total

     This option is a GNU extension.  Portable scripts should use 'wc'
     to get the totals, e.g.  for the above example files:

          $ comm -23 file1 file2 | wc -l    # number of lines only in file1
          1
          $ comm -13 file1 file2 | wc -l    # number of lines only in file2
          2
          $ comm -12 file1 file2 | wc -l    # number of lines common to both files
          4

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

File: coreutils.info,  Node: ptx invocation,  Next: tsort invocation,  Prev: comm invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.5 'ptx': Produce permuted indexes
===================================

'ptx' reads a text file and essentially produces a permuted index, with
each keyword in its context.  The calling sketch is either one of:

     ptx [OPTION ...] [FILE ...]
     ptx -G [OPTION ...] [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

   The '-G' (or its equivalent: '--traditional') option disables all GNU
extensions and reverts to traditional mode, thus introducing some
limitations and changing several of the program's default option values.
When '-G' is not specified, GNU extensions are always enabled.  GNU
extensions to 'ptx' are documented wherever appropriate in this
document.  *Note Compatibility in ptx::, for the full list.

   Individual options are explained in the following sections.

   When GNU extensions are enabled, there may be zero, one or several
FILEs after the options.  If there is no FILE, the program reads the
standard input.  If there is one or several FILEs, they give the name of
input files which are all read in turn, as if all the input files were
concatenated.  However, there is a full contextual break between each
file and, when automatic referencing is requested, file names and line
numbers refer to individual text input files.  In all cases, the program
outputs the permuted index to the standard output.

   When GNU extensions are _not_ enabled, that is, when the program
operates in traditional mode, there may be zero, one or two parameters
besides the options.  If there are no parameters, the program reads the
standard input and outputs the permuted index to the standard output.
If there is only one parameter, it names the text INPUT to be read
instead of the standard input.  If two parameters are given, they give
respectively the name of the INPUT file to read and the name of the
OUTPUT file to produce.  _Be very careful_ to note that, in this case,
the contents of file given by the second parameter is destroyed.  This
behavior is dictated by System V 'ptx' compatibility; GNU Standards
normally discourage output parameters not introduced by an option.

   Note that for _any_ file named as the value of an option or as an
input text file, a single dash '-' may be used, in which case standard
input is assumed.  However, it would not make sense to use this
convention more than once per program invocation.

* Menu:

* General options in ptx::      Options which affect general program behavior.
* Charset selection in ptx::    Underlying character set considerations.
* Input processing in ptx::     Input fields, contexts, and keyword selection.
* Output formatting in ptx::    Types of output format, and sizing the fields.
* Compatibility in ptx::

File: coreutils.info,  Node: General options in ptx,  Next: Charset selection in ptx,  Up: ptx invocation

7.5.1 General options
---------------------

'-G'
'--traditional'
     As already explained, this option disables all GNU extensions to
     'ptx' and switches to traditional mode.

'--help'
     Print a short help on standard output, then exit without further
     processing.

'--version'
     Print the program version on standard output, then exit without
     further processing.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Charset selection in ptx,  Next: Input processing in ptx,  Prev: General options in ptx,  Up: ptx invocation

7.5.2 Charset selection
-----------------------

As it is set up now, the program assumes that the input file is coded
using 8-bit ISO 8859-1 code, also known as Latin-1 character set,
_unless_ it is compiled for MS-DOS, in which case it uses the character
set of the IBM-PC.  (GNU 'ptx' is not known to work on smaller MS-DOS
machines anymore.)  Compared to 7-bit ASCII, the set of characters which
are letters is different; this alters the behavior of regular expression
matching.  Thus, the default regular expression for a keyword allows
foreign or diacriticized letters.  Keyword sorting, however, is still
crude; it obeys the underlying character set ordering quite blindly.

'-f'
'--ignore-case'
     Fold lower case letters to upper case for sorting.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Input processing in ptx,  Next: Output formatting in ptx,  Prev: Charset selection in ptx,  Up: ptx invocation

7.5.3 Word selection and input processing
-----------------------------------------

'-b FILE'
'--break-file=FILE'

     This option provides an alternative (to '-W') method of describing
     which characters make up words.  It introduces the name of a file
     which contains a list of characters which can_not_ be part of one
     word; this file is called the "Break file".  Any character which is
     not part of the Break file is a word constituent.  If both options
     '-b' and '-W' are specified, then '-W' has precedence and '-b' is
     ignored.

     When GNU extensions are enabled, the only way to avoid newline as a
     break character is to write all the break characters in the file
     with no newline at all, not even at the end of the file.  When GNU
     extensions are disabled, spaces, tabs and newlines are always
     considered as break characters even if not included in the Break
     file.

'-i FILE'
'--ignore-file=FILE'

     The file associated with this option contains a list of words which
     will never be taken as keywords in concordance output.  It is
     called the "Ignore file".  The file contains exactly one word in
     each line; the end of line separation of words is not subject to
     the value of the '-S' option.

'-o FILE'
'--only-file=FILE'

     The file associated with this option contains a list of words which
     will be retained in concordance output; any word not mentioned in
     this file is ignored.  The file is called the "Only file".  The
     file contains exactly one word in each line; the end of line
     separation of words is not subject to the value of the '-S' option.

     There is no default for the Only file.  When both an Only file and
     an Ignore file are specified, a word is considered a keyword only
     if it is listed in the Only file and not in the Ignore file.

'-r'
'--references'

     On each input line, the leading sequence of non-white space
     characters will be taken to be a reference that has the purpose of
     identifying this input line in the resulting permuted index.  *Note
     Output formatting in ptx::, for more information about reference
     production.  Using this option changes the default value for option
     '-S'.

     Using this option, the program does not try very hard to remove
     references from contexts in output, but it succeeds in doing so
     _when_ the context ends exactly at the newline.  If option '-r' is
     used with '-S' default value, or when GNU extensions are disabled,
     this condition is always met and references are completely excluded
     from the output contexts.

'-S REGEXP'
'--sentence-regexp=REGEXP'

     This option selects which regular expression will describe the end
     of a line or the end of a sentence.  In fact, this regular
     expression is not the only distinction between end of lines or end
     of sentences, and input line boundaries have no special
     significance outside this option.  By default, when GNU extensions
     are enabled and if '-r' option is not used, end of sentences are
     used.  In this case, this REGEX is imported from GNU Emacs:

          [.?!][]\"')}]*\\($\\|\t\\|  \\)[ \t\n]*

     Whenever GNU extensions are disabled or if '-r' option is used, end
     of lines are used; in this case, the default REGEXP is just:

          \n

     Using an empty REGEXP is equivalent to completely disabling end of
     line or end of sentence recognition.  In this case, the whole file
     is considered to be a single big line or sentence.  The user might
     want to disallow all truncation flag generation as well, through
     option '-F ""'.  *Note Syntax of Regular Expressions:
     (emacs)Regexps.

     When the keywords happen to be near the beginning of the input line
     or sentence, this often creates an unused area at the beginning of
     the output context line; when the keywords happen to be near the
     end of the input line or sentence, this often creates an unused
     area at the end of the output context line.  The program tries to
     fill those unused areas by wrapping around context in them; the
     tail of the input line or sentence is used to fill the unused area
     on the left of the output line; the head of the input line or
     sentence is used to fill the unused area on the right of the output
     line.

     As a matter of convenience to the user, many usual backslashed
     escape sequences from the C language are recognized and converted
     to the corresponding characters by 'ptx' itself.

'-W REGEXP'
'--word-regexp=REGEXP'

     This option selects which regular expression will describe each
     keyword.  By default, if GNU extensions are enabled, a word is a
     sequence of letters; the REGEXP used is '\w+'.  When GNU extensions
     are disabled, a word is by default anything which ends with a
     space, a tab or a newline; the REGEXP used is '[^ \t\n]+'.

     An empty REGEXP is equivalent to not using this option.  *Note
     Syntax of Regular Expressions: (emacs)Regexps.

     As a matter of convenience to the user, many usual backslashed
     escape sequences, as found in the C language, are recognized and
     converted to the corresponding characters by 'ptx' itself.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Output formatting in ptx,  Next: Compatibility in ptx,  Prev: Input processing in ptx,  Up: ptx invocation

7.5.4 Output formatting
-----------------------

Output format is mainly controlled by the '-O' and '-T' options
described in the table below.  When neither '-O' nor '-T' are selected,
and if GNU extensions are enabled, the program chooses an output format
suitable for a dumb terminal.  Each keyword occurrence is output to the
center of one line, surrounded by its left and right contexts.  Each
field is properly justified, so the concordance output can be readily
observed.  As a special feature, if automatic references are selected by
option '-A' and are output before the left context, that is, if option
'-R' is _not_ selected, then a colon is added after the reference; this
nicely interfaces with GNU Emacs 'next-error' processing.  In this
default output format, each white space character, like newline and tab,
is merely changed to exactly one space, with no special attempt to
compress consecutive spaces.  This might change in the future.  Except
for those white space characters, every other character of the
underlying set of 256 characters is transmitted verbatim.

   Output format is further controlled by the following options.

'-g NUMBER'
'--gap-size=NUMBER'

     Select the size of the minimum white space gap between the fields
     on the output line.

'-w NUMBER'
'--width=NUMBER'

     Select the maximum output width of each final line.  If references
     are used, they are included or excluded from the maximum output
     width depending on the value of option '-R'.  If this option is not
     selected, that is, when references are output before the left
     context, the maximum output width takes into account the maximum
     length of all references.  If this option is selected, that is,
     when references are output after the right context, the maximum
     output width does not take into account the space taken by
     references, nor the gap that precedes them.

'-A'
'--auto-reference'

     Select automatic references.  Each input line will have an
     automatic reference made up of the file name and the line ordinal,
     with a single colon between them.  However, the file name will be
     empty when standard input is being read.  If both '-A' and '-r' are
     selected, then the input reference is still read and skipped, but
     the automatic reference is used at output time, overriding the
     input reference.

'-R'
'--right-side-refs'

     In the default output format, when option '-R' is not used, any
     references produced by the effect of options '-r' or '-A' are
     placed to the far right of output lines, after the right context.
     With default output format, when the '-R' option is specified,
     references are rather placed at the beginning of each output line,
     before the left context.  For any other output format, option '-R'
     is ignored, with one exception: with '-R' the width of references
     is _not_ taken into account in total output width given by '-w'.

     This option is automatically selected whenever GNU extensions are
     disabled.

'-F STRING'
'--flag-truncation=STRING'

     This option will request that any truncation in the output be
     reported using the string STRING.  Most output fields theoretically
     extend towards the beginning or the end of the current line, or
     current sentence, as selected with option '-S'.  But there is a
     maximum allowed output line width, changeable through option '-w',
     which is further divided into space for various output fields.
     When a field has to be truncated because it cannot extend beyond
     the beginning or the end of the current line to fit in, then a
     truncation occurs.  By default, the string used is a single slash,
     as in '-F /'.

     STRING may have more than one character, as in '-F ...'.  Also, in
     the particular case when STRING is empty ('-F ""'), truncation
     flagging is disabled, and no truncation marks are appended in this
     case.

     As a matter of convenience to the user, many usual backslashed
     escape sequences, as found in the C language, are recognized and
     converted to the corresponding characters by 'ptx' itself.

'-M STRING'
'--macro-name=STRING'

     Select another STRING to be used instead of 'xx', while generating
     output suitable for 'nroff', 'troff' or TeX.

'-O'
'--format=roff'

     Choose an output format suitable for 'nroff' or 'troff' processing.
     Each output line will look like:

          .xx "TAIL" "BEFORE" "KEYWORD_AND_AFTER" "HEAD" "REF"

     so it will be possible to write a '.xx' roff macro to take care of
     the output typesetting.  This is the default output format when GNU
     extensions are disabled.  Option '-M' can be used to change 'xx' to
     another macro name.

     In this output format, each non-graphical character, like newline
     and tab, is merely changed to exactly one space, with no special
     attempt to compress consecutive spaces.  Each quote character '"'
     is doubled so it will be correctly processed by 'nroff' or 'troff'.

'-T'
'--format=tex'

     Choose an output format suitable for TeX processing.  Each output
     line will look like:

          \xx {TAIL}{BEFORE}{KEYWORD}{AFTER}{HEAD}{REF}

     so it will be possible to write a '\xx' definition to take care of
     the output typesetting.  Note that when references are not being
     produced, that is, neither option '-A' nor option '-r' is selected,
     the last parameter of each '\xx' call is inhibited.  Option '-M'
     can be used to change 'xx' to another macro name.

     In this output format, some special characters, like '$', '%', '&',
     '#' and '_' are automatically protected with a backslash.  Curly
     brackets '{', '}' are protected with a backslash and a pair of
     dollar signs (to force mathematical mode).  The backslash itself
     produces the sequence '\backslash{}'.  Circumflex and tilde
     diacritical marks produce the sequence '^\{ }' and '~\{ }'
     respectively.  Other diacriticized characters of the underlying
     character set produce an appropriate TeX sequence as far as
     possible.  The other non-graphical characters, like newline and
     tab, and all other characters which are not part of ASCII, are
     merely changed to exactly one space, with no special attempt to
     compress consecutive spaces.  Let me know how to improve this
     special character processing for TeX.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Compatibility in ptx,  Prev: Output formatting in ptx,  Up: ptx invocation

7.5.5 The GNU extensions to 'ptx'
---------------------------------

This version of 'ptx' contains a few features which do not exist in
System V 'ptx'.  These extra features are suppressed by using the '-G'
command line option, unless overridden by other command line options.
Some GNU extensions cannot be recovered by overriding, so the simple
rule is to avoid '-G' if you care about GNU extensions.  Here are the
differences between this program and System V 'ptx'.

   * This program can read many input files at once, it always writes
     the resulting concordance on standard output.  On the other hand,
     System V 'ptx' reads only one file and sends the result to standard
     output or, if a second FILE parameter is given on the command, to
     that FILE.

     Having output parameters not introduced by options is a dangerous
     practice which GNU avoids as far as possible.  So, for using 'ptx'
     portably between GNU and System V, you should always use it with a
     single input file, and always expect the result on standard output.
     You might also want to automatically configure in a '-G' option to
     'ptx' calls in products using 'ptx', if the configurator finds that
     the installed 'ptx' accepts '-G'.

   * The only options available in System V 'ptx' are options '-b',
     '-f', '-g', '-i', '-o', '-r', '-t' and '-w'.  All other options are
     GNU extensions and are not repeated in this enumeration.  Moreover,
     some options have a slightly different meaning when GNU extensions
     are enabled, as explained below.

   * By default, concordance output is not formatted for 'troff' or
     'nroff'.  It is rather formatted for a dumb terminal.  'troff' or
     'nroff' output may still be selected through option '-O'.

   * Unless '-R' option is used, the maximum reference width is
     subtracted from the total output line width.  With GNU extensions
     disabled, width of references is not taken into account in the
     output line width computations.

   * All 256 bytes, even ASCII NUL bytes, are always read and processed
     from input file with no adverse effect, even if GNU extensions are
     disabled.  However, System V 'ptx' does not accept 8-bit
     characters, a few control characters are rejected, and the tilde
     '~' is also rejected.

   * Input line length is only limited by available memory, even if GNU
     extensions are disabled.  However, System V 'ptx' processes only
     the first 200 characters in each line.

   * The break (non-word) characters default to be every character
     except all letters of the underlying character set, diacriticized
     or not.  When GNU extensions are disabled, the break characters
     default to space, tab and newline only.

   * The program makes better use of output line width.  If GNU
     extensions are disabled, the program rather tries to imitate System
     V 'ptx', but still, there are some slight disposition glitches this
     program does not completely reproduce.

   * The user can specify both an Ignore file and an Only file.  This is
     not allowed with System V 'ptx'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tsort invocation,  Prev: ptx invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.6 'tsort': Topological sort
=============================

'tsort' performs a topological sort on the given FILE, or standard input
if no input file is given or for a FILE of '-'.  For more details and
some history, see *note tsort background::.  Synopsis:

     tsort [OPTION] [FILE]

   'tsort' reads its input as pairs of strings, separated by blanks,
indicating a partial ordering.  The output is a total ordering that
corresponds to the given partial ordering.

   For example

     tsort <<EOF
     a b c
     d
     e f
     b c d e
     EOF

will produce the output

     a
     b
     c
     d
     e
     f

   Consider a more realistic example.  You have a large set of functions
all in one file, and they may all be declared static except one.
Currently that one (say 'main') is the first function defined in the
file, and the ones it calls directly follow it, followed by those they
call, etc.  Let's say that you are determined to take advantage of
prototypes, so you have to choose between declaring all of those
functions (which means duplicating a lot of information from the
definitions) and rearranging the functions so that as many as possible
are defined before they are used.  One way to automate the latter
process is to get a list for each function of the functions it calls
directly.  Many programs can generate such lists.  They describe a call
graph.  Consider the following list, in which a given line indicates
that the function on the left calls the one on the right directly.

     main parse_options
     main tail_file
     main tail_forever
     tail_file pretty_name
     tail_file write_header
     tail_file tail
     tail_forever recheck
     tail_forever pretty_name
     tail_forever write_header
     tail_forever dump_remainder
     tail tail_lines
     tail tail_bytes
     tail_lines start_lines
     tail_lines dump_remainder
     tail_lines file_lines
     tail_lines pipe_lines
     tail_bytes xlseek
     tail_bytes start_bytes
     tail_bytes dump_remainder
     tail_bytes pipe_bytes
     file_lines dump_remainder
     recheck pretty_name

   then you can use 'tsort' to produce an ordering of those functions
that satisfies your requirement.

     example$ tsort call-graph | tac
     dump_remainder
     start_lines
     file_lines
     pipe_lines
     xlseek
     start_bytes
     pipe_bytes
     tail_lines
     tail_bytes
     pretty_name
     write_header
     tail
     recheck
     parse_options
     tail_file
     tail_forever
     main

   'tsort' detects any cycles in the input and writes the first cycle
encountered to standard error.

   Note that for a given partial ordering, generally there is no unique
total ordering.  In the context of the call graph above, the function
'parse_options' may be placed anywhere in the list as long as it
precedes 'main'.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

* Menu:

* tsort background::            Where tsort came from.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tsort background,  Up: tsort invocation

7.6.1 'tsort': Background
-------------------------

'tsort' exists because very early versions of the Unix linker processed
an archive file exactly once, and in order.  As 'ld' read each object in
the archive, it decided whether it was needed in the program based on
whether it defined any symbols which were undefined at that point in the
link.

   This meant that dependencies within the archive had to be handled
specially.  For example, 'scanf' probably calls 'read'.  That means that
in a single pass through an archive, it was important for 'scanf.o' to
appear before read.o, because otherwise a program which calls 'scanf'
but not 'read' might end up with an unexpected unresolved reference to
'read'.

   The way to address this problem was to first generate a set of
dependencies of one object file on another.  This was done by a shell
script called 'lorder'.  The GNU tools don't provide a version of
lorder, as far as I know, but you can still find it in BSD
distributions.

   Then you ran 'tsort' over the 'lorder' output, and you used the
resulting sort to define the order in which you added objects to the
archive.

   This whole procedure has been obsolete since about 1980, because Unix
archives now contain a symbol table (traditionally built by 'ranlib',
now generally built by 'ar' itself), and the Unix linker uses the symbol
table to effectively make multiple passes over an archive file.

   Anyhow, that's where tsort came from.  To solve an old problem with
the way the linker handled archive files, which has since been solved in
different ways.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Operating on fields,  Next: Operating on characters,  Prev: Operating on sorted files,  Up: Top

8 Operating on fields
*********************

* Menu:

* cut invocation::              Print selected parts of lines.
* paste invocation::            Merge lines of files.
* join invocation::             Join lines on a common field.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: cut invocation,  Next: paste invocation,  Up: Operating on fields

8.1 'cut': Print selected parts of lines
========================================

'cut' writes to standard output selected parts of each line of each
input file, or standard input if no files are given or for a file name
of '-'.  Synopsis:

     cut OPTION... [FILE]...

   In the table which follows, the BYTE-LIST, CHARACTER-LIST, and
FIELD-LIST are one or more numbers or ranges (two numbers separated by a
dash) separated by commas.  Bytes, characters, and fields are numbered
starting at 1.  Incomplete ranges may be given: '-M' means '1-M'; 'N-'
means 'N' through end of line or last field.  The list elements can be
repeated, can overlap, and can be specified in any order; but the
selected input is written in the same order that it is read, and is
written exactly once.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b BYTE-LIST'
'--bytes=BYTE-LIST'
     Select for printing only the bytes in positions listed in
     BYTE-LIST.  Tabs and backspaces are treated like any other
     character; they take up 1 byte.  If an output delimiter is
     specified, (see the description of '--output-delimiter'), then
     output that string between ranges of selected bytes.

'-c CHARACTER-LIST'
'--characters=CHARACTER-LIST'
     Select for printing only the characters in positions listed in
     CHARACTER-LIST.  The same as '-b' for now, but internationalization
     will change that.  Tabs and backspaces are treated like any other
     character; they take up 1 character.  If an output delimiter is
     specified, (see the description of '--output-delimiter'), then
     output that string between ranges of selected bytes.

'-f FIELD-LIST'
'--fields=FIELD-LIST'
     Select for printing only the fields listed in FIELD-LIST.  Fields
     are separated by a TAB character by default.  Also print any line
     that contains no delimiter character, unless the '--only-delimited'
     ('-s') option is specified.

     Note 'awk' supports more sophisticated field processing, like
     reordering fields, and handling fields aligned with blank
     characters.  By default 'awk' uses (and discards) runs of blank
     characters to separate fields, and ignores leading and trailing
     blanks.
          awk '{print $2}'      # print the second field
          awk '{print $(NF-1)}' # print the penultimate field
          awk '{print $2,$1}'   # reorder the first two fields
     Note while 'cut' accepts field specifications in arbitrary order,
     output is always in the order encountered in the file.

     In the unlikely event that 'awk' is unavailable, one can use the
     'join' command, to process blank characters as 'awk' does above.
          join -a1 -o 1.2     - /dev/null # print the second field
          join -a1 -o 1.2,1.1 - /dev/null # reorder the first two fields

'-d INPUT_DELIM_BYTE'
'--delimiter=INPUT_DELIM_BYTE'
     With '-f', use the first byte of INPUT_DELIM_BYTE as the input
     fields separator (default is TAB).

'-n'
     Do not split multi-byte characters (no-op for now).

'-s'
'--only-delimited'
     For '-f', do not print lines that do not contain the field
     separator character.  Normally, any line without a field separator
     is printed verbatim.

'--output-delimiter=OUTPUT_DELIM_STRING'
     With '-f', output fields are separated by OUTPUT_DELIM_STRING.  The
     default with '-f' is to use the input delimiter.  When using '-b'
     or '-c' to select ranges of byte or character offsets (as opposed
     to ranges of fields), output OUTPUT_DELIM_STRING between
     non-overlapping ranges of selected bytes.

'--complement'
     This option is a GNU extension.  Select for printing the complement
     of the bytes, characters or fields selected with the '-b', '-c' or
     '-f' options.  In other words, do _not_ print the bytes, characters
     or fields specified via those options.  This option is useful when
     you have many fields and want to print all but a few of them.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: paste invocation,  Next: join invocation,  Prev: cut invocation,  Up: Operating on fields

8.2 'paste': Merge lines of files
=================================

'paste' writes to standard output lines consisting of sequentially
corresponding lines of each given file, separated by a TAB character.
Standard input is used for a file name of '-' or if no input files are
given.

   Synopsis:

     paste [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   For example, with:
     $ cat num2
     1
     2
     $ cat let3
     a
     b
     c

   Take lines sequentially from each file:
     $ paste num2 let3
     1       a
     2       b
             c

   Duplicate lines from a file:
     $ paste num2 let3 num2
     1       a      1
     2       b      2
             c

   Intermix lines from stdin:
     $ paste - let3 - < num2
     1       a      2
             b
             c

   Join consecutive lines with a space:
     $ seq 4 | paste -d ' ' - -
     1 2
     3 4

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-s'
'--serial'
     Paste the lines of one file at a time rather than one line from
     each file.  Using the above example data:

          $ paste -s num2 let3
          1       2
          a       b       c

'-d DELIM-LIST'
'--delimiters=DELIM-LIST'
     Consecutively use the characters in DELIM-LIST instead of TAB to
     separate merged lines.  When DELIM-LIST is exhausted, start again
     at its beginning.  Using the above example data:

          $ paste -d '%_' num2 let3 num2
          1%a_1
          2%b_2
          %c_

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: join invocation,  Prev: paste invocation,  Up: Operating on fields

8.3 'join': Join lines on a common field
========================================

'join' writes to standard output a line for each pair of input lines
that have identical join fields.  Synopsis:

     join [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2

   Either FILE1 or FILE2 (but not both) can be '-', meaning standard
input.  FILE1 and FILE2 should be sorted on the join fields.

     $ cat file1
     a 1
     b 2
     e 5

     $ cat file2
     a X
     e Y
     f Z

     $ join file1 file2
     a 1 X
     e 5 Y

'join''s default behavior (when no options are given):
   * the join field is the first field in each line;
   * fields in the input are separated by one or more blanks, with
     leading blanks on the line ignored;
   * fields in the output are separated by a space;
   * each output line consists of the join field, the remaining fields
     from FILE1, then the remaining fields from FILE2.

* Menu:

* General options in join::      Options which affect general program behavior.
* Sorting files for join::       Using 'sort' before 'join'.
* Working with fields::          Joining on different fields.
* Paired and unpaired lines::    Controlling 'join''s field matching.
* Header lines::                 Working with header lines in files.
* Set operations::               Union, Intersection and Difference of files.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: General options in join,  Next: Sorting files for join,  Up: join invocation

8.3.1 General options
---------------------

The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a FILE-NUMBER'
     Print a line for each unpairable line in file FILE-NUMBER (either
     '1' or '2'), in addition to the normal output.

'--check-order'
     Fail with an error message if either input file is wrongly ordered.

'--nocheck-order'
     Do not check that both input files are in sorted order.  This is
     the default.

'-e STRING'
     Replace those output fields that are missing in the input with
     STRING.  I.e., missing fields specified with the '-12jo' options.

'--header'
     Treat the first line of each input file as a header line.  The
     header lines will be joined and printed as the first output line.
     If '-o' is used to specify output format, the header line will be
     printed according to the specified format.  The header lines will
     not be checked for ordering even if '--check-order' is specified.
     Also if the header lines from each file do not match, the heading
     fields from the first file will be used.

'-i'
'--ignore-case'
     Ignore differences in case when comparing keys.  With this option,
     the lines of the input files must be ordered in the same way.  Use
     'sort -f' to produce this ordering.

'-1 FIELD'
     Join on field FIELD (a positive integer) of file 1.

'-2 FIELD'
     Join on field FIELD (a positive integer) of file 2.

'-j FIELD'
     Equivalent to '-1 FIELD -2 FIELD'.

'-o FIELD-LIST'
'-o auto'
     If the keyword 'auto' is specified, infer the output format from
     the first line in each file.  This is the same as the default
     output format but also ensures the same number of fields are output
     for each line.  Missing fields are replaced with the '-e' option
     and extra fields are discarded.

     Otherwise, construct each output line according to the format in
     FIELD-LIST.  Each element in FIELD-LIST is either the single
     character '0' or has the form M.N where the file number, M, is '1'
     or '2' and N is a positive field number.

     A field specification of '0' denotes the join field.  In most
     cases, the functionality of the '0' field spec may be reproduced
     using the explicit M.N that corresponds to the join field.
     However, when printing unpairable lines (using either of the '-a'
     or '-v' options), there is no way to specify the join field using
     M.N in FIELD-LIST if there are unpairable lines in both files.  To
     give 'join' that functionality, POSIX invented the '0' field
     specification notation.

     The elements in FIELD-LIST are separated by commas or blanks.
     Blank separators typically need to be quoted for the shell.  For
     example, the commands 'join -o 1.2,2.2' and 'join -o '1.2 2.2'' are
     equivalent.

     All output lines--including those printed because of any -a or -v
     option--are subject to the specified FIELD-LIST.

'-t CHAR'
     Use character CHAR as the input and output field separator.  Treat
     as significant each occurrence of CHAR in the input file.  Use
     'sort -t CHAR', without the '-b' option of 'sort', to produce this
     ordering.  If 'join -t ''' is specified, the whole line is
     considered, matching the default operation of sort.  If '-t '\0''
     is specified then the ASCII NUL character is used to delimit the
     fields.

'-v FILE-NUMBER'
     Print a line for each unpairable line in file FILE-NUMBER (either
     '1' or '2'), instead of the normal output.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).  Note with
     '-z' the newline character is treated as a field separator.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   If the '--check-order' option is given, unsorted inputs will cause a
fatal error message.  If the option '--nocheck-order' is given, unsorted
inputs will never cause an error message.  If neither of these options
is given, wrongly sorted inputs are diagnosed only if an input file is
found to contain unpairable lines, and when both input files are non
empty.  If an input file is diagnosed as being unsorted, the 'join'
command will exit with a nonzero status (and the output should not be
used).

   Forcing 'join' to process wrongly sorted input files containing
unpairable lines by specifying '--nocheck-order' is not guaranteed to
produce any particular output.  The output will probably not correspond
with whatever you hoped it would be.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Sorting files for join,  Next: Working with fields,  Prev: General options in join,  Up: join invocation

8.3.2 Pre-sorting
-----------------

'join' requires sorted input files.  Each input file should be sorted
according to the key (=field/column number) used in 'join'.  The
recommended sorting option is 'sort -k 1b,1' (assuming the desired key
is in the first column).

Typical usage:
     $ sort -k 1b,1 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -k 1b,1 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

   Normally, the sort order is that of the collating sequence specified
by the 'LC_COLLATE' locale.  Unless the '-t' option is given, the sort
comparison ignores blanks at the start of the join field, as in 'sort
-b'.  If the '--ignore-case' option is given, the sort comparison
ignores the case of characters in the join field, as in 'sort -f':

     $ sort -k 1bf,1 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -k 1bf,1 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join --ignore-case file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

   The 'sort' and 'join' commands should use consistent locales and
options if the output of 'sort' is fed to 'join'.  You can use a command
like 'sort -k 1b,1' to sort a file on its default join field, but if you
select a non-default locale, join field, separator, or comparison
options, then you should do so consistently between 'join' and 'sort'.

To avoid any locale-related issues, it is recommended to use the 'C'
locale for both commands:

     $ LC_ALL=C sort -k 1b,1 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ LC_ALL=C sort -k 1b,1 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ LC_ALL=C join file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Working with fields,  Next: Paired and unpaired lines,  Prev: Sorting files for join,  Up: join invocation

8.3.3 Working with fields
-------------------------

Use '-1','-2' to set the key fields for each of the input files.  Ensure
the preceding 'sort' commands operated on the same fields.

The following example joins two files, using the values from seventh
field of the first file and the third field of the second file:

     $ sort -k 7b,7 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -k 3b,3 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join -1 7 -2 3 file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

If the field number is the same for both files, use '-j':

     $ sort -k4b,4 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -k4b,4 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join -j4    file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

Both 'sort' and 'join' operate of whitespace-delimited fields.  To
specify a different delimiter, use '-t' in _both_:

     $ sort -t, -k3b,3 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -t, -k3b,3 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join -t, -j3    file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

To specify a tab (ASCII 0x09) character instead of whitespace, use (1):

     $ sort -t$'\t' -k3b,3 file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort -t$'\t' -k3b,3 file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join -t$'\t' -j3    file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

If 'join -t ''' is specified then the whole line is considered which
matches the default operation of sort:

     $ sort file1 > file1.sorted
     $ sort file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join -t'' file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) the '$'\t'' is supported in most modern shells.  For older
shells, use a literal tab

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Paired and unpaired lines,  Next: Header lines,  Prev: Working with fields,  Up: join invocation

8.3.4 Controlling 'join''s field matching
-----------------------------------------

In this section the 'sort' commands are omitted for brevity.  Sorting
the files before joining is still required.

   'join''s default behavior is to print only lines common to both input
files.  Use '-a' and '-v' to print unpairable lines from one or both
files.

All examples below use the following two (pre-sorted) input files:

     $ cat file1                          $ cat file2
     a 1                                  a A
     b 2                                  c C

Command                              Outcome

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
     $ join file1 file2              common lines (_intersection_)
     a 1 A
     $ join -a 1 file1 file2         common lines _and_ unpaired lines
     a 1 A                           from the first file
     b 2
     $ join -a 2 file1 file2         common lines _and_ unpaired lines
     a 1 A                           from the second file
     c C
     $ join -a 1 -a 2 file1 file2    all lines (paired and unpaired)
     a 1 A                           from both files (_union_).
     b 2                             see note below regarding '-o
     c C                             auto'.

     $ join -v 1 file1 file2         unpaired lines from the first file
     b 1                             (_difference_)

     $ join -v 2 file1 file2         unpaired lines from the second
     c C                             file (_difference_)

     $ join -v 1 -v 2 file1 file2    unpaired lines from both files,
     b 2                             omitting common lines (_symmetric
     c C                             difference_).


The '-o auto -e X' options are useful when dealing with unpaired lines.
The following example prints all lines (common and unpaired) from both
files.  Without '-o auto' it is not easy to discern which fields
originate from which file:

     $ join -a 1 -a 2 file1 file2
     a 1 A
     b 2
     c C

     $ join -o auto -e X -a 1 -a 2 file1 file2
     a 1 A
     b 2 X
     c X C

   If the input has no unpairable lines, a GNU extension is available;
the sort order can be any order that considers two fields to be equal if
and only if the sort comparison described above considers them to be
equal.  For example:

     $ cat file1
     a a1
     c c1
     b b1

     $ cat file2
     a a2
     c c2
     b b2
     $ join file1 file2
     a a1 a2
     c c1 c2
     b b1 b2

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Header lines,  Next: Set operations,  Prev: Paired and unpaired lines,  Up: join invocation

8.3.5 Header lines
------------------

The '--header' option can be used when the files to join have a header
line which is not sorted:

     $ cat file1
     Name     Age
     Alice    25
     Charlie  34

     $ cat file2
     Name   Country
     Alice  France
     Bob    Spain

     $ join --header -o auto -e NA -a1 -a2 file1 file2
     Name     Age   Country
     Alice    25    France
     Bob      NA    Spain
     Charlie  34    NA

   To sort a file with a header line, use GNU 'sed -u'.  The following
example sort the files but keeps the first line of each file in place:

     $ ( sed -u 1q ; sort -k2b,2 ) < file1 > file1.sorted
     $ ( sed -u 1q ; sort -k2b,2 ) < file2 > file2.sorted
     $ join --header -o auto -e NA -a1 -a2 file1.sorted file2.sorted > file3

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Set operations,  Prev: Header lines,  Up: join invocation

8.3.6 Union, Intersection and Difference of files
-------------------------------------------------

Combine 'sort', 'uniq' and 'join' to perform the equivalent of set
operations on files:

Command                              outcome
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
'sort -u file1 file2'                Union of unsorted files

'sort file1 file2 | uniq -d'         Intersection of unsorted files

'sort file1 file1 file2 | uniq'      Difference of unsorted files

'sort file1 file2 | uniq -u'         Symmetric Difference of unsorted
                                     files

'join -t'' -a1 -a2 file1 file2'      Union of sorted files

'join -t'' file1 file2'              Intersection of sorted files

'join -t'' -v2 file1 file2'          Difference of sorted files

'join -t'' -v1 -v2 file1 file2'      Symmetric Difference of sorted
                                     files


   All examples above operate on entire lines and not on specific
fields: 'sort' without '-k' and 'join -t''' both consider entire lines
as the key.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Operating on characters,  Next: Directory listing,  Prev: Operating on fields,  Up: Top

9 Operating on characters
*************************

These commands operate on individual characters.

* Menu:

* tr invocation::               Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters.
* expand invocation::           Convert tabs to spaces.
* unexpand invocation::         Convert spaces to tabs.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tr invocation,  Next: expand invocation,  Up: Operating on characters

9.1 'tr': Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
======================================================

Synopsis:

     tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]

   'tr' copies standard input to standard output, performing one of the
following operations:

   * translate, and optionally squeeze repeated characters in the
     result,
   * squeeze repeated characters,
   * delete characters,
   * delete characters, then squeeze repeated characters from the
     result.

   The SET1 and (if given) SET2 arguments define ordered sets of
characters, referred to below as SET1 and SET2.  These sets are the
characters of the input that 'tr' operates on.  The '--complement'
('-c', '-C') option replaces SET1 with its complement (all of the
characters that are not in SET1).

   Currently 'tr' fully supports only single-byte characters.
Eventually it will support multibyte characters; when it does, the '-C'
option will cause it to complement the set of characters, whereas '-c'
will cause it to complement the set of values.  This distinction will
matter only when some values are not characters, and this is possible
only in locales using multibyte encodings when the input contains
encoding errors.

   The program accepts the '--help' and '--version' options.  *Note
Common options::.  Options must precede operands.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

* Menu:

* Character sets::              Specifying sets of characters.
* Translating::                 Changing one set of characters to another.
* Squeezing and deleting::      Removing characters.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Character sets,  Next: Translating,  Up: tr invocation

9.1.1 Specifying sets of characters
-----------------------------------

The format of the SET1 and SET2 arguments resembles the format of
regular expressions; however, they are not regular expressions, only
lists of characters.  Most characters simply represent themselves in
these strings, but the strings can contain the shorthands listed below,
for convenience.  Some of them can be used only in SET1 or SET2, as
noted below.

Backslash escapes

     The following backslash escape sequences are recognized:

     '\a'
          Control-G.
     '\b'
          Control-H.
     '\f'
          Control-L.
     '\n'
          Control-J.
     '\r'
          Control-M.
     '\t'
          Control-I.
     '\v'
          Control-K.
     '\OOO'
          The 8-bit character with the value given by OOO, which is 1 to
          3 octal digits.  Note that '\400' is interpreted as the
          two-byte sequence, '\040' '0'.
     '\\'
          A backslash.

     While a backslash followed by a character not listed above is
     interpreted as that character, the backslash also effectively
     removes any special significance, so it is useful to escape '[',
     ']', '*', and '-'.

Ranges

     The notation 'M-N' expands to all of the characters from M through
     N, in ascending order.  M should collate before N; if it doesn't,
     an error results.  As an example, '0-9' is the same as
     '0123456789'.

     GNU 'tr' does not support the System V syntax that uses square
     brackets to enclose ranges.  Translations specified in that format
     sometimes work as expected, since the brackets are often
     transliterated to themselves.  However, they should be avoided
     because they sometimes behave unexpectedly.  For example, 'tr -d
     '[0-9]'' deletes brackets as well as digits.

     Many historically common and even accepted uses of ranges are not
     portable.  For example, on EBCDIC hosts using the 'A-Z' range will
     not do what most would expect because 'A' through 'Z' are not
     contiguous as they are in ASCII.  If you can rely on a POSIX
     compliant version of 'tr', then the best way to work around this is
     to use character classes (see below).  Otherwise, it is most
     portable (and most ugly) to enumerate the members of the ranges.

Repeated characters

     The notation '[C*N]' in SET2 expands to N copies of character C.
     Thus, '[y*6]' is the same as 'yyyyyy'.  The notation '[C*]' in
     STRING2 expands to as many copies of C as are needed to make SET2
     as long as SET1.  If N begins with '0', it is interpreted in octal,
     otherwise in decimal.

Character classes

     The notation '[:CLASS:]' expands to all of the characters in the
     (predefined) class CLASS.  The characters expand in no particular
     order, except for the 'upper' and 'lower' classes, which expand in
     ascending order.  When the '--delete' ('-d') and
     '--squeeze-repeats' ('-s') options are both given, any character
     class can be used in SET2.  Otherwise, only the character classes
     'lower' and 'upper' are accepted in SET2, and then only if the
     corresponding character class ('upper' and 'lower', respectively)
     is specified in the same relative position in SET1.  Doing this
     specifies case conversion.  The class names are given below; an
     error results when an invalid class name is given.

     'alnum'
          Letters and digits.
     'alpha'
          Letters.
     'blank'
          Horizontal whitespace.
     'cntrl'
          Control characters.
     'digit'
          Digits.
     'graph'
          Printable characters, not including space.
     'lower'
          Lowercase letters.
     'print'
          Printable characters, including space.
     'punct'
          Punctuation characters.
     'space'
          Horizontal or vertical whitespace.
     'upper'
          Uppercase letters.
     'xdigit'
          Hexadecimal digits.

Equivalence classes

     The syntax '[=C=]' expands to all of the characters that are
     equivalent to C, in no particular order.  Equivalence classes are a
     relatively recent invention intended to support non-English
     alphabets.  But there seems to be no standard way to define them or
     determine their contents.  Therefore, they are not fully
     implemented in GNU 'tr'; each character's equivalence class
     consists only of that character, which is of no particular use.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Translating,  Next: Squeezing and deleting,  Prev: Character sets,  Up: tr invocation

9.1.2 Translating
-----------------

'tr' performs translation when SET1 and SET2 are both given and the
'--delete' ('-d') option is not given.  'tr' translates each character
of its input that is in SET1 to the corresponding character in SET2.
Characters not in SET1 are passed through unchanged.  When a character
appears more than once in SET1 and the corresponding characters in SET2
are not all the same, only the final one is used.  For example, these
two commands are equivalent:

     tr aaa xyz
     tr a z

   A common use of 'tr' is to convert lowercase characters to uppercase.
This can be done in many ways.  Here are three of them:

     tr abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
     tr a-z A-Z
     tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'

But note that using ranges like 'a-z' above is not portable.

   When 'tr' is performing translation, SET1 and SET2 typically have the
same length.  If SET1 is shorter than SET2, the extra characters at the
end of SET2 are ignored.

   On the other hand, making SET1 longer than SET2 is not portable;
POSIX says that the result is undefined.  In this situation, BSD 'tr'
pads SET2 to the length of SET1 by repeating the last character of SET2
as many times as necessary.  System V 'tr' truncates SET1 to the length
of SET2.

   By default, GNU 'tr' handles this case like BSD 'tr'.  When the
'--truncate-set1' ('-t') option is given, GNU 'tr' handles this case
like the System V 'tr' instead.  This option is ignored for operations
other than translation.

   Acting like System V 'tr' in this case breaks the relatively common
BSD idiom:

     tr -cs A-Za-z0-9 '\012'

because it converts only zero bytes (the first element in the complement
of SET1), rather than all non-alphanumerics, to newlines.

By the way, the above idiom is not portable because it uses ranges, and
it assumes that the octal code for newline is 012.  Assuming a POSIX
compliant 'tr', here is a better way to write it:

     tr -cs '[:alnum:]' '[\n*]'

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Squeezing and deleting,  Prev: Translating,  Up: tr invocation

9.1.3 Squeezing repeats and deleting
------------------------------------

When given just the '--delete' ('-d') option, 'tr' removes any input
characters that are in SET1.

   When given just the '--squeeze-repeats' ('-s') option and not
translating, 'tr' replaces each input sequence of a repeated character
that is in SET1 with a single occurrence of that character.

   When given both '--delete' and '--squeeze-repeats', 'tr' first
performs any deletions using SET1, then squeezes repeats from any
remaining characters using SET2.

   The '--squeeze-repeats' option may also be used when translating, in
which case 'tr' first performs translation, then squeezes repeats from
any remaining characters using SET2.

   Here are some examples to illustrate various combinations of options:

   * Remove all zero bytes:

          tr -d '\0'

   * Put all words on lines by themselves.  This converts all
     non-alphanumeric characters to newlines, then squeezes each string
     of repeated newlines into a single newline:

          tr -cs '[:alnum:]' '[\n*]'

   * Convert each sequence of repeated newlines to a single newline.
     I.e., delete blank lines:

          tr -s '\n'

   * Find doubled occurrences of words in a document.  For example,
     people often write "the the" with the repeated words separated by a
     newline.  The Bourne shell script below works first by converting
     each sequence of punctuation and blank characters to a single
     newline.  That puts each "word" on a line by itself.  Next it maps
     all uppercase characters to lower case, and finally it runs 'uniq'
     with the '-d' option to print out only the words that were
     repeated.

          #!/bin/sh
          cat -- "$@" \
            | tr -s '[:punct:][:blank:]' '[\n*]' \
            | tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' \
            | uniq -d

   * Deleting a small set of characters is usually straightforward.  For
     example, to remove all 'a's, 'x's, and 'M's you would do this:

          tr -d axM

     However, when '-' is one of those characters, it can be tricky
     because '-' has special meanings.  Performing the same task as
     above but also removing all '-' characters, we might try 'tr -d
     -axM', but that would fail because 'tr' would try to interpret '-a'
     as a command-line option.  Alternatively, we could try putting the
     hyphen inside the string, 'tr -d a-xM', but that wouldn't work
     either because it would make 'tr' interpret 'a-x' as the range of
     characters 'a'...'x' rather than the three.  One way to solve the
     problem is to put the hyphen at the end of the list of characters:

          tr -d axM-

     Or you can use '--' to terminate option processing:

          tr -d -- -axM

     More generally, use the character class notation '[=c=]' with '-'
     (or any other character) in place of the 'c':

          tr -d '[=-=]axM'

     Note how single quotes are used in the above example to protect the
     square brackets from interpretation by a shell.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: expand invocation,  Next: unexpand invocation,  Prev: tr invocation,  Up: Operating on characters

9.2 'expand': Convert tabs to spaces
====================================

'expand' writes the contents of each given FILE, or standard input if
none are given or for a FILE of '-', to standard output, with tab
characters converted to the appropriate number of spaces.  Synopsis:

     expand [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   By default, 'expand' converts all tabs to spaces.  It preserves
backspace characters in the output; they decrement the column count for
tab calculations.  The default action is equivalent to '-t 8' (set tabs
every 8 columns).

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-t TAB1[,TAB2]...'
'--tabs=TAB1[,TAB2]...'
     If only one tab stop is given, set the tabs TAB1 spaces apart
     (default is 8).  Otherwise, set the tabs at columns TAB1, TAB2, ...
     (numbered from 0), and replace any tabs beyond the last tab stop
     given with single spaces.  Tab stops can be separated by blanks as
     well as by commas.

     As a GNU extension the last TAB specified can be prefixed with a
     '/' to indicate a tab size to use for remaining positions.  For
     example, '--tabs=2,4,/8' will set tab stops at position 2 and 4,
     and every multiple of 8 after that.

     Also the last TAB specified can be prefixed with a '+' to indicate
     a tab size to use for remaining positions, offset from the final
     explicitly specified tab stop.  For example, to ignore the 1
     character gutter present in diff output, one can specify a 1
     character offset using '--tabs=1,+8', which will set tab stops at
     positions 1,9,17,...

     For compatibility, GNU 'expand' also accepts the obsolete option
     syntax, '-T1[,T2]...'.  New scripts should use '-t T1[,T2]...'
     instead.

'-i'
'--initial'
     Only convert initial tabs (those that precede all non-space or
     non-tab characters) on each line to spaces.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: unexpand invocation,  Prev: expand invocation,  Up: Operating on characters

9.3 'unexpand': Convert spaces to tabs
======================================

'unexpand' writes the contents of each given FILE, or standard input if
none are given or for a FILE of '-', to standard output, converting
blanks at the beginning of each line into as many tab characters as
needed.  In the default POSIX locale, a "blank" is a space or a tab;
other locales may specify additional blank characters.  Synopsis:

     unexpand [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   By default, 'unexpand' converts only initial blanks (those that
precede all non-blank characters) on each line.  It preserves backspace
characters in the output; they decrement the column count for tab
calculations.  By default, tabs are set at every 8th column.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-t TAB1[,TAB2]...'
'--tabs=TAB1[,TAB2]...'
     If only one tab stop is given, set the tabs TAB1 columns apart
     instead of the default 8.  Otherwise, set the tabs at columns TAB1,
     TAB2, ... (numbered from 0), and leave blanks beyond the tab stops
     given unchanged.  Tab stops can be separated by blanks as well as
     by commas.

     As a GNU extension the last TAB specified can be prefixed with a
     '/' to indicate a tab size to use for remaining positions.  For
     example, '--tabs=2,4,/8' will set tab stops at position 2 and 4,
     and every multiple of 8 after that.

     Also the last TAB specified can be prefixed with a '+' to indicate
     a tab size to use for remaining positions, offset from the final
     explicitly specified tab stop.  For example, to ignore the 1
     character gutter present in diff output, one can specify a 1
     character offset using '--tabs=1,+8', which will set tab stops at
     positions 1,9,17,...

     This option implies the '-a' option.

     For compatibility, GNU 'unexpand' supports the obsolete option
     syntax, '-TAB1[,TAB2]...', where tab stops must be separated by
     commas.  (Unlike '-t', this obsolete option does not imply '-a'.)
     New scripts should use '--first-only -t TAB1[,TAB2]...' instead.

'-a'
'--all'
     Also convert all sequences of two or more blanks just before a tab
     stop, even if they occur after non-blank characters in a line.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Directory listing,  Next: Basic operations,  Prev: Operating on characters,  Up: Top

10 Directory listing
********************

This chapter describes the 'ls' command and its variants 'dir' and
'vdir', which list information about files.

* Menu:

* ls invocation::               List directory contents.
* dir invocation::              Briefly ls.
* vdir invocation::             Verbosely ls.
* dircolors invocation::        Color setup for ls, etc.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: ls invocation,  Next: dir invocation,  Up: Directory listing

10.1 'ls': List directory contents
==================================

The 'ls' program lists information about files (of any type, including
directories).  Options and file arguments can be intermixed arbitrarily,
as usual.

   For non-option command-line arguments that are directories, by
default 'ls' lists the contents of directories, not recursively, and
omitting files with names beginning with '.'.  For other non-option
arguments, by default 'ls' lists just the file name.  If no non-option
argument is specified, 'ls' operates on the current directory, acting as
if it had been invoked with a single argument of '.'.

   By default, the output is sorted alphabetically, according to the
locale settings in effect.(1)  If standard output is a terminal, the
output is in columns (sorted vertically) and control characters are
output as question marks; otherwise, the output is listed one per line
and control characters are output as-is.

   Because 'ls' is such a fundamental program, it has accumulated many
options over the years.  They are described in the subsections below;
within each section, options are listed alphabetically (ignoring case).
The division of options into the subsections is not absolute, since some
options affect more than one aspect of 'ls''s operation.

   Exit status:

     0 success
     1 minor problems  (e.g., failure to access a file or directory not
       specified as a command line argument.  This happens when listing a
       directory in which entries are actively being removed or renamed.)
     2 serious trouble (e.g., memory exhausted, invalid option, failure
       to access a file or directory specified as a command line argument
       or a directory loop)

   Also see *note Common options::.

* Menu:

* Which files are listed::
* What information is listed::
* Sorting the output::
* Details about version sort::
* General output formatting::
* Formatting file timestamps::
* Formatting the file names::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If you use a non-POSIX locale (e.g., by setting 'LC_ALL' to
'en_US'), then 'ls' may produce output that is sorted differently than
you're accustomed to.  In that case, set the 'LC_ALL' environment
variable to 'C'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Which files are listed,  Next: What information is listed,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.1 Which files are listed
-----------------------------

These options determine which files 'ls' lists information for.  By
default, 'ls' lists files and the contents of any directories on the
command line, except that in directories it ignores files whose names
start with '.'.

'-a'
'--all'
     In directories, do not ignore file names that start with '.'.

'-A'
'--almost-all'
     In directories, do not ignore all file names that start with '.';
     ignore only '.' and '..'.  The '--all' ('-a') option overrides this
     option.

'-B'
'--ignore-backups'
     In directories, ignore files that end with '~'.  This option is
     equivalent to '--ignore='*~' --ignore='.*~''.

'-d'
'--directory'
     List just the names of directories, as with other types of files,
     rather than listing their contents.  Do not follow symbolic links
     listed on the command line unless the '--dereference-command-line'
     ('-H'), '--dereference' ('-L'), or
     '--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir' options are specified.

'-H'
'--dereference-command-line'
     If a command line argument specifies a symbolic link, show
     information for the file the link references rather than for the
     link itself.

'--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir'
     Do not dereference symbolic links, with one exception: if a command
     line argument specifies a symbolic link that refers to a directory,
     show information for that directory rather than for the link
     itself.  This is the default behavior when no other
     dereferencing-related option has been specified ('--classify'
     ('-F'), '--directory' ('-d'), ('-l'), '--dereference' ('-L'), or
     '--dereference-command-line' ('-H')).

'--group-directories-first'
     Group all the directories before the files and then sort the
     directories and the files separately using the selected sort key
     (see -sort option).  That is, this option specifies a primary sort
     key, and the -sort option specifies a secondary key.  However, any
     use of '--sort=none' ('-U') disables this option altogether.

'--hide=PATTERN'
     In directories, ignore files whose names match the shell pattern
     PATTERN, unless the '--all' ('-a') or '--almost-all' ('-A') is also
     given.  This option acts like '--ignore=PATTERN' except that it has
     no effect if '--all' ('-a') or '--almost-all' ('-A') is also given.

     This option can be useful in shell aliases.  For example, if 'lx'
     is an alias for 'ls --hide='*~'' and 'ly' is an alias for 'ls
     --ignore='*~'', then the command 'lx -A' lists the file 'README~'
     even though 'ly -A' would not.

'-I PATTERN'
'--ignore=PATTERN'
     In directories, ignore files whose names match the shell pattern
     (not regular expression) PATTERN.  As in the shell, an initial '.'
     in a file name does not match a wildcard at the start of PATTERN.
     Sometimes it is useful to give this option several times.  For
     example,

          $ ls --ignore='.??*' --ignore='.[^.]' --ignore='#*'

     The first option ignores names of length 3 or more that start with
     '.', the second ignores all two-character names that start with '.'
     except '..', and the third ignores names that start with '#'.

'-L'
'--dereference'
     When showing file information for a symbolic link, show information
     for the file the link references rather than the link itself.
     However, even with this option, 'ls' still prints the name of the
     link itself, not the name of the file that the link points to.

'-R'
'--recursive'
     List the contents of all directories recursively.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: What information is listed,  Next: Sorting the output,  Prev: Which files are listed,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.2 What information is listed
---------------------------------

These options affect the information that 'ls' displays.  By default,
only file names are shown.

'--author'
     List each file's author when producing long format directory
     listings.  In GNU/Hurd, file authors can differ from their owners,
     but in other operating systems the two are the same.

'-D'
'--dired'
     With the long listing ('-l') format, print an additional line after
     the main output:

          //DIRED// BEG1 END1 BEG2 END2 ...

     The BEGN and ENDN are unsigned integers that record the byte
     position of the beginning and end of each file name in the output.
     This makes it easy for Emacs to find the names, even when they
     contain unusual characters such as space or newline, without fancy
     searching.

     If directories are being listed recursively ('-R'), output a
     similar line with offsets for each subdirectory name:

          //SUBDIRED// BEG1 END1 ...

     Finally, output a line of the form:

          //DIRED-OPTIONS// --quoting-style=WORD

     where WORD is the quoting style (*note Formatting the file
     names::).

     Here is an actual example:

          $ mkdir -p a/sub/deeper a/sub2
          $ touch a/f1 a/f2
          $ touch a/sub/deeper/file
          $ ls -gloRF --dired a
            a:
            total 8
            -rw-r--r-- 1    0 Jun 10 12:27 f1
            -rw-r--r-- 1    0 Jun 10 12:27 f2
            drwxr-xr-x 3 4096 Jun 10 12:27 sub/
            drwxr-xr-x 2 4096 Jun 10 12:27 sub2/

            a/sub:
            total 4
            drwxr-xr-x 2 4096 Jun 10 12:27 deeper/

            a/sub/deeper:
            total 0
            -rw-r--r-- 1 0 Jun 10 12:27 file

            a/sub2:
            total 0
          //DIRED// 48 50 84 86 120 123 158 162 217 223 282 286
          //SUBDIRED// 2 3 167 172 228 240 290 296
          //DIRED-OPTIONS// --quoting-style=literal

     Note that the pairs of offsets on the '//DIRED//' line above
     delimit these names: 'f1', 'f2', 'sub', 'sub2', 'deeper', 'file'.
     The offsets on the '//SUBDIRED//' line delimit the following
     directory names: 'a', 'a/sub', 'a/sub/deeper', 'a/sub2'.

     Here is an example of how to extract the fifth entry name,
     'deeper', corresponding to the pair of offsets, 222 and 228:

          $ ls -gloRF --dired a > out
          $ dd bs=1 skip=222 count=6 < out 2>/dev/null; echo
          deeper

     Note that although the listing above includes a trailing slash for
     the 'deeper' entry, the offsets select the name without the
     trailing slash.  However, if you invoke 'ls' with '--dired' along
     with an option like '--escape' (aka '-b') and operate on a file
     whose name contains special characters, notice that the backslash
     _is_ included:

          $ touch 'a b'
          $ ls -blog --dired 'a b'
            -rw-r--r-- 1 0 Jun 10 12:28 a\ b
          //DIRED// 30 34
          //DIRED-OPTIONS// --quoting-style=escape

     If you use a quoting style that adds quote marks (e.g.,
     '--quoting-style=c'), then the offsets include the quote marks.  So
     beware that the user may select the quoting style via the
     environment variable 'QUOTING_STYLE'.  Hence, applications using
     '--dired' should either specify an explicit
     '--quoting-style=literal' option (aka '-N' or '--literal') on the
     command line, or else be prepared to parse the escaped names.

'--full-time'
     Produce long format directory listings, and list times in full.  It
     is equivalent to using '--format=long' with '--time-style=full-iso'
     (*note Formatting file timestamps::).

'-g'
     Produce long format directory listings, but don't display owner
     information.

'-G'
'--no-group'
     Inhibit display of group information in a long format directory
     listing.  (This is the default in some non-GNU versions of 'ls', so
     we provide this option for compatibility.)

'-h'
'--human-readable'
     Append a size letter to each size, such as 'M' for mebibytes.
     Powers of 1024 are used, not 1000; 'M' stands for 1,048,576 bytes.
     This option is equivalent to '--block-size=human-readable'.  Use
     the '--si' option if you prefer powers of 1000.

'-i'
'--inode'
     Print the inode number (also called the file serial number and
     index number) of each file to the left of the file name.  (This
     number uniquely identifies each file within a particular file
     system.)

'-l'
'--format=long'
'--format=verbose'
     In addition to the name of each file, print the file type, file
     mode bits, number of hard links, owner name, group name, size, and
     timestamp (*note Formatting file timestamps::), normally the
     modification timestamp (the mtime, *note File timestamps::).  Print
     question marks for information that cannot be determined.

     Normally the size is printed as a byte count without punctuation,
     but this can be overridden (*note Block size::).  For example, '-h'
     prints an abbreviated, human-readable count, and
     '--block-size="'1"' prints a byte count with the thousands
     separator of the current locale.

     For each directory that is listed, preface the files with a line
     'total BLOCKS', where BLOCKS is the total disk allocation for all
     files in that directory.  The block size currently defaults to 1024
     bytes, but this can be overridden (*note Block size::).  The BLOCKS
     computed counts each hard link separately; this is arguably a
     deficiency.

     The file type is one of the following characters:

     '-'
          regular file
     'b'
          block special file
     'c'
          character special file
     'C'
          high performance ("contiguous data") file
     'd'
          directory
     'D'
          door (Solaris 2.5 and up)
     'l'
          symbolic link
     'M'
          off-line ("migrated") file (Cray DMF)
     'n'
          network special file (HP-UX)
     'p'
          FIFO (named pipe)
     'P'
          port (Solaris 10 and up)
     's'
          socket
     '?'
          some other file type

     The file mode bits listed are similar to symbolic mode
     specifications (*note Symbolic Modes::).  But 'ls' combines
     multiple bits into the third character of each set of permissions
     as follows:

     's'
          If the set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit and the corresponding
          executable bit are both set.

     'S'
          If the set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit is set but the
          corresponding executable bit is not set.

     't'
          If the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit, and the
          other-executable bit, are both set.  The restricted deletion
          flag is another name for the sticky bit.  *Note Mode
          Structure::.

     'T'
          If the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit is set but the
          other-executable bit is not set.

     'x'
          If the executable bit is set and none of the above apply.

     '-'
          Otherwise.

     Following the file mode bits is a single character that specifies
     whether an alternate access method such as an access control list
     applies to the file.  When the character following the file mode
     bits is a space, there is no alternate access method.  When it is a
     printing character, then there is such a method.

     GNU 'ls' uses a '.' character to indicate a file with a security
     context, but no other alternate access method.

     A file with any other combination of alternate access methods is
     marked with a '+' character.

'-n'
'--numeric-uid-gid'
     Produce long format directory listings, but display numeric user
     and group IDs instead of the owner and group names.

'-o'
     Produce long format directory listings, but don't display group
     information.  It is equivalent to using '--format=long' with
     '--no-group' .

'-s'
'--size'
     Print the disk allocation of each file to the left of the file
     name.  This is the amount of disk space used by the file, which is
     usually a bit more than the file's size, but it can be less if the
     file has holes.

     Normally the disk allocation is printed in units of 1024 bytes, but
     this can be overridden (*note Block size::).

     For files that are NFS-mounted from an HP-UX system to a BSD
     system, this option reports sizes that are half the correct values.
     On HP-UX systems, it reports sizes that are twice the correct
     values for files that are NFS-mounted from BSD systems.  This is
     due to a flaw in HP-UX; it also affects the HP-UX 'ls' program.

'--si'
     Append an SI-style abbreviation to each size, such as 'M' for
     megabytes.  Powers of 1000 are used, not 1024; 'M' stands for
     1,000,000 bytes.  This option is equivalent to '--block-size=si'.
     Use the '-h' or '--human-readable' option if you prefer powers of
     1024.

'-Z'
'--context'
     Display the SELinux security context or '?' if none is found.  When
     used with the '-l' option, print the security context to the left
     of the size column.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Sorting the output,  Next: Details about version sort,  Prev: What information is listed,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.3 Sorting the output
-------------------------

These options change the order in which 'ls' sorts the information it
outputs.  By default, sorting is done by character code (e.g., ASCII
order).

'-c'
'--time=ctime'
'--time=status'
     If the long listing format (e.g., '-l', '-o') is being used, print
     the status change timestamp (the ctime) instead of the mtime.  When
     explicitly sorting by time ('--sort=time' or '-t') or when not
     using a long listing format, sort according to the ctime.  *Note
     File timestamps::.

'-f'
     Primarily, like '-U'--do not sort; list the files in whatever order
     they are stored in the directory.  But also enable '-a' (list all
     files) and disable '-l', '--color', and '-s' (if they were
     specified before the '-f').

'-r'
'--reverse'
     Reverse whatever the sorting method is--e.g., list files in reverse
     alphabetical order, youngest first, smallest first, or whatever.

'-S'
'--sort=size'
     Sort by file size, largest first.

'-t'
'--sort=time'
     Sort by modification timestamp (mtime), newest first.  *Note File
     timestamps::.

'-u'
'--time=atime'
'--time=access'
'--time=use'
     If the long listing format (e.g., '--format=long') is being used,
     print the last access timestamp (the atime).  When explicitly
     sorting by time ('--sort=time' or '-t') or when not using a long
     listing format, sort according to the atime.  *Note File
     timestamps::.

'-U'
'--sort=none'
     Do not sort; list the files in whatever order they are stored in
     the directory.  (Do not do any of the other unrelated things that
     '-f' does.)  This is especially useful when listing very large
     directories, since not doing any sorting can be noticeably faster.

'-v'
'--sort=version'
     Sort by version name and number, lowest first.  It behaves like a
     default sort, except that each sequence of decimal digits is
     treated numerically as an index/version number.  (*Note Details
     about version sort::.)

'-X'
'--sort=extension'
     Sort directory contents alphabetically by file extension
     (characters after the last '.'); files with no extension are sorted
     first.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Details about version sort,  Next: General output formatting,  Prev: Sorting the output,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.4 Details about version sort
---------------------------------

Version sorting handles the fact that file names frequently include
indices or version numbers.  Standard sorting usually does not produce
the order that one expects because comparisons are made on a
character-by-character basis.  Version sorting is especially useful when
browsing directories that contain many files with indices/version
numbers in their names:

     $ ls -1            $ ls -1v
     abc.zml-1.gz       abc.zml-1.gz
     abc.zml-12.gz      abc.zml-2.gz
     abc.zml-2.gz       abc.zml-12.gz

   Version-sorted strings are compared such that if VER1 and VER2 are
version numbers and PREFIX and SUFFIX (SUFFIX matching the regular
expression '(\.[A-Za-z~][A-Za-z0-9~]*)*') are strings then VER1 < VER2
implies that the name composed of "PREFIX VER1 SUFFIX" sorts before
"PREFIX VER2 SUFFIX".

   Note also that leading zeros of numeric parts are ignored:

     $ ls -1            $ ls -1v
     abc-1.007.tgz      abc-1.01a.tgz
     abc-1.012b.tgz     abc-1.007.tgz
     abc-1.01a.tgz      abc-1.012b.tgz

   This functionality is implemented using gnulib's 'filevercmp'
function, which has some caveats worth noting.

   * 'LC_COLLATE' is ignored, which means 'ls -v' and 'sort -V' will
     sort non-numeric prefixes as if the 'LC_COLLATE' locale category
     was set to 'C'.
   * Some suffixes will not be matched by the regular expression
     mentioned above.  Consequently these examples may not sort as you
     expect:

          abc-1.2.3.4.7z
          abc-1.2.3.7z

          abc-1.2.3.4.x86_64.rpm
          abc-1.2.3.x86_64.rpm

File: coreutils.info,  Node: General output formatting,  Next: Formatting file timestamps,  Prev: Details about version sort,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.5 General output formatting
--------------------------------

These options affect the appearance of the overall output.

'-1'
'--format=single-column'
     List one file per line.  This is the default for 'ls' when standard
     output is not a terminal.  See also the '-b' and '-q' options to
     suppress direct output of newline characters within a file name.

'-C'
'--format=vertical'
     List files in columns, sorted vertically.  This is the default for
     'ls' if standard output is a terminal.  It is always the default
     for the 'dir' program.  GNU 'ls' uses variable width columns to
     display as many files as possible in the fewest lines.

'--color [=WHEN]'
     Specify whether to use color for distinguishing file types.  WHEN
     may be omitted, or one of:
        * none - Do not use color at all.  This is the default.
        * auto - Only use color if standard output is a terminal.
        * always - Always use color.
     Specifying '--color' and no WHEN is equivalent to '--color=always'.
     If piping a colorized listing through a pager like 'less', use the
     '-R' option to pass the color codes to the terminal.

     Note that using the '--color' option may incur a noticeable
     performance penalty when run in a directory with very many entries,
     because the default settings require that 'ls' 'stat' every single
     file it lists.  However, if you would like most of the file-type
     coloring but can live without the other coloring options (e.g.,
     executable, orphan, sticky, other-writable, capability), use
     'dircolors' to set the 'LS_COLORS' environment variable like this,
          eval $(dircolors -p | perl -pe \
            's/^((CAP|S[ET]|O[TR]|M|E)\w+).*/$1 00/' | dircolors -)
     and on a 'dirent.d_type'-capable file system, 'ls' will perform
     only one 'stat' call per command line argument.

'-F'
'--classify'
'--indicator-style=classify'
     Append a character to each file name indicating the file type.
     Also, for regular files that are executable, append '*'.  The file
     type indicators are '/' for directories, '@' for symbolic links,
     '|' for FIFOs, '=' for sockets, '>' for doors, and nothing for
     regular files.  Do not follow symbolic links listed on the command
     line unless the '--dereference-command-line' ('-H'),
     '--dereference' ('-L'), or
     '--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir' options are specified.

'--file-type'
'--indicator-style=file-type'
     Append a character to each file name indicating the file type.
     This is like '-F', except that executables are not marked.

'--hyperlink [=WHEN]'
     Output codes recognized by some terminals to link to files using
     the 'file://' URI format.  WHEN may be omitted, or one of:
        * none - Do not use hyperlinks at all.  This is the default.
        * auto - Only use hyperlinks if standard output is a terminal.
        * always - Always use hyperlinks.
     Specifying '--hyperlink' and no WHEN is equivalent to
     '--hyperlink=always'.

'--indicator-style=WORD'
     Append a character indicator with style WORD to entry names, as
     follows:

     'none'
          Do not append any character indicator; this is the default.
     'slash'
          Append '/' for directories.  This is the same as the '-p'
          option.
     'file-type'
          Append '/' for directories, '@' for symbolic links, '|' for
          FIFOs, '=' for sockets, and nothing for regular files.  This
          is the same as the '--file-type' option.
     'classify'
          Append '*' for executable regular files, otherwise behave as
          for 'file-type'.  This is the same as the '-F' or '--classify'
          option.

'-k'
'--kibibytes'
     Set the default block size to its normal value of 1024 bytes,
     overriding any contrary specification in environment variables
     (*note Block size::).  This option is in turn overridden by the
     '--block-size', '-h' or '--human-readable', and '--si' options.

     The '-k' or '--kibibytes' option affects the per-directory block
     count written by the '-l' and similar options, and the size written
     by the '-s' or '--size' option.  It does not affect the file size
     written by '-l'.

'-m'
'--format=commas'
     List files horizontally, with as many as will fit on each line,
     separated by ', ' (a comma and a space).

'-p'
'--indicator-style=slash'
     Append a '/' to directory names.

'-x'
'--format=across'
'--format=horizontal'
     List the files in columns, sorted horizontally.

'-T COLS'
'--tabsize=COLS'
     Assume that each tab stop is COLS columns wide.  The default is 8.
     'ls' uses tabs where possible in the output, for efficiency.  If
     COLS is zero, do not use tabs at all.

     Some terminal emulators might not properly align columns to the
     right of a TAB following a non-ASCII byte.  You can avoid that
     issue by using the '-T0' option or put 'TABSIZE=0' in your
     environment, to tell 'ls' to align using spaces, not tabs.

'-w COLS'
'--width=COLS'
     Assume the screen is COLS columns wide.  The default is taken from
     the terminal settings if possible; otherwise the environment
     variable 'COLUMNS' is used if it is set; otherwise the default is
     80.  With a COLS value of '0', there is no limit on the length of
     the output line, and that single output line will be delimited with
     spaces, not tabs.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Formatting file timestamps,  Next: Formatting the file names,  Prev: General output formatting,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.6 Formatting file timestamps
---------------------------------

By default, file timestamps are listed in abbreviated form, using a date
like 'Mar 30  2002' for non-recent timestamps, and a date-without-year
and time like 'Mar 30 23:45' for recent timestamps.  This format can
change depending on the current locale as detailed below.

   A timestamp is considered to be "recent" if it is less than six
months old, and is not dated in the future.  If a timestamp dated today
is not listed in recent form, the timestamp is in the future, which
means you probably have clock skew problems which may break programs
like 'make' that rely on file timestamps.  *Note File timestamps::.

   Timestamps are listed according to the time zone rules specified by
the 'TZ' environment variable, or by the system default rules if 'TZ' is
not set.  *Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ Variable.

   The following option changes how file timestamps are printed.

'--time-style=STYLE'
     List timestamps in style STYLE.  The STYLE should be one of the
     following:

     '+FORMAT'
          List timestamps using FORMAT, where FORMAT is interpreted like
          the format argument of 'date' (*note date invocation::).  For
          example, '--time-style="+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"' causes 'ls' to
          list timestamps like '2002-03-30 23:45:56'.  As with 'date',
          FORMAT's interpretation is affected by the 'LC_TIME' locale
          category.

          If FORMAT contains two format strings separated by a newline,
          the former is used for non-recent files and the latter for
          recent files; if you want output columns to line up, you may
          need to insert spaces in one of the two formats.

     'full-iso'
          List timestamps in full using ISO 8601-like date, time, and
          time zone components with nanosecond precision, e.g.,
          '2002-03-30 23:45:56.477817180 -0700'.  This style is
          equivalent to '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%N %z'.

          This is useful because the time output includes all the
          information that is available from the operating system.  For
          example, this can help explain 'make''s behavior, since GNU
          'make' uses the full timestamp to determine whether a file is
          out of date.

     'long-iso'
          List ISO 8601 date and time components with minute precision,
          e.g., '2002-03-30 23:45'.  These timestamps are shorter than
          'full-iso' timestamps, and are usually good enough for
          everyday work.  This style is equivalent to '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M'.

     'iso'
          List ISO 8601 dates for non-recent timestamps (e.g.,
          '2002-03-30 '), and ISO 8601-like month, day, hour, and minute
          for recent timestamps (e.g., '03-30 23:45').  These timestamps
          are uglier than 'long-iso' timestamps, but they carry nearly
          the same information in a smaller space and their brevity
          helps 'ls' output fit within traditional 80-column output
          lines.  The following two 'ls' invocations are equivalent:

               newline='
               '
               ls -l --time-style="+%Y-%m-%d $newline%m-%d %H:%M"
               ls -l --time-style="iso"

     'locale'
          List timestamps in a locale-dependent form.  For example, a
          Finnish locale might list non-recent timestamps like 'maalis
          30  2002' and recent timestamps like 'maalis 30 23:45'.
          Locale-dependent timestamps typically consume more space than
          'iso' timestamps and are harder for programs to parse because
          locale conventions vary so widely, but they are easier for
          many people to read.

          The 'LC_TIME' locale category specifies the timestamp format.
          The default POSIX locale uses timestamps like 'Mar 30  2002'
          and 'Mar 30 23:45'; in this locale, the following two 'ls'
          invocations are equivalent:

               newline='
               '
               ls -l --time-style="+%b %e  %Y$newline%b %e %H:%M"
               ls -l --time-style="locale"

          Other locales behave differently.  For example, in a German
          locale, '--time-style="locale"' might be equivalent to
          '--time-style="+%e. %b %Y $newline%e. %b %H:%M"' and might
          generate timestamps like '30. Ma"r 2002 ' and '30. Ma"r 23:45'.

     'posix-STYLE'
          List POSIX-locale timestamps if the 'LC_TIME' locale category
          is POSIX, STYLE timestamps otherwise.  For example, the
          'posix-long-iso' style lists timestamps like 'Mar 30  2002'
          and 'Mar 30 23:45' when in the POSIX locale, and like
          '2002-03-30 23:45' otherwise.

   You can specify the default value of the '--time-style' option with
the environment variable 'TIME_STYLE'; if 'TIME_STYLE' is not set the
default style is 'locale'.  GNU Emacs 21.3 and later use the '--dired'
option and therefore can parse any date format, but if you are using
Emacs 21.1 or 21.2 and specify a non-POSIX locale you may need to set
'TIME_STYLE="posix-long-iso"'.

   To avoid certain denial-of-service attacks, timestamps that would be
longer than 1000 bytes may be treated as errors.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Formatting the file names,  Prev: Formatting file timestamps,  Up: ls invocation

10.1.7 Formatting the file names
--------------------------------

These options change how file names themselves are printed.

'-b'
'--escape'
'--quoting-style=escape'
     Quote nongraphic characters in file names using alphabetic and
     octal backslash sequences like those used in C.

'-N'
'--literal'
'--quoting-style=literal'
     Do not quote file names.  However, with 'ls' nongraphic characters
     are still printed as question marks if the output is a terminal and
     you do not specify the '--show-control-chars' option.

'-q'
'--hide-control-chars'
     Print question marks instead of nongraphic characters in file
     names.  This is the default if the output is a terminal and the
     program is 'ls'.

'-Q'
'--quote-name'
'--quoting-style=c'
     Enclose file names in double quotes and quote nongraphic characters
     as in C.

'--quoting-style=WORD'
     Use style WORD to quote file names and other strings that may
     contain arbitrary characters.  The WORD should be one of the
     following:

     'literal'
          Output strings as-is; this is the same as the '-N' or
          '--literal' option.
     'shell'
          Quote strings for the shell if they contain shell
          metacharacters or would cause ambiguous output.  The quoting
          is suitable for POSIX-compatible shells like 'bash', but it
          does not always work for incompatible shells like 'csh'.
     'shell-always'
          Quote strings for the shell, even if they would normally not
          require quoting.
     'shell-escape'
          Like 'shell', but also quoting non-printable characters using
          the POSIX proposed '$''' syntax suitable for most shells.
     'shell-escape-always'
          Like 'shell-escape', but quote strings even if they would
          normally not require quoting.
     'c'
          Quote strings as for C character string literals, including
          the surrounding double-quote characters; this is the same as
          the '-Q' or '--quote-name' option.
     'escape'
          Quote strings as for C character string literals, except omit
          the surrounding double-quote characters; this is the same as
          the '-b' or '--escape' option.
     'clocale'
          Quote strings as for C character string literals, except use
          surrounding quotation marks appropriate for the locale.
     'locale'
          Quote strings as for C character string literals, except use
          surrounding quotation marks appropriate for the locale, and
          quote 'like this' instead of "like this" in the default C
          locale.  This looks nicer on many displays.

     You can specify the default value of the '--quoting-style' option
     with the environment variable 'QUOTING_STYLE'.  If that environment
     variable is not set, the default value is 'shell-escape' when the
     output is a terminal, and 'literal' otherwise.

'--show-control-chars'
     Print nongraphic characters as-is in file names.  This is the
     default unless the output is a terminal and the program is 'ls'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: dir invocation,  Next: vdir invocation,  Prev: ls invocation,  Up: Directory listing

10.2 'dir': Briefly list directory contents
===========================================

'dir' is equivalent to 'ls -C -b'; that is, by default files are listed
in columns, sorted vertically, and special characters are represented by
backslash escape sequences.

   *Note 'ls': ls invocation.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: vdir invocation,  Next: dircolors invocation,  Prev: dir invocation,  Up: Directory listing

10.3 'vdir': Verbosely list directory contents
==============================================

'vdir' is equivalent to 'ls -l -b'; that is, by default files are listed
in long format and special characters are represented by backslash
escape sequences.

   *Note 'ls': ls invocation.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: dircolors invocation,  Prev: vdir invocation,  Up: Directory listing

10.4 'dircolors': Color setup for 'ls'
======================================

'dircolors' outputs a sequence of shell commands to set up the terminal
for color output from 'ls' (and 'dir', etc.).  Typical usage:

     eval "$(dircolors [OPTION]... [FILE])"

   If FILE is specified, 'dircolors' reads it to determine which colors
to use for which file types and extensions.  Otherwise, a precompiled
database is used.  For details on the format of these files, run
'dircolors --print-database'.

   To make 'dircolors' read a '~/.dircolors' file if it exists, you can
put the following lines in your '~/.bashrc' (or adapt them to your
favorite shell):

     d=.dircolors
     test -r $d && eval "$(dircolors $d)"

   The output is a shell command to set the 'LS_COLORS' environment
variable.  You can specify the shell syntax to use on the command line,
or 'dircolors' will guess it from the value of the 'SHELL' environment
variable.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--sh'
'--bourne-shell'
     Output Bourne shell commands.  This is the default if the 'SHELL'
     environment variable is set and does not end with 'csh' or 'tcsh'.

'-c'
'--csh'
'--c-shell'
     Output C shell commands.  This is the default if 'SHELL' ends with
     'csh' or 'tcsh'.

'-p'
'--print-database'
     Print the (compiled-in) default color configuration database.  This
     output is itself a valid configuration file, and is fairly
     descriptive of the possibilities.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Basic operations,  Next: Special file types,  Prev: Directory listing,  Up: Top

11 Basic operations
*******************

This chapter describes the commands for basic file manipulation:
copying, moving (renaming), and deleting (removing).

* Menu:

* cp invocation::               Copy files.
* dd invocation::               Convert and copy a file.
* install invocation::          Copy files and set attributes.
* mv invocation::               Move (rename) files.
* rm invocation::               Remove files or directories.
* shred invocation::            Remove files more securely.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: cp invocation,  Next: dd invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.1 'cp': Copy files and directories
=====================================

'cp' copies files (or, optionally, directories).  The copy is completely
independent of the original.  You can either copy one file to another,
or copy arbitrarily many files to a destination directory.  Synopses:

     cp [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
     cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
     cp [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...

   * If two file names are given, 'cp' copies the first file to the
     second.

   * If the '--target-directory' ('-t') option is given, or failing that
     if the last file is a directory and the '--no-target-directory'
     ('-T') option is not given, 'cp' copies each SOURCE file to the
     specified directory, using the SOURCEs' names.

   Generally, files are written just as they are read.  For exceptions,
see the '--sparse' option below.

   By default, 'cp' does not copy directories.  However, the '-R', '-a',
and '-r' options cause 'cp' to copy recursively by descending into
source directories and copying files to corresponding destination
directories.

   When copying from a symbolic link, 'cp' normally follows the link
only when not copying recursively or when '--link' ('-l') is used.  This
default can be overridden with the '--archive' ('-a'), '-d',
'--dereference' ('-L'), '--no-dereference' ('-P'), and '-H' options.  If
more than one of these options is specified, the last one silently
overrides the others.

   When copying to a symbolic link, 'cp' follows the link only when it
refers to an existing regular file.  However, when copying to a dangling
symbolic link, 'cp' refuses by default, and fails with a diagnostic,
since the operation is inherently dangerous.  This behavior is contrary
to historical practice and to POSIX.  Set 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' to make 'cp'
attempt to create the target of a dangling destination symlink, in spite
of the possible risk.  Also, when an option like '--backup' or '--link'
acts to rename or remove the destination before copying, 'cp' renames or
removes the symbolic link rather than the file it points to.

   By default, 'cp' copies the contents of special files only when not
copying recursively.  This default can be overridden with the
'--copy-contents' option.

   'cp' generally refuses to copy a file onto itself, with the following
exception: if '--force --backup' is specified with SOURCE and DEST
identical, and referring to a regular file, 'cp' will make a backup
file, either regular or numbered, as specified in the usual ways (*note
Backup options::).  This is useful when you simply want to make a backup
of an existing file before changing it.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--archive'
     Preserve as much as possible of the structure and attributes of the
     original files in the copy (but do not attempt to preserve internal
     directory structure; i.e., 'ls -U' may list the entries in a copied
     directory in a different order).  Try to preserve SELinux security
     context and extended attributes (xattr), but ignore any failure to
     do that and print no corresponding diagnostic.  Equivalent to '-dR
     --preserve=all' with the reduced diagnostics.

'--attributes-only'
     Copy only the specified attributes of the source file to the
     destination.  If the destination already exists, do not alter its
     contents.  See the '--preserve' option for controlling which
     attributes to copy.

'-b'
'--backup[=METHOD]'
     *Note Backup options::.  Make a backup of each file that would
     otherwise be overwritten or removed.  As a special case, 'cp' makes
     a backup of SOURCE when the force and backup options are given and
     SOURCE and DEST are the same name for an existing, regular file.
     One useful application of this combination of options is this tiny
     Bourne shell script:

          #!/bin/sh
          # Usage: backup FILE...
          # Create a GNU-style backup of each listed FILE.
          fail=0
          for i; do
            cp --backup --force --preserve=all -- "$i" "$i" || fail=1
          done
          exit $fail

'--copy-contents'
     If copying recursively, copy the contents of any special files
     (e.g., FIFOs and device files) as if they were regular files.  This
     means trying to read the data in each source file and writing it to
     the destination.  It is usually a mistake to use this option, as it
     normally has undesirable effects on special files like FIFOs and
     the ones typically found in the '/dev' directory.  In most cases,
     'cp -R --copy-contents' will hang indefinitely trying to read from
     FIFOs and special files like '/dev/console', and it will fill up
     your destination disk if you use it to copy '/dev/zero'.  This
     option has no effect unless copying recursively, and it does not
     affect the copying of symbolic links.

'-d'
     Copy symbolic links as symbolic links rather than copying the files
     that they point to, and preserve hard links between source files in
     the copies.  Equivalent to '--no-dereference --preserve=links'.

'-f'
'--force'
     When copying without this option and an existing destination file
     cannot be opened for writing, the copy fails.  However, with
     '--force', when a destination file cannot be opened, 'cp' then
     removes it and tries to open it again.  When this option is
     combined with '--link' ('-l') or '--symbolic-link' ('-s'), the
     destination link is replaced, and unless '--backup' ('-b') is also
     given there is no brief moment when the destination does not exist.
     Also see the description of '--remove-destination'.

     This option is independent of the '--interactive' or '-i' option:
     neither cancels the effect of the other.

     This option is ignored when the '--no-clobber' or '-n' option is
     also used.

'-H'
     If a command line argument specifies a symbolic link, then copy the
     file it points to rather than the symbolic link itself.  However,
     copy (preserving its nature) any symbolic link that is encountered
     via recursive traversal.

'-i'
'--interactive'
     When copying a file other than a directory, prompt whether to
     overwrite an existing destination file.  The '-i' option overrides
     a previous '-n' option.

'-l'
'--link'
     Make hard links instead of copies of non-directories.

'-L'
'--dereference'
     Follow symbolic links when copying from them.  With this option,
     'cp' cannot create a symbolic link.  For example, a symlink (to
     regular file) in the source tree will be copied to a regular file
     in the destination tree.

'-n'
'--no-clobber'
     Do not overwrite an existing file.  The '-n' option overrides a
     previous '-i' option.  This option is mutually exclusive with '-b'
     or '--backup' option.

'-P'
'--no-dereference'
     Copy symbolic links as symbolic links rather than copying the files
     that they point to.  This option affects only symbolic links in the
     source; symbolic links in the destination are always followed if
     possible.

'-p'
'--preserve[=ATTRIBUTE_LIST]'
     Preserve the specified attributes of the original files.  If
     specified, the ATTRIBUTE_LIST must be a comma-separated list of one
     or more of the following strings:

     'mode'
          Preserve the file mode bits and access control lists.
     'ownership'
          Preserve the owner and group.  On most modern systems, only
          users with appropriate privileges may change the owner of a
          file, and ordinary users may preserve the group ownership of a
          file only if they happen to be a member of the desired group.
     'timestamps'
          Preserve the times of last access and last modification, when
          possible.  On older systems, it is not possible to preserve
          these attributes when the affected file is a symbolic link.
          However, many systems now provide the 'utimensat' function,
          which makes it possible even for symbolic links.
     'links'
          Preserve in the destination files any links between
          corresponding source files.  Note that with '-L' or '-H', this
          option can convert symbolic links to hard links.  For example,
               $ mkdir c; : > a; ln -s a b; cp -aH a b c; ls -i1 c
               74161745 a
               74161745 b
          Note the inputs: 'b' is a symlink to regular file 'a', yet the
          files in destination directory, 'c/', are hard-linked.  Since
          '-a' implies '--no-dereference' it would copy the symlink, but
          the later '-H' tells 'cp' to dereference the command line
          arguments where it then sees two files with the same inode
          number.  Then the '--preserve=links' option also implied by
          '-a' will preserve the perceived hard link.

          Here is a similar example that exercises 'cp''s '-L' option:
               $ mkdir b c; (cd b; : > a; ln -s a b); cp -aL b c; ls -i1 c/b
               74163295 a
               74163295 b

     'context'
          Preserve SELinux security context of the file, or fail with
          full diagnostics.
     'xattr'
          Preserve extended attributes of the file, or fail with full
          diagnostics.  If 'cp' is built without xattr support, ignore
          this option.  If SELinux context, ACLs or Capabilities are
          implemented using xattrs, they are preserved implicitly by
          this option as well, i.e., even without specifying
          '--preserve=mode' or '--preserve=context'.
     'all'
          Preserve all file attributes.  Equivalent to specifying all of
          the above, but with the difference that failure to preserve
          SELinux security context or extended attributes does not
          change 'cp''s exit status.  In contrast to '-a', all but
          'Operation not supported' warnings are output.

     Using '--preserve' with no ATTRIBUTE_LIST is equivalent to
     '--preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps'.

     In the absence of this option, the permissions of existing
     destination files are unchanged.  Each new file is created with the
     mode of the corresponding source file minus the set-user-ID,
     set-group-ID, and sticky bits as the create mode; the operating
     system then applies either the umask or a default ACL, possibly
     resulting in a more restrictive file mode.  *Note File
     permissions::.

'--no-preserve=ATTRIBUTE_LIST'
     Do not preserve the specified attributes.  The ATTRIBUTE_LIST has
     the same form as for '--preserve'.

'--parents'
     Form the name of each destination file by appending to the target
     directory a slash and the specified name of the source file.  The
     last argument given to 'cp' must be the name of an existing
     directory.  For example, the command:

          cp --parents a/b/c existing_dir

     copies the file 'a/b/c' to 'existing_dir/a/b/c', creating any
     missing intermediate directories.

'-R'
'-r'
'--recursive'
     Copy directories recursively.  By default, do not follow symbolic
     links in the source unless used together with the '--link' ('-l')
     option; see the '--archive' ('-a'), '-d', '--dereference' ('-L'),
     '--no-dereference' ('-P'), and '-H' options.  Special files are
     copied by creating a destination file of the same type as the
     source; see the '--copy-contents' option.  It is not portable to
     use '-r' to copy symbolic links or special files.  On some non-GNU
     systems, '-r' implies the equivalent of '-L' and '--copy-contents'
     for historical reasons.  Also, it is not portable to use '-R' to
     copy symbolic links unless you also specify '-P', as POSIX allows
     implementations that dereference symbolic links by default.

'--reflink[=WHEN]'
     Perform a lightweight, copy-on-write (COW) copy, if supported by
     the file system.  Once it has succeeded, beware that the source and
     destination files share the same disk data blocks as long as they
     remain unmodified.  Thus, if a disk I/O error affects data blocks
     of one of the files, the other suffers the same fate.

     The WHEN value can be one of the following:

     'always'
          The default behavior: if the copy-on-write operation is not
          supported then report the failure for each file and exit with
          a failure status.

     'auto'
          If the copy-on-write operation is not supported then fall back
          to the standard copy behavior.

     This option is overridden by the '--link', '--symbolic-link' and
     '--attributes-only' options, thus allowing it to be used to
     configure the default data copying behavior for 'cp'.  For example,
     with the following alias, 'cp' will use the minimum amount of space
     supported by the file system.

          alias cp='cp --reflink=auto --sparse=always'

'--remove-destination'
     Remove each existing destination file before attempting to open it
     (contrast with '-f' above).

'--sparse=WHEN'
     A "sparse file" contains "holes"--a sequence of zero bytes that does
     not occupy any physical disk blocks; the 'read' system call reads
     these as zeros.  This can both save considerable disk space and
     increase speed, since many binary files contain lots of consecutive
     zero bytes.  By default, 'cp' detects holes in input source files
     via a crude heuristic and makes the corresponding output file
     sparse as well.  Only regular files may be sparse.

     The WHEN value can be one of the following:

     'auto'
          The default behavior: if the input file is sparse, attempt to
          make the output file sparse, too.  However, if an output file
          exists but refers to a non-regular file, then do not attempt
          to make it sparse.

     'always'
          For each sufficiently long sequence of zero bytes in the input
          file, attempt to create a corresponding hole in the output
          file, even if the input file does not appear to be sparse.
          This is useful when the input file resides on a file system
          that does not support sparse files (for example, 'efs' file
          systems in SGI IRIX 5.3 and earlier), but the output file is
          on a type of file system that does support them.  Holes may be
          created only in regular files, so if the destination file is
          of some other type, 'cp' does not even try to make it sparse.

     'never'
          Never make the output file sparse.  This is useful in creating
          a file for use with the 'mkswap' command, since such a file
          must not have any holes.

'--strip-trailing-slashes'
     Remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.  *Note
     Trailing slashes::.

'-s'
'--symbolic-link'
     Make symbolic links instead of copies of non-directories.  All
     source file names must be absolute (starting with '/') unless the
     destination files are in the current directory.  This option merely
     results in an error message on systems that do not support symbolic
     links.

'-S SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with '-b'.  *Note Backup
     options::.

'-t DIRECTORY'
'--target-directory=DIRECTORY'
     Specify the destination DIRECTORY.  *Note Target directory::.

'-T'
'--no-target-directory'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a
     symbolic link to a directory.  *Note Target directory::.

'-u'
'--update'
     Do not copy a non-directory that has an existing destination with
     the same or newer modification timestamp.  If timestamps are being
     preserved, the comparison is to the source timestamp truncated to
     the resolutions of the destination file system and of the system
     calls used to update timestamps; this avoids duplicate work if
     several 'cp -pu' commands are executed with the same source and
     destination.  If '--preserve=links' is also specified (like with
     'cp -au' for example), that will take precedence.  Consequently,
     depending on the order that files are processed from the source,
     newer files in the destination may be replaced, to mirror hard
     links in the source.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print the name of each file before copying it.

'-x'
'--one-file-system'
     Skip subdirectories that are on different file systems from the one
     that the copy started on.  However, mount point directories _are_
     copied.

'-Z'
'--context[=CONTEXT]'
     Without a specified CONTEXT, adjust the SELinux security context
     according to the system default type for destination files,
     similarly to the 'restorecon' command.  The long form of this
     option with a specific context specified, will set the context for
     newly created files only.  With a specified context, if both
     SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued.  This option
     is mutually exclusive with the '--preserve=context' option, and
     overrides the '--preserve=all' and '-a' options.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: dd invocation,  Next: install invocation,  Prev: cp invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.2 'dd': Convert and copy a file
==================================

'dd' copies a file (from standard input to standard output, by default)
with a changeable I/O block size, while optionally performing
conversions on it.  Synopses:

     dd [OPERAND]...
     dd OPTION

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.  'dd' accepts the following operands, whose syntax was
inspired by the DD (data definition) statement of OS/360 JCL.

'if=FILE'
     Read from FILE instead of standard input.

'of=FILE'
     Write to FILE instead of standard output.  Unless 'conv=notrunc' is
     given, 'dd' truncates FILE to zero bytes (or the size specified
     with 'seek=').

'ibs=BYTES'
     Set the input block size to BYTES.  This makes 'dd' read BYTES per
     block.  The default is 512 bytes.

'obs=BYTES'
     Set the output block size to BYTES.  This makes 'dd' write BYTES
     per block.  The default is 512 bytes.

'bs=BYTES'
     Set both input and output block sizes to BYTES.  This makes 'dd'
     read and write BYTES per block, overriding any 'ibs' and 'obs'
     settings.  In addition, if no data-transforming 'conv' option is
     specified, input is copied to the output as soon as it's read, even
     if it is smaller than the block size.

'cbs=BYTES'
     Set the conversion block size to BYTES.  When converting
     variable-length records to fixed-length ones ('conv=block') or the
     reverse ('conv=unblock'), use BYTES as the fixed record length.

'skip=N'
     Skip N 'ibs'-byte blocks in the input file before copying.  If
     'iflag=skip_bytes' is specified, N is interpreted as a byte count
     rather than a block count.

'seek=N'
     Skip N 'obs'-byte blocks in the output file before copying.  if
     'oflag=seek_bytes' is specified, N is interpreted as a byte count
     rather than a block count.

'count=N'
     Copy N 'ibs'-byte blocks from the input file, instead of everything
     until the end of the file.  if 'iflag=count_bytes' is specified, N
     is interpreted as a byte count rather than a block count.  Note if
     the input may return short reads as could be the case when reading
     from a pipe for example, 'iflag=fullblock' will ensure that
     'count=' corresponds to complete input blocks rather than the
     traditional POSIX specified behavior of counting input read
     operations.

'status=LEVEL'
     Transfer information is normally output to stderr upon receipt of
     the 'INFO' signal or when 'dd' exits.  Specifying LEVEL will adjust
     the amount of information printed, with the last LEVEL specified
     taking precedence.

     'none'
          Do not print any informational or warning messages to stderr.
          Error messages are output as normal.

     'noxfer'
          Do not print the final transfer rate and volume statistics
          that normally make up the last status line.

     'progress'
          Print the transfer rate and volume statistics on stderr, when
          processing each input block.  Statistics are output on a
          single line at most once every second, but updates can be
          delayed when waiting on I/O.

'conv=CONVERSION[,CONVERSION]...'
     Convert the file as specified by the CONVERSION argument(s).  (No
     spaces around any comma(s).)

     Conversions:

     'ascii'
          Convert EBCDIC to ASCII, using the conversion table specified
          by POSIX.  This provides a 1:1 translation for all 256 bytes.
          This option implies 'conv=unblock'; input is converted to
          ASCII before trailing spaces are deleted.

     'ebcdic'
          Convert ASCII to EBCDIC.  This is the inverse of the 'ascii'
          conversion.  This option implies 'conv=block'; trailing spaces
          are added before being converted to EBCDIC.

     'ibm'
          This acts like 'conv=ebcdic', except it uses the alternate
          conversion table specified by POSIX.  This is not a 1:1
          translation, but reflects common historical practice for '~',
          '[', and ']'.

          The 'ascii', 'ebcdic', and 'ibm' conversions are mutually
          exclusive.  If you use any of these options, you should also
          use the 'cbs=' option.

     'block'
          For each line in the input, output 'cbs' bytes, replacing the
          input newline with a space and padding with spaces as
          necessary.

     'unblock'
          Remove any trailing spaces in each 'cbs'-sized input block,
          and append a newline.

          The 'block' and 'unblock' conversions are mutually exclusive.

     'lcase'
          Change uppercase letters to lowercase.

     'ucase'
          Change lowercase letters to uppercase.

          The 'lcase' and 'ucase' conversions are mutually exclusive.

     'sparse'
          Try to seek rather than write NUL output blocks.  On a file
          system that supports sparse files, this will create sparse
          output when extending the output file.  Be careful when using
          this option in conjunction with 'conv=notrunc' or
          'oflag=append'.  With 'conv=notrunc', existing data in the
          output file corresponding to NUL blocks from the input, will
          be untouched.  With 'oflag=append' the seeks performed will be
          ineffective.  Similarly, when the output is a device rather
          than a file, NUL input blocks are not copied, and therefore
          this option is most useful with virtual or pre zeroed devices.

     'swab'
          Swap every pair of input bytes.  GNU 'dd', unlike others,
          works when an odd number of bytes are read--the last byte is
          simply copied (since there is nothing to swap it with).

     'sync'
          Pad every input block to size of 'ibs' with trailing zero
          bytes.  When used with 'block' or 'unblock', pad with spaces
          instead of zero bytes.

     The following "conversions" are really file flags and don't affect
     internal processing:

     'excl'
          Fail if the output file already exists; 'dd' must create the
          output file itself.

     'nocreat'
          Do not create the output file; the output file must already
          exist.

          The 'excl' and 'nocreat' conversions are mutually exclusive.

     'notrunc'
          Do not truncate the output file.

     'noerror'
          Continue after read errors.

     'fdatasync'
          Synchronize output data just before finishing.  This forces a
          physical write of output data.

     'fsync'
          Synchronize output data and metadata just before finishing.
          This forces a physical write of output data and metadata.

'iflag=FLAG[,FLAG]...'
     Access the input file using the flags specified by the FLAG
     argument(s).  (No spaces around any comma(s).)

'oflag=FLAG[,FLAG]...'
     Access the output file using the flags specified by the FLAG
     argument(s).  (No spaces around any comma(s).)

     Here are the flags.  Not every flag is supported on every operating
     system.

     'append'
          Write in append mode, so that even if some other process is
          writing to this file, every 'dd' write will append to the
          current contents of the file.  This flag makes sense only for
          output.  If you combine this flag with the 'of=FILE' operand,
          you should also specify 'conv=notrunc' unless you want the
          output file to be truncated before being appended to.

     'cio'
          Use concurrent I/O mode for data.  This mode performs direct
          I/O and drops the POSIX requirement to serialize all I/O to
          the same file.  A file cannot be opened in CIO mode and with a
          standard open at the same time.

     'direct'
          Use direct I/O for data, avoiding the buffer cache.  Note that
          the kernel may impose restrictions on read or write buffer
          sizes.  For example, with an ext4 destination file system and
          a Linux-based kernel, using 'oflag=direct' will cause writes
          to fail with 'EINVAL' if the output buffer size is not a
          multiple of 512.

     'directory'

          Fail unless the file is a directory.  Most operating systems
          do not allow I/O to a directory, so this flag has limited
          utility.

     'dsync'
          Use synchronized I/O for data.  For the output file, this
          forces a physical write of output data on each write.  For the
          input file, this flag can matter when reading from a remote
          file that has been written to synchronously by some other
          process.  Metadata (e.g., last-access and last-modified time)
          is not necessarily synchronized.

     'sync'
          Use synchronized I/O for both data and metadata.

     'nocache'
          Request to discard the system data cache for a file.  When
          count=0 all cached data for the file is specified, otherwise
          the cache is dropped for the processed portion of the file.
          Also when count=0, failure to discard the cache is diagnosed
          and reflected in the exit status.

          Note data that is not already persisted to storage will not be
          discarded from cache, so note the use of the "sync" options in
          the examples below, which are used to maximize the
          effectiveness of the 'nocache' flag.

          Here are some usage examples:

               # Advise to drop cache for whole file
               dd if=ifile iflag=nocache count=0

               # Ensure drop cache for the whole file
               dd of=ofile oflag=nocache conv=notrunc,fdatasync count=0

               # Drop cache for part of file
               dd if=ifile iflag=nocache skip=10 count=10 of=/dev/null

               # Stream data using just the read-ahead cache.
               # See also the 'direct' flag.
               dd if=ifile of=ofile iflag=nocache oflag=nocache,sync

     'nonblock'
          Use non-blocking I/O.

     'noatime'
          Do not update the file's access timestamp.  *Note File
          timestamps::.  Some older file systems silently ignore this
          flag, so it is a good idea to test it on your files before
          relying on it.

     'noctty'
          Do not assign the file to be a controlling terminal for 'dd'.
          This has no effect when the file is not a terminal.  On many
          hosts (e.g., GNU/Linux hosts), this option has no effect at
          all.

     'nofollow'
          Do not follow symbolic links.

     'nolinks'
          Fail if the file has multiple hard links.

     'binary'
          Use binary I/O.  This option has an effect only on nonstandard
          platforms that distinguish binary from text I/O.

     'text'
          Use text I/O.  Like 'binary', this option has no effect on
          standard platforms.

     'fullblock'
          Accumulate full blocks from input.  The 'read' system call may
          return early if a full block is not available.  When that
          happens, continue calling 'read' to fill the remainder of the
          block.  This flag can be used only with 'iflag'.  This flag is
          useful with pipes for example as they may return short reads.
          In that case, this flag is needed to ensure that a 'count='
          argument is interpreted as a block count rather than a count
          of read operations.

     'count_bytes'
          Interpret the 'count=' operand as a byte count, rather than a
          block count, which allows specifying a length that is not a
          multiple of the I/O block size.  This flag can be used only
          with 'iflag'.

     'skip_bytes'
          Interpret the 'skip=' operand as a byte count, rather than a
          block count, which allows specifying an offset that is not a
          multiple of the I/O block size.  This flag can be used only
          with 'iflag'.

     'seek_bytes'
          Interpret the 'seek=' operand as a byte count, rather than a
          block count, which allows specifying an offset that is not a
          multiple of the I/O block size.  This flag can be used only
          with 'oflag'.

     These flags are not supported on all systems, and 'dd' rejects
     attempts to use them when they are not supported.  When reading
     from standard input or writing to standard output, the 'nofollow'
     and 'noctty' flags should not be specified, and the other flags
     (e.g., 'nonblock') can affect how other processes behave with the
     affected file descriptors, even after 'dd' exits.

   The numeric-valued strings above (N and BYTES) can be followed by a
multiplier: 'b'=512, 'c'=1, 'w'=2, 'xM'=M, or any of the standard block
size suffixes like 'k'=1024 (*note Block size::).

   Any block size you specify via 'bs=', 'ibs=', 'obs=', 'cbs=' should
not be too large--values larger than a few megabytes are generally
wasteful or (as in the gigabyte..exabyte case) downright
counterproductive or error-inducing.

   To process data that is at an offset or size that is not a multiple
of the I/O block size, you can use the 'skip_bytes', 'seek_bytes' and
'count_bytes' flags.  Alternatively the traditional method of separate
'dd' invocations can be used.  For example, the following shell commands
copy data in 512 KiB blocks between a disk and a tape, but do not save
or restore a 4 KiB label at the start of the disk:

     disk=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2
     tape=/dev/rmt/0

     # Copy all but the label from disk to tape.
     (dd bs=4k skip=1 count=0 && dd bs=512k) <$disk >$tape

     # Copy from tape back to disk, but leave the disk label alone.
     (dd bs=4k seek=1 count=0 && dd bs=512k) <$tape >$disk

   For failing disks, other tools come with a great variety of extra
functionality to ease the saving of as much data as possible before the
disk finally dies, e.g.  GNU 'ddrescue'
(https://www.gnu.org/software/ddrescue/).  However, in some cases such a
tool is not available or the administrator feels more comfortable with
the handling of 'dd'.  As a simple rescue method, call 'dd' as shown in
the following example: the options 'conv=noerror,sync' are used to
continue after read errors and to pad out bad reads with NULs, while
'iflag=fullblock' caters for short reads (which traditionally never
occur on disk based devices):

     # Rescue data from an (unmounted!) partition of a failing disk.
     dd conv=noerror,sync iflag=fullblock </dev/sda1 > /mnt/rescue.img

   Sending an 'INFO' signal (or 'USR1' signal where that is unavailable)
to a running 'dd' process makes it print I/O statistics to standard
error and then resume copying.  In the example below, 'dd' is run in the
background to copy 5GB of data.  The 'kill' command makes it output
intermediate I/O statistics, and when 'dd' completes normally or is
killed by the 'SIGINT' signal, it outputs the final statistics.

     # Ignore the signal so we never inadvertently terminate the dd child.
     # Note this is not needed when SIGINFO is available.
     trap '' USR1

     # Run dd with the fullblock iflag to avoid short reads
     # which can be triggered by reception of signals.
     dd iflag=fullblock if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null count=5000000 bs=1000 & pid=$!

     # Output stats every second.
     while kill -s USR1 $pid 2>/dev/null; do sleep 1; done

   The above script will output in the following format:

     3441325+0 records in
     3441325+0 records out
     3441325000 bytes (3.4 GB, 3.2 GiB) copied, 1.00036 s, 3.4 GB/s
     5000000+0 records in
     5000000+0 records out
     5000000000 bytes (5.0 GB, 4.7 GiB) copied, 1.44433 s, 3.5 GB/s

   The 'status=progress' option periodically updates the last line of
the transfer statistics above.

   On systems lacking the 'INFO' signal 'dd' responds to the 'USR1'
signal instead, unless the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is
set.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: install invocation,  Next: mv invocation,  Prev: dd invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.3 'install': Copy files and set attributes
=============================================

'install' copies files while setting their file mode bits and, if
possible, their owner and group.  Synopses:

     install [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
     install [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
     install [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...
     install [OPTION]... -d DIRECTORY...

   * If two file names are given, 'install' copies the first file to the
     second.

   * If the '--target-directory' ('-t') option is given, or failing that
     if the last file is a directory and the '--no-target-directory'
     ('-T') option is not given, 'install' copies each SOURCE file to
     the specified directory, using the SOURCEs' names.

   * If the '--directory' ('-d') option is given, 'install' creates each
     DIRECTORY and any missing parent directories.  Parent directories
     are created with mode 'u=rwx,go=rx' (755), regardless of the '-m'
     option or the current umask.  *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::,
     for how the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of parent directories
     are inherited.

   'install' is similar to 'cp', but allows you to control the
attributes of destination files.  It is typically used in Makefiles to
copy programs into their destination directories.  It refuses to copy
files onto themselves.

   'install' never preserves extended attributes (xattr).

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--backup[=METHOD]'
     *Note Backup options::.  Make a backup of each file that would
     otherwise be overwritten or removed.

'-C'
'--compare'
     Compare each pair of source and destination files, and if the
     destination has identical content and any specified owner, group,
     permissions, and possibly SELinux context, then do not modify the
     destination at all.  Note this option is best used in conjunction
     with '--user', '--group' and '--mode' options, lest 'install'
     incorrectly determines the default attributes that installed files
     would have (as it doesn't consider setgid directories and POSIX
     default ACLs for example).  This could result in redundant copies
     or attributes that are not reset to the correct defaults.

'-c'
     Ignored; for compatibility with old Unix versions of 'install'.

'-D'
     Create any missing parent directories of DEST, then copy SOURCE to
     DEST.  Explicitly specifying the '--target-directory=DIR' will
     similarly ensure the presence of that hierarchy before copying
     SOURCE arguments.

'-d'
'--directory'
     Create any missing parent directories, giving them the default
     attributes.  Then create each given directory, setting their owner,
     group and mode as given on the command line or to the defaults.

'-g GROUP'
'--group=GROUP'
     Set the group ownership of installed files or directories to GROUP.
     The default is the process's current group.  GROUP may be either a
     group name or a numeric group ID.

'-m MODE'
'--mode=MODE'
     Set the file mode bits for the installed file or directory to MODE,
     which can be either an octal number, or a symbolic mode as in
     'chmod', with 'a=' (no access allowed to anyone) as the point of
     departure (*note File permissions::).  The default mode is
     'u=rwx,go=rx,a-s'--read, write, and execute for the owner, read and
     execute for group and other, and with set-user-ID and set-group-ID
     disabled.  This default is not quite the same as '755', since it
     disables instead of preserving set-user-ID and set-group-ID on
     directories.  *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::.

'-o OWNER'
'--owner=OWNER'
     If 'install' has appropriate privileges (is run as root), set the
     ownership of installed files or directories to OWNER.  The default
     is 'root'.  OWNER may be either a user name or a numeric user ID.

'--preserve-context'
     Preserve the SELinux security context of files and directories.
     Failure to preserve the context in all of the files or directories
     will result in an exit status of 1.  If SELinux is disabled then
     print a warning and ignore the option.

'-p'
'--preserve-timestamps'
     Set the time of last access and the time of last modification of
     each installed file to match those of each corresponding original
     file.  When a file is installed without this option, its last
     access and last modification timestamps are both set to the time of
     installation.  This option is useful if you want to use the last
     modification timestamps of installed files to keep track of when
     they were last built as opposed to when they were last installed.

'-s'
'--strip'
     Strip the symbol tables from installed binary executables.

'--strip-program=PROGRAM'
     Program used to strip binaries.

'-S SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with '-b'.  *Note Backup
     options::.

'-t DIRECTORY'
'--target-directory=DIRECTORY'
     Specify the destination DIRECTORY.  *Note Target directory::.  Also
     specifying the '-D' option will ensure the directory is present.

'-T'
'--no-target-directory'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a
     symbolic link to a directory.  *Note Target directory::.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print the name of each file before copying it.

'-Z'
'--context[=CONTEXT]'
     Without a specified CONTEXT, adjust the SELinux security context
     according to the system default type for destination files,
     similarly to the 'restorecon' command.  The long form of this
     option with a specific context specified, will set the context for
     newly created files only.  With a specified context, if both
     SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued.  This option
     is mutually exclusive with the '--preserve-context' option.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: mv invocation,  Next: rm invocation,  Prev: install invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.4 'mv': Move (rename) files
==============================

'mv' moves or renames files (or directories).  Synopses:

     mv [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
     mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
     mv [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...

   * If two file names are given, 'mv' moves the first file to the
     second.

   * If the '--target-directory' ('-t') option is given, or failing that
     if the last file is a directory and the '--no-target-directory'
     ('-T') option is not given, 'mv' moves each SOURCE file to the
     specified directory, using the SOURCEs' names.

   'mv' can move any type of file from one file system to another.
Prior to version '4.0' of the fileutils, 'mv' could move only regular
files between file systems.  For example, now 'mv' can move an entire
directory hierarchy including special device files from one partition to
another.  It first uses some of the same code that's used by 'cp -a' to
copy the requested directories and files, then (assuming the copy
succeeded) it removes the originals.  If the copy fails, then the part
that was copied to the destination partition is removed.  If you were to
copy three directories from one partition to another and the copy of the
first directory succeeded, but the second didn't, the first would be
left on the destination partition and the second and third would be left
on the original partition.

   'mv' always tries to copy extended attributes (xattr), which may
include SELinux context, ACLs or Capabilities.  Upon failure all but
'Operation not supported' warnings are output.

   If a destination file exists but is normally unwritable, standard
input is a terminal, and the '-f' or '--force' option is not given, 'mv'
prompts the user for whether to replace the file.  (You might own the
file, or have write permission on its directory.)  If the response is
not affirmative, the file is skipped.

   _Warning_: Avoid specifying a source name with a trailing slash, when
it might be a symlink to a directory.  Otherwise, 'mv' may do something
very surprising, since its behavior depends on the underlying rename
system call.  On a system with a modern Linux-based kernel, it fails
with 'errno=ENOTDIR'.  However, on other systems (at least FreeBSD 6.1
and Solaris 10) it silently renames not the symlink but rather the
directory referenced by the symlink.  *Note Trailing slashes::.

   _Note_: 'mv' will only replace empty directories in the destination.
Conflicting populated directories are skipped with a diagnostic.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--backup[=METHOD]'
     *Note Backup options::.  Make a backup of each file that would
     otherwise be overwritten or removed.

'-f'
'--force'
     Do not prompt the user before removing a destination file.  If you
     specify more than one of the '-i', '-f', '-n' options, only the
     final one takes effect.

'-i'
'--interactive'
     Prompt whether to overwrite each existing destination file,
     regardless of its permissions.  If the response is not affirmative,
     the file is skipped.  If you specify more than one of the '-i',
     '-f', '-n' options, only the final one takes effect.

'-n'
'--no-clobber'
     Do not overwrite an existing file.  If you specify more than one of
     the '-i', '-f', '-n' options, only the final one takes effect.
     This option is mutually exclusive with '-b' or '--backup' option.

'-u'
'--update'
     Do not move a non-directory that has an existing destination with
     the same or newer modification timestamp.  If the move is across
     file system boundaries, the comparison is to the source timestamp
     truncated to the resolutions of the destination file system and of
     the system calls used to update timestamps; this avoids duplicate
     work if several 'mv -u' commands are executed with the same source
     and destination.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print the name of each file before moving it.

'--strip-trailing-slashes'
     Remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.  *Note
     Trailing slashes::.

'-S SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with '-b'.  *Note Backup
     options::.

'-t DIRECTORY'
'--target-directory=DIRECTORY'
     Specify the destination DIRECTORY.  *Note Target directory::.

'-T'
'--no-target-directory'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a
     symbolic link to a directory.  *Note Target directory::.

'-Z'
'--context'
     This option functions similarly to the 'restorecon' command, by
     adjusting the SELinux security context according to the system
     default type for destination files and each created directory.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: rm invocation,  Next: shred invocation,  Prev: mv invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.5 'rm': Remove files or directories
======================================

'rm' removes each given FILE.  By default, it does not remove
directories.  Synopsis:

     rm [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   If the '-I' or '--interactive=once' option is given, and there are
more than three files or the '-r', '-R', or '--recursive' are given,
then 'rm' prompts the user for whether to proceed with the entire
operation.  If the response is not affirmative, the entire command is
aborted.

   Otherwise, if a file is unwritable, standard input is a terminal, and
the '-f' or '--force' option is not given, or the '-i' or
'--interactive=always' option _is_ given, 'rm' prompts the user for
whether to remove the file.  If the response is not affirmative, the
file is skipped.

   Any attempt to remove a file whose last file name component is '.' or
'..' is rejected without any prompting, as mandated by POSIX.

   _Warning_: If you use 'rm' to remove a file, it is usually possible
to recover the contents of that file.  If you want more assurance that
the contents are truly unrecoverable, consider using 'shred'.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-d'
'--dir'
     Remove the listed directories if they are empty.

'-f'
'--force'
     Ignore nonexistent files and missing operands, and never prompt the
     user.  Ignore any previous '--interactive' ('-i') option.

'-i'
     Prompt whether to remove each file.  If the response is not
     affirmative, the file is skipped.  Ignore any previous '--force'
     ('-f') option.  Equivalent to '--interactive=always'.

'-I'
     Prompt once whether to proceed with the command, if more than three
     files are named or if a recursive removal is requested.  Ignore any
     previous '--force' ('-f') option.  Equivalent to
     '--interactive=once'.

'--interactive [=WHEN]'
     Specify when to issue an interactive prompt.  WHEN may be omitted,
     or one of:
        * never - Do not prompt at all.
        * once - Prompt once if more than three files are named or if a
          recursive removal is requested.  Equivalent to '-I'.
        * always - Prompt for every file being removed.  Equivalent to
          '-i'.
     '--interactive' with no WHEN is equivalent to
     '--interactive=always'.

'--one-file-system'
     When removing a hierarchy recursively, skip any directory that is
     on a file system different from that of the corresponding command
     line argument.

     This option is useful when removing a build "chroot" hierarchy,
     which normally contains no valuable data.  However, it is not
     uncommon to bind-mount '/home' into such a hierarchy, to make it
     easier to use one's start-up file.  The catch is that it's easy to
     forget to unmount '/home'.  Then, when you use 'rm -rf' to remove
     your normally throw-away chroot, that command will remove
     everything under '/home', too.  Use the '--one-file-system' option,
     and it will warn about and skip directories on other file systems.
     Of course, this will not save your '/home' if it and your chroot
     happen to be on the same file system.

'--preserve-root'
     Fail upon any attempt to remove the root directory, '/', when used
     with the '--recursive' option.  This is the default behavior.
     *Note Treating / specially::.

'--no-preserve-root'
     Do not treat '/' specially when removing recursively.  This option
     is not recommended unless you really want to remove all the files
     on your computer.  *Note Treating / specially::.

'-r'
'-R'
'--recursive'
     Remove the listed directories and their contents recursively.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print the name of each file before removing it.

   One common question is how to remove files whose names begin with a
'-'.  GNU 'rm', like every program that uses the 'getopt' function to
parse its arguments, lets you use the '--' option to indicate that all
following arguments are non-options.  To remove a file called '-f' in
the current directory, you could type either:

     rm -- -f

or:

     rm ./-f

   The Unix 'rm' program's use of a single '-' for this purpose predates
the development of the 'getopt' standard syntax.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: shred invocation,  Prev: rm invocation,  Up: Basic operations

11.6 'shred': Remove files more securely
========================================

'shred' overwrites devices or files, to help prevent even very expensive
hardware from recovering the data.

   Ordinarily when you remove a file (*note rm invocation::), the data
is not actually destroyed.  Only the index listing where the file is
stored is destroyed, and the storage is made available for reuse.  There
are undelete utilities that will attempt to reconstruct the index and
can bring the file back if the parts were not reused.

   On a busy system with a nearly-full drive, space can get reused in a
few seconds.  But there is no way to know for sure.  If you have
sensitive data, you may want to be sure that recovery is not possible by
actually overwriting the file with non-sensitive data.

   However, even after doing that, it is possible to take the disk back
to a laboratory and use a lot of sensitive (and expensive) equipment to
look for the faint "echoes" of the original data underneath the
overwritten data.  If the data has only been overwritten once, it's not
even that hard.

   The best way to remove something irretrievably is to destroy the
media it's on with acid, melt it down, or the like.  For cheap removable
media like floppy disks, this is the preferred method.  However, hard
drives are expensive and hard to melt, so the 'shred' utility tries to
achieve a similar effect non-destructively.

   This uses many overwrite passes, with the data patterns chosen to
maximize the damage they do to the old data.  While this will work on
floppies, the patterns are designed for best effect on hard drives.  For
more details, see the source code and Peter Gutmann's paper 'Secure
Deletion of Data from Magnetic and Solid-State Memory'
(https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~pgut001/pubs/secure_del.html), from the
proceedings of the Sixth USENIX Security Symposium (San Jose,
California, July 22-25, 1996).

   *Please note* that 'shred' relies on a very important assumption:
that the file system overwrites data in place.  This is the traditional
way to do things, but many modern file system designs do not satisfy
this assumption.  Exceptions include:

   * Log-structured or journaled file systems, such as those supplied
     with AIX and Solaris, and JFS, ReiserFS, XFS, Ext3 (in
     'data=journal' mode), BFS, NTFS, etc., when they are configured to
     journal _data_.

   * File systems that write redundant data and carry on even if some
     writes fail, such as RAID-based file systems.

   * File systems that make snapshots, such as Network Appliance's NFS
     server.

   * File systems that cache in temporary locations, such as NFS version
     3 clients.

   * Compressed file systems.

   In the particular case of ext3 file systems, the above disclaimer
applies (and 'shred' is thus of limited effectiveness) only in
'data=journal' mode, which journals file data in addition to just
metadata.  In both the 'data=ordered' (default) and 'data=writeback'
modes, 'shred' works as usual.  Ext3 journaling modes can be changed by
adding the 'data=something' option to the mount options for a particular
file system in the '/etc/fstab' file, as documented in the mount man
page (man mount).

   If you are not sure how your file system operates, then you should
assume that it does not overwrite data in place, which means that shred
cannot reliably operate on regular files in your file system.

   Generally speaking, it is more reliable to shred a device than a
file, since this bypasses the problem of file system design mentioned
above.  However, even shredding devices is not always completely
reliable.  For example, most disks map out bad sectors invisibly to the
application; if the bad sectors contain sensitive data, 'shred' won't be
able to destroy it.

   'shred' makes no attempt to detect or report this problem, just as it
makes no attempt to do anything about backups.  However, since it is
more reliable to shred devices than files, 'shred' by default does not
truncate or remove the output file.  This default is more suitable for
devices, which typically cannot be truncated and should not be removed.

   Finally, consider the risk of backups and mirrors.  File system
backups and remote mirrors may contain copies of the file that cannot be
removed, and that will allow a shredded file to be recovered later.  So
if you keep any data you may later want to destroy using 'shred', be
sure that it is not backed up or mirrored.

     shred [OPTION]... FILE[...]

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-f'
'--force'
     Override file permissions if necessary to allow overwriting.

'-n NUMBER'
'--iterations=NUMBER'
     By default, 'shred' uses 3 passes of overwrite.  You can reduce
     this to save time, or increase it if you think it's appropriate.
     After 25 passes all of the internal overwrite patterns will have
     been used at least once.

'--random-source=FILE'
     Use FILE as a source of random data used to overwrite and to choose
     pass ordering.  *Note Random sources::.

'-s BYTES'
'--size=BYTES'
     Shred the first BYTES bytes of the file.  The default is to shred
     the whole file.  BYTES can be followed by a size specification like
     'K', 'M', or 'G' to specify a multiple.  *Note Block size::.

'-u'
'--remove[=HOW]'
     After shredding a file, truncate it (if possible) and then remove
     it.  If a file has multiple links, only the named links will be
     removed.  Often the file name is less sensitive than the file data,
     in which case the optional HOW parameter, supported with the long
     form option, gives control of how to more efficiently remove each
     directory entry.  The 'unlink' parameter will just use a standard
     unlink call, 'wipe' will also first obfuscate bytes in the name,
     and 'wipesync' will also sync each obfuscated byte in the name to
     disk.  Note 'wipesync' is the default method, but can be expensive,
     requiring a sync for every character in every file.  This can
     become significant with many files, or is redundant if your file
     system provides synchronous metadata updates.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Display to standard error all status updates as sterilization
     proceeds.

'-x'
'--exact'
     By default, 'shred' rounds the size of a regular file up to the
     next multiple of the file system block size to fully erase the
     slack space in the last block of the file.  This space may contain
     portions of the current system memory on some systems for example.
     Use '--exact' to suppress that behavior.  Thus, by default if you
     shred a 10-byte regular file on a system with 512-byte blocks, the
     resulting file will be 512 bytes long.  With this option, shred
     does not increase the apparent size of the file.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Normally, the last pass that 'shred' writes is made up of random
     data.  If this would be conspicuous on your hard drive (for
     example, because it looks like encrypted data), or you just think
     it's tidier, the '--zero' option adds an additional overwrite pass
     with all zero bits.  This is in addition to the number of passes
     specified by the '--iterations' option.

   You might use the following command to erase all trace of the file
system you'd created on the floppy disk in your first drive.  That
command takes about 20 minutes to erase a "1.44MB" (actually 1440 KiB)
floppy.

     shred --verbose /dev/fd0

   Similarly, to erase all data on a selected partition of your hard
disk, you could give a command like this:

     shred --verbose /dev/sda5

   On modern disks, a single pass should be adequate, and it will take
one third the time of the default three-pass approach.

     # 1 pass, write pseudo-random data; 3x faster than the default
     shred --verbose -n1 /dev/sda5

   To be on the safe side, use at least one pass that overwrites using
pseudo-random data.  I.e., don't be tempted to use '-n0 --zero', in case
some disk controller optimizes the process of writing blocks of all
zeros, and thereby does not clear all bytes in a block.  Some SSDs may
do just that.

   A FILE of '-' denotes standard output.  The intended use of this is
to shred a removed temporary file.  For example:

     i=$(mktemp)
     exec 3<>"$i"
     rm -- "$i"
     echo "Hello, world" >&3
     shred - >&3
     exec 3>-

   However, the command 'shred - >file' does not shred the contents of
FILE, since the shell truncates FILE before invoking 'shred'.  Use the
command 'shred file' or (if using a Bourne-compatible shell) the command
'shred - 1<>file' instead.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Special file types,  Next: Changing file attributes,  Prev: Basic operations,  Up: Top

12 Special file types
*********************

This chapter describes commands which create special types of files (and
'rmdir', which removes directories, one special file type).

   Although Unix-like operating systems have markedly fewer special file
types than others, not _everything_ can be treated only as the
undifferentiated byte stream of "normal files".  For example, when a
file is created or removed, the system must record this information,
which it does in a "directory"--a special type of file.  Although you can
read directories as normal files, if you're curious, in order for the
system to do its job it must impose a structure, a certain order, on the
bytes of the file.  Thus it is a "special" type of file.

   Besides directories, other special file types include named pipes
(FIFOs), symbolic links, sockets, and so-called "special files".

* Menu:

* link invocation::             Make a hard link via the link syscall
* ln invocation::               Make links between files.
* mkdir invocation::            Make directories.
* mkfifo invocation::           Make FIFOs (named pipes).
* mknod invocation::            Make block or character special files.
* readlink invocation::         Print value of a symlink or canonical file name.
* rmdir invocation::            Remove empty directories.
* unlink invocation::           Remove files via the unlink syscall

File: coreutils.info,  Node: link invocation,  Next: ln invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.1 'link': Make a hard link via the link syscall
==================================================

'link' creates a single hard link at a time.  It is a minimalist
interface to the system-provided 'link' function.  *Note (libc)Hard
Links::.  It avoids the bells and whistles of the more commonly-used
'ln' command (*note ln invocation::).  Synopsis:

     link FILENAME LINKNAME

   FILENAME must specify an existing file, and LINKNAME must specify a
nonexistent entry in an existing directory.  'link' simply calls 'link
(FILENAME, LINKNAME)' to create the link.

   On a GNU system, this command acts like 'ln --directory
--no-target-directory FILENAME LINKNAME'.  However, the '--directory'
and '--no-target-directory' options are not specified by POSIX, and the
'link' command is more portable in practice.

   If FILENAME is a symbolic link, it is unspecified whether LINKNAME
will be a hard link to the symbolic link or to the target of the
symbolic link.  Use 'ln -P' or 'ln -L' to specify which behavior is
desired.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: ln invocation,  Next: mkdir invocation,  Prev: link invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.2 'ln': Make links between files
===================================

'ln' makes links between files.  By default, it makes hard links; with
the '-s' option, it makes symbolic (or "soft") links.  Synopses:

     ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINKNAME
     ln [OPTION]... TARGET
     ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY
     ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET...

   * If two file names are given, 'ln' creates a link to the first file
     from the second.

   * If one TARGET is given, 'ln' creates a link to that file in the
     current directory.

   * If the '--target-directory' ('-t') option is given, or failing that
     if the last file is a directory and the '--no-target-directory'
     ('-T') option is not given, 'ln' creates a link to each TARGET file
     in the specified directory, using the TARGETs' names.

   Normally 'ln' does not replace existing files.  Use the '--force'
('-f') option to replace them unconditionally, the '--interactive'
('-i') option to replace them conditionally, and the '--backup' ('-b')
option to rename them.  Unless the '--backup' ('-b') option is used
there is no brief moment when the destination does not exist; this is an
extension to POSIX.

   A "hard link" is another name for an existing file; the link and the
original are indistinguishable.  Technically speaking, they share the
same inode, and the inode contains all the information about a
file--indeed, it is not incorrect to say that the inode _is_ the file.
Most systems prohibit making a hard link to a directory; on those where
it is allowed, only the super-user can do so (and with caution, since
creating a cycle will cause problems to many other utilities).  Hard
links cannot cross file system boundaries.  (These restrictions are not
mandated by POSIX, however.)

   "Symbolic links" ("symlinks" for short), on the other hand, are a
special file type (which not all kernels support: System V release 3
(and older) systems lack symlinks) in which the link file actually
refers to a different file, by name.  When most operations (opening,
reading, writing, and so on) are passed the symbolic link file, the
kernel automatically "dereferences" the link and operates on the target
of the link.  But some operations (e.g., removing) work on the link file
itself, rather than on its target.  The owner and group of a symlink are
not significant to file access performed through the link, but do have
implications on deleting a symbolic link from a directory with the
restricted deletion bit set.  On the GNU system, the mode of a symlink
has no significance and cannot be changed, but on some BSD systems, the
mode can be changed and will affect whether the symlink will be
traversed in file name resolution.  *Note (libc)Symbolic Links::.

   Symbolic links can contain arbitrary strings; a "dangling symlink"
occurs when the string in the symlink does not resolve to a file.  There
are no restrictions against creating dangling symbolic links.  There are
trade-offs to using absolute or relative symlinks.  An absolute symlink
always points to the same file, even if the directory containing the
link is moved.  However, if the symlink is visible from more than one
machine (such as on a networked file system), the file pointed to might
not always be the same.  A relative symbolic link is resolved in
relation to the directory that contains the link, and is often useful in
referring to files on the same device without regards to what name that
device is mounted on when accessed via networked machines.

   When creating a relative symlink in a different location than the
current directory, the resolution of the symlink will be different than
the resolution of the same string from the current directory.
Therefore, many users prefer to first change directories to the location
where the relative symlink will be created, so that tab-completion or
other file resolution will find the same target as what will be placed
in the symlink.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-b'
'--backup[=METHOD]'
     *Note Backup options::.  Make a backup of each file that would
     otherwise be overwritten or removed.

'-d'
'-F'
'--directory'
     Allow users with appropriate privileges to attempt to make hard
     links to directories.  However, note that this will probably fail
     due to system restrictions, even for the super-user.

'-f'
'--force'
     Remove existing destination files.

'-i'
'--interactive'
     Prompt whether to remove existing destination files.

'-L'
'--logical'
     If '-s' is not in effect, and the source file is a symbolic link,
     create the hard link to the file referred to by the symbolic link,
     rather than the symbolic link itself.

'-n'
'--no-dereference'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a symbolic link
     to a directory.  Instead, treat it as if it were a normal file.

     When the destination is an actual directory (not a symlink to one),
     there is no ambiguity.  The link is created in that directory.  But
     when the specified destination is a symlink to a directory, there
     are two ways to treat the user's request.  'ln' can treat the
     destination just as it would a normal directory and create the link
     in it.  On the other hand, the destination can be viewed as a
     non-directory--as the symlink itself.  In that case, 'ln' must
     delete or backup that symlink before creating the new link.  The
     default is to treat a destination that is a symlink to a directory
     just like a directory.

     This option is weaker than the '--no-target-directory' ('-T')
     option, so it has no effect if both options are given.

'-P'
'--physical'
     If '-s' is not in effect, and the source file is a symbolic link,
     create the hard link to the symbolic link itself.  On platforms
     where this is not supported by the kernel, this option creates a
     symbolic link with identical contents; since symbolic link contents
     cannot be edited, any file name resolution performed through either
     link will be the same as if a hard link had been created.

'-r'
'--relative'
     Make symbolic links relative to the link location.

     Example:

          ln -srv /a/file /tmp
          '/tmp/file' -> '../a/file'

     Relative symbolic links are generated based on their canonicalized
     containing directory, and canonicalized targets.  I.e., all
     symbolic links in these file names will be resolved.  *Note
     realpath invocation::, which gives greater control over relative
     file name generation, as demonstrated in the following example:

          ln--relative() {
            test "$1" = --no-symlinks && { nosym=$1; shift; }
            target="$1";
            test -d "$2" && link="$2/." || link="$2"
            rtarget="$(realpath $nosym -m "$target" \
                        --relative-to "$(dirname "$link")")"
            ln -s -v "$rtarget" "$link"
          }

'-s'
'--symbolic'
     Make symbolic links instead of hard links.  This option merely
     produces an error message on systems that do not support symbolic
     links.

'-S SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with '-b'.  *Note Backup
     options::.

'-t DIRECTORY'
'--target-directory=DIRECTORY'
     Specify the destination DIRECTORY.  *Note Target directory::.

'-T'
'--no-target-directory'
     Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a
     symbolic link to a directory.  *Note Target directory::.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print the name of each file after linking it successfully.

   If '-L' and '-P' are both given, the last one takes precedence.  If
'-s' is also given, '-L' and '-P' are silently ignored.  If neither
option is given, then this implementation defaults to '-P' if the system
'link' supports hard links to symbolic links (such as the GNU system),
and '-L' if 'link' follows symbolic links (such as on BSD).

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     Bad Example:

     # Create link ../a pointing to a in that directory.
     # Not really useful because it points to itself.
     ln -s a ..

     Better Example:

     # Change to the target before creating symlinks to avoid being confused.
     cd ..
     ln -s adir/a .

     Bad Example:

     # Hard coded file names don't move well.
     ln -s $(pwd)/a /some/dir/

     Better Example:

     # Relative file names survive directory moves and also
     # work across networked file systems.
     ln -s afile anotherfile
     ln -s ../adir/afile yetanotherfile

File: coreutils.info,  Node: mkdir invocation,  Next: mkfifo invocation,  Prev: ln invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.3 'mkdir': Make directories
==============================

'mkdir' creates directories with the specified names.  Synopsis:

     mkdir [OPTION]... NAME...

   'mkdir' creates each directory NAME in the order given.  It reports
an error if NAME already exists, unless the '-p' option is given and
NAME is a directory.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-m MODE'
'--mode=MODE'
     Set the file permission bits of created directories to MODE, which
     uses the same syntax as in 'chmod' and uses 'a=rwx' (read, write
     and execute allowed for everyone) for the point of the departure.
     *Note File permissions::.

     Normally the directory has the desired file mode bits at the moment
     it is created.  As a GNU extension, MODE may also mention special
     mode bits, but in this case there may be a temporary window during
     which the directory exists but its special mode bits are incorrect.
     *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::, for how the set-user-ID and
     set-group-ID bits of directories are inherited unless overridden in
     this way.

'-p'
'--parents'
     Make any missing parent directories for each argument, setting
     their file permission bits to the umask modified by 'u+wx'.  Ignore
     existing parent directories, and do not change their file
     permission bits.

     To set the file permission bits of any newly-created parent
     directories to a value that includes 'u+wx', you can set the umask
     before invoking 'mkdir'.  For example, if the shell command '(umask
     u=rwx,go=rx; mkdir -p P/Q)' creates the parent 'P' it sets the
     parent's permission bits to 'u=rwx,go=rx'.  To set a parent's
     special mode bits as well, you can invoke 'chmod' after 'mkdir'.
     *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::, for how the set-user-ID and
     set-group-ID bits of newly-created parent directories are
     inherited.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Print a message for each created directory.  This is most useful
     with '--parents'.

'-Z'
'--context[=CONTEXT]'
     Without a specified CONTEXT, adjust the SELinux security context
     according to the system default type for destination files,
     similarly to the 'restorecon' command.  The long form of this
     option with a specific context specified, will set the context for
     newly created files only.  With a specified context, if both
     SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: mkfifo invocation,  Next: mknod invocation,  Prev: mkdir invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.4 'mkfifo': Make FIFOs (named pipes)
=======================================

'mkfifo' creates FIFOs (also called "named pipes") with the specified
names.  Synopsis:

     mkfifo [OPTION] NAME...

   A "FIFO" is a special file type that permits independent processes to
communicate.  One process opens the FIFO file for writing, and another
for reading, after which data can flow as with the usual anonymous pipe
in shells or elsewhere.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-m MODE'
'--mode=MODE'
     Set the mode of created FIFOs to MODE, which is symbolic as in
     'chmod' and uses 'a=rw' (read and write allowed for everyone) for
     the point of departure.  MODE should specify only file permission
     bits.  *Note File permissions::.

'-Z'
'--context[=CONTEXT]'
     Without a specified CONTEXT, adjust the SELinux security context
     according to the system default type for destination files,
     similarly to the 'restorecon' command.  The long form of this
     option with a specific context specified, will set the context for
     newly created files only.  With a specified context, if both
     SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: mknod invocation,  Next: readlink invocation,  Prev: mkfifo invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.5 'mknod': Make block or character special files
===================================================

'mknod' creates a FIFO, character special file, or block special file
with the specified name.  Synopsis:

     mknod [OPTION]... NAME TYPE [MAJOR MINOR]

   Unlike the phrase "special file type" above, the term "special file"
has a technical meaning on Unix: something that can generate or receive
data.  Usually this corresponds to a physical piece of hardware, e.g., a
printer or a disk.  (These files are typically created at
system-configuration time.)  The 'mknod' command is what creates files
of this type.  Such devices can be read either a character at a time or
a "block" (many characters) at a time, hence we say there are "block
special" files and "character special" files.

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'mknod' functions, using an
unadorned 'mknod' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
mknod ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   The arguments after NAME specify the type of file to make:

'p'
     for a FIFO

'b'
     for a block special file

'c'
     for a character special file

   When making a block or character special file, the major and minor
device numbers must be given after the file type.  If a major or minor
device number begins with '0x' or '0X', it is interpreted as
hexadecimal; otherwise, if it begins with '0', as octal; otherwise, as
decimal.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-m MODE'
'--mode=MODE'
     Set the mode of created files to MODE, which is symbolic as in
     'chmod' and uses 'a=rw' as the point of departure.  MODE should
     specify only file permission bits.  *Note File permissions::.

'-Z'
'--context[=CONTEXT]'
     Without a specified CONTEXT, adjust the SELinux security context
     according to the system default type for destination files,
     similarly to the 'restorecon' command.  The long form of this
     option with a specific context specified, will set the context for
     newly created files only.  With a specified context, if both
     SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: readlink invocation,  Next: rmdir invocation,  Prev: mknod invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.6 'readlink': Print value of a symlink or canonical file name
================================================================

'readlink' may work in one of two supported modes:

'Readlink mode'

     'readlink' outputs the value of the given symbolic links.  If
     'readlink' is invoked with an argument other than the name of a
     symbolic link, it produces no output and exits with a nonzero exit
     code.

'Canonicalize mode'

     'readlink' outputs the absolute name of the given files which
     contain no '.', '..' components nor any repeated separators ('/')
     or symbolic links.  Note the 'realpath' command is the preferred
     command to use for canonicalization.  *Note realpath invocation::.

     readlink [OPTION]... FILE...

   By default, 'readlink' operates in readlink mode.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-f'
'--canonicalize'
     Activate canonicalize mode.  If any component of the file name
     except the last one is missing or unavailable, 'readlink' produces
     no output and exits with a nonzero exit code.  A trailing slash is
     ignored.

'-e'
'--canonicalize-existing'
     Activate canonicalize mode.  If any component is missing or
     unavailable, 'readlink' produces no output and exits with a nonzero
     exit code.  A trailing slash requires that the name resolve to a
     directory.

'-m'
'--canonicalize-missing'
     Activate canonicalize mode.  If any component is missing or
     unavailable, 'readlink' treats it as a directory.

'-n'
'--no-newline'
     Do not print the output delimiter, when a single FILE is specified.
     Print a warning if specified along with multiple FILEs.

'-s'
'-q'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Suppress most error messages.  On by default.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Report error messages.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

   The 'readlink' utility first appeared in OpenBSD 2.1.

   The 'realpath' command without options, operates like 'readlink' in
canonicalize mode.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: rmdir invocation,  Next: unlink invocation,  Prev: readlink invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.7 'rmdir': Remove empty directories
======================================

'rmdir' removes empty directories.  Synopsis:

     rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

   If any DIRECTORY argument does not refer to an existing empty
directory, it is an error.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'--ignore-fail-on-non-empty'
     Ignore each failure to remove a directory that is solely because
     the directory is non-empty.

'-p'
'--parents'
     Remove DIRECTORY, then try to remove each component of DIRECTORY.
     So, for example, 'rmdir -p a/b/c' is similar to 'rmdir a/b/c a/b
     a'.  As such, it fails if any of those directories turns out not to
     be empty.  Use the '--ignore-fail-on-non-empty' option to make it
     so such a failure does not evoke a diagnostic and does not cause
     'rmdir' to exit unsuccessfully.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Give a diagnostic for each successful removal.  DIRECTORY is
     removed.

   *Note rm invocation::, for how to remove non-empty directories
(recursively).

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: unlink invocation,  Prev: rmdir invocation,  Up: Special file types

12.8 'unlink': Remove files via the unlink syscall
==================================================

'unlink' deletes a single specified file name.  It is a minimalist
interface to the system-provided 'unlink' function.  *Note
(libc)Deleting Files::.  Synopsis: It avoids the bells and whistles of
the more commonly-used 'rm' command (*note rm invocation::).

     unlink FILENAME

   On some systems 'unlink' can be used to delete the name of a
directory.  On others, it can be used that way only by a privileged
user.  In the GNU system 'unlink' can never delete the name of a
directory.

   The 'unlink' command honors the '--help' and '--version' options.  To
remove a file whose name begins with '-', prefix the name with './',
e.g., 'unlink ./--help'.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Changing file attributes,  Next: Disk usage,  Prev: Special file types,  Up: Top

13 Changing file attributes
***************************

A file is not merely its contents, a name, and a file type (*note
Special file types::).  A file also has an owner (a user ID), a group (a
group ID), permissions (what the owner can do with the file, what people
in the group can do, and what everyone else can do), various timestamps,
and other information.  Collectively, we call these a file's
"attributes".

   These commands change file attributes.

* Menu:

* chown invocation::            Change file owners and groups.
* chgrp invocation::            Change file groups.
* chmod invocation::            Change access permissions.
* touch invocation::            Change file timestamps.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: chown invocation,  Next: chgrp invocation,  Up: Changing file attributes

13.1 'chown': Change file owner and group
=========================================

'chown' changes the user and/or group ownership of each given FILE to
NEW-OWNER or to the user and group of an existing reference file.
Synopsis:

     chown [OPTION]... {NEW-OWNER | --reference=REF_FILE} FILE...

   If used, NEW-OWNER specifies the new owner and/or group as follows
(with no embedded white space):

     [OWNER] [ : [GROUP] ]

   Specifically:

OWNER
     If only an OWNER (a user name or numeric user ID) is given, that
     user is made the owner of each given file, and the files' group is
     not changed.

OWNER':'GROUP
     If the OWNER is followed by a colon and a GROUP (a group name or
     numeric group ID), with no spaces between them, the group ownership
     of the files is changed as well (to GROUP).

OWNER':'
     If a colon but no group name follows OWNER, that user is made the
     owner of the files and the group of the files is changed to OWNER's
     login group.

':'GROUP
     If the colon and following GROUP are given, but the owner is
     omitted, only the group of the files is changed; in this case,
     'chown' performs the same function as 'chgrp'.

':'
     If only a colon is given, or if NEW-OWNER is empty, neither the
     owner nor the group is changed.

   If OWNER or GROUP is intended to represent a numeric user or group
ID, then you may specify it with a leading '+'.  *Note Disambiguating
names and IDs::.

   Some older scripts may still use '.' in place of the ':' separator.
POSIX 1003.1-2001 (*note Standards conformance::) does not require
support for that, but for backward compatibility GNU 'chown' supports
'.' so long as no ambiguity results.  New scripts should avoid the use
of '.' because it is not portable, and because it has undesirable
results if the entire OWNER'.'GROUP happens to identify a user whose
name contains '.'.

   It is system dependent whether a user can change the group to an
arbitrary one, or the more portable behavior of being restricted to
setting a group of which the user is a member.

   The 'chown' command sometimes clears the set-user-ID or set-group-ID
permission bits.  This behavior depends on the policy and functionality
of the underlying 'chown' system call, which may make system-dependent
file mode modifications outside the control of the 'chown' command.  For
example, the 'chown' command might not affect those bits when invoked by
a user with appropriate privileges, or when the bits signify some
function other than executable permission (e.g., mandatory locking).
When in doubt, check the underlying system behavior.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--changes'
     Verbosely describe the action for each FILE whose ownership
     actually changes.

'-f'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Do not print error messages about files whose ownership cannot be
     changed.

'--from=OLD-OWNER'
     Change a FILE's ownership only if it has current attributes
     specified by OLD-OWNER.  OLD-OWNER has the same form as NEW-OWNER
     described above.  This option is useful primarily from a security
     standpoint in that it narrows considerably the window of potential
     abuse.  For example, to reflect a user ID numbering change for one
     user's files without an option like this, 'root' might run

          find / -owner OLDUSER -print0 | xargs -0 chown -h NEWUSER

     But that is dangerous because the interval between when the 'find'
     tests the existing file's owner and when the 'chown' is actually
     run may be quite large.  One way to narrow the gap would be to
     invoke chown for each file as it is found:

          find / -owner OLDUSER -exec chown -h NEWUSER {} \;

     But that is very slow if there are many affected files.  With this
     option, it is safer (the gap is narrower still) though still not
     perfect:

          chown -h -R --from=OLDUSER NEWUSER /

'--dereference'
     Do not act on symbolic links themselves but rather on what they
     point to.  This is the default.

'-h'
'--no-dereference'
     Act on symbolic links themselves instead of what they point to.
     This mode relies on the 'lchown' system call.  On systems that do
     not provide the 'lchown' system call, 'chown' fails when a file
     specified on the command line is a symbolic link.  By default, no
     diagnostic is issued for symbolic links encountered during a
     recursive traversal, but see '--verbose'.

'--preserve-root'
     Fail upon any attempt to recursively change the root directory,
     '/'.  Without '--recursive', this option has no effect.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'--no-preserve-root'
     Cancel the effect of any preceding '--preserve-root' option.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'--reference=REF_FILE'
     Change the user and group of each FILE to be the same as those of
     REF_FILE.  If REF_FILE is a symbolic link, do not use the user and
     group of the symbolic link, but rather those of the file it refers
     to.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output a diagnostic for every file processed.  If a symbolic link
     is encountered during a recursive traversal on a system without the
     'lchown' system call, and '--no-dereference' is in effect, then
     issue a diagnostic saying neither the symbolic link nor its
     referent is being changed.

'-R'
'--recursive'
     Recursively change ownership of directories and their contents.

'-H'
     If '--recursive' ('-R') is specified and a command line argument is
     a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it.  *Note Traversing
     symlinks::.

'-L'
     In a recursive traversal, traverse every symbolic link to a
     directory that is encountered.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

'-P'
     Do not traverse any symbolic links.  This is the default if none of
     '-H', '-L', or '-P' is specified.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Change the owner of /u to "root".
     chown root /u

     # Likewise, but also change its group to "staff".
     chown root:staff /u

     # Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root".
     chown -hR root /u

File: coreutils.info,  Node: chgrp invocation,  Next: chmod invocation,  Prev: chown invocation,  Up: Changing file attributes

13.2 'chgrp': Change group ownership
====================================

'chgrp' changes the group ownership of each given FILE to GROUP (which
can be either a group name or a numeric group ID) or to the group of an
existing reference file.  *Note chown invocation::.  Synopsis:

     chgrp [OPTION]... {GROUP | --reference=REF_FILE} FILE...

   If GROUP is intended to represent a numeric group ID, then you may
specify it with a leading '+'.  *Note Disambiguating names and IDs::.

   It is system dependent whether a user can change the group to an
arbitrary one, or the more portable behavior of being restricted to
setting a group of which the user is a member.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--changes'
     Verbosely describe the action for each FILE whose group actually
     changes.

'-f'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Do not print error messages about files whose group cannot be
     changed.

'--dereference'
     Do not act on symbolic links themselves but rather on what they
     point to.  This is the default.

'-h'
'--no-dereference'
     Act on symbolic links themselves instead of what they point to.
     This mode relies on the 'lchown' system call.  On systems that do
     not provide the 'lchown' system call, 'chgrp' fails when a file
     specified on the command line is a symbolic link.  By default, no
     diagnostic is issued for symbolic links encountered during a
     recursive traversal, but see '--verbose'.

'--preserve-root'
     Fail upon any attempt to recursively change the root directory,
     '/'.  Without '--recursive', this option has no effect.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'--no-preserve-root'
     Cancel the effect of any preceding '--preserve-root' option.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'--reference=REF_FILE'
     Change the group of each FILE to be the same as that of REF_FILE.
     If REF_FILE is a symbolic link, do not use the group of the
     symbolic link, but rather that of the file it refers to.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output a diagnostic for every file processed.  If a symbolic link
     is encountered during a recursive traversal on a system without the
     'lchown' system call, and '--no-dereference' is in effect, then
     issue a diagnostic saying neither the symbolic link nor its
     referent is being changed.

'-R'
'--recursive'
     Recursively change the group ownership of directories and their
     contents.

'-H'
     If '--recursive' ('-R') is specified and a command line argument is
     a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it.  *Note Traversing
     symlinks::.

'-L'
     In a recursive traversal, traverse every symbolic link to a
     directory that is encountered.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

'-P'
     Do not traverse any symbolic links.  This is the default if none of
     '-H', '-L', or '-P' is specified.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Change the group of /u to "staff".
     chgrp staff /u

     # Change the group of /u and subfiles to "staff".
     chgrp -hR staff /u

File: coreutils.info,  Node: chmod invocation,  Next: touch invocation,  Prev: chgrp invocation,  Up: Changing file attributes

13.3 'chmod': Change access permissions
=======================================

'chmod' changes the access permissions of the named files.  Synopsis:

     chmod [OPTION]... {MODE | --reference=REF_FILE} FILE...

   'chmod' never changes the permissions of symbolic links, since the
'chmod' system call cannot change their permissions.  This is not a
problem since the permissions of symbolic links are never used.
However, for each symbolic link listed on the command line, 'chmod'
changes the permissions of the pointed-to file.  In contrast, 'chmod'
ignores symbolic links encountered during recursive directory
traversals.

   A successful use of 'chmod' clears the set-group-ID bit of a regular
file if the file's group ID does not match the user's effective group ID
or one of the user's supplementary group IDs, unless the user has
appropriate privileges.  Additional restrictions may cause the
set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of MODE or REF_FILE to be ignored.
This behavior depends on the policy and functionality of the underlying
'chmod' system call.  When in doubt, check the underlying system
behavior.

   If used, MODE specifies the new file mode bits.  For details, see the
section on *note File permissions::.  If you really want MODE to have a
leading '-', you should use '--' first, e.g., 'chmod -- -w file'.
Typically, though, 'chmod a-w file' is preferable, and 'chmod -w file'
(without the '--') complains if it behaves differently from what 'chmod
a-w file' would do.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--changes'
     Verbosely describe the action for each FILE whose permissions
     actually changes.

'-f'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Do not print error messages about files whose permissions cannot be
     changed.

'--preserve-root'
     Fail upon any attempt to recursively change the root directory,
     '/'.  Without '--recursive', this option has no effect.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'--no-preserve-root'
     Cancel the effect of any preceding '--preserve-root' option.  *Note
     Treating / specially::.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Verbosely describe the action or non-action taken for every FILE.

'--reference=REF_FILE'
     Change the mode of each FILE to be the same as that of REF_FILE.
     *Note File permissions::.  If REF_FILE is a symbolic link, do not
     use the mode of the symbolic link, but rather that of the file it
     refers to.

'-R'
'--recursive'
     Recursively change permissions of directories and their contents.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: touch invocation,  Prev: chmod invocation,  Up: Changing file attributes

13.4 'touch': Change file timestamps
====================================

'touch' changes the access and/or modification timestamps of the
specified files.  Synopsis:

     touch [OPTION]... FILE...

   Any FILE argument that does not exist is created empty, unless option
'--no-create' ('-c') or '--no-dereference' ('-h') was in effect.

   A FILE argument string of '-' is handled specially and causes 'touch'
to change the times of the file associated with standard output.

   By default, 'touch' sets file timestamps to the current time.
Because 'touch' acts on its operands left to right, the resulting
timestamps of earlier and later operands may disagree.

   When setting file timestamps to the current time, 'touch' can change
the timestamps for files that the user does not own but has write
permission for.  Otherwise, the user must own the files.  Some older
systems have a further restriction: the user must own the files unless
both the access and modification timestamps are being set to the current
time.

   The 'touch' command cannot set a file's status change timestamp to a
user-specified value, and cannot change the file's birth time (if
supported) at all.  Also, 'touch' has issues similar to those affecting
all programs that update file timestamps.  For example, 'touch' may set
a file's timestamp to a value that differs slightly from the requested
time.  *Note File timestamps::.

   Timestamps assume the time zone rules specified by the 'TZ'
environment variable, or by the system default rules if 'TZ' is not set.
*Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ Variable.  You can
avoid ambiguities during daylight saving transitions by using UTC
timestamps.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--time=atime'
'--time=access'
'--time=use'
     Change the access timestamp only.  *Note File timestamps::.

'-c'
'--no-create'
     Do not warn about or create files that do not exist.

'-d TIME'
'--date=TIME'
     Use TIME instead of the current time.  It can contain month names,
     time zones, 'am' and 'pm', 'yesterday', etc.  For example,
     '--date="2004-02-27 14:19:13.489392193 +0530"' specifies the
     instant of time that is 489,392,193 nanoseconds after February 27,
     2004 at 2:19:13 PM in a time zone that is 5 hours and 30 minutes
     east of UTC.  *Note Date input formats::.  File systems that do not
     support high-resolution timestamps silently ignore any excess
     precision here.

'-f'
     Ignored; for compatibility with BSD versions of 'touch'.

'-h'
'--no-dereference'
     Attempt to change the timestamps of a symbolic link, rather than
     what the link refers to.  When using this option, empty files are
     not created, but option '-c' must also be used to avoid warning
     about files that do not exist.  Not all systems support changing
     the timestamps of symlinks, since underlying system support for
     this action was not required until POSIX 2008.  Also, on some
     systems, the mere act of examining a symbolic link changes the
     access timestamp, such that only changes to the modification
     timestamp will persist long enough to be observable.  When coupled
     with option '-r', a reference timestamp is taken from a symbolic
     link rather than the file it refers to.

'-m'
'--time=mtime'
'--time=modify'
     Change the modification timestamp only.

'-r FILE'
'--reference=FILE'
     Use the times of the reference FILE instead of the current time.
     If this option is combined with the '--date=TIME' ('-d TIME')
     option, the reference FILE's time is the origin for any relative
     TIMEs given, but is otherwise ignored.  For example, '-r foo -d '-5
     seconds'' specifies a timestamp equal to five seconds before the
     corresponding timestamp for 'foo'.  If FILE is a symbolic link, the
     reference timestamp is taken from the target of the symlink, unless
     '-h' was also in effect.

'-t [[CC]YY]MMDDHHMM[.SS]'
     Use the argument (optional four-digit or two-digit years, months,
     days, hours, minutes, optional seconds) instead of the current
     time.  If the year is specified with only two digits, then CC is 20
     for years in the range 0 ... 68, and 19 for years in 69 ... 99.  If
     no digits of the year are specified, the argument is interpreted as
     a date in the current year.  On the atypical systems that support
     leap seconds, SS may be '60'.

   On systems predating POSIX 1003.1-2001, 'touch' supports an obsolete
syntax, as follows.  If no timestamp is given with any of the '-d',
'-r', or '-t' options, and if there are two or more FILEs and the first
FILE is of the form 'MMDDHHMM[YY]' and this would be a valid argument to
the '-t' option (if the YY, if any, were moved to the front), and if the
represented year is in the range 1969-1999, that argument is interpreted
as the time for the other files instead of as a file name.  Although
this obsolete behavior can be controlled with the '_POSIX2_VERSION'
environment variable (*note Standards conformance::), portable scripts
should avoid commands whose behavior depends on this variable.  For
example, use 'touch ./12312359 main.c' or 'touch -t 12312359 main.c'
rather than the ambiguous 'touch 12312359 main.c'.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Disk usage,  Next: Printing text,  Prev: Changing file attributes,  Up: Top

14 Disk usage
*************

No disk can hold an infinite amount of data.  These commands report how
much disk storage is in use or available, report other file and file
status information, and write buffers to disk.

* Menu:

* df invocation::               Report file system disk space usage.
* du invocation::               Estimate file space usage.
* stat invocation::             Report file or file system status.
* sync invocation::             Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage.
* truncate invocation::         Shrink or extend the size of a file.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: df invocation,  Next: du invocation,  Up: Disk usage

14.1 'df': Report file system disk space usage
==============================================

'df' reports the amount of disk space used and available on file
systems.  Synopsis:

     df [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   With no arguments, 'df' reports the space used and available on all
currently mounted file systems (of all types).  Otherwise, 'df' reports
on the file system containing each argument FILE.

   Normally the disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes, but this
can be overridden (*note Block size::).  Non-integer quantities are
rounded up to the next higher unit.

   For bind mounts and without arguments, 'df' only outputs the
statistics for that device with the shortest mount point name in the
list of file systems (MTAB), i.e., it hides duplicate entries, unless
the '-a' option is specified.

   With the same logic, 'df' elides a mount entry of a dummy pseudo
device if there is another mount entry of a real block device for that
mount point with the same device number, e.g.  the early-boot pseudo
file system 'rootfs' is not shown per default when already the real root
device has been mounted.

   If an argument FILE resolves to a special file containing a mounted
file system, 'df' shows the space available on that file system rather
than on the file system containing the device node.  GNU 'df' does not
attempt to determine the disk usage on unmounted file systems, because
on most kinds of systems doing so requires extremely nonportable
intimate knowledge of file system structures.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--all'
     Include in the listing dummy, duplicate, or inaccessible file
     systems, which are omitted by default.  Dummy file systems are
     typically special purpose pseudo file systems such as '/proc', with
     no associated storage.  Duplicate file systems are local or remote
     file systems that are mounted at separate locations in the local
     file hierarchy, or bind mounted locations.  Inaccessible file
     systems are those which are mounted but subsequently over-mounted
     by another file system at that point, or otherwise inaccessible due
     to permissions of the mount point etc.

'-B SIZE'
'--block-size=SIZE'
     Scale sizes by SIZE before printing them (*note Block size::).  For
     example, '-BG' prints sizes in units of 1,073,741,824 bytes.

'-h'
'--human-readable'
     Append a size letter to each size, such as 'M' for mebibytes.
     Powers of 1024 are used, not 1000; 'M' stands for 1,048,576 bytes.
     This option is equivalent to '--block-size=human-readable'.  Use
     the '--si' option if you prefer powers of 1000.

'-H'
     Equivalent to '--si'.

'-i'
'--inodes'
     List inode usage information instead of block usage.  An inode
     (short for index node) contains information about a file such as
     its owner, permissions, timestamps, and location on the disk.

'-k'
     Print sizes in 1024-byte blocks, overriding the default block size
     (*note Block size::).  This option is equivalent to
     '--block-size=1K'.

'-l'
'--local'
     Limit the listing to local file systems.  By default, remote file
     systems are also listed.

'--no-sync'
     Do not invoke the 'sync' system call before getting any usage data.
     This may make 'df' run significantly faster on systems with many
     disks, but on some systems (notably SunOS) the results may be
     slightly out of date.  This is the default.

'--output'
'--output[=FIELD_LIST]'
     Use the output format defined by FIELD_LIST, or print all fields if
     FIELD_LIST is omitted.  In the latter case, the order of the
     columns conforms to the order of the field descriptions below.

     The use of the '--output' together with each of the options '-i',
     '-P', and '-T' is mutually exclusive.

     FIELD_LIST is a comma-separated list of columns to be included in
     'df''s output and therefore effectively controls the order of
     output columns.  Each field can thus be used at the place of
     choice, but yet must only be used once.

     Valid field names in the FIELD_LIST are:
     'source'
          The source of the mount point, usually a device.
     'fstype'
          File system type.

     'itotal'
          Total number of inodes.
     'iused'
          Number of used inodes.
     'iavail'
          Number of available inodes.
     'ipcent'
          Percentage of IUSED divided by ITOTAL.

     'size'
          Total number of blocks.
     'used'
          Number of used blocks.
     'avail'
          Number of available blocks.
     'pcent'
          Percentage of USED divided by SIZE.

     'file'
          The file name if specified on the command line.
     'target'
          The mount point.

     The fields for block and inodes statistics are affected by the
     scaling options like '-h' as usual.

     The definition of the FIELD_LIST can even be split among several
     '--output' uses.

          #!/bin/sh
          # Print the TARGET (i.e., the mount point) along with their percentage
          # statistic regarding the blocks and the inodes.
          df --out=target --output=pcent,ipcent

          # Print all available fields.
          df --o

'-P'
'--portability'
     Use the POSIX output format.  This is like the default format
     except for the following:

       1. The information about each file system is always printed on
          exactly one line; a mount device is never put on a line by
          itself.  This means that if the mount device name is more than
          20 characters long (e.g., for some network mounts), the
          columns are misaligned.

       2. The labels in the header output line are changed to conform to
          POSIX.

       3. The default block size and output format are unaffected by the
          'DF_BLOCK_SIZE', 'BLOCK_SIZE' and 'BLOCKSIZE' environment
          variables.  However, the default block size is still affected
          by 'POSIXLY_CORRECT': it is 512 if 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set,
          1024 otherwise.  *Note Block size::.

'--si'
     Append an SI-style abbreviation to each size, such as 'M' for
     megabytes.  Powers of 1000 are used, not 1024; 'M' stands for
     1,000,000 bytes.  This option is equivalent to '--block-size=si'.
     Use the '-h' or '--human-readable' option if you prefer powers of
     1024.

'--sync'
     Invoke the 'sync' system call before getting any usage data.  On
     some systems (notably SunOS), doing this yields more up to date
     results, but in general this option makes 'df' much slower,
     especially when there are many or very busy file systems.

'--total'
     Print a grand total of all arguments after all arguments have been
     processed.  This can be used to find out the total disk size, usage
     and available space of all listed devices.  If no arguments are
     specified df will try harder to elide file systems insignificant to
     the total available space, by suppressing duplicate remote file
     systems.

     For the grand total line, 'df' prints '"total"' into the SOURCE
     column, and '"-"' into the TARGET column.  If there is no SOURCE
     column (see '--output'), then 'df' prints '"total"' into the TARGET
     column, if present.

'-t FSTYPE'
'--type=FSTYPE'
     Limit the listing to file systems of type FSTYPE.  Multiple file
     system types can be specified by giving multiple '-t' options.  By
     default, nothing is omitted.

'-T'
'--print-type'
     Print each file system's type.  The types printed here are the same
     ones you can include or exclude with '-t' and '-x'.  The particular
     types printed are whatever is supported by the system.  Here are
     some of the common names (this list is certainly not exhaustive):

     'nfs'
          An NFS file system, i.e., one mounted over a network from
          another machine.  This is the one type name which seems to be
          used uniformly by all systems.

     'ext2, ext3, ext4, xfs, btrfs...'
          A file system on a locally-mounted hard disk.  (The system
          might even support more than one type here; Linux does.)

     'iso9660, cdfs'
          A file system on a CD or DVD drive.  HP-UX uses 'cdfs', most
          other systems use 'iso9660'.

     'ntfs,fat'
          File systems used by MS-Windows / MS-DOS.

'-x FSTYPE'
'--exclude-type=FSTYPE'
     Limit the listing to file systems not of type FSTYPE.  Multiple
     file system types can be eliminated by giving multiple '-x'
     options.  By default, no file system types are omitted.

'-v'
     Ignored; for compatibility with System V versions of 'df'.

   'df' is installed only on systems that have usable mount tables, so
portable scripts should not rely on its existence.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.  Failure includes the case where no output is
generated, so you can inspect the exit status of a command like 'df -t
ext3 -t reiserfs DIR' to test whether DIR is on a file system of type
'ext3' or 'reiserfs'.

   Since the list of file systems (MTAB) is needed to determine the file
system type, failure includes the cases when that list cannot be read
and one or more of the options '-a', '-l', '-t' or '-x' is used together
with a file name argument.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: du invocation,  Next: stat invocation,  Prev: df invocation,  Up: Disk usage

14.2 'du': Estimate file space usage
====================================

'du' reports the amount of disk space used by the set of specified files
and for each subdirectory (of directory arguments).  Synopsis:

     du [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   With no arguments, 'du' reports the disk space for the current
directory.  Normally the disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes,
but this can be overridden (*note Block size::).  Non-integer quantities
are rounded up to the next higher unit.

   If two or more hard links point to the same file, only one of the
hard links is counted.  The FILE argument order affects which links are
counted, and changing the argument order may change the numbers and
entries that 'du' outputs.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-0'
'--null'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

'-a'
'--all'
     Show counts for all files, not just directories.

'--apparent-size'
     Print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage.  The apparent size of
     a file is the number of bytes reported by 'wc -c' on regular files,
     or more generally, 'ls -l --block-size=1' or 'stat --format=%s'.
     For example, a file containing the word 'zoo' with no newline
     would, of course, have an apparent size of 3.  Such a small file
     may require anywhere from 0 to 16 KiB or more of disk space,
     depending on the type and configuration of the file system on which
     the file resides.  However, a sparse file created with this
     command:

          dd bs=1 seek=2GiB if=/dev/null of=big

     has an apparent size of 2 GiB, yet on most modern systems, it
     actually uses almost no disk space.

'-B SIZE'
'--block-size=SIZE'
     Scale sizes by SIZE before printing them (*note Block size::).  For
     example, '-BG' prints sizes in units of 1,073,741,824 bytes.

'-b'
'--bytes'
     Equivalent to '--apparent-size --block-size=1'.

'-c'
'--total'
     Print a grand total of all arguments after all arguments have been
     processed.  This can be used to find out the total disk usage of a
     given set of files or directories.

'-D'
'--dereference-args'
     Dereference symbolic links that are command line arguments.  Does
     not affect other symbolic links.  This is helpful for finding out
     the disk usage of directories, such as '/usr/tmp', which are often
     symbolic links.

'-d DEPTH'
'--max-depth=DEPTH'
     Show the total for each directory (and file if -all) that is at
     most MAX_DEPTH levels down from the root of the hierarchy.  The
     root is at level 0, so 'du --max-depth=0' is equivalent to 'du -s'.

'--files0-from=FILE'
     Disallow processing files named on the command line, and instead
     process those named in file FILE; each name being terminated by a
     zero byte (ASCII NUL). This is useful when the list of file names
     is so long that it may exceed a command line length limitation.  In
     such cases, running 'du' via 'xargs' is undesirable because it
     splits the list into pieces and makes 'du' print with the '--total'
     ('-c') option for each sublist rather than for the entire list.
     One way to produce a list of ASCII NUL terminated file names is
     with GNU 'find', using its '-print0' predicate.  If FILE is '-'
     then the ASCII NUL terminated file names are read from standard
     input.

'-H'
     Equivalent to '--dereference-args' ('-D').

'-h'
'--human-readable'
     Append a size letter to each size, such as 'M' for mebibytes.
     Powers of 1024 are used, not 1000; 'M' stands for 1,048,576 bytes.
     This option is equivalent to '--block-size=human-readable'.  Use
     the '--si' option if you prefer powers of 1000.

'--inodes'
     List inode usage information instead of block usage.  This option
     is useful for finding directories which contain many files, and
     therefore eat up most of the inodes space of a file system (see
     'df', option '--inodes').  It can well be combined with the options
     '-a', '-c', '-h', '-l', '-s', '-S', '-t' and '-x'; however, passing
     other options regarding the block size, for example '-b', '-m' and
     '--apparent-size', is ignored.

'-k'
     Print sizes in 1024-byte blocks, overriding the default block size
     (*note Block size::).  This option is equivalent to
     '--block-size=1K'.

'-L'
'--dereference'
     Dereference symbolic links (show the disk space used by the file or
     directory that the link points to instead of the space used by the
     link).

'-l'
'--count-links'
     Count the size of all files, even if they have appeared already (as
     a hard link).

'-m'
     Print sizes in 1,048,576-byte blocks, overriding the default block
     size (*note Block size::).  This option is equivalent to
     '--block-size=1M'.

'-P'
'--no-dereference'
     For each symbolic links encountered by 'du', consider the disk
     space used by the symbolic link.

'-S'
'--separate-dirs'
     Normally, in the output of 'du' (when not using '--summarize'), the
     size listed next to a directory name, D, represents the sum of
     sizes of all entries beneath D as well as the size of D itself.
     With '--separate-dirs', the size reported for a directory name, D,
     will exclude the size of any subdirectories.

'--si'
     Append an SI-style abbreviation to each size, such as 'M' for
     megabytes.  Powers of 1000 are used, not 1024; 'M' stands for
     1,000,000 bytes.  This option is equivalent to '--block-size=si'.
     Use the '-h' or '--human-readable' option if you prefer powers of
     1024.

'-s'
'--summarize'
     Display only a total for each argument.

'-t SIZE'
'--threshold=SIZE'
     Exclude entries based on a given SIZE.  The SIZE refers to used
     blocks in normal mode (*note Block size::), or inodes count in
     conjunction with the '--inodes' option.

     If SIZE is positive, then 'du' will only print entries with a size
     greater than or equal to that.

     If SIZE is negative, then 'du' will only print entries with a size
     smaller than or equal to that.

     Although GNU 'find' can be used to find files of a certain size,
     'du''s '--threshold' option can be used to also filter directories
     based on a given size.

     Please note that the '--threshold' option can be combined with the
     '--apparent-size' option, and in this case would elide entries
     based on its apparent size.

     Please note that the '--threshold' option can be combined with the
     '--inodes' option, and in this case would elide entries based on
     its inodes count.

     Here's how you would use '--threshold' to find directories with a
     size greater than or equal to 200 megabytes:

          du --threshold=200MB

     Here's how you would use '--threshold' to find directories and
     files - note the '-a' - with an apparent size smaller than or equal
     to 500 bytes:

          du -a -t -500 --apparent-size

     Here's how you would use '--threshold' to find directories on the
     root file system with more than 20000 inodes used in the directory
     tree below:

          du --inodes -x --threshold=20000 /

'--time'
     Show the most recent modification timestamp (mtime) of any file in
     the directory, or any of its subdirectories.  *Note File
     timestamps::.

'--time=ctime'
'--time=status'
'--time=use'
     Show the most recent status change timestamp (ctime) of any file in
     the directory, or any of its subdirectories.  *Note File
     timestamps::.

'--time=atime'
'--time=access'
     Show the most recent access timestamp (atime) of any file in the
     directory, or any of its subdirectories.  *Note File timestamps::.

'--time-style=STYLE'
     List timestamps in style STYLE.  This option has an effect only if
     the '--time' option is also specified.  The STYLE should be one of
     the following:

     '+FORMAT'
          List timestamps using FORMAT, where FORMAT is interpreted like
          the format argument of 'date' (*note date invocation::).  For
          example, '--time-style="+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"' causes 'du' to
          list timestamps like '2002-03-30 23:45:56'.  As with 'date',
          FORMAT's interpretation is affected by the 'LC_TIME' locale
          category.

     'full-iso'
          List timestamps in full using ISO 8601-like date, time, and
          time zone components with nanosecond precision, e.g.,
          '2002-03-30 23:45:56.477817180 -0700'.  This style is
          equivalent to '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%N %z'.

     'long-iso'
          List ISO 8601 date and time components with minute precision,
          e.g., '2002-03-30 23:45'.  These timestamps are shorter than
          'full-iso' timestamps, and are usually good enough for
          everyday work.  This style is equivalent to '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M'.

     'iso'
          List ISO 8601 dates for timestamps, e.g., '2002-03-30'.  This
          style is equivalent to '+%Y-%m-%d'.

     You can specify the default value of the '--time-style' option with
     the environment variable 'TIME_STYLE'; if 'TIME_STYLE' is not set
     the default style is 'long-iso'.  For compatibility with 'ls', if
     'TIME_STYLE' begins with '+' and contains a newline, the newline
     and any later characters are ignored; if 'TIME_STYLE' begins with
     'posix-' the 'posix-' is ignored; and if 'TIME_STYLE' is 'locale'
     it is ignored.

'-X FILE'
'--exclude-from=FILE'
     Like '--exclude', except take the patterns to exclude from FILE,
     one per line.  If FILE is '-', take the patterns from standard
     input.

'--exclude=PATTERN'
     When recursing, skip subdirectories or files matching PATTERN.  For
     example, 'du --exclude='*.o'' excludes files whose names end in
     '.o'.

'-x'
'--one-file-system'
     Skip directories that are on different file systems from the one
     that the argument being processed is on.

   On BSD systems, 'du' reports sizes that are half the correct values
for files that are NFS-mounted from HP-UX systems.  On HP-UX systems, it
reports sizes that are twice the correct values for files that are
NFS-mounted from BSD systems.  This is due to a flaw in HP-UX; it also
affects the HP-UX 'du' program.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: stat invocation,  Next: sync invocation,  Prev: du invocation,  Up: Disk usage

14.3 'stat': Report file or file system status
==============================================

'stat' displays information about the specified file(s).  Synopsis:

     stat [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   With no option, 'stat' reports all information about the given files.
But it also can be used to report the information of the file systems
the given files are located on.  If the files are links, 'stat' can also
give information about the files the links point to.

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'stat' functions, using an
unadorned 'stat' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
stat ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

'-L'
'--dereference'
     Change how 'stat' treats symbolic links.  With this option, 'stat'
     acts on the file referenced by each symbolic link argument.
     Without it, 'stat' acts on any symbolic link argument directly.

'-f'
'--file-system'
     Report information about the file systems where the given files are
     located instead of information about the files themselves.  This
     option implies the '-L' option.

'-c'
'--format=FORMAT'
     Use FORMAT rather than the default format.  FORMAT is automatically
     newline-terminated, so running a command like the following with
     two or more FILE operands produces a line of output for each
     operand:
          $ stat --format=%d:%i / /usr
          2050:2
          2057:2

'--printf=FORMAT'
     Use FORMAT rather than the default format.  Like '--format', but
     interpret backslash escapes, and do not output a mandatory trailing
     newline.  If you want a newline, include '\n' in the FORMAT.
     Here's how you would use '--printf' to print the device and inode
     numbers of '/' and '/usr':
          $ stat --printf='%d:%i\n' / /usr
          2050:2
          2057:2

'-t'
'--terse'
     Print the information in terse form, suitable for parsing by other
     programs.

     The output of the following commands are identical and the
     '--format' also identifies the items printed (in fuller form) in
     the default format.  Note the format string would include another
     '%C' at the end with an active SELinux security context.
          $ stat --format="%n %s %b %f %u %g %D %i %h %t %T %X %Y %Z %W %o" ...
          $ stat --terse ...

     The same illustrating terse output in '--file-system' mode:
          $ stat -f --format="%n %i %l %t %s %S %b %f %a %c %d" ...
          $ stat -f --terse ...

   The valid FORMAT directives for files with '--format' and '--printf'
are:

   * %a - Access rights in octal (note '#' and '0' printf flags)
   * %A - Access rights in human readable form
   * %b - Number of blocks allocated (see '%B')
   * %B - The size in bytes of each block reported by '%b'
   * %C - The SELinux security context of a file, if available
   * %d - Device number in decimal
   * %D - Device number in hex
   * %f - Raw mode in hex
   * %F - File type
   * %g - Group ID of owner
   * %G - Group name of owner
   * %h - Number of hard links
   * %i - Inode number
   * %m - Mount point (See note below)
   * %n - File name
   * %N - Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link (see below)
   * %o - Optimal I/O transfer size hint
   * %s - Total size, in bytes
   * %t - Major device type in hex (see below)
   * %T - Minor device type in hex (see below)
   * %u - User ID of owner
   * %U - User name of owner
   * %w - Time of file birth, or '-' if unknown
   * %W - Time of file birth as seconds since Epoch, or '0'
   * %x - Time of last access
   * %X - Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
   * %y - Time of last data modification
   * %Y - Time of last data modification as seconds since Epoch
   * %z - Time of last status change
   * %Z - Time of last status change as seconds since Epoch

   The '%a' format prints the octal mode, and so it is useful to control
the zero padding of the output with the '#' and '0' printf flags.  For
example to pad to at least 3 wide while making larger numbers
unambiguously octal, you can use '%#03a'.

   The '%N' format can be set with the environment variable
'QUOTING_STYLE'.  If that environment variable is not set, the default
value is 'shell-escape'.  Valid quoting styles are:
'literal'
     Output strings as-is; this is the same as the '-N' or '--literal'
     option.
'shell'
     Quote strings for the shell if they contain shell metacharacters or
     would cause ambiguous output.  The quoting is suitable for
     POSIX-compatible shells like 'bash', but it does not always work
     for incompatible shells like 'csh'.
'shell-always'
     Quote strings for the shell, even if they would normally not
     require quoting.
'shell-escape'
     Like 'shell', but also quoting non-printable characters using the
     POSIX proposed '$''' syntax suitable for most shells.
'shell-escape-always'
     Like 'shell-escape', but quote strings even if they would normally
     not require quoting.
'c'
     Quote strings as for C character string literals, including the
     surrounding double-quote characters; this is the same as the '-Q'
     or '--quote-name' option.
'escape'
     Quote strings as for C character string literals, except omit the
     surrounding double-quote characters; this is the same as the '-b'
     or '--escape' option.
'clocale'
     Quote strings as for C character string literals, except use
     surrounding quotation marks appropriate for the locale.
'locale'
     Quote strings as for C character string literals, except use
     surrounding quotation marks appropriate for the locale, and quote
     'like this' instead of "like this" in the default C locale.  This
     looks nicer on many displays.

   The '%t' and '%T' formats operate on the st_rdev member of the
stat(2) structure, and are only defined for character and block special
files.  On some systems or file types, st_rdev may be used to represent
other quantities.

   The '%W', '%X', '%Y', and '%Z' formats accept a precision preceded by
a period to specify the number of digits to print after the decimal
point.  For example, '%.3X' outputs the access timestamp to millisecond
precision.  If a period is given but no precision, 'stat' uses 9 digits,
so '%.X' is equivalent to '%.9X'.  When discarding excess precision,
timestamps are truncated toward minus infinity.

     zero pad:
       $ stat -c '[%015Y]' /usr
       [000001288929712]
     space align:
       $ stat -c '[%15Y]' /usr
       [     1288929712]
       $ stat -c '[%-15Y]' /usr
       [1288929712     ]
     precision:
       $ stat -c '[%.3Y]' /usr
       [1288929712.114]
       $ stat -c '[%.Y]' /usr
       [1288929712.114951834]

   The mount point printed by '%m' is similar to that output by 'df',
except that:
   * stat does not dereference symlinks by default (unless '-L' is
     specified)
   * stat does not search for specified device nodes in the file system
     list, instead operating on them directly
   * stat outputs the alias for a bind mounted file, rather than the
     initial mount point of its backing device.  One can recursively
     call stat until there is no change in output, to get the current
     base mount point

   When listing file system information ('--file-system' ('-f')), you
must use a different set of FORMAT directives:

   * %a - Free blocks available to non-super-user
   * %b - Total data blocks in file system
   * %c - Total file nodes in file system
   * %d - Free file nodes in file system
   * %f - Free blocks in file system
   * %i - File System ID in hex
   * %l - Maximum length of file names
   * %n - File name
   * %s - Block size (for faster transfers)
   * %S - Fundamental block size (for block counts)
   * %t - Type in hex
   * %T - Type in human readable form

   Timestamps are listed according to the time zone rules specified by
the 'TZ' environment variable, or by the system default rules if 'TZ' is
not set.  *Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ Variable.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sync invocation,  Next: truncate invocation,  Prev: stat invocation,  Up: Disk usage

14.4 'sync': Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage
============================================================

'sync' synchronizes in memory files or file systems to persistent
storage.  Synopsis:

     sync [OPTION] [FILE]...

   'sync' writes any data buffered in memory out to disk.  This can
include (but is not limited to) modified superblocks, modified inodes,
and delayed reads and writes.  This must be implemented by the kernel;
The 'sync' program does nothing but exercise the 'sync', 'syncfs',
'fsync', and 'fdatasync' system calls.

   The kernel keeps data in memory to avoid doing (relatively slow) disk
reads and writes.  This improves performance, but if the computer
crashes, data may be lost or the file system corrupted as a result.  The
'sync' command instructs the kernel to write data in memory to
persistent storage.

   If any argument is specified then only those files will be
synchronized using the fsync(2) syscall by default.

   If at least one file is specified, it is possible to change the
synchronization method with the following options.  Also see *note
Common options::.

'-d'
'--data'
     Use fdatasync(2) to sync only the data for the file, and any
     metadata required to maintain file system consistency.

'-f'
'--file-system'
     Synchronize all the I/O waiting for the file systems that contain
     the file, using the syscall syncfs(2).  Note you would usually
     _not_ specify this option if passing a device node like '/dev/sda'
     for example, as that would sync the containing file system rather
     than the referenced one.  Note also that depending on the system,
     passing individual device nodes or files may have different sync
     characteristics than using no arguments.  I.e., arguments passed to
     fsync(2) may provide greater guarantees through write barriers,
     than a global sync(2) used when no arguments are provided.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: truncate invocation,  Prev: sync invocation,  Up: Disk usage

14.5 'truncate': Shrink or extend the size of a file
====================================================

'truncate' shrinks or extends the size of each FILE to the specified
size.  Synopsis:

     truncate OPTION... FILE...

   Any FILE that does not exist is created.

   If a FILE is larger than the specified size, the extra data is lost.
If a FILE is shorter, it is extended and the extended part (or hole)
reads as zero bytes.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--no-create'
     Do not create files that do not exist.

'-o'
'--io-blocks'
     Treat SIZE as number of I/O blocks of the FILE rather than bytes.

'-r RFILE'
'--reference=RFILE'
     Base the size of each FILE on the size of RFILE.

'-s SIZE'
'--size=SIZE'
     Set or adjust the size of each FILE according to SIZE.  SIZE is in
     bytes unless '--io-blocks' is specified.  SIZE may be, or may be an
     integer optionally followed by, one of the following multiplicative
     suffixes:
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

     SIZE may also be prefixed by one of the following to adjust the
     size of each FILE based on its current size:
          '+'  => extend by
          '-'  => reduce by
          '<'  => at most
          '>'  => at least
          '/'  => round down to multiple of
          '%'  => round up to multiple of

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Printing text,  Next: Conditions,  Prev: Disk usage,  Up: Top

15 Printing text
****************

This section describes commands that display text strings.

* Menu:

* echo invocation::             Print a line of text.
* printf invocation::           Format and print data.
* yes invocation::              Print a string until interrupted.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: echo invocation,  Next: printf invocation,  Up: Printing text

15.1 'echo': Print a line of text
=================================

'echo' writes each given STRING to standard output, with a space between
each and a newline after the last one.  Synopsis:

     echo [OPTION]... [STRING]...

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'echo' functions, using an
unadorned 'echo' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
echo ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands, and the normally-special
argument '--' has no special meaning and is treated like any other
STRING.

'-n'
     Do not output the trailing newline.

'-e'
     Enable interpretation of the following backslash-escaped characters
     in each STRING:

     '\a'
          alert (bell)
     '\b'
          backspace
     '\c'
          produce no further output
     '\e'
          escape
     '\f'
          form feed
     '\n'
          newline
     '\r'
          carriage return
     '\t'
          horizontal tab
     '\v'
          vertical tab
     '\\'
          backslash
     '\0NNN'
          the eight-bit value that is the octal number NNN (zero to
          three octal digits), if NNN is a nine-bit value, the ninth bit
          is ignored
     '\NNN'
          the eight-bit value that is the octal number NNN (one to three
          octal digits), if NNN is a nine-bit value, the ninth bit is
          ignored
     '\xHH'
          the eight-bit value that is the hexadecimal number HH (one or
          two hexadecimal digits)

'-E'
     Disable interpretation of backslash escapes in each STRING.  This
     is the default.  If '-e' and '-E' are both specified, the last one
     given takes effect.

   If the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, then when
'echo''s first argument is not '-n' it outputs option-like arguments
instead of treating them as options.  For example, 'echo -ne hello'
outputs '-ne hello' instead of plain 'hello'.

   POSIX does not require support for any options, and says that the
behavior of 'echo' is implementation-defined if any STRING contains a
backslash or if the first argument is '-n'.  Portable programs can use
the 'printf' command if they need to omit trailing newlines or output
control characters or backslashes.  *Note printf invocation::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: printf invocation,  Next: yes invocation,  Prev: echo invocation,  Up: Printing text

15.2 'printf': Format and print data
====================================

'printf' does formatted printing of text.  Synopsis:

     printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT]...

   'printf' prints the FORMAT string, interpreting '%' directives and
'\' escapes to format numeric and string arguments in a way that is
mostly similar to the C 'printf' function.  *Note 'printf' format
directives: (libc)Output Conversion Syntax, for details.  The
differences are listed below.

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'printf' functions, using an
unadorned 'printf' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
printf ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   * The FORMAT argument is reused as necessary to convert all the given
     ARGUMENTs.  For example, the command 'printf %s a b' outputs 'ab'.

   * Missing ARGUMENTs are treated as null strings or as zeros,
     depending on whether the context expects a string or a number.  For
     example, the command 'printf %sx%d' prints 'x0'.

   * An additional escape, '\c', causes 'printf' to produce no further
     output.  For example, the command 'printf 'A%sC\cD%sF' B E' prints
     'ABC'.

   * The hexadecimal escape sequence '\xHH' has at most two digits, as
     opposed to C where it can have an unlimited number of digits.  For
     example, the command 'printf '\x07e'' prints two bytes, whereas the
     C statement 'printf ("\x07e")' prints just one.

   * An additional directive '%b', prints its argument string with '\'
     escapes interpreted in the same way as in the FORMAT string, except
     that octal escapes are of the form '\0OOO' where OOO is 0 to 3
     octal digits.  If '\OOO' is nine-bit value, ignore the ninth bit.
     If a precision is also given, it limits the number of bytes printed
     from the converted string.

   * An additional directive '%q', prints its argument string in a
     format that can be reused as input by most shells.  Non-printable
     characters are escaped with the POSIX proposed '$''' syntax, and
     shell metacharacters are quoted appropriately.  This is an
     equivalent format to 'ls --quoting=shell-escape' output.

   * Numeric arguments must be single C constants, possibly with leading
     '+' or '-'.  For example, 'printf %.4d -3' outputs '-0003'.

   * If the leading character of a numeric argument is '"' or ''' then
     its value is the numeric value of the immediately following
     character.  Any remaining characters are silently ignored if the
     'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set; otherwise, a warning
     is printed.  For example, 'printf "%d" "'a"' outputs '97' on hosts
     that use the ASCII character set, since 'a' has the numeric value
     97 in ASCII.

   A floating-point argument must use a period before any fractional
digits, but is printed according to the 'LC_NUMERIC' category of the
current locale.  For example, in a locale whose radix character is a
comma, the command 'printf %g 3.14' outputs '3,14' whereas the command
'printf %g 3,14' is an error.  *Note Floating point::.

   'printf' interprets '\OOO' in FORMAT as an octal number (if OOO is 1
to 3 octal digits) specifying a byte to print, and '\xHH' as a
hexadecimal number (if HH is 1 to 2 hex digits) specifying a character
to print.  Note however that when '\OOO' specifies a number larger than
255, 'printf' ignores the ninth bit.  For example, 'printf '\400'' is
equivalent to 'printf '\0''.

   'printf' interprets two character syntaxes introduced in ISO C 99:
'\u' for 16-bit Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) characters, specified as four
hexadecimal digits HHHH, and '\U' for 32-bit Unicode characters,
specified as eight hexadecimal digits HHHHHHHH.  'printf' outputs the
Unicode characters according to the 'LC_CTYPE' locale.  Unicode
characters in the ranges U+0000...U+009F, U+D800...U+DFFF cannot be
specified by this syntax, except for U+0024 ($), U+0040 (@), and U+0060
()??.

   The processing of '\u' and '\U' requires a full-featured 'iconv'
facility.  It is activated on systems with glibc 2.2 (or newer), or when
'libiconv' is installed prior to this package.  Otherwise '\u' and '\U'
will print as-is.

   The only options are a lone '--help' or '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

   The Unicode character syntaxes are useful for writing strings in a
locale independent way.  For example, a string containing the Euro
currency symbol

     $ env printf '\u20AC 14.95'

will be output correctly in all locales supporting the Euro symbol
(ISO-8859-15, UTF-8, and others).  Similarly, a Chinese string

     $ env printf '\u4e2d\u6587'

will be output correctly in all Chinese locales (GB2312, BIG5, UTF-8,
etc).

   Note that in these examples, the 'printf' command has been invoked
via 'env' to ensure that we run the program found via your shell's
search path, and not a shell alias or a built-in function.

   For larger strings, you don't need to look up the hexadecimal code
values of each character one by one.  ASCII characters mixed with \u
escape sequences is also known as the JAVA source file encoding.  You
can use GNU recode 3.5c (or newer) to convert strings to this encoding.
Here is how to convert a piece of text into a shell script which will
output this text in a locale-independent way:

     $ LC_CTYPE=zh_CN.big5 /usr/local/bin/printf \
         '\u4e2d\u6587\n' > sample.txt
     $ recode BIG5..JAVA < sample.txt \
         | sed -e "s|^|/usr/local/bin/printf '|" -e "s|$|\\\\n'|" \
         > sample.sh

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: yes invocation,  Prev: printf invocation,  Up: Printing text

15.3 'yes': Print a string until interrupted
============================================

'yes' prints the command line arguments, separated by spaces and
followed by a newline, forever until it is killed.  If no arguments are
given, it prints 'y' followed by a newline forever until killed.

   Upon a write error, 'yes' exits with status '1'.

   The only options are a lone '--help' or '--version'.  To output an
argument that begins with '-', precede it with '--', e.g., 'yes --
--help'.  *Note Common options::.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Conditions,  Next: Redirection,  Prev: Printing text,  Up: Top

16 Conditions
*************

This section describes commands that are primarily useful for their exit
status, rather than their output.  Thus, they are often used as the
condition of shell 'if' statements, or as the last command in a
pipeline.

* Menu:

* false invocation::            Do nothing, unsuccessfully.
* true invocation::             Do nothing, successfully.
* test invocation::             Check file types and compare values.
* expr invocation::             Evaluate expressions.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: false invocation,  Next: true invocation,  Up: Conditions

16.1 'false': Do nothing, unsuccessfully
========================================

'false' does nothing except return an exit status of 1, meaning
"failure".  It can be used as a place holder in shell scripts where an
unsuccessful command is needed.  In most modern shells, 'false' is a
built-in command, so when you use 'false' in a script, you're probably
using the built-in command, not the one documented here.

   'false' honors the '--help' and '--version' options.

   This version of 'false' is implemented as a C program, and is thus
more secure and faster than a shell script implementation, and may
safely be used as a dummy shell for the purpose of disabling accounts.

   Note that 'false' (unlike all other programs documented herein) exits
unsuccessfully, even when invoked with '--help' or '--version'.

   Portable programs should not assume that the exit status of 'false'
is 1, as it is greater than 1 on some non-GNU hosts.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: true invocation,  Next: test invocation,  Prev: false invocation,  Up: Conditions

16.2 'true': Do nothing, successfully
=====================================

'true' does nothing except return an exit status of 0, meaning
"success".  It can be used as a place holder in shell scripts where a
successful command is needed, although the shell built-in command ':'
(colon) may do the same thing faster.  In most modern shells, 'true' is
a built-in command, so when you use 'true' in a script, you're probably
using the built-in command, not the one documented here.

   'true' honors the '--help' and '--version' options.

   Note, however, that it is possible to cause 'true' to exit with
nonzero status: with the '--help' or '--version' option, and with
standard output already closed or redirected to a file that evokes an
I/O error.  For example, using a Bourne-compatible shell:

     $ ./true --version >&-
     ./true: write error: Bad file number
     $ ./true --version > /dev/full
     ./true: write error: No space left on device

   This version of 'true' is implemented as a C program, and is thus
more secure and faster than a shell script implementation, and may
safely be used as a dummy shell for the purpose of disabling accounts.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: test invocation,  Next: expr invocation,  Prev: true invocation,  Up: Conditions

16.3 'test': Check file types and compare values
================================================

'test' returns a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the
evaluation of the conditional expression EXPR.  Each part of the
expression must be a separate argument.

   'test' has file status checks, string operators, and numeric
comparison operators.

   'test' has an alternate form that uses opening and closing square
brackets instead a leading 'test'.  For example, instead of 'test -d /',
you can write '[ -d / ]'.  The square brackets must be separate
arguments; for example, '[-d /]' does not have the desired effect.
Since 'test EXPR' and '[ EXPR ]' have the same meaning, only the former
form is discussed below.

   Synopses:

     test EXPRESSION
     test
     [ EXPRESSION ]
     [ ]
     [ OPTION

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'test' functions, using an
unadorned 'test' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
test ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   If EXPRESSION is omitted, 'test' returns false.  If EXPRESSION is a
single argument, 'test' returns false if the argument is null and true
otherwise.  The argument can be any string, including strings like '-d',
'-1', '--', '--help', and '--version' that most other programs would
treat as options.  To get help and version information, invoke the
commands '[ --help' and '[ --version', without the usual closing
brackets.  *Note Common options::.

   Exit status:

     0 if the expression is true,
     1 if the expression is false,
     2 if an error occurred.

* Menu:

* File type tests::             -[bcdfhLpSt]
* Access permission tests::     -[gkruwxOG]
* File characteristic tests::   -e -s -nt -ot -ef
* String tests::                -z -n = == !=
* Numeric tests::               -eq -ne -lt -le -gt -ge
* Connectives for test::        ! -a -o

File: coreutils.info,  Node: File type tests,  Next: Access permission tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.1 File type tests
----------------------

These options test for particular types of files.  (Everything's a file,
but not all files are the same!)

'-b FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a block special device.

'-c FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a character special device.

'-d FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a directory.

'-f FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a regular file.

'-h FILE'
'-L FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a symbolic link.  Unlike all other
     file-related tests, this test does not dereference FILE if it is a
     symbolic link.

'-p FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a named pipe.

'-S FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is a socket.

'-t FD'
     True if FD is a file descriptor that is associated with a terminal.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Access permission tests,  Next: File characteristic tests,  Prev: File type tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.2 Access permission tests
------------------------------

These options test for particular access permissions.

'-g FILE'
     True if FILE exists and has its set-group-ID bit set.

'-k FILE'
     True if FILE exists and has its "sticky" bit set.

'-r FILE'
     True if FILE exists and read permission is granted.

'-u FILE'
     True if FILE exists and has its set-user-ID bit set.

'-w FILE'
     True if FILE exists and write permission is granted.

'-x FILE'
     True if FILE exists and execute permission is granted (or search
     permission, if it is a directory).

'-O FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is owned by the current effective user ID.

'-G FILE'
     True if FILE exists and is owned by the current effective group ID.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: File characteristic tests,  Next: String tests,  Prev: Access permission tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.3 File characteristic tests
--------------------------------

These options test other file characteristics.

'-e FILE'
     True if FILE exists.

'-s FILE'
     True if FILE exists and has a size greater than zero.

'FILE1 -nt FILE2'
     True if FILE1 is newer (according to modification date) than FILE2,
     or if FILE1 exists and FILE2 does not.

'FILE1 -ot FILE2'
     True if FILE1 is older (according to modification date) than FILE2,
     or if FILE2 exists and FILE1 does not.

'FILE1 -ef FILE2'
     True if FILE1 and FILE2 have the same device and inode numbers,
     i.e., if they are hard links to each other.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: String tests,  Next: Numeric tests,  Prev: File characteristic tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.4 String tests
-------------------

These options test string characteristics.  You may need to quote STRING
arguments for the shell.  For example:

     test -n "$V"

   The quotes here prevent the wrong arguments from being passed to
'test' if '$V' is empty or contains special characters.

'-z STRING'
     True if the length of STRING is zero.

'-n STRING'
'STRING'
     True if the length of STRING is nonzero.

'STRING1 = STRING2'
     True if the strings are equal.

'STRING1 == STRING2'
     True if the strings are equal (synonym for =).

'STRING1 != STRING2'
     True if the strings are not equal.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Numeric tests,  Next: Connectives for test,  Prev: String tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.5 Numeric tests
--------------------

Numeric relational operators.  The arguments must be entirely numeric
(possibly negative), or the special expression '-l STRING', which
evaluates to the length of STRING.

'ARG1 -eq ARG2'
'ARG1 -ne ARG2'
'ARG1 -lt ARG2'
'ARG1 -le ARG2'
'ARG1 -gt ARG2'
'ARG1 -ge ARG2'
     These arithmetic binary operators return true if ARG1 is equal,
     not-equal, less-than, less-than-or-equal, greater-than, or
     greater-than-or-equal than ARG2, respectively.

   For example:

     test -1 -gt -2 && echo yes
     => yes
     test -l abc -gt 1 && echo yes
     => yes
     test 0x100 -eq 1
     error-> test: integer expression expected before -eq

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Connectives for test,  Prev: Numeric tests,  Up: test invocation

16.3.6 Connectives for 'test'
-----------------------------

Note it's preferred to use shell logical primitives rather than these
logical connectives internal to 'test', because an expression may become
ambiguous depending on the expansion of its parameters.

   For example, this becomes ambiguous when '$1' is set to ''!'' and
'$2' to the empty string '''':

     test "$1" -a "$2"

   and should be written as:

     test "$1" && test "$2"

   Note the shell logical primitives also benefit from short circuit
operation, which can be significant for file attribute tests.

'! EXPR'
     True if EXPR is false.  '!' has lower precedence than all parts of
     EXPR.  Note '!' needs to be specified to the left of a binary
     expression, I.e., ''!' 1 -gt 2' rather than '1 '!' -gt 2'.  Also
     '!' is often a shell special character and is best used quoted.

'EXPR1 -a EXPR2'
     True if both EXPR1 and EXPR2 are true.  '-a' is left associative,
     and has a higher precedence than '-o'.

'EXPR1 -o EXPR2'
     True if either EXPR1 or EXPR2 is true.  '-o' is left associative.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: expr invocation,  Prev: test invocation,  Up: Conditions

16.4 'expr': Evaluate expressions
=================================

'expr' evaluates an expression and writes the result on standard output.
Each token of the expression must be a separate argument.

   Operands are either integers or strings.  Integers consist of one or
more decimal digits, with an optional leading '-'.  'expr' converts
anything appearing in an operand position to an integer or a string
depending on the operation being applied to it.

   Strings are not quoted for 'expr' itself, though you may need to
quote them to protect characters with special meaning to the shell,
e.g., spaces.  However, regardless of whether it is quoted, a string
operand should not be a parenthesis or any of 'expr''s operators like
'+', so you cannot safely pass an arbitrary string '$str' to expr merely
by quoting it to the shell.  One way to work around this is to use the
GNU extension '+', (e.g., '+ "$str" = foo'); a more portable way is to
use '" $str"' and to adjust the rest of the expression to take the
leading space into account (e.g., '" $str" = " foo"').

   You should not pass a negative integer or a string with leading '-'
as 'expr''s first argument, as it might be misinterpreted as an option;
this can be avoided by parenthesization.  Also, portable scripts should
not use a string operand that happens to take the form of an integer;
this can be worked around by inserting leading spaces as mentioned
above.

   Operators may be given as infix symbols or prefix keywords.
Parentheses may be used for grouping in the usual manner.  You must
quote parentheses and many operators to avoid the shell evaluating them,
however.

   When built with support for the GNU MP library, 'expr' uses
arbitrary-precision arithmetic; otherwise, it uses native arithmetic
types and may fail due to arithmetic overflow.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

   Exit status:

     0 if the expression is neither null nor 0,
     1 if the expression is null or 0,
     2 if the expression is invalid,
     3 if an internal error occurred (e.g., arithmetic overflow).

* Menu:

* String expressions::          + : match substr index length
* Numeric expressions::         + - * / %
* Relations for expr::          | & < <= = == != >= >
* Examples of expr::            Examples.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: String expressions,  Next: Numeric expressions,  Up: expr invocation

16.4.1 String expressions
-------------------------

'expr' supports pattern matching and other string operators.  These have
higher precedence than both the numeric and relational operators (in the
next sections).

'STRING : REGEX'
     Perform pattern matching.  The arguments are converted to strings
     and the second is considered to be a (basic, a la GNU 'grep')
     regular expression, with a '^' implicitly prepended.  The first
     argument is then matched against this regular expression.

     If the match succeeds and REGEX uses '\(' and '\)', the ':'
     expression returns the part of STRING that matched the
     subexpression; otherwise, it returns the number of characters
     matched.

     If the match fails, the ':' operator returns the null string if
     '\(' and '\)' are used in REGEX, otherwise 0.

     Only the first '\( ... \)' pair is relevant to the return value;
     additional pairs are meaningful only for grouping the regular
     expression operators.

     In the regular expression, '\+', '\?', and '\|' are operators which
     respectively match one or more, zero or one, or separate
     alternatives.  SunOS and other 'expr''s treat these as regular
     characters.  (POSIX allows either behavior.)  *Note Regular
     Expression Library: (regex)Top, for details of regular expression
     syntax.  Some examples are in *note Examples of expr::.

'match STRING REGEX'
     An alternative way to do pattern matching.  This is the same as
     'STRING : REGEX'.

'substr STRING POSITION LENGTH'
     Returns the substring of STRING beginning at POSITION with length
     at most LENGTH.  If either POSITION or LENGTH is negative, zero, or
     non-numeric, returns the null string.

'index STRING CHARSET'
     Returns the first position in STRING where the first character in
     CHARSET was found.  If no character in CHARSET is found in STRING,
     return 0.

'length STRING'
     Returns the length of STRING.

'+ TOKEN'
     Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if it is a keyword like MATCH or
     an operator like '/'.  This makes it possible to test 'expr length
     + "$x"' or 'expr + "$x" : '.*/\(.\)'' and have it do the right
     thing even if the value of $X happens to be (for example) '/' or
     'index'.  This operator is a GNU extension.  Portable shell scripts
     should use '" $token" : ' \(.*\)'' instead of '+ "$token"'.

   To make 'expr' interpret keywords as strings, you must use the
'quote' operator.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Numeric expressions,  Next: Relations for expr,  Prev: String expressions,  Up: expr invocation

16.4.2 Numeric expressions
--------------------------

'expr' supports the usual numeric operators, in order of increasing
precedence.  These numeric operators have lower precedence than the
string operators described in the previous section, and higher
precedence than the connectives (next section).

'+ -'
     Addition and subtraction.  Both arguments are converted to
     integers; an error occurs if this cannot be done.

'* / %'
     Multiplication, division, remainder.  Both arguments are converted
     to integers; an error occurs if this cannot be done.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Relations for expr,  Next: Examples of expr,  Prev: Numeric expressions,  Up: expr invocation

16.4.3 Relations for 'expr'
---------------------------

'expr' supports the usual logical connectives and relations.  These have
lower precedence than the string and numeric operators (previous
sections).  Here is the list, lowest-precedence operator first.

'|'
     Returns its first argument if that is neither null nor zero,
     otherwise its second argument if it is neither null nor zero,
     otherwise 0.  It does not evaluate its second argument if its first
     argument is neither null nor zero.

'&'
     Return its first argument if neither argument is null or zero,
     otherwise 0.  It does not evaluate its second argument if its first
     argument is null or zero.

'< <= = == != >= >'
     Compare the arguments and return 1 if the relation is true, 0
     otherwise.  '==' is a synonym for '='.  'expr' first tries to
     convert both arguments to integers and do a numeric comparison; if
     either conversion fails, it does a lexicographic comparison using
     the character collating sequence specified by the 'LC_COLLATE'
     locale.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Examples of expr,  Prev: Relations for expr,  Up: expr invocation

16.4.4 Examples of using 'expr'
-------------------------------

Here are a few examples, including quoting for shell metacharacters.

   To add 1 to the shell variable 'foo', in Bourne-compatible shells:

     foo=$(expr $foo + 1)

   To print the non-directory part of the file name stored in '$fname',
which need not contain a '/':

     expr $fname : '.*/\(.*\)' '|' $fname

   An example showing that '\+' is an operator:

     expr aaa : 'a\+'
     => 3

     expr abc : 'a\(.\)c'
     => b
     expr index abcdef cz
     => 3
     expr index index a
     error-> expr: syntax error
     expr index + index a
     => 0

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Redirection,  Next: File name manipulation,  Prev: Conditions,  Up: Top

17 Redirection
**************

Unix shells commonly provide several forms of "redirection"--ways to
change the input source or output destination of a command.  But one
useful redirection is performed by a separate command, not by the shell;
it's described here.

* Menu:

* tee invocation::              Redirect output to multiple files or processes.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tee invocation,  Up: Redirection

17.1 'tee': Redirect output to multiple files or processes
==========================================================

The 'tee' command copies standard input to standard output and also to
any files given as arguments.  This is useful when you want not only to
send some data down a pipe, but also to save a copy.  Synopsis:

     tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

   If a file being written to does not already exist, it is created.  If
a file being written to already exists, the data it previously contained
is overwritten unless the '-a' option is used.

   In previous versions of GNU coreutils (v5.3.0 - v8.23), a FILE of '-'
caused 'tee' to send another copy of input to standard output.  However,
as the interleaved output was not very useful, 'tee' now conforms to
POSIX which explicitly mandates it to treat '-' as a file with such
name.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--append'
     Append standard input to the given files rather than overwriting
     them.

'-i'
'--ignore-interrupts'
     Ignore interrupt signals.

'-p'
'--output-error[=MODE]'
     Adjust the behavior with errors on the outputs, with the long form
     option supporting selection between the following MODEs:

     'warn'
          Warn on error opening or writing any output, including pipes.
          Writing is continued to still open files/pipes.  Exit status
          indicates failure if any output has an error.

     'warn-nopipe'
          This is the default MODE when not specified, or when the short
          form '-p' is used.  Warn on error opening or writing any
          output, except pipes.  Writing is continued to still open
          files/pipes.  Exit status indicates failure if any non pipe
          output had an error.

     'exit'
          Exit on error opening or writing any output, including pipes.

     'exit-nopipe'
          Exit on error opening or writing any output, except pipes.

   The 'tee' command is useful when you happen to be transferring a
large amount of data and also want to summarize that data without
reading it a second time.  For example, when you are downloading a DVD
image, you often want to verify its signature or checksum right away.
The inefficient way to do it is simply:

     wget https://example.com/some.iso && sha1sum some.iso

   One problem with the above is that it makes you wait for the download
to complete before starting the time-consuming SHA1 computation.
Perhaps even more importantly, the above requires reading the DVD image
a second time (the first was from the network).

   The efficient way to do it is to interleave the download and SHA1
computation.  Then, you'll get the checksum for free, because the entire
process parallelizes so well:

     # slightly contrived, to demonstrate process substitution
     wget -O - https://example.com/dvd.iso \
       | tee >(sha1sum > dvd.sha1) > dvd.iso

   That makes 'tee' write not just to the expected output file, but also
to a pipe running 'sha1sum' and saving the final checksum in a file
named 'dvd.sha1'.

   Note, however, that this example relies on a feature of modern shells
called "process substitution" (the '>(command)' syntax, above; *Note
Process Substitution: (bash)Process Substitution.), so it works with
'zsh', 'bash', and 'ksh', but not with '/bin/sh'.  So if you write code
like this in a shell script, be sure to start the script with
'#!/bin/bash'.

   Note also that if any of the process substitutions (or piped stdout)
might exit early without consuming all the data, the '-p' option is
needed to allow 'tee' to continue to process the input to any remaining
outputs.

   Since the above example writes to one file and one process, a more
conventional and portable use of 'tee' is even better:

     wget -O - https://example.com/dvd.iso \
       | tee dvd.iso | sha1sum > dvd.sha1

   You can extend this example to make 'tee' write to two processes,
computing MD5 and SHA1 checksums in parallel.  In this case, process
substitution is required:

     wget -O - https://example.com/dvd.iso \
       | tee >(sha1sum > dvd.sha1) \
             >(md5sum > dvd.md5) \
       > dvd.iso

   This technique is also useful when you want to make a _compressed_
copy of the contents of a pipe.  Consider a tool to graphically
summarize disk usage data from 'du -ak'.  For a large hierarchy, 'du
-ak' can run for a long time, and can easily produce terabytes of data,
so you won't want to rerun the command unnecessarily.  Nor will you want
to save the uncompressed output.

   Doing it the inefficient way, you can't even start the GUI until
after you've compressed all of the 'du' output:

     du -ak | gzip -9 > /tmp/du.gz
     gzip -d /tmp/du.gz | xdiskusage -a

   With 'tee' and process substitution, you start the GUI right away and
eliminate the decompression completely:

     du -ak | tee >(gzip -9 > /tmp/du.gz) | xdiskusage -a

   Finally, if you regularly create more than one type of compressed
tarball at once, for example when 'make dist' creates both
'gzip'-compressed and 'bzip2'-compressed tarballs, there may be a better
way.  Typical 'automake'-generated 'Makefile' rules create the two
compressed tar archives with commands in sequence, like this (slightly
simplified):

     tardir=your-pkg-M.N
     tar chof - "$tardir" | gzip  -9 -c > your-pkg-M.N.tar.gz
     tar chof - "$tardir" | bzip2 -9 -c > your-pkg-M.N.tar.bz2

   However, if the hierarchy you are archiving and compressing is larger
than a couple megabytes, and especially if you are using a
multi-processor system with plenty of memory, then you can do much
better by reading the directory contents only once and running the
compression programs in parallel:

     tardir=your-pkg-M.N
     tar chof - "$tardir" \
       | tee >(gzip -9 -c > your-pkg-M.N.tar.gz) \
       | bzip2 -9 -c > your-pkg-M.N.tar.bz2

   If you want to further process the output from process substitutions,
and those processes write atomically (i.e., write less than the system's
PIPE_BUF size at a time), that's possible with a construct like:

     tardir=your-pkg-M.N
     tar chof - "$tardir" \
       | tee >(md5sum --tag) > >(sha256sum --tag) \
       | sort | gpg --clearsign > your-pkg-M.N.tar.sig

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: File name manipulation,  Next: Working context,  Prev: Redirection,  Up: Top

18 File name manipulation
*************************

This section describes commands that manipulate file names.

* Menu:

* basename invocation::         Strip directory and suffix from a file name.
* dirname invocation::          Strip last file name component.
* pathchk invocation::          Check file name validity and portability.
* mktemp invocation::           Create temporary file or directory.
* realpath invocation::         Print resolved file names.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: basename invocation,  Next: dirname invocation,  Up: File name manipulation

18.1 'basename': Strip directory and suffix from a file name
============================================================

'basename' removes any leading directory components from NAME.
Synopsis:

     basename NAME [SUFFIX]
     basename OPTION... NAME...

   If SUFFIX is specified and is identical to the end of NAME, it is
removed from NAME as well.  Note that since trailing slashes are removed
prior to suffix matching, SUFFIX will do nothing if it contains slashes.
'basename' prints the result on standard output.

   Together, 'basename' and 'dirname' are designed such that if 'ls
"$name"' succeeds, then the command sequence 'cd "$(dirname "$name")";
ls "$(basename "$name")"' will, too.  This works for everything except
file names containing a trailing newline.

   POSIX allows the implementation to define the results if NAME is
empty or '//'.  In the former case, GNU 'basename' returns the empty
string.  In the latter case, the result is '//' on platforms where // is
distinct from /, and '/' on platforms where there is no difference.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'-a'
'--multiple'
     Support more than one argument.  Treat every argument as a NAME.
     With this, an optional SUFFIX must be specified using the '-s'
     option.

'-s SUFFIX'
'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Remove a trailing SUFFIX.  This option implies the '-a' option.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Output "sort".
     basename /usr/bin/sort

     # Output "stdio".
     basename include/stdio.h .h

     # Output "stdio".
     basename -s .h include/stdio.h

     # Output "stdio" followed by "stdlib"
     basename -a -s .h include/stdio.h include/stdlib.h

File: coreutils.info,  Node: dirname invocation,  Next: pathchk invocation,  Prev: basename invocation,  Up: File name manipulation

18.2 'dirname': Strip last file name component
==============================================

'dirname' prints all but the final slash-delimited component of each
NAME.  Slashes on either side of the final component are also removed.
If the string contains no slash, 'dirname' prints '.' (meaning the
current directory).  Synopsis:

     dirname [OPTION] NAME...

   NAME need not be a file name, but if it is, this operation
effectively lists the directory that contains the final component,
including the case when the final component is itself a directory.

   Together, 'basename' and 'dirname' are designed such that if 'ls
"$name"' succeeds, then the command sequence 'cd "$(dirname "$name")";
ls "$(basename "$name")"' will, too.  This works for everything except
file names containing a trailing newline.

   POSIX allows the implementation to define the results if NAME is
'//'.  With GNU 'dirname', the result is '//' on platforms where // is
distinct from /, and '/' on platforms where there is no difference.

   The program accepts the following option.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Output "/usr/bin".
     dirname /usr/bin/sort
     dirname /usr/bin//.//

     # Output "dir1" followed by "dir2"
     dirname dir1/str dir2/str

     # Output ".".
     dirname stdio.h

File: coreutils.info,  Node: pathchk invocation,  Next: mktemp invocation,  Prev: dirname invocation,  Up: File name manipulation

18.3 'pathchk': Check file name validity and portability
========================================================

'pathchk' checks validity and portability of file names.  Synopsis:

     pathchk [OPTION]... NAME...

   For each NAME, 'pathchk' prints an error message if any of these
conditions is true:

  1. One of the existing directories in NAME does not have search
     (execute) permission,
  2. The length of NAME is larger than the maximum supported by the
     operating system.
  3. The length of one component of NAME is longer than its file
     system's maximum.

   A nonexistent NAME is not an error, so long a file with that name
could be created under the above conditions.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'-p'
     Instead of performing checks based on the underlying file system,
     print an error message if any of these conditions is true:

       1. A file name is empty.

       2. A file name contains a character outside the POSIX portable
          file name character set, namely, the ASCII letters and digits,
          '.', '_', '-', and '/'.

       3. The length of a file name or one of its components exceeds the
          POSIX minimum limits for portability.

'-P'
     Print an error message if a file name is empty, or if it contains a
     component that begins with '-'.

'--portability'
     Print an error message if a file name is not portable to all POSIX
     hosts.  This option is equivalent to '-p -P'.

   Exit status:

     0 if all specified file names passed all checks,
     1 otherwise.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: mktemp invocation,  Next: realpath invocation,  Prev: pathchk invocation,  Up: File name manipulation

18.4 'mktemp': Create temporary file or directory
=================================================

'mktemp' manages the creation of temporary files and directories.
Synopsis:

     mktemp [OPTION]... [TEMPLATE]

   Safely create a temporary file or directory based on TEMPLATE, and
print its name.  If given, TEMPLATE must include at least three
consecutive 'X's in the last component.  If omitted, the template
'tmp.XXXXXXXXXX' is used, and option '--tmpdir' is implied.  The final
run of 'X's in the TEMPLATE will be replaced by alpha-numeric
characters; thus, on a case-sensitive file system, and with a TEMPLATE
including a run of N instances of 'X', there are '62**N' potential file
names.

   Older scripts used to create temporary files by simply joining the
name of the program with the process id ('$$') as a suffix.  However,
that naming scheme is easily predictable, and suffers from a race
condition where the attacker can create an appropriately named symbolic
link, such that when the script then opens a handle to what it thought
was an unused file, it is instead modifying an existing file.  Using the
same scheme to create a directory is slightly safer, since the 'mkdir'
will fail if the target already exists, but it is still inferior because
it allows for denial of service attacks.  Therefore, modern scripts
should use the 'mktemp' command to guarantee that the generated name
will be unpredictable, and that knowledge of the temporary file name
implies that the file was created by the current script and cannot be
modified by other users.

   When creating a file, the resulting file has read and write
permissions for the current user, but no permissions for the group or
others; these permissions are reduced if the current umask is more
restrictive.

   Here are some examples (although note that if you repeat them, you
will most likely get different file names):

   * Create a temporary file in the current directory.
          $ mktemp file.XXXX
          file.H47c

   * Create a temporary file with a known suffix.
          $ mktemp --suffix=.txt file-XXXX
          file-H08W.txt
          $ mktemp file-XXXX-XXXX.txt
          file-XXXX-eI9L.txt

   * Create a secure fifo relative to the user's choice of 'TMPDIR', but
     falling back to the current directory rather than '/tmp'.  Note
     that 'mktemp' does not create fifos, but can create a secure
     directory in which the fifo can live.  Exit the shell if the
     directory or fifo could not be created.
          $ dir=$(mktemp -p "${TMPDIR:-.}" -d dir-XXXX) || exit 1
          $ fifo=$dir/fifo
          $ mkfifo "$fifo" || { rmdir "$dir"; exit 1; }

   * Create and use a temporary file if possible, but ignore failure.
     The file will reside in the directory named by 'TMPDIR', if
     specified, or else in '/tmp'.
          $ file=$(mktemp -q) && {
          >   # Safe to use $file only within this block.  Use quotes,
          >   # since $TMPDIR, and thus $file, may contain whitespace.
          >   echo ... > "$file"
          >   rm "$file"
          > }

   * Act as a semi-random character generator (it is not fully random,
     since it is impacted by the contents of the current directory).  To
     avoid security holes, do not use the resulting names to create a
     file.
          $ mktemp -u XXX
          Gb9
          $ mktemp -u XXX
          nzC

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-d'
'--directory'
     Create a directory rather than a file.  The directory will have
     read, write, and search permissions for the current user, but no
     permissions for the group or others; these permissions are reduced
     if the current umask is more restrictive.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Suppress diagnostics about failure to create a file or directory.
     The exit status will still reflect whether a file was created.

'-u'
'--dry-run'
     Generate a temporary name that does not name an existing file,
     without changing the file system contents.  Using the output of
     this command to create a new file is inherently unsafe, as there is
     a window of time between generating the name and using it where
     another process can create an object by the same name.

'-p DIR'
'--tmpdir[=DIR]'
     Treat TEMPLATE relative to the directory DIR.  If DIR is not
     specified (only possible with the long option '--tmpdir') or is the
     empty string, use the value of 'TMPDIR' if available, otherwise use
     '/tmp'.  If this is specified, TEMPLATE must not be absolute.
     However, TEMPLATE can still contain slashes, although intermediate
     directories must already exist.

'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Append SUFFIX to the TEMPLATE.  SUFFIX must not contain slash.  If
     '--suffix' is specified, TEMPLATE must end in 'X'; if it is not
     specified, then an appropriate '--suffix' is inferred by finding
     the last 'X' in TEMPLATE.  This option exists for use with the
     default TEMPLATE and for the creation of a SUFFIX that starts with
     'X'.

'-t'
     Treat TEMPLATE as a single file relative to the value of 'TMPDIR'
     if available, or to the directory specified by '-p', otherwise to
     '/tmp'.  TEMPLATE must not contain slashes.  This option is
     deprecated; the use of '-p' without '-t' offers better defaults (by
     favoring the command line over 'TMPDIR') and more flexibility (by
     allowing intermediate directories).

   Exit status:

     0 if the file was created,
     1 otherwise.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: realpath invocation,  Prev: mktemp invocation,  Up: File name manipulation

18.5 'realpath': Print the resolved file name.
==============================================

'realpath' expands all symbolic links and resolves references to '/./',
'/../' and extra '/' characters.  By default, all but the last component
of the specified files must exist.  Synopsis:

     realpath [OPTION]... FILE...

   The file name canonicalization functionality overlaps with that of
the 'readlink' command.  This is the preferred command for
canonicalization as it's a more suitable and standard name.  In addition
this command supports relative file name processing functionality.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-e'
'--canonicalize-existing'
     Ensure that all components of the specified file names exist.  If
     any component is missing or unavailable, 'realpath' will output a
     diagnostic unless the '-q' option is specified, and exit with a
     nonzero exit code.  A trailing slash requires that the name resolve
     to a directory.

'-m'
'--canonicalize-missing'
     If any component of a specified file name is missing or
     unavailable, treat it as a directory.

'-L'
'--logical'
     Symbolic links are resolved in the specified file names, but they
     are resolved after any subsequent '..' components are processed.

'-P'
'--physical'
     Symbolic links are resolved in the specified file names, and they
     are resolved before any subsequent '..' components are processed.
     This is the default mode of operation.

'-q'
'--quiet'
     Suppress diagnostic messages for specified file names.

'--relative-to=DIR'
     Print the resolved file names relative to the specified directory.
     Note this option honors the '-m' and '-e' options pertaining to
     file existence.

'--relative-base=DIR'
     Print the resolved file names as relative _if_ the files are
     descendants of DIR.  Otherwise, print the resolved file names as
     absolute.  Note this option honors the '-m' and '-e' options
     pertaining to file existence.  For details about combining
     '--relative-to' and '--relative-base', *note Realpath usage
     examples::.

'-s'
'--strip'
'--no-symlinks'
     Do not resolve symbolic links.  Only resolve references to '/./',
     '/../' and remove extra '/' characters.  When combined with the
     '-m' option, realpath operates only on the file name, and does not
     touch any actual file.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

   Exit status:

     0 if all file names were printed without issue.
     1 otherwise.

* Menu:

* Realpath usage examples::

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Realpath usage examples,  Up: realpath invocation

18.5.1 Realpath usage examples
------------------------------

By default, 'realpath' prints the absolute file name of given files
(symlinks are resolved, 'words' is resolved to 'american-english'):

     cd /home/user
     realpath /usr/bin/sort /tmp/foo /usr/share/dict/words 1.txt
     => /usr/bin/sort
     => /tmp/foo
     => /usr/share/dict/american-english
     => /home/user/1.txt

   With '--relative-to', file names are printed relative to the given
directory:

     realpath --relative-to=/usr/bin \
              /usr/bin/sort /tmp/foo /usr/share/dict/words 1.txt
     => sort
     => ../../tmp/foo
     => ../share/dict/american-english
     => ../../home/user/1.txt

   With '--relative-base', relative file names are printed _if_ the
resolved file name is below the given base directory.  For files outside
the base directory absolute file names are printed:

     realpath --relative-base=/usr \
              /usr/bin/sort /tmp/foo /usr/share/dict/words 1.txt
     => bin/sort
     => /tmp/foo
     => share/dict/american-english
     => /home/user/1.txt

   When both '--relative-to=DIR1' and '--relative-base=DIR2' are used,
file names are printed relative to DIR1 _if_ they are located below
DIR2.  If the files are not below DIR2, they are printed as absolute
file names:

     realpath --relative-to=/usr/bin --relative-base=/usr \
              /usr/bin/sort /tmp/foo /usr/share/dict/words 1.txt
     => sort
     => /tmp/foo
     => ../share/dict/american-english
     => /home/user/1.txt

   When both '--relative-to=DIR1' and '--relative-base=DIR2' are used,
DIR1 _must_ be a subdirectory of DIR2.  Otherwise, 'realpath' prints
absolutes file names.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Working context,  Next: User information,  Prev: File name manipulation,  Up: Top

19 Working context
******************

This section describes commands that display or alter the context in
which you are working: the current directory, the terminal settings, and
so forth.  See also the user-related commands in the next section.

* Menu:

* pwd invocation::              Print working directory.
* stty invocation::             Print or change terminal characteristics.
* printenv invocation::         Print environment variables.
* tty invocation::              Print file name of terminal on standard input.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: pwd invocation,  Next: stty invocation,  Up: Working context

19.1 'pwd': Print working directory
===================================

'pwd' prints the name of the current directory.  Synopsis:

     pwd [OPTION]...

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-L'
'--logical'
     If the contents of the environment variable 'PWD' provide an
     absolute name of the current directory with no '.' or '..'
     components, but possibly with symbolic links, then output those
     contents.  Otherwise, fall back to default '-P' handling.

'-P'
'--physical'
     Print a fully resolved name for the current directory.  That is,
     all components of the printed name will be actual directory
     names--none will be symbolic links.

   If '-L' and '-P' are both given, the last one takes precedence.  If
neither option is given, then this implementation uses '-P' as the
default unless the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set.

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'pwd' functions, using an unadorned
'pwd' interactively or in a script may get you different functionality
than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env pwd ...') to
avoid interference from the shell.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: stty invocation,  Next: printenv invocation,  Prev: pwd invocation,  Up: Working context

19.2 'stty': Print or change terminal characteristics
=====================================================

'stty' prints or changes terminal characteristics, such as baud rate.
Synopses:

     stty [OPTION] [SETTING]...
     stty [OPTION]

   If given no line settings, 'stty' prints the baud rate, line
discipline number (on systems that support it), and line settings that
have been changed from the values set by 'stty sane'.  By default, mode
reading and setting are performed on the tty line connected to standard
input, although this can be modified by the '--file' option.

   'stty' accepts many non-option arguments that change aspects of the
terminal line operation, as described below.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--all'
     Print all current settings in human-readable form.  This option may
     not be used in combination with any line settings.

'-F DEVICE'
'--file=DEVICE'
     Set the line opened by the file name specified in DEVICE instead of
     the tty line connected to standard input.  This option is necessary
     because opening a POSIX tty requires use of the 'O_NONDELAY' flag
     to prevent a POSIX tty from blocking until the carrier detect line
     is high if the 'clocal' flag is not set.  Hence, it is not always
     possible to allow the shell to open the device in the traditional
     manner.

'-g'
'--save'
     Print all current settings in a form that can be used as an
     argument to another 'stty' command to restore the current settings.
     This option may not be used in combination with any line settings.

   Many settings can be turned off by preceding them with a '-'.  Such
arguments are marked below with "May be negated" in their description.
The descriptions themselves refer to the positive case, that is, when
_not_ negated (unless stated otherwise, of course).

   Some settings are not available on all POSIX systems, since they use
extensions.  Such arguments are marked below with "Non-POSIX" in their
description.  On non-POSIX systems, those or other settings also may not
be available, but it's not feasible to document all the variations: just
try it and see.

   'stty' is installed only on platforms with the POSIX terminal
interface, so portable scripts should not rely on its existence on
non-POSIX platforms.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

* Menu:

* Control::                     Control settings
* Input::                       Input settings
* Output::                      Output settings
* Local::                       Local settings
* Combination::                 Combination settings
* Characters::                  Special characters
* Special::                     Special settings

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Control,  Next: Input,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.1 Control settings
-----------------------

Control settings:

'parenb'
     Generate parity bit in output and expect parity bit in input.  May
     be negated.

'parodd'
     Set odd parity (even if negated).  May be negated.

'cmspar'
     Use "stick" (mark/space) parity.  If parodd is set, the parity bit
     is always 1; if parodd is not set, the parity bit is always zero.
     Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'cs5'
'cs6'
'cs7'
'cs8'
     Set character size to 5, 6, 7, or 8 bits.

'hup'
'hupcl'
     Send a hangup signal when the last process closes the tty.  May be
     negated.

'cstopb'
     Use two stop bits per character (one if negated).  May be negated.

'cread'
     Allow input to be received.  May be negated.

'clocal'
     Disable modem control signals.  May be negated.

'crtscts'
     Enable RTS/CTS flow control.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'cdtrdsr'
     Enable DTR/DSR flow control.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Input,  Next: Output,  Prev: Control,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.2 Input settings
---------------------

These settings control operations on data received from the terminal.

'ignbrk'
     Ignore break characters.  May be negated.

'brkint'
     Make breaks cause an interrupt signal.  May be negated.

'ignpar'
     Ignore characters with parity errors.  May be negated.

'parmrk'
     Mark parity errors (with a 255-0-character sequence).  May be
     negated.

'inpck'
     Enable input parity checking.  May be negated.

'istrip'
     Clear high (8th) bit of input characters.  May be negated.

'inlcr'
     Translate newline to carriage return.  May be negated.

'igncr'
     Ignore carriage return.  May be negated.

'icrnl'
     Translate carriage return to newline.  May be negated.

'iutf8'
     Assume input characters are UTF-8 encoded.  May be negated.

'ixon'
     Enable XON/XOFF flow control (that is, 'Ctrl-S'/'Ctrl-Q').  May be
     negated.

'ixoff'
'tandem'
     Enable sending of 'stop' character when the system input buffer is
     almost full, and 'start' character when it becomes almost empty
     again.  May be negated.

'iuclc'
     Translate uppercase characters to lowercase.  Non-POSIX.  May be
     negated.  Note ilcuc is not implemented, as one would not be able
     to issue almost any (lowercase) Unix command, after invoking it.

'ixany'
     Allow any character to restart output (only the start character if
     negated).  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'imaxbel'
     Enable beeping and not flushing input buffer if a character arrives
     when the input buffer is full.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Output,  Next: Local,  Prev: Input,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.3 Output settings
----------------------

These settings control operations on data sent to the terminal.

'opost'
     Postprocess output.  May be negated.

'olcuc'
     Translate lowercase characters to uppercase.  Non-POSIX.  May be
     negated.  (Note ouclc is not currently implemented.)

'ocrnl'
     Translate carriage return to newline.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'onlcr'
     Translate newline to carriage return-newline.  Non-POSIX.  May be
     negated.

'onocr'
     Do not print carriage returns in the first column.  Non-POSIX.  May
     be negated.

'onlret'
     Newline performs a carriage return.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'ofill'
     Use fill (padding) characters instead of timing for delays.
     Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'ofdel'
     Use ASCII DEL characters for fill instead of ASCII NUL characters.
     Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'nl1'
'nl0'
     Newline delay style.  Non-POSIX.

'cr3'
'cr2'
'cr1'
'cr0'
     Carriage return delay style.  Non-POSIX.

'tab3'
'tab2'
'tab1'
'tab0'
     Horizontal tab delay style.  Non-POSIX.

'bs1'
'bs0'
     Backspace delay style.  Non-POSIX.

'vt1'
'vt0'
     Vertical tab delay style.  Non-POSIX.

'ff1'
'ff0'
     Form feed delay style.  Non-POSIX.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Local,  Next: Combination,  Prev: Output,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.4 Local settings
---------------------

'isig'
     Enable 'interrupt', 'quit', and 'suspend' special characters.  May
     be negated.

'icanon'
     Enable 'erase', 'kill', 'werase', and 'rprnt' special characters.
     May be negated.

'iexten'
     Enable non-POSIX special characters.  May be negated.

'echo'
     Echo input characters.  May be negated.

'echoe'
'crterase'
     Echo 'erase' characters as backspace-space-backspace.  May be
     negated.

'echok'
     Echo a newline after a 'kill' character.  May be negated.

'echonl'
     Echo newline even if not echoing other characters.  May be negated.

'noflsh'
     Disable flushing after 'interrupt' and 'quit' special characters.
     May be negated.

'xcase'
     Enable input and output of uppercase characters by preceding their
     lowercase equivalents with '\', when 'icanon' is set.  Non-POSIX.
     May be negated.

'tostop'
     Stop background jobs that try to write to the terminal.  Non-POSIX.
     May be negated.

'echoprt'
'prterase'
     Echo erased characters backward, between '\' and '/'.  Non-POSIX.
     May be negated.

'echoctl'
'ctlecho'
     Echo control characters in hat notation ('^C') instead of
     literally.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'echoke'
'crtkill'
     Echo the 'kill' special character by erasing each character on the
     line as indicated by the 'echoprt' and 'echoe' settings, instead of
     by the 'echoctl' and 'echok' settings.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'extproc'
     Enable 'LINEMODE', which is used to avoid echoing each character
     over high latency links.  See also Internet RFC 1116
     (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc1116).  Non-POSIX.  May be
     negated.

'flusho'
     Discard output.  Note this setting is currently ignored on
     GNU/Linux systems.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Combination,  Next: Characters,  Prev: Local,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.5 Combination settings
---------------------------

Combination settings:

'evenp'
'parity'
     Same as 'parenb -parodd cs7'.  May be negated.  If negated, same as
     '-parenb cs8'.

'oddp'
     Same as 'parenb parodd cs7'.  May be negated.  If negated, same as
     '-parenb cs8'.

'nl'
     Same as '-icrnl -onlcr'.  May be negated.  If negated, same as
     'icrnl -inlcr -igncr onlcr -ocrnl -onlret'.

'ek'
     Reset the 'erase' and 'kill' special characters to their default
     values.

'sane'
     Same as:

          cread -ignbrk brkint -inlcr -igncr icrnl
          icanon iexten echo echoe echok -echonl -noflsh
          -ixoff -iutf8 -iuclc -ixany imaxbel -xcase -olcuc -ocrnl
          opost -ofill onlcr -onocr -onlret nl0 cr0 tab0 bs0 vt0 ff0
          isig -tostop -ofdel -echoprt echoctl echoke -extproc

     and also sets all special characters to their default values.

'cooked'
     Same as 'brkint ignpar istrip icrnl ixon opost isig icanon', plus
     sets the 'eof' and 'eol' characters to their default values if they
     are the same as the 'min' and 'time' characters.  May be negated.
     If negated, same as 'raw'.

'raw'
     Same as:

          -ignbrk -brkint -ignpar -parmrk -inpck -istrip
          -inlcr -igncr -icrnl -ixon -ixoff -icanon -opost
          -isig -iuclc -ixany -imaxbel -xcase min 1 time 0

     May be negated.  If negated, same as 'cooked'.

'cbreak'
     Same as '-icanon'.  May be negated.  If negated, same as 'icanon'.

'pass8'
     Same as '-parenb -istrip cs8'.  May be negated.  If negated, same
     as 'parenb istrip cs7'.

'litout'
     Same as '-parenb -istrip -opost cs8'.  May be negated.  If negated,
     same as 'parenb istrip opost cs7'.

'decctlq'
     Same as '-ixany'.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.

'tabs'
     Same as 'tab0'.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.  If negated, same as
     'tab3'.

'lcase'
'LCASE'
     Same as 'xcase iuclc olcuc'.  Non-POSIX.  May be negated.  (Used
     for terminals with uppercase characters only.)

'crt'
     Same as 'echoe echoctl echoke'.

'dec'
     Same as 'echoe echoctl echoke -ixany intr ^C erase ^? kill C-u'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Characters,  Next: Special,  Prev: Combination,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.6 Special characters
-------------------------

The special characters' default values vary from system to system.  They
are set with the syntax 'name value', where the names are listed below
and the value can be given either literally, in hat notation ('^C'), or
as an integer which may start with '0x' to indicate hexadecimal, '0' to
indicate octal, or any other digit to indicate decimal.

   For GNU stty, giving a value of '^-' or 'undef' disables that special
character.  (This is incompatible with Ultrix 'stty', which uses a value
of 'u' to disable a special character.  GNU 'stty' treats a value 'u'
like any other, namely to set that special character to <U>.)

'intr'
     Send an interrupt signal.

'quit'
     Send a quit signal.

'erase'
     Erase the last character typed.

'kill'
     Erase the current line.

'eof'
     Send an end of file (terminate the input).

'eol'
     End the line.

'eol2'
     Alternate character to end the line.  Non-POSIX.

'discard'
     Alternate character to toggle discarding of output.  Non-POSIX.

'swtch'
     Switch to a different shell layer.  Non-POSIX.

'status'
     Send an info signal.  Not currently supported on Linux.  Non-POSIX.

'start'
     Restart the output after stopping it.

'stop'
     Stop the output.

'susp'
     Send a terminal stop signal.

'dsusp'
     Send a terminal stop signal after flushing the input.  Non-POSIX.

'rprnt'
     Redraw the current line.  Non-POSIX.

'werase'
     Erase the last word typed.  Non-POSIX.

'lnext'
     Enter the next character typed literally, even if it is a special
     character.  Non-POSIX.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Special,  Prev: Characters,  Up: stty invocation

19.2.7 Special settings
-----------------------

'min N'
     Set the minimum number of characters that will satisfy a read until
     the time value has expired, when '-icanon' is set.

'time N'
     Set the number of tenths of a second before reads time out if the
     minimum number of characters have not been read, when '-icanon' is
     set.

'ispeed N'
     Set the input speed to N.

'ospeed N'
     Set the output speed to N.

'rows N'
     Tell the tty kernel driver that the terminal has N rows.
     Non-POSIX.

'cols N'
'columns N'
     Tell the kernel that the terminal has N columns.  Non-POSIX.

'drain'
     Apply settings after first waiting for pending output to be
     transmitted.  This is enabled by default for GNU 'stty'.  It is
     useful to disable this option in cases where the system may be in a
     state where serial transmission is not possible.  For example, if
     the system has received the 'DC3' character with 'ixon' (software
     flow control) enabled, then 'stty' would block without '-drain'
     being specified.  May be negated.  Non-POSIX.

'size'
     Print the number of rows and columns that the kernel thinks the
     terminal has.  (Systems that don't support rows and columns in the
     kernel typically use the environment variables 'LINES' and
     'COLUMNS' instead; however, GNU 'stty' does not know anything about
     them.)  Non-POSIX.

'line N'
     Use line discipline N.  Non-POSIX.

'speed'
     Print the terminal speed.

'N'
     Set the input and output speeds to N.  N can be one of: 0 50 75 110
     134 134.5 150 200 300 600 1200 1800 2400 4800 9600 19200 38400
     'exta' 'extb'.  'exta' is the same as 19200; 'extb' is the same as
     38400.  Many systems, including GNU/Linux, support higher speeds.
     The 'stty' command includes support for speeds of 57600, 115200,
     230400, 460800, 500000, 576000, 921600, 1000000, 1152000, 1500000,
     2000000, 2500000, 3000000, 3500000, or 4000000 where the system
     supports these.  0 hangs up the line if '-clocal' is set.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: printenv invocation,  Next: tty invocation,  Prev: stty invocation,  Up: Working context

19.3 'printenv': Print all or some environment variables
========================================================

'printenv' prints environment variable values.  Synopsis:

     printenv [OPTION] [VARIABLE]...

   If no VARIABLEs are specified, 'printenv' prints the value of every
environment variable.  Otherwise, it prints the value of each VARIABLE
that is set, and nothing for those that are not set.

   The program accepts the following option.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-0'
'--null'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

   Exit status:

     0 if all variables specified were found
     1 if at least one specified variable was not found
     2 if a write error occurred

File: coreutils.info,  Node: tty invocation,  Prev: printenv invocation,  Up: Working context

19.4 'tty': Print file name of terminal on standard input
=========================================================

'tty' prints the file name of the terminal connected to its standard
input.  It prints 'not a tty' if standard input is not a terminal.
Synopsis:

     tty [OPTION]...

   The program accepts the following option.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-s'
'--silent'
'--quiet'
     Print nothing; only return an exit status.

   Exit status:

     0 if standard input is a terminal
     1 if standard input is a non-terminal file
     2 if given incorrect arguments
     3 if a write error occurs

File: coreutils.info,  Node: User information,  Next: System context,  Prev: Working context,  Up: Top

20 User information
*******************

This section describes commands that print user-related information:
logins, groups, and so forth.

* Menu:

* id invocation::               Print user identity.
* logname invocation::          Print current login name.
* whoami invocation::           Print effective user ID.
* groups invocation::           Print group names a user is in.
* users invocation::            Print login names of users currently logged in.
* who invocation::              Print who is currently logged in.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: id invocation,  Next: logname invocation,  Up: User information

20.1 'id': Print user identity
==============================

'id' prints information about the given user, or the process running it
if no user is specified.  Synopsis:

     id [OPTION]... [USER]

   USER can be either a user ID or a name, with name look-up taking
precedence unless the ID is specified with a leading '+'.  *Note
Disambiguating names and IDs::.

   By default, it prints the real user ID, real group ID, effective user
ID if different from the real user ID, effective group ID if different
from the real group ID, and supplemental group IDs.  In addition, if
SELinux is enabled and the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is not
set, then print 'context=C', where C is the security context.

   Each of these numeric values is preceded by an identifying string and
followed by the corresponding user or group name in parentheses.

   The options cause 'id' to print only part of the above information.
Also see *note Common options::.

'-g'
'--group'
     Print only the group ID.

'-G'
'--groups'
     Print only the group ID and the supplementary groups.

'-n'
'--name'
     Print the user or group name instead of the ID number.  Requires
     '-u', '-g', or '-G'.

'-r'
'--real'
     Print the real, instead of effective, user or group ID.  Requires
     '-u', '-g', or '-G'.

'-u'
'--user'
     Print only the user ID.

'-Z'
'--context'
     Print only the security context of the process, which is generally
     the user's security context inherited from the parent process.  If
     neither SELinux or SMACK is enabled then print a warning and set
     the exit status to 1.

'-z'
'--zero'
     Delimit output items with NUL characters.  This option is not
     permitted when using the default format.

     Example:
          $ id -Gn --zero
          users <NUL> devs <NUL>

   Primary and supplementary groups for a process are normally inherited
from its parent and are usually unchanged since login.  This means that
if you change the group database after logging in, 'id' will not reflect
your changes within your existing login session.  Running 'id' with a
user argument causes the user and group database to be consulted afresh,
and so will give a different result.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: logname invocation,  Next: whoami invocation,  Prev: id invocation,  Up: User information

20.2 'logname': Print current login name
========================================

'logname' prints the calling user's name, as found in a
system-maintained file (often '/var/run/utmp' or '/etc/utmp'), and exits
with a status of 0.  If there is no entry for the calling process,
'logname' prints an error message and exits with a status of 1.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: whoami invocation,  Next: groups invocation,  Prev: logname invocation,  Up: User information

20.3 'whoami': Print effective user ID
======================================

'whoami' prints the user name associated with the current effective user
ID.  It is equivalent to the command 'id -un'.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: groups invocation,  Next: users invocation,  Prev: whoami invocation,  Up: User information

20.4 'groups': Print group names a user is in
=============================================

'groups' prints the names of the primary and any supplementary groups
for each given USERNAME, or the current process if no names are given.
If more than one name is given, the name of each user is printed before
the list of that user's groups and the user name is separated from the
group list by a colon.  Synopsis:

     groups [USERNAME]...

   The group lists are equivalent to the output of the command 'id -Gn'.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   Primary and supplementary groups for a process are normally inherited
from its parent and are usually unchanged since login.  This means that
if you change the group database after logging in, 'groups' will not
reflect your changes within your existing login session.  Running
'groups' with a list of users causes the user and group database to be
consulted afresh, and so will give a different result.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: users invocation,  Next: who invocation,  Prev: groups invocation,  Up: User information

20.5 'users': Print login names of users currently logged in
============================================================

'users' prints on a single line a blank-separated list of user names of
users currently logged in to the current host.  Each user name
corresponds to a login session, so if a user has more than one login
session, that user's name will appear the same number of times in the
output.  Synopsis:

     users [FILE]

   With no FILE argument, 'users' extracts its information from a
system-maintained file (often '/var/run/utmp' or '/etc/utmp').  If a
file argument is given, 'users' uses that file instead.  A common choice
is '/var/log/wtmp'.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   The 'users' command is installed only on platforms with the POSIX
'<utmpx.h>' include file or equivalent, so portable scripts should not
rely on its existence on non-POSIX platforms.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: who invocation,  Prev: users invocation,  Up: User information

20.6 'who': Print who is currently logged in
============================================

'who' prints information about users who are currently logged on.
Synopsis:

     who [OPTION] [FILE] [am i]

   If given no non-option arguments, 'who' prints the following
information for each user currently logged on: login name, terminal
line, login time, and remote hostname or X display.

   If given one non-option argument, 'who' uses that instead of a
default system-maintained file (often '/var/run/utmp' or '/etc/utmp') as
the name of the file containing the record of users logged on.
'/var/log/wtmp' is commonly given as an argument to 'who' to look at who
has previously logged on.

   If given two non-option arguments, 'who' prints only the entry for
the user running it (determined from its standard input), preceded by
the hostname.  Traditionally, the two arguments given are 'am i', as in
'who am i'.

   Timestamps are listed according to the time zone rules specified by
the 'TZ' environment variable, or by the system default rules if 'TZ' is
not set.  *Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ Variable.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--all'
     Same as '-b -d --login -p -r -t -T -u'.

'-b'
'--boot'
     Print the date and time of last system boot.

'-d'
'--dead'
     Print information corresponding to dead processes.

'-H'
'--heading'
     Print a line of column headings.

'-l'
'--login'
     List only the entries that correspond to processes via which the
     system is waiting for a user to login.  The user name is always
     'LOGIN'.

'--lookup'
     Attempt to canonicalize hostnames found in utmp through a DNS
     lookup.  This is not the default because it can cause significant
     delays on systems with automatic dial-up internet access.

'-m'
     Same as 'who am i'.

'-p'
'--process'
     List active processes spawned by init.

'-q'
'--count'
     Print only the login names and the number of users logged on.
     Overrides all other options.

'-r'
'--runlevel'
     Print the current (and maybe previous) run-level of the init
     process.

'-s'
     Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of 'who'.

'-t'
'--time'
     Print last system clock change.

'-u'
     After the login time, print the number of hours and minutes that
     the user has been idle.  '.' means the user was active in the last
     minute.  'old' means the user has been idle for more than 24 hours.

'-w'
'-T'
'--mesg'
'--message'
'--writable'
     After each login name print a character indicating the user's
     message status:

          '+' allowing 'write' messages
          '-' disallowing 'write' messages
          '?' cannot find terminal device

   The 'who' command is installed only on platforms with the POSIX
'<utmpx.h>' include file or equivalent, so portable scripts should not
rely on its existence on non-POSIX platforms.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: System context,  Next: SELinux context,  Prev: User information,  Up: Top

21 System context
*****************

This section describes commands that print or change system-wide
information.

* Menu:

* date invocation::             Print or set system date and time.
* arch invocation::             Print machine hardware name.
* nproc invocation::            Print the number of processors.
* uname invocation::            Print system information.
* hostname invocation::         Print or set system name.
* hostid invocation::           Print numeric host identifier.
* uptime invocation::           Print system uptime and load.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: date invocation,  Next: arch invocation,  Up: System context

21.1 'date': Print or set system date and time
==============================================

Synopses:

     date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
     date [-u|--utc|--universal] [ MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss] ]

   Invoking 'date' with no FORMAT argument is equivalent to invoking it
with a default format that depends on the 'LC_TIME' locale category.  In
the default C locale, this format is ''+%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y'', so
the output looks like 'Thu Mar  3 13:47:51 PST 2005'.

   Normally, 'date' uses the time zone rules indicated by the 'TZ'
environment variable, or the system default rules if 'TZ' is not set.
*Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ Variable.

   If given an argument that starts with a '+', 'date' prints the
current date and time (or the date and time specified by the '--date'
option, see below) in the format defined by that argument, which is
similar to that of the 'strftime' function.  Except for conversion
specifiers, which start with '%', characters in the format string are
printed unchanged.  The conversion specifiers are described below.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

* Menu:

* Time conversion specifiers::     %[HIklMNpPrRsSTXzZ]
* Date conversion specifiers::     %[aAbBcCdDeFgGhjmuUVwWxyY]
* Literal conversion specifiers::  %[%nt]
* Padding and other flags::        Pad with zeros, spaces, etc.
* Setting the time::               Changing the system clock.
* Options for date::               Instead of the current time.
* Date input formats::             Specifying date strings.
* Examples of date::               Examples.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Time conversion specifiers,  Next: Date conversion specifiers,  Up: date invocation

21.1.1 Time conversion specifiers
---------------------------------

'date' conversion specifiers related to times.

'%H'
     hour ('00'...'23')
'%I'
     hour ('01'...'12')
'%k'
     hour, space padded (' 0'...'23'); equivalent to '%_H'.  This is a
     GNU extension.
'%l'
     hour, space padded (' 1'...'12'); equivalent to '%_I'.  This is a
     GNU extension.
'%M'
     minute ('00'...'59')
'%N'
     nanoseconds ('000000000'...'999999999').  This is a GNU extension.
'%p'
     locale's equivalent of either 'AM' or 'PM'; blank in many locales.
     Noon is treated as 'PM' and midnight as 'AM'.
'%P'
     like '%p', except lower case.  This is a GNU extension.
'%r'
     locale's 12-hour clock time (e.g., '11:11:04 PM')
'%R'
     24-hour hour and minute.  Same as '%H:%M'.
'%s'
     seconds since the epoch, i.e., since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.  Leap
     seconds are not counted unless leap second support is available.
     *Note %s-examples::, for examples.  This is a GNU extension.
'%S'
     second ('00'...'60').  This may be '60' if leap seconds are
     supported.
'%T'
     24-hour hour, minute, and second.  Same as '%H:%M:%S'.
'%X'
     locale's time representation (e.g., '23:13:48')
'%z'
     Four-digit numeric time zone, e.g., '-0600' or '+0530', or '-0000'
     if no time zone is determinable.  This value reflects the numeric
     time zone appropriate for the current time, using the time zone
     rules specified by the 'TZ' environment variable.  A time zone is
     not determinable if its numeric offset is zero and its abbreviation
     begins with '-'.  The time (and optionally, the time zone rules)
     can be overridden by the '--date' option.
'%:z'
     Numeric time zone with ':', e.g., '-06:00' or '+05:30'), or
     '-00:00' if no time zone is determinable.  This is a GNU extension.
'%::z'
     Numeric time zone to the nearest second with ':' (e.g., '-06:00:00'
     or '+05:30:00'), or '-00:00:00' if no time zone is determinable.
     This is a GNU extension.
'%:::z'
     Numeric time zone with ':' using the minimum necessary precision
     (e.g., '-06', '+05:30', or '-04:56:02'), or '-00' if no time zone
     is determinable.  This is a GNU extension.
'%Z'
     alphabetic time zone abbreviation (e.g., 'EDT'), or nothing if no
     time zone is determinable.  See '%z' for how it is determined.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Date conversion specifiers,  Next: Literal conversion specifiers,  Prev: Time conversion specifiers,  Up: date invocation

21.1.2 Date conversion specifiers
---------------------------------

'date' conversion specifiers related to dates.

'%a'
     locale's abbreviated weekday name (e.g., 'Sun')
'%A'
     locale's full weekday name, variable length (e.g., 'Sunday')
'%b'
     locale's abbreviated month name (e.g., 'Jan')
'%B'
     locale's full month name, variable length (e.g., 'January')
'%c'
     locale's date and time (e.g., 'Thu Mar  3 23:05:25 2005')
'%C'
     century.  This is like '%Y', except the last two digits are
     omitted.  For example, it is '20' if '%Y' is '2000', and is '-0' if
     '%Y' is '-001'.  It is normally at least two characters, but it may
     be more.
'%d'
     day of month (e.g., '01')
'%D'
     date; same as '%m/%d/%y'
'%e'
     day of month, space padded; same as '%_d'
'%F'
     full date in ISO 8601 format; same as '%Y-%m-%d'.  This is a good
     choice for a date format, as it is standard and is easy to sort in
     the usual case where years are in the range 0000...9999.
'%g'
     year corresponding to the ISO week number, but without the century
     (range '00' through '99').  This has the same format and value as
     '%y', except that if the ISO week number (see '%V') belongs to the
     previous or next year, that year is used instead.
'%G'
     year corresponding to the ISO week number.  This has the same
     format and value as '%Y', except that if the ISO week number (see
     '%V') belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used
     instead.  It is normally useful only if '%V' is also used; for
     example, the format '%G-%m-%d' is probably a mistake, since it
     combines the ISO week number year with the conventional month and
     day.
'%h'
     same as '%b'
'%j'
     day of year ('001'...'366')
'%m'
     month ('01'...'12')
'%q'
     quarter of year ('1'...'4')
'%u'
     day of week ('1'...'7') with '1' corresponding to Monday
'%U'
     week number of year, with Sunday as the first day of the week
     ('00'...'53').  Days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are
     in week zero.
'%V'
     ISO week number, that is, the week number of year, with Monday as
     the first day of the week ('01'...'53').  If the week containing
     January 1 has four or more days in the new year, then it is
     considered week 1; otherwise, it is week 53 of the previous year,
     and the next week is week 1.  (See the ISO 8601 standard.)
'%w'
     day of week ('0'...'6') with 0 corresponding to Sunday
'%W'
     week number of year, with Monday as first day of week
     ('00'...'53').  Days in a new year preceding the first Monday are
     in week zero.
'%x'
     locale's date representation (e.g., '12/31/99')
'%y'
     last two digits of year ('00'...'99')
'%Y'
     year.  This is normally at least four characters, but it may be
     more.  Year '0000' precedes year '0001', and year '-001' precedes
     year '0000'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Literal conversion specifiers,  Next: Padding and other flags,  Prev: Date conversion specifiers,  Up: date invocation

21.1.3 Literal conversion specifiers
------------------------------------

'date' conversion specifiers that produce literal strings.

'%%'
     a literal %
'%n'
     a newline
'%t'
     a horizontal tab

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Padding and other flags,  Next: Setting the time,  Prev: Literal conversion specifiers,  Up: date invocation

21.1.4 Padding and other flags
------------------------------

Unless otherwise specified, 'date' normally pads numeric fields with
zeros, so that, for example, numeric months are always output as two
digits.  Seconds since the epoch are not padded, though, since there is
no natural width for them.

   As a GNU extension, 'date' recognizes any of the following optional
flags after the '%':

'-'
     (hyphen) Do not pad the field; useful if the output is intended for
     human consumption.
'_'
     (underscore) Pad with spaces; useful if you need a fixed number of
     characters in the output, but zeros are too distracting.
'0'
     (zero) Pad with zeros even if the conversion specifier would
     normally pad with spaces.
'^'
     Use upper case characters if possible.
'#'
     Use opposite case characters if possible.  A field that is normally
     upper case becomes lower case, and vice versa.

Here are some examples of padding:

     date +%d/%m -d "Feb 1"
     => 01/02
     date +%-d/%-m -d "Feb 1"
     => 1/2
     date +%_d/%_m -d "Feb 1"
     =>  1/ 2

   As a GNU extension, you can specify the field width (after any flag,
if present) as a decimal number.  If the natural size of the output of
the field has less than the specified number of characters, the result
is written right adjusted and padded to the given size.  For example,
'%9B' prints the right adjusted month name in a field of width 9.

   An optional modifier can follow the optional flag and width
specification.  The modifiers are:

'E'
     Use the locale's alternate representation for date and time.  This
     modifier applies to the '%c', '%C', '%x', '%X', '%y' and '%Y'
     conversion specifiers.  In a Japanese locale, for example, '%Ex'
     might yield a date format based on the Japanese Emperors' reigns.

'O'
     Use the locale's alternate numeric symbols for numbers.  This
     modifier applies only to numeric conversion specifiers.

   If the format supports the modifier but no alternate representation
is available, it is ignored.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Setting the time,  Next: Options for date,  Prev: Padding and other flags,  Up: date invocation

21.1.5 Setting the time
-----------------------

If given an argument that does not start with '+', 'date' sets the
system clock to the date and time specified by that argument (as
described below).  You must have appropriate privileges to set the
system clock.  Note for changes to persist across a reboot, the hardware
clock may need to be updated from the system clock, which might not
happen automatically on your system.

   The argument must consist entirely of digits, which have the
following meaning:

'MM'
     month
'DD'
     day within month
'hh'
     hour
'mm'
     minute
'CC'
     first two digits of year (optional)
'YY'
     last two digits of year (optional)
'ss'
     second (optional)

   Note, the '--date' and '--set' options may not be used with an
argument in the above format.  The '--universal' option may be used with
such an argument to indicate that the specified date and time are
relative to Universal Time rather than to the local time zone.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Options for date,  Next: Examples of date,  Prev: Setting the time,  Up: date invocation

21.1.6 Options for 'date'
-------------------------

The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-d DATESTR'
'--date=DATESTR'
     Display the date and time specified in DATESTR instead of the
     current date and time.  DATESTR can be in almost any common format.
     It can contain month names, time zones, 'am' and 'pm', 'yesterday',
     etc.  For example, '--date="2004-02-27 14:19:13.489392193 +0530"'
     specifies the instant of time that is 489,392,193 nanoseconds after
     February 27, 2004 at 2:19:13 PM in a time zone that is 5 hours and
     30 minutes east of UTC.
     Note: input currently must be in locale independent format.  E.g.,
     the LC_TIME=C below is needed to print back the correct date in
     many locales:
          date -d "$(LC_TIME=C date)"
     *Note Date input formats::.

'--debug'
     Annotate the parsed date, display the effective time zone, and warn
     about potential misuse.

'-f DATEFILE'
'--file=DATEFILE'
     Parse each line in DATEFILE as with '-d' and display the resulting
     date and time.  If DATEFILE is '-', use standard input.  This is
     useful when you have many dates to process, because the system
     overhead of starting up the 'date' executable many times can be
     considerable.

'-I[TIMESPEC]'
'--iso-8601[=TIMESPEC]'
     Display the date using an ISO 8601 format, '%Y-%m-%d'.

     The argument TIMESPEC specifies the number of additional terms of
     the time to include.  It can be one of the following:
     'auto'
          Print just the date.  This is the default if TIMESPEC is
          omitted.

     'hours'
          Append the hour of the day to the date.

     'minutes'
          Append the hours and minutes.

     'seconds'
          Append the hours, minutes and seconds.

     'ns'
          Append the hours, minutes, seconds and nanoseconds.

     If showing any time terms, then include the time zone using the
     format '%:z'.  This format is always suitable as input for the
     '--date' ('-d') and '--file' ('-f') options, regardless of the
     current locale.

'-r FILE'
'--reference=FILE'
     Display the date and time of the last modification of FILE, instead
     of the current date and time.

'-R'
'--rfc-email'
     Display the date and time using the format '%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S
     %z', evaluated in the C locale so abbreviations are always in
     English.  For example:

          Fri, 09 Sep 2005 13:51:39 -0700

     This format conforms to Internet RFCs 5322
     (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc5322), 822
     (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc2822) and 822
     (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc822), the current and previous
     standards for Internet email.  For compatibility with older
     versions of 'date', '--rfc-2822' and '--rfc-822' are aliases for
     '--rfc-email'.

'--rfc-3339=TIMESPEC'
     Display the date using a format specified by Internet RFC 3339
     (https://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc3339).  This is like
     '--iso-8601', except that a space rather than a 'T' separates dates
     from times.  This format is always suitable as input for the
     '--date' ('-d') and '--file' ('-f') options, regardless of the
     current locale.

     The argument TIMESPEC specifies how much of the time to include.
     It can be one of the following:

     'date'
          Print just the full-date, e.g., '2005-09-14'.  This is
          equivalent to the format '%Y-%m-%d'.

     'seconds'
          Print the full-date and full-time separated by a space, e.g.,
          '2005-09-14 00:56:06+05:30'.  The output ends with a numeric
          time-offset; here the '+05:30' means that local time is five
          hours and thirty minutes east of UTC.  This is equivalent to
          the format '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S%:z'.

     'ns'
          Like 'seconds', but also print nanoseconds, e.g., '2005-09-14
          00:56:06.998458565+05:30'.  This is equivalent to the format
          '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%N%:z'.

'-s DATESTR'
'--set=DATESTR'
     Set the date and time to DATESTR.  See '-d' above.  See also *note
     Setting the time::.

'-u'
'--utc'
'--universal'
     Use Universal Time by operating as if the 'TZ' environment variable
     were set to the string 'UTC0'.  UTC stands for Coordinated
     Universal Time, established in 1960.  Universal Time is often
     called "Greenwich Mean Time" (GMT) for historical reasons.
     Typically, systems ignore leap seconds and thus implement an
     approximation to UTC rather than true UTC.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Date input formats,  Next: Opening the software toolbox,  Prev: File timestamps,  Up: Top

29 Date input formats
*********************

First, a quote:

     Our units of temporal measurement, from seconds on up to months,
     are so complicated, asymmetrical and disjunctive so as to make
     coherent mental reckoning in time all but impossible.  Indeed, had
     some tyrannical god contrived to enslave our minds to time, to make
     it all but impossible for us to escape subjection to sodden
     routines and unpleasant surprises, he could hardly have done better
     than handing down our present system.  It is like a set of
     trapezoidal building blocks, with no vertical or horizontal
     surfaces, like a language in which the simplest thought demands
     ornate constructions, useless particles and lengthy
     circumlocutions.  Unlike the more successful patterns of language
     and science, which enable us to face experience boldly or at least
     level-headedly, our system of temporal calculation silently and
     persistently encourages our terror of time.

     ... It is as though architects had to measure length in feet, width
     in meters and height in ells; as though basic instruction manuals
     demanded a knowledge of five different languages.  It is no wonder
     then that we often look into our own immediate past or future, last
     Tuesday or a week from Sunday, with feelings of helpless confusion.
     ...

     --Robert Grudin, 'Time and the Art of Living'.

   This section describes the textual date representations that GNU
programs accept.  These are the strings you, as a user, can supply as
arguments to the various programs.  The C interface (via the
'parse_datetime' function) is not described here.

* Menu:

* General date syntax::            Common rules.
* Calendar date items::            19 Dec 1994.
* Time of day items::              9:20pm.
* Time zone items::                EST, PDT, UTC, ...
* Combined date and time of day items:: 1972-09-24T20:02:00,000000-0500.
* Day of week items::              Monday and others.
* Relative items in date strings:: next tuesday, 2 years ago.
* Pure numbers in date strings::   19931219, 1440.
* Seconds since the Epoch::        @1078100502.
* Specifying time zone rules::     TZ="America/New_York", TZ="UTC0".
* Authors of parse_datetime::      Bellovin, Eggert, Salz, Berets, et al.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: General date syntax,  Next: Calendar date items,  Up: Date input formats

29.1 General date syntax
========================

A "date" is a string, possibly empty, containing many items separated by
whitespace.  The whitespace may be omitted when no ambiguity arises.
The empty string means the beginning of today (i.e., midnight).  Order
of the items is immaterial.  A date string may contain many flavors of
items:

   * calendar date items
   * time of day items
   * time zone items
   * combined date and time of day items
   * day of the week items
   * relative items
   * pure numbers.

We describe each of these item types in turn, below.

   A few ordinal numbers may be written out in words in some contexts.
This is most useful for specifying day of the week items or relative
items (see below).  Among the most commonly used ordinal numbers, the
word 'last' stands for -1, 'this' stands for 0, and 'first' and 'next'
both stand for 1.  Because the word 'second' stands for the unit of time
there is no way to write the ordinal number 2, but for convenience
'third' stands for 3, 'fourth' for 4, 'fifth' for 5, 'sixth' for 6,
'seventh' for 7, 'eighth' for 8, 'ninth' for 9, 'tenth' for 10,
'eleventh' for 11 and 'twelfth' for 12.

   When a month is written this way, it is still considered to be
written numerically, instead of being "spelled in full"; this changes
the allowed strings.

   In the current implementation, only English is supported for words
and abbreviations like 'AM', 'DST', 'EST', 'first', 'January', 'Sunday',
'tomorrow', and 'year'.

   The output of the 'date' command is not always acceptable as a date
string, not only because of the language problem, but also because there
is no standard meaning for time zone items like 'IST'.  When using
'date' to generate a date string intended to be parsed later, specify a
date format that is independent of language and that does not use time
zone items other than 'UTC' and 'Z'.  Here are some ways to do this:

     $ LC_ALL=C TZ=UTC0 date
     Mon Mar  1 00:21:42 UTC 2004
     $ TZ=UTC0 date +'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%SZ'
     2004-03-01 00:21:42Z
     $ date --rfc-3339=ns  # --rfc-3339 is a GNU extension.
     2004-02-29 16:21:42.692722128-08:00
     $ date --rfc-2822  # a GNU extension
     Sun, 29 Feb 2004 16:21:42 -0800
     $ date +'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z'  # %z is a GNU extension.
     2004-02-29 16:21:42 -0800
     $ date +'@%s.%N'  # %s and %N are GNU extensions.
     @1078100502.692722128

   Alphabetic case is completely ignored in dates.  Comments may be
introduced between round parentheses, as long as included parentheses
are properly nested.  Hyphens not followed by a digit are currently
ignored.  Leading zeros on numbers are ignored.

   Invalid dates like '2005-02-29' or times like '24:00' are rejected.
In the typical case of a host that does not support leap seconds, a time
like '23:59:60' is rejected even if it corresponds to a valid leap
second.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Calendar date items,  Next: Time of day items,  Prev: General date syntax,  Up: Date input formats

29.2 Calendar date items
========================

A "calendar date item" specifies a day of the year.  It is specified
differently, depending on whether the month is specified numerically or
literally.  All these strings specify the same calendar date:

     1972-09-24     # ISO 8601.
     72-9-24        # Assume 19xx for 69 through 99,
                    # 20xx for 00 through 68.
     72-09-24       # Leading zeros are ignored.
     9/24/72        # Common U.S. writing.
     24 September 1972
     24 Sept 72     # September has a special abbreviation.
     24 Sep 72      # Three-letter abbreviations always allowed.
     Sep 24, 1972
     24-sep-72
     24sep72

   The year can also be omitted.  In this case, the last specified year
is used, or the current year if none.  For example:

     9/24
     sep 24

   Here are the rules.

   For numeric months, the ISO 8601 format 'YEAR-MONTH-DAY' is allowed,
where YEAR is any positive number, MONTH is a number between 01 and 12,
and DAY is a number between 01 and 31.  A leading zero must be present
if a number is less than ten.  If YEAR is 68 or smaller, then 2000 is
added to it; otherwise, if YEAR is less than 100, then 1900 is added to
it.  The construct 'MONTH/DAY/YEAR', popular in the United States, is
accepted.  Also 'MONTH/DAY', omitting the year.

   Literal months may be spelled out in full: 'January', 'February',
'March', 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September',
'October', 'November' or 'December'.  Literal months may be abbreviated
to their first three letters, possibly followed by an abbreviating dot.
It is also permitted to write 'Sept' instead of 'September'.

   When months are written literally, the calendar date may be given as
any of the following:

     DAY MONTH YEAR
     DAY MONTH
     MONTH DAY YEAR
     DAY-MONTH-YEAR

   Or, omitting the year:

     MONTH DAY

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Time of day items,  Next: Time zone items,  Prev: Calendar date items,  Up: Date input formats

29.3 Time of day items
======================

A "time of day item" in date strings specifies the time on a given day.
Here are some examples, all of which represent the same time:

     20:02:00.000000
     20:02
     8:02pm
     20:02-0500      # In EST (U.S. Eastern Standard Time).

   More generally, the time of day may be given as 'HOUR:MINUTE:SECOND',
where HOUR is a number between 0 and 23, MINUTE is a number between 0
and 59, and SECOND is a number between 0 and 59 possibly followed by '.'
or ',' and a fraction containing one or more digits.  Alternatively,
':SECOND' can be omitted, in which case it is taken to be zero.  On the
rare hosts that support leap seconds, SECOND may be 60.

   If the time is followed by 'am' or 'pm' (or 'a.m.' or 'p.m.'), HOUR
is restricted to run from 1 to 12, and ':MINUTE' may be omitted (taken
to be zero).  'am' indicates the first half of the day, 'pm' indicates
the second half of the day.  In this notation, 12 is the predecessor of
1: midnight is '12am' while noon is '12pm'.  (This is the zero-oriented
interpretation of '12am' and '12pm', as opposed to the old tradition
derived from Latin which uses '12m' for noon and '12pm' for midnight.)

   The time may alternatively be followed by a time zone correction,
expressed as 'SHHMM', where S is '+' or '-', HH is a number of zone
hours and MM is a number of zone minutes.  The zone minutes term, MM,
may be omitted, in which case the one- or two-digit correction is
interpreted as a number of hours.  You can also separate HH from MM with
a colon.  When a time zone correction is given this way, it forces
interpretation of the time relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),
overriding any previous specification for the time zone or the local
time zone.  For example, '+0530' and '+05:30' both stand for the time
zone 5.5 hours ahead of UTC (e.g., India).  This is the best way to
specify a time zone correction by fractional parts of an hour.  The
maximum zone correction is 24 hours.

   Either 'am'/'pm' or a time zone correction may be specified, but not
both.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Time zone items,  Next: Combined date and time of day items,  Prev: Time of day items,  Up: Date input formats

29.4 Time zone items
====================

A "time zone item" specifies an international time zone, indicated by a
small set of letters, e.g., 'UTC' or 'Z' for Coordinated Universal Time.
Any included periods are ignored.  By following a non-daylight-saving
time zone by the string 'DST' in a separate word (that is, separated by
some white space), the corresponding daylight saving time zone may be
specified.  Alternatively, a non-daylight-saving time zone can be
followed by a time zone correction, to add the two values.  This is
normally done only for 'UTC'; for example, 'UTC+05:30' is equivalent to
'+05:30'.

   Time zone items other than 'UTC' and 'Z' are obsolescent and are not
recommended, because they are ambiguous; for example, 'EST' has a
different meaning in Australia than in the United States.  Instead, it's
better to use unambiguous numeric time zone corrections like '-0500', as
described in the previous section.

   If neither a time zone item nor a time zone correction is supplied,
timestamps are interpreted using the rules of the default time zone
(*note Specifying time zone rules::).

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Combined date and time of day items,  Next: Day of week items,  Prev: Time zone items,  Up: Date input formats

29.5 Combined date and time of day items
========================================

The ISO 8601 date and time of day extended format consists of an ISO
8601 date, a 'T' character separator, and an ISO 8601 time of day.  This
format is also recognized if the 'T' is replaced by a space.

   In this format, the time of day should use 24-hour notation.
Fractional seconds are allowed, with either comma or period preceding
the fraction.  ISO 8601 fractional minutes and hours are not supported.
Typically, hosts support nanosecond timestamp resolution; excess
precision is silently discarded.

   Here are some examples:

     2012-09-24T20:02:00.052-05:00
     2012-12-31T23:59:59,999999999+11:00
     1970-01-01 00:00Z

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Day of week items,  Next: Relative items in date strings,  Prev: Combined date and time of day items,  Up: Date input formats

29.6 Day of week items
======================

The explicit mention of a day of the week will forward the date (only if
necessary) to reach that day of the week in the future.

   Days of the week may be spelled out in full: 'Sunday', 'Monday',
'Tuesday', 'Wednesday', 'Thursday', 'Friday' or 'Saturday'.  Days may be
abbreviated to their first three letters, optionally followed by a
period.  The special abbreviations 'Tues' for 'Tuesday', 'Wednes' for
'Wednesday' and 'Thur' or 'Thurs' for 'Thursday' are also allowed.

   A number may precede a day of the week item to move forward
supplementary weeks.  It is best used in expression like 'third monday'.
In this context, 'last DAY' or 'next DAY' is also acceptable; they move
one week before or after the day that DAY by itself would represent.

   A comma following a day of the week item is ignored.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Relative items in date strings,  Next: Pure numbers in date strings,  Prev: Day of week items,  Up: Date input formats

29.7 Relative items in date strings
===================================

"Relative items" adjust a date (or the current date if none) forward or
backward.  The effects of relative items accumulate.  Here are some
examples:

     1 year
     1 year ago
     3 years
     2 days

   The unit of time displacement may be selected by the string 'year' or
'month' for moving by whole years or months.  These are fuzzy units, as
years and months are not all of equal duration.  More precise units are
'fortnight' which is worth 14 days, 'week' worth 7 days, 'day' worth 24
hours, 'hour' worth 60 minutes, 'minute' or 'min' worth 60 seconds, and
'second' or 'sec' worth one second.  An 's' suffix on these units is
accepted and ignored.

   The unit of time may be preceded by a multiplier, given as an
optionally signed number.  Unsigned numbers are taken as positively
signed.  No number at all implies 1 for a multiplier.  Following a
relative item by the string 'ago' is equivalent to preceding the unit by
a multiplier with value -1.

   The string 'tomorrow' is worth one day in the future (equivalent to
'day'), the string 'yesterday' is worth one day in the past (equivalent
to 'day ago').

   The strings 'now' or 'today' are relative items corresponding to
zero-valued time displacement, these strings come from the fact a
zero-valued time displacement represents the current time when not
otherwise changed by previous items.  They may be used to stress other
items, like in '12:00 today'.  The string 'this' also has the meaning of
a zero-valued time displacement, but is preferred in date strings like
'this thursday'.

   When a relative item causes the resulting date to cross a boundary
where the clocks were adjusted, typically for daylight saving time, the
resulting date and time are adjusted accordingly.

   The fuzz in units can cause problems with relative items.  For
example, '2003-07-31 -1 month' might evaluate to 2003-07-01, because
2003-06-31 is an invalid date.  To determine the previous month more
reliably, you can ask for the month before the 15th of the current
month.  For example:

     $ date -R
     Thu, 31 Jul 2003 13:02:39 -0700
     $ date --date='-1 month' +'Last month was %B?'
     Last month was July?
     $ date --date="$(date +%Y-%m-15) -1 month" +'Last month was %B!'
     Last month was June!

   Also, take care when manipulating dates around clock changes such as
daylight saving leaps.  In a few cases these have added or subtracted as
much as 24 hours from the clock, so it is often wise to adopt universal
time by setting the 'TZ' environment variable to 'UTC0' before embarking
on calendrical calculations.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Pure numbers in date strings,  Next: Seconds since the Epoch,  Prev: Relative items in date strings,  Up: Date input formats

29.8 Pure numbers in date strings
=================================

The precise interpretation of a pure decimal number depends on the
context in the date string.

   If the decimal number is of the form YYYYMMDD and no other calendar
date item (*note Calendar date items::) appears before it in the date
string, then YYYY is read as the year, MM as the month number and DD as
the day of the month, for the specified calendar date.

   If the decimal number is of the form HHMM and no other time of day
item appears before it in the date string, then HH is read as the hour
of the day and MM as the minute of the hour, for the specified time of
day.  MM can also be omitted.

   If both a calendar date and a time of day appear to the left of a
number in the date string, but no relative item, then the number
overrides the year.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Seconds since the Epoch,  Next: Specifying time zone rules,  Prev: Pure numbers in date strings,  Up: Date input formats

29.9 Seconds since the Epoch
============================

If you precede a number with '@', it represents an internal timestamp as
a count of seconds.  The number can contain an internal decimal point
(either '.' or ','); any excess precision not supported by the internal
representation is truncated toward minus infinity.  Such a number cannot
be combined with any other date item, as it specifies a complete
timestamp.

   Internally, computer times are represented as a count of seconds
since an epoch--a well-defined point of time.  On GNU and POSIX systems,
the epoch is 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC, so '@0' represents this time, '@1'
represents 1970-01-01 00:00:01 UTC, and so forth.  GNU and most other
POSIX-compliant systems support such times as an extension to POSIX,
using negative counts, so that '@-1' represents 1969-12-31 23:59:59 UTC.

   Traditional Unix systems count seconds with 32-bit two's-complement
integers and can represent times from 1901-12-13 20:45:52 through
2038-01-19 03:14:07 UTC.  More modern systems use 64-bit counts of
seconds with nanosecond subcounts, and can represent all the times in
the known lifetime of the universe to a resolution of 1 nanosecond.

   On most hosts, these counts ignore the presence of leap seconds.  For
example, on most hosts '@915148799' represents 1998-12-31 23:59:59 UTC,
'@915148800' represents 1999-01-01 00:00:00 UTC, and there is no way to
represent the intervening leap second 1998-12-31 23:59:60 UTC.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Specifying time zone rules,  Next: Authors of parse_datetime,  Prev: Seconds since the Epoch,  Up: Date input formats

29.10 Specifying time zone rules
================================

Normally, dates are interpreted using the rules of the current time
zone, which in turn are specified by the 'TZ' environment variable, or
by a system default if 'TZ' is not set.  To specify a different set of
default time zone rules that apply just to one date, start the date with
a string of the form 'TZ="RULE"'.  The two quote characters ('"') must
be present in the date, and any quotes or backslashes within RULE must
be escaped by a backslash.

   For example, with the GNU 'date' command you can answer the question
"What time is it in New York when a Paris clock shows 6:30am on October
31, 2004?" by using a date beginning with 'TZ="Europe/Paris"' as shown
in the following shell transcript:

     $ export TZ="America/New_York"
     $ date --date='TZ="Europe/Paris" 2004-10-31 06:30'
     Sun Oct 31 01:30:00 EDT 2004

   In this example, the '--date' operand begins with its own 'TZ'
setting, so the rest of that operand is processed according to
'Europe/Paris' rules, treating the string '2004-10-31 06:30' as if it
were in Paris.  However, since the output of the 'date' command is
processed according to the overall time zone rules, it uses New York
time.  (Paris was normally six hours ahead of New York in 2004, but this
example refers to a brief Halloween period when the gap was five hours.)

   A 'TZ' value is a rule that typically names a location in the 'tz'
database (http://www.twinsun.com/tz/tz-link.htm).  A recent catalog of
location names appears in the TWiki Date and Time Gateway
(http://twiki.org/cgi-bin/xtra/tzdate).  A few non-GNU hosts require a
colon before a location name in a 'TZ' setting, e.g.,
'TZ=":America/New_York"'.

   The 'tz' database includes a wide variety of locations ranging from
'Arctic/Longyearbyen' to 'Antarctica/South_Pole', but if you are at sea
and have your own private time zone, or if you are using a non-GNU host
that does not support the 'tz' database, you may need to use a POSIX
rule instead.  Simple POSIX rules like 'UTC0' specify a time zone
without daylight saving time; other rules can specify simple daylight
saving regimes.  *Note Specifying the Time Zone with 'TZ': (libc)TZ
Variable.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Authors of parse_datetime,  Prev: Specifying time zone rules,  Up: Date input formats

29.11 Authors of 'parse_datetime'
=================================

'parse_datetime' started life as 'getdate', as originally implemented by
Steven M. Bellovin (<smb AT research.com>) while at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  The code was later tweaked by a couple
of people on Usenet, then completely overhauled by Rich $alz
(<rsalz AT bbn.com>) and Jim Berets (<jberets AT bbn.com>) in August, 1990.
Various revisions for the GNU system were made by David MacKenzie, Jim
Meyering, Paul Eggert and others, including renaming it to 'get_date' to
avoid a conflict with the alternative Posix function 'getdate', and a
later rename to 'parse_datetime'.  The Posix function 'getdate' can
parse more locale-specific dates using 'strptime', but relies on an
environment variable and external file, and lacks the thread-safety of
'parse_datetime'.

   This chapter was originally produced by Franc,ois Pinard
(<pinard AT iro.ca>) from the 'parse_datetime.y' source code, and
then edited by K. Berry (<kb AT cs.edu>).

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Examples of date,  Prev: Options for date,  Up: date invocation

21.1.7 Examples of 'date'
-------------------------

Here are a few examples.  Also see the documentation for the '-d' option
in the previous section.

   * To print the date of the day before yesterday:

          date --date='2 days ago'

   * To print the date of the day three months and one day hence:

          date --date='3 months 1 day'

   * To print the day of year of Christmas in the current year:

          date --date='25 Dec' +%j

   * To print the current full month name and the day of the month:

          date '+%B %d'

     But this may not be what you want because for the first nine days
     of the month, the '%d' expands to a zero-padded two-digit field,
     for example 'date -d 1may '+%B %d'' will print 'May 01'.

   * To print a date without the leading zero for one-digit days of the
     month, you can use the (GNU extension) '-' flag to suppress the
     padding altogether:

          date -d 1may '+%B %-d'

   * To print the current date and time in the format required by many
     non-GNU versions of 'date' when setting the system clock:

          date +%m%d%H%M%Y.%S

   * To set the system clock forward by two minutes:

          date --set='+2 minutes'

   * To print the date in Internet RFC 5322 format, use 'date
     --rfc-email'.  Here is some example output:

          Fri, 09 Sep 2005 13:51:39 -0700

   * To convert a date string to the number of seconds since the epoch
     (which is 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC), use the '--date' option with
     the '%s' format.  That can be useful in sorting and/or graphing
     and/or comparing data by date.  The following command outputs the
     number of the seconds since the epoch for the time two minutes
     after the epoch:

          date --date='1970-01-01 00:02:00 +0000' +%s
          120

     If you do not specify time zone information in the date string,
     'date' uses your computer's idea of the time zone when interpreting
     the string.  For example, if your computer's time zone is that of
     Cambridge, Massachusetts, which was then 5 hours (i.e., 18,000
     seconds) behind UTC:

          # local time zone used
          date --date='1970-01-01 00:02:00' +%s
          18120

   * If you're sorting or graphing dated data, your raw date values may
     be represented as seconds since the epoch.  But few people can look
     at the date '946684800' and casually note "Oh, that's the first
     second of the year 2000 in Greenwich, England."

          date --date='2000-01-01 UTC' +%s
          946684800

     An alternative is to use the '--utc' ('-u') option.  Then you may
     omit 'UTC' from the date string.  Although this produces the same
     result for '%s' and many other format sequences, with a time zone
     offset different from zero, it would give a different result for
     zone-dependent formats like '%z'.

          date -u --date=2000-01-01 +%s
          946684800

     To convert such an unwieldy number of seconds back to a more
     readable form, use a command like this:

          # local time zone used
          date -d '1970-01-01 UTC 946684800 seconds' +"%Y-%m-%d %T %z"
          1999-12-31 19:00:00 -0500

     Or if you do not mind depending on the '@' feature present since
     coreutils 5.3.0, you could shorten this to:

          date -d @946684800 +"%F %T %z"
          1999-12-31 19:00:00 -0500

     Often it is better to output UTC-relative date and time:

          date -u -d '1970-01-01 946684800 seconds' +"%Y-%m-%d %T %z"
          2000-01-01 00:00:00 +0000

   * Typically the seconds count omits leap seconds, but some systems
     are exceptions.  Because leap seconds are not predictable, the
     mapping between the seconds count and a future timestamp is not
     reliable on the atypical systems that include leap seconds in their
     counts.

     Here is how the two kinds of systems handle the leap second at
     2012-06-30 23:59:60 UTC:

          # Typical systems ignore leap seconds:
          date --date='2012-06-30 23:59:59 +0000' +%s
          1341100799
          date --date='2012-06-30 23:59:60 +0000' +%s
          date: invalid date '2012-06-30 23:59:60 +0000'
          date --date='2012-07-01 00:00:00 +0000' +%s
          1341100800

          # Atypical systems count leap seconds:
          date --date='2012-06-30 23:59:59 +0000' +%s
          1341100823
          date --date='2012-06-30 23:59:60 +0000' +%s
          1341100824
          date --date='2012-07-01 00:00:00 +0000' +%s
          1341100825

File: coreutils.info,  Node: arch invocation,  Next: nproc invocation,  Prev: date invocation,  Up: System context

21.2 'arch': Print machine hardware name
========================================

'arch' prints the machine hardware name, and is equivalent to 'uname
-m'.  Synopsis:

     arch [OPTION]

   The program accepts the *note Common options:: only.

   'arch' is not installed by default, so portable scripts should not
rely on its existence.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: nproc invocation,  Next: uname invocation,  Prev: arch invocation,  Up: System context

21.3 'nproc': Print the number of available processors
======================================================

Print the number of processing units available to the current process,
which may be less than the number of online processors.  If this
information is not accessible, then print the number of processors
installed.  If the 'OMP_NUM_THREADS' or 'OMP_THREAD_LIMIT' environment
variables are set, then they will determine the minimum and maximum
returned value respectively.  The result is guaranteed to be greater
than zero.  Synopsis:

     nproc [OPTION]

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'--all'
     Print the number of installed processors on the system, which may
     be greater than the number online or available to the current
     process.  The 'OMP_NUM_THREADS' or 'OMP_THREAD_LIMIT' environment
     variables are not honored in this case.

'--ignore=NUMBER'
     If possible, exclude this NUMBER of processing units.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: uname invocation,  Next: hostname invocation,  Prev: nproc invocation,  Up: System context

21.4 'uname': Print system information
======================================

'uname' prints information about the machine and operating system it is
run on.  If no options are given, 'uname' acts as if the '-s' option
were given.  Synopsis:

     uname [OPTION]...

   If multiple options or '-a' are given, the selected information is
printed in this order:

     KERNEL-NAME NODENAME KERNEL-RELEASE KERNEL-VERSION
     MACHINE PROCESSOR HARDWARE-PLATFORM OPERATING-SYSTEM

   The information may contain internal spaces, so such output cannot be
parsed reliably.  In the following example, RELEASE is
'2.2.18ss.e820-bda652a #4 SMP Tue Jun 5 11:24:08 PDT 2001':

     uname -a
     => Linux dumdum 2.2.18 #4 SMP Tue Jun 5 11:24:08 PDT 2001 i686 unknown unknown GNU/Linux

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-a'
'--all'
     Print all of the below information, except omit the processor type
     and the hardware platform name if they are unknown.

'-i'
'--hardware-platform'
     Print the hardware platform name (sometimes called the hardware
     implementation).  Print 'unknown' if this information is not
     available.  Note this is non-portable (even across GNU/Linux
     distributions).

'-m'
'--machine'
     Print the machine hardware name (sometimes called the hardware
     class or hardware type).

'-n'
'--nodename'
     Print the network node hostname.

'-p'
'--processor'
     Print the processor type (sometimes called the instruction set
     architecture or ISA). Print 'unknown' if this information is not
     available.  Note this is non-portable (even across GNU/Linux
     distributions).

'-o'
'--operating-system'
     Print the name of the operating system.

'-r'
'--kernel-release'
     Print the kernel release.

'-s'
'--kernel-name'
     Print the kernel name.  POSIX 1003.1-2001 (*note Standards
     conformance::) calls this "the implementation of the operating
     system", because the POSIX specification itself has no notion of
     "kernel".  The kernel name might be the same as the operating
     system name printed by the '-o' or '--operating-system' option, but
     it might differ.  Some operating systems (e.g., FreeBSD, HP-UX)
     have the same name as their underlying kernels; others (e.g.,
     GNU/Linux, Solaris) do not.

'-v'
'--kernel-version'
     Print the kernel version.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: hostname invocation,  Next: hostid invocation,  Prev: uname invocation,  Up: System context

21.5 'hostname': Print or set system name
=========================================

With no arguments, 'hostname' prints the name of the current host
system.  With one argument, it sets the current host name to the
specified string.  You must have appropriate privileges to set the host
name.  Synopsis:

     hostname [NAME]

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   'hostname' is not installed by default, and other packages also
supply a 'hostname' command, so portable scripts should not rely on its
existence or on the exact behavior documented above.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: hostid invocation,  Next: uptime invocation,  Prev: hostname invocation,  Up: System context

21.6 'hostid': Print numeric host identifier
============================================

'hostid' prints the numeric identifier of the current host in
hexadecimal.  This command accepts no arguments.  The only options are
'--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common options::.

   For example, here's what it prints on one system I use:

     $ hostid
     1bac013d

   On that system, the 32-bit quantity happens to be closely related to
the system's Internet address, but that isn't always the case.

   'hostid' is installed only on systems that have the 'gethostid'
function, so portable scripts should not rely on its existence.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: uptime invocation,  Prev: hostid invocation,  Up: System context

21.7 'uptime': Print system uptime and load
===========================================

'uptime' prints the current time, the system's uptime, the number of
logged-in users and the current load average.

   If an argument is specified, it is used as the file to be read to
discover how many users are logged in.  If no argument is specified, a
system default is used ('uptime --help' indicates the default setting).

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   For example, here's what it prints right now on one system I use:

     $ uptime
      14:07  up   3:35,  3 users,  load average: 1.39, 1.15, 1.04

   The precise method of calculation of load average varies somewhat
between systems.  Some systems calculate it as the average number of
runnable processes over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes, but some systems
also include processes in the uninterruptible sleep state (that is,
those processes which are waiting for disk I/O). The Linux kernel
includes uninterruptible processes.

   'uptime' is installed only on platforms with infrastructure for
obtaining the boot time, and other packages also supply an 'uptime'
command, so portable scripts should not rely on its existence or on the
exact behavior documented above.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: SELinux context,  Next: Modified command invocation,  Prev: System context,  Up: Top

22 SELinux context
******************

This section describes commands for operations with SELinux contexts.

* Menu:

* chcon invocation::            Change SELinux context of file
* runcon invocation::           Run a command in specified SELinux context

File: coreutils.info,  Node: chcon invocation,  Next: runcon invocation,  Up: SELinux context

22.1 'chcon': Change SELinux context of file
============================================

'chcon' changes the SELinux security context of the selected files.
Synopses:

     chcon [OPTION]... CONTEXT FILE...
     chcon [OPTION]... [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...
     chcon [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

   Change the SELinux security context of each FILE to CONTEXT.  With
'--reference', change the security context of each FILE to that of
RFILE.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'--dereference'
     Do not affect symbolic links but what they refer to; this is the
     default.

'-h'
'--no-dereference'
     Affect the symbolic links themselves instead of any referenced
     file.

'--reference=RFILE'
     Use RFILE's security context rather than specifying a CONTEXT
     value.

'-R'
'--recursive'
     Operate on files and directories recursively.

'--preserve-root'
     Refuse to operate recursively on the root directory, '/', when used
     together with the '--recursive' option.  *Note Treating /
     specially::.

'--no-preserve-root'
     Do not treat the root directory, '/', specially when operating
     recursively; this is the default.  *Note Treating / specially::.

'-H'
     If '--recursive' ('-R') is specified and a command line argument is
     a symbolic link to a directory, traverse it.  *Note Traversing
     symlinks::.

'-L'
     In a recursive traversal, traverse every symbolic link to a
     directory that is encountered.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

'-P'
     Do not traverse any symbolic links.  This is the default if none of
     '-H', '-L', or '-P' is specified.  *Note Traversing symlinks::.

'-v'
'--verbose'
     Output a diagnostic for every file processed.

'-u USER'
'--user=USER'
     Set user USER in the target security context.

'-r ROLE'
'--role=ROLE'
     Set role ROLE in the target security context.

'-t TYPE'
'--type=TYPE'
     Set type TYPE in the target security context.

'-l RANGE'
'--range=RANGE'
     Set range RANGE in the target security context.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: runcon invocation,  Prev: chcon invocation,  Up: SELinux context

22.2 'runcon': Run a command in specified SELinux context
=========================================================

'runcon' runs file in specified SELinux security context.

   Synopses:
     runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [ARGS]
     runcon [ -c ] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND [ARGS]

   Run COMMAND with completely-specified CONTEXT, or with current or
transitioned security context modified by one or more of LEVEL, ROLE,
TYPE and USER.

   If none of '-c', '-t', '-u', '-r', or '-l' is specified, the first
argument is used as the complete context.  Any additional arguments
after COMMAND are interpreted as arguments to the command.

   With neither CONTEXT nor COMMAND, print the current security context.

   Note also the 'setpriv' command which can be used to set the
NO_NEW_PRIVS bit using 'setpriv --no-new-privs runcon ...', thus
disallowing usage of a security context with more privileges than the
process would normally have.

   'runcon' accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-c'
'--compute'
     Compute process transition context before modifying.

'-u USER'
'--user=USER'
     Set user USER in the target security context.

'-r ROLE'
'--role=ROLE'
     Set role ROLE in the target security context.

'-t TYPE'
'--type=TYPE'
     Set type TYPE in the target security context.

'-l RANGE'
'--range=RANGE'
     Set range RANGE in the target security context.

   Exit status:

     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if 'runcon' itself fails or if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Modified command invocation,  Next: Process control,  Prev: SELinux context,  Up: Top

23 Modified command invocation
******************************

This section describes commands that run other commands in some context
different than the current one: a modified environment, as a different
user, etc.

* Menu:

* chroot invocation::           Modify the root directory.
* env invocation::              Modify environment variables.
* nice invocation::             Modify niceness.
* nohup invocation::            Immunize to hangups.
* stdbuf invocation::           Modify buffering of standard streams.
* timeout invocation::          Run with time limit.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: chroot invocation,  Next: env invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.1 'chroot': Run a command with a different root directory
============================================================

'chroot' runs a command with a specified root directory.  On many
systems, only the super-user can do this.(1).  Synopses:

     chroot OPTION NEWROOT [COMMAND [ARGS]...]
     chroot OPTION

   Ordinarily, file names are looked up starting at the root of the
directory structure, i.e., '/'.  'chroot' changes the root to the
directory NEWROOT (which must exist), then changes the working directory
to '/', and finally runs COMMAND with optional ARGS.  If COMMAND is not
specified, the default is the value of the 'SHELL' environment variable
or '/bin/sh' if not set, invoked with the '-i' option.  COMMAND must not
be a special built-in utility (*note Special built-in utilities::).

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'--groups=GROUPS'
     Use this option to override the supplementary GROUPS to be used by
     the new process.  The items in the list (names or numeric IDs) must
     be separated by commas.  Use '--groups=''' to disable the
     supplementary group look-up implicit in the '--userspec' option.

'--userspec=USER[:GROUP]'
     By default, COMMAND is run with the same credentials as the
     invoking process.  Use this option to run it as a different USER
     and/or with a different primary GROUP.  If a USER is specified then
     the supplementary groups are set according to the system defined
     list for that user, unless overridden with the '--groups' option.

'--skip-chdir'
     Use this option to not change the working directory to '/' after
     changing the root directory to NEWROOT, i.e., inside the chroot.
     This option is only permitted when NEWROOT is the old '/'
     directory, and therefore is mostly useful together with the
     '--groups' and '--userspec' options to retain the previous working
     directory.

   The user and group name look-up performed by the '--userspec' and
'--groups' options, is done both outside and inside the chroot, with
successful look-ups inside the chroot taking precedence.  If the
specified user or group items are intended to represent a numeric ID,
then a name to ID resolving step is avoided by specifying a leading '+'.
*Note Disambiguating names and IDs::.

   Here are a few tips to help avoid common problems in using chroot.
To start with a simple example, make COMMAND refer to a statically
linked binary.  If you were to use a dynamically linked executable, then
you'd have to arrange to have the shared libraries in the right place
under your new root directory.

   For example, if you create a statically linked 'ls' executable, and
put it in '/tmp/empty', you can run this command as root:

     $ chroot /tmp/empty /ls -Rl /

   Then you'll see output like this:

     /:
     total 1023
     -rwxr-xr-x 1 0 0 1041745 Aug 16 11:17 ls

   If you want to use a dynamically linked executable, say 'bash', then
first run 'ldd bash' to see what shared objects it needs.  Then, in
addition to copying the actual binary, also copy the listed files to the
required positions under your intended new root directory.  Finally, if
the executable requires any other files (e.g., data, state, device
files), copy them into place, too.

   'chroot' is installed only on systems that have the 'chroot'
function, so portable scripts should not rely on its existence.

   Exit status:

     125 if 'chroot' itself fails
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) However, some systems (e.g., FreeBSD) can be configured to allow
certain regular users to use the 'chroot' system call, and hence to run
this program.  Also, on Cygwin, anyone can run the 'chroot' command,
because the underlying function is non-privileged due to lack of support
in MS-Windows.  Furthermore, the 'chroot' command avoids the 'chroot'
system call when NEWROOT is identical to the old '/' directory for
consistency with systems where this is allowed for non-privileged users.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: env invocation,  Next: nice invocation,  Prev: chroot invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.2 'env': Run a command in a modified environment
===================================================

'env' runs a command with a modified environment.  Synopses:

     env [OPTION]... [NAME=VALUE]... [COMMAND [ARGS]...]
     env

   Operands of the form 'VARIABLE=VALUE' set the environment variable
VARIABLE to value VALUE.  VALUE may be empty ('VARIABLE=').  Setting a
variable to an empty value is different from unsetting it.  These
operands are evaluated left-to-right, so if two operands mention the
same variable the earlier is ignored.

   Environment variable names can be empty, and can contain any
characters other than '=' and ASCII NUL. However, it is wise to limit
yourself to names that consist solely of underscores, digits, and ASCII
letters, and that begin with a non-digit, as applications like the shell
do not work well with other names.

   The first operand that does not contain the character '=' specifies
the program to invoke; it is searched for according to the 'PATH'
environment variable.  Any remaining arguments are passed as arguments
to that program.  The program should not be a special built-in utility
(*note Special built-in utilities::).

   Modifications to 'PATH' take effect prior to searching for COMMAND.
Use caution when reducing 'PATH'; behavior is not portable when 'PATH'
is undefined or omits key directories such as '/bin'.

   In the rare case that a utility contains a '=' in the name, the only
way to disambiguate it from a variable assignment is to use an
intermediate command for COMMAND, and pass the problematic program name
via ARGS.  For example, if './prog=' is an executable in the current
'PATH':

     env prog= true # runs 'true', with prog= in environment
     env ./prog= true # runs 'true', with ./prog= in environment
     env -- prog= true # runs 'true', with prog= in environment
     env sh -c '\prog= true' # runs 'prog=' with argument 'true'
     env sh -c 'exec "$@"' sh prog= true # also runs 'prog='

   If no command name is specified following the environment
specifications, the resulting environment is printed.  This is like
specifying the 'printenv' program.

   For some examples, suppose the environment passed to 'env' contains
'LOGNAME=rms', 'EDITOR=emacs', and 'PATH=.:/gnubin:/hacks':

   * Output the current environment.
          $ env | LC_ALL=C sort
          EDITOR=emacs
          LOGNAME=rms
          PATH=.:/gnubin:/hacks

   * Run 'foo' with a reduced environment, preserving only the original
     'PATH' to avoid problems in locating 'foo'.
          env - PATH="$PATH" foo

   * Run 'foo' with the environment containing 'LOGNAME=rms',
     'EDITOR=emacs', and 'PATH=.:/gnubin:/hacks', and guarantees that
     'foo' was found in the file system rather than as a shell built-in.
          env foo

   * Run 'nemacs' with the environment containing 'LOGNAME=foo',
     'EDITOR=emacs', 'PATH=.:/gnubin:/hacks', and 'DISPLAY=gnu:0'.
          env DISPLAY=gnu:0 LOGNAME=foo nemacs

   * Attempt to run the program '/energy/--' (as that is the only
     possible path search result); if the command exists, the
     environment will contain 'LOGNAME=rms' and 'PATH=/energy', and the
     arguments will be 'e=mc2', 'bar', and 'baz'.
          env -u EDITOR PATH=/energy -- e=mc2 bar baz

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'-0'
'--null'
     Output a zero byte (ASCII NUL) at the end of each line, rather than
     a newline.  This option enables other programs to parse the output
     even when that output would contain data with embedded newlines.

'-u NAME'
'--unset=NAME'
     Remove variable NAME from the environment, if it was in the
     environment.

'-'
'-i'
'--ignore-environment'
     Start with an empty environment, ignoring the inherited
     environment.

'-C DIR'
'--chdir=DIR'
     Change the working directory to DIR before invoking COMMAND.  This
     differs from the shell built-in 'cd' in that it starts COMMAND as a
     subprocess rather than altering the shell's own working directory;
     this allows it to be chained with other commands that run commands
     in a different context.  For example:

          # Run 'true' with /chroot as its root directory and /srv as its working
          # directory.
          chroot /chroot env --chdir=/srv true
          # Run 'true' with /build as its working directory, FOO=bar in its
          # environment, and a time limit of five seconds.
          env --chdir=/build FOO=bar timeout 5 true

   Exit status:

     0   if no COMMAND is specified and the environment is output
     125 if 'env' itself fails
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

File: coreutils.info,  Node: nice invocation,  Next: nohup invocation,  Prev: env invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.3 'nice': Run a command with modified niceness
=================================================

'nice' prints a process's "niceness", or runs a command with modified
niceness.  "niceness" affects how favorably the process is scheduled in
the system.  Synopsis:

     nice [OPTION]... [COMMAND [ARG]...]

   If no arguments are given, 'nice' prints the current niceness.
Otherwise, 'nice' runs the given COMMAND with its niceness adjusted.  By
default, its niceness is incremented by 10.

   Niceness values range at least from -20 (process has high priority
and gets more resources, thus slowing down other processes) through 19
(process has lower priority and runs slowly itself, but has less impact
on the speed of other running processes).  Some systems may have a wider
range of niceness values; conversely, other systems may enforce more
restrictive limits.  An attempt to set the niceness outside the
supported range is treated as an attempt to use the minimum or maximum
supported value.

   A niceness should not be confused with a scheduling priority, which
lets applications determine the order in which threads are scheduled to
run.  Unlike a priority, a niceness is merely advice to the scheduler,
which the scheduler is free to ignore.  Also, as a point of terminology,
POSIX defines the behavior of 'nice' in terms of a "nice value", which
is the non-negative difference between a niceness and the minimum
niceness.  Though 'nice' conforms to POSIX, its documentation and
diagnostics use the term "niceness" for compatibility with historical
practice.

   COMMAND must not be a special built-in utility (*note Special
built-in utilities::).

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'nice' functions, using an
unadorned 'nice' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
nice ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   Note to change the "niceness" of an existing process, one needs to
use the 'renice' command.

   The program accepts the following option.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'-n ADJUSTMENT'
'--adjustment=ADJUSTMENT'
     Add ADJUSTMENT instead of 10 to the command's niceness.  If
     ADJUSTMENT is negative and you lack appropriate privileges, 'nice'
     issues a warning but otherwise acts as if you specified a zero
     adjustment.

     For compatibility 'nice' also supports an obsolete option syntax
     '-ADJUSTMENT'.  New scripts should use '-n ADJUSTMENT' instead.

   'nice' is installed only on systems that have the POSIX 'setpriority'
function, so portable scripts should not rely on its existence on
non-POSIX platforms.

   Exit status:

     0   if no COMMAND is specified and the niceness is output
     125 if 'nice' itself fails
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

   It is sometimes useful to run a non-interactive program with reduced
niceness.

     $ nice factor 4611686018427387903

   Since 'nice' prints the current niceness, you can invoke it through
itself to demonstrate how it works.

   The default behavior is to increase the niceness by '10':

     $ nice
     0
     $ nice nice
     10
     $ nice -n 10 nice
     10

   The ADJUSTMENT is relative to the current niceness.  In the next
example, the first 'nice' invocation runs the second one with niceness
10, and it in turn runs the final one with a niceness that is 3 more:

     $ nice nice -n 3 nice
     13

   Specifying a niceness larger than the supported range is the same as
specifying the maximum supported value:

     $ nice -n 10000000000 nice
     19

   Only a privileged user may run a process with lower niceness:

     $ nice -n -1 nice
     nice: cannot set niceness: Permission denied
     0
     $ sudo nice -n -1 nice
     -1

File: coreutils.info,  Node: nohup invocation,  Next: stdbuf invocation,  Prev: nice invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.4 'nohup': Run a command immune to hangups
=============================================

'nohup' runs the given COMMAND with hangup signals ignored, so that the
command can continue running in the background after you log out.
Synopsis:

     nohup COMMAND [ARG]...

   If standard input is a terminal, redirect it so that terminal
sessions do not mistakenly consider the terminal to be used by the
command.  Make the substitute file descriptor unreadable, so that
commands that mistakenly attempt to read from standard input can report
an error.  This redirection is a GNU extension; programs intended to be
portable to non-GNU hosts can use 'nohup COMMAND [ARG]... 0>/dev/null'
instead.

   If standard output is a terminal, the command's standard output is
appended to the file 'nohup.out'; if that cannot be written to, it is
appended to the file '$HOME/nohup.out'; and if that cannot be written
to, the command is not run.  Any 'nohup.out' or '$HOME/nohup.out' file
created by 'nohup' is made readable and writable only to the user,
regardless of the current umask settings.

   If standard error is a terminal, it is normally redirected to the
same file descriptor as the (possibly-redirected) standard output.
However, if standard output is closed, standard error terminal output is
instead appended to the file 'nohup.out' or '$HOME/nohup.out' as above.

   To capture the command's output to a file other than 'nohup.out' you
can redirect it.  For example, to capture the output of 'make':

     nohup make > make.log

   'nohup' does not automatically put the command it runs in the
background; you must do that explicitly, by ending the command line with
an '&'.  Also, 'nohup' does not alter the niceness of COMMAND; use
'nice' for that, e.g., 'nohup nice COMMAND'.

   COMMAND must not be a special built-in utility (*note Special
built-in utilities::).

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

   Exit status:

     125 if 'nohup' itself fails, and 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

   If 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set, internal failures give status 127
instead of 125.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: stdbuf invocation,  Next: timeout invocation,  Prev: nohup invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.5 'stdbuf': Run a command with modified I/O stream buffering
===============================================================

'stdbuf' allows one to modify the buffering operations of the three
standard I/O streams associated with a program.  Synopsis:

     stdbuf OPTION... COMMAND

   COMMAND must start with the name of a program that
  1. uses the ISO C 'FILE' streams for input/output (note the programs
     'dd' and 'cat' don't do that),

  2. does not adjust the buffering of its standard streams (note the
     program 'tee' is not in this category).

   Any additional ARGs are passed as additional arguments to the
COMMAND.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-i MODE'
'--input=MODE'
     Adjust the standard input stream buffering.

'-o MODE'
'--output=MODE'
     Adjust the standard output stream buffering.

'-e MODE'
'--error=MODE'
     Adjust the standard error stream buffering.

   The MODE can be specified as follows:

'L'
     Set the stream to line buffered mode.  In this mode data is
     coalesced until a newline is output or input is read from any
     stream attached to a terminal device.  This option is invalid with
     standard input.

'0'
     Disable buffering of the selected stream.  In this mode, data is
     output immediately and only the amount of data requested is read
     from input.  Note the difference in function for input and output.
     Disabling buffering for input will not influence the responsiveness
     or blocking behavior of the stream input functions.  For example
     'fread' will still block until 'EOF' or error, even if the
     underlying 'read' returns less data than requested.

'SIZE'
     Specify the size of the buffer to use in fully buffered mode.  SIZE
     may be, or may be an integer optionally followed by, one of the
     following multiplicative suffixes:
          'KB' =>           1000 (KiloBytes)
          'K'  =>           1024 (KibiBytes)
          'MB' =>      1000*1000 (MegaBytes)
          'M'  =>      1024*1024 (MebiBytes)
          'GB' => 1000*1000*1000 (GigaBytes)
          'G'  => 1024*1024*1024 (GibiBytes)
     and so on for 'T', 'P', 'E', 'Z', and 'Y'.

   'stdbuf' is installed only on platforms that use the Executable and
Linkable Format (ELF) and support the 'constructor' attribute, so
portable scripts should not rely on its existence.

   Exit status:

     125 if 'stdbuf' itself fails
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

File: coreutils.info,  Node: timeout invocation,  Prev: stdbuf invocation,  Up: Modified command invocation

23.6 'timeout': Run a command with a time limit
===============================================

'timeout' runs the given COMMAND and kills it if it is still running
after the specified time interval.  Synopsis:

     timeout [OPTION] DURATION COMMAND [ARG]...

   COMMAND must not be a special built-in utility (*note Special
built-in utilities::).

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'--preserve-status'
     Return the exit status of the managed COMMAND on timeout, rather
     than a specific exit status indicating a timeout.  This is useful
     if the managed COMMAND supports running for an indeterminate amount
     of time.

'--foreground'
     Don't create a separate background program group, so that the
     managed COMMAND can use the foreground TTY normally.  This is
     needed to support timing out commands not started directly from an
     interactive shell, in two situations.
       1. COMMAND is interactive and needs to read from the terminal for
          example
       2. the user wants to support sending signals directly to COMMAND
          from the terminal (like Ctrl-C for example)

     Note in this mode of operation, any children of COMMAND will not be
     timed out.  Also SIGCONT will not be sent to COMMAND, as it's
     generally not needed with foreground processes, and can cause
     intermittent signal delivery issues with programs that are monitors
     themselves (like GDB for example).

'-k DURATION'
'--kill-after=DURATION'
     Ensure the monitored COMMAND is killed by also sending a 'KILL'
     signal, after the specified DURATION.  Without this option, if the
     selected signal proves not to be fatal, 'timeout' does not kill the
     COMMAND.

'-s SIGNAL'
'--signal=SIGNAL'
     Send this SIGNAL to COMMAND on timeout, rather than the default
     'TERM' signal.  SIGNAL may be a name like 'HUP' or a number.  *Note
     Signal specifications::.

   DURATION is a floating point number followed by an optional unit:
     's' for seconds (the default)
     'm' for minutes
     'h' for hours
     'd' for days
   A duration of 0 disables the associated timeout.  Note that the
actual timeout duration is dependent on system conditions, which should
be especially considered when specifying sub-second timeouts.

   Exit status:

     124 if COMMAND times out
     125 if 'timeout' itself fails
     126 if COMMAND is found but cannot be invoked
     127 if COMMAND cannot be found
     137 if COMMAND is sent the KILL(9) signal (128+9)
     the exit status of COMMAND otherwise

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Process control,  Next: Delaying,  Prev: Modified command invocation,  Up: Top

24 Process control
******************

* Menu:

* kill invocation::             Sending a signal to processes.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: kill invocation,  Up: Process control

24.1 'kill': Send a signal to processes
=======================================

The 'kill' command sends a signal to processes, causing them to
terminate or otherwise act upon receiving the signal in some way.
Alternatively, it lists information about signals.  Synopses:

     kill [-s SIGNAL | --signal SIGNAL | -SIGNAL] PID...
     kill [-l | --list | -t | --table] [SIGNAL]...

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'kill' functions, using an
unadorned 'kill' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
kill ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   The first form of the 'kill' command sends a signal to all PID
arguments.  The default signal to send if none is specified is 'TERM'.
The special signal number '0' does not denote a valid signal, but can be
used to test whether the PID arguments specify processes to which a
signal could be sent.

   If PID is positive, the signal is sent to the process with the
process ID PID.  If PID is zero, the signal is sent to all processes in
the process group of the current process.  If PID is -1, the signal is
sent to all processes for which the user has permission to send a
signal.  If PID is less than -1, the signal is sent to all processes in
the process group that equals the absolute value of PID.

   If PID is not positive, a system-dependent set of system processes is
excluded from the list of processes to which the signal is sent.

   If a negative PID argument is desired as the first one, it should be
preceded by '--'.  However, as a common extension to POSIX, '--' is not
required with 'kill -SIGNAL -PID'.  The following commands are
equivalent:

     kill -15 -1
     kill -TERM -1
     kill -s TERM -- -1
     kill -- -1

   The first form of the 'kill' command succeeds if every PID argument
specifies at least one process that the signal was sent to.

   The second form of the 'kill' command lists signal information.
Either the '-l' or '--list' option, or the '-t' or '--table' option must
be specified.  Without any SIGNAL argument, all supported signals are
listed.  The output of '-l' or '--list' is a list of the signal names,
one per line; if SIGNAL is already a name, the signal number is printed
instead.  The output of '-t' or '--table' is a table of signal numbers,
names, and descriptions.  This form of the 'kill' command succeeds if
all SIGNAL arguments are valid and if there is no output error.

   The 'kill' command also supports the '--help' and '--version'
options.  *Note Common options::.

   A SIGNAL may be a signal name like 'HUP', or a signal number like
'1', or an exit status of a process terminated by the signal.  A signal
name can be given in canonical form or prefixed by 'SIG'.  The case of
the letters is ignored, except for the '-SIGNAL' option which must use
upper case to avoid ambiguity with lower case option letters.  *Note
Signal specifications::, for a list of supported signal names and
numbers.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Delaying,  Next: Numeric operations,  Prev: Process control,  Up: Top

25 Delaying
***********

* Menu:

* sleep invocation::            Delay for a specified time.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: sleep invocation,  Up: Delaying

25.1 'sleep': Delay for a specified time
========================================

'sleep' pauses for an amount of time specified by the sum of the values
of the command line arguments.  Synopsis:

     sleep NUMBER[smhd]...

   Each argument is a number followed by an optional unit; the default
is seconds.  The units are:

's'
     seconds
'm'
     minutes
'h'
     hours
'd'
     days

   Historical implementations of 'sleep' have required that NUMBER be an
integer, and only accepted a single argument without a suffix.  However,
GNU 'sleep' accepts arbitrary floating point numbers.  *Note Floating
point::.

   The only options are '--help' and '--version'.  *Note Common
options::.

   Due to shell aliases and built-in 'sleep' functions, using an
unadorned 'sleep' interactively or in a script may get you different
functionality than that described here.  Invoke it via 'env' (i.e., 'env
sleep ...') to avoid interference from the shell.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Numeric operations,  Next: File permissions,  Prev: Delaying,  Up: Top

26 Numeric operations
*********************

These programs do numerically-related operations.

* Menu:

* factor invocation::              Show factors of numbers.
* numfmt invocation::              Reformat numbers.
* seq invocation::                 Print sequences of numbers.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: factor invocation,  Next: numfmt invocation,  Up: Numeric operations

26.1 'factor': Print prime factors
==================================

'factor' prints prime factors.  Synopses:

     factor [NUMBER]...
     factor OPTION

   If no NUMBER is specified on the command line, 'factor' reads numbers
from standard input, delimited by newlines, tabs, or spaces.

   The 'factor' command supports only a small number of options:

'--help'
     Print a short help on standard output, then exit without further
     processing.

'--version'
     Print the program version on standard output, then exit without
     further processing.

   Factoring the product of the eighth and ninth Mersenne primes takes
about 30 milliseconds of CPU time on a 2.2 GHz Athlon.

     M8=$(echo 2^31-1|bc)
     M9=$(echo 2^61-1|bc)
     n=$(echo "$M8 * $M9" | bc)
     /usr/bin/time -f %U factor $n
     4951760154835678088235319297: 2147483647 2305843009213693951
     0.03

   Similarly, factoring the eighth Fermat number 2^{256}+1 takes about
20 seconds on the same machine.

   Factoring large numbers is, in general, hard.  The Pollard-Brent rho
algorithm used by 'factor' is particularly effective for numbers with
relatively small factors.  If you wish to factor large numbers which do
not have small factors (for example, numbers which are the product of
two large primes), other methods are far better.

   If 'factor' is built without using GNU MP, only single-precision
arithmetic is available, and so large numbers (typically 2^{128} and
above) will not be supported.  The single-precision code uses an
algorithm which is designed for factoring smaller numbers.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: numfmt invocation,  Next: seq invocation,  Prev: factor invocation,  Up: Numeric operations

26.2 'numfmt': Reformat numbers
===============================

'numfmt' reads numbers in various representations and reformats them as
requested.  The most common usage is converting numbers to/from _human_
representation (e.g.  '4G' ==> '4,000,000,000').

     numfmt [OPTION]... [NUMBER]

   'numfmt' converts each NUMBER on the command-line according to the
specified options (see below).  If no NUMBERs are given, it reads
numbers from standard input.  'numfmt' can optionally extract numbers
from specific columns, maintaining proper line padding and alignment.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   See '--invalid' for additional information regarding exit status.

26.2.1 General options
----------------------

The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'--debug'
     Print (to standard error) warning messages about possible erroneous
     usage.

'-d D'
'--delimiter=D'
     Use the character D as input field separator (default: whitespace).
     _Note_: Using non-default delimiter turns off automatic padding.

'--field=FIELDS'
     Convert the number in input field FIELDS (default: 1).  FIELDS
     supports 'cut' style field ranges:

          N    N'th field, counted from 1
          N-   from N'th field, to end of line
          N-M  from N'th to M'th field (inclusive)
          -M   from first to M'th field (inclusive)
          -    all fields

'--format=FORMAT'
     Use printf-style floating FORMAT string.  The FORMAT string must
     contain one '%f' directive, optionally with ''', '-', '0', width or
     precision modifiers.  The ''' modifier will enable '--grouping',
     the '-' modifier will enable left-aligned '--padding' and the width
     modifier will enable right-aligned '--padding'.  The '0' width
     modifier (without the '-' modifier) will generate leading zeros on
     the number, up to the specified width.  A precision specification
     like '%.1f' will override the precision determined from the input
     data or set due to '--to' option auto scaling.

'--from=UNIT'
     Auto-scales input numbers according to UNIT.  See UNITS below.  The
     default is no scaling, meaning suffixes (e.g.  'M', 'G') will
     trigger an error.

'--from-unit=N'
     Specify the input unit size (instead of the default 1).  Use this
     option when the input numbers represent other units (e.g.  if the
     input number '10' represents 10 units of 512 bytes, use
     '--from-unit=512').  Suffixes are handled as with '--from=auto'.

'--grouping'
     Group digits in output numbers according to the current locale's
     grouping rules (e.g _Thousands Separator_ character, commonly '.'
     (dot) or ',' comma).  This option has no effect in 'POSIX/C'
     locale.

'--header[=N]'
     Print the first N (default: 1) lines without any conversion.

'--invalid=MODE'
     The default action on input errors is to exit immediately with
     status code 2.  '--invalid='abort'' explicitly specifies this
     default mode.  With a MODE of 'fail', print a warning for _each_
     conversion error, and exit with status 2.  With a MODE of 'warn',
     exit with status 0, even in the presence of conversion errors, and
     with a MODE of 'ignore' do not even print diagnostics.

'--padding=N'
     Pad the output numbers to N characters, by adding spaces.  If N is
     a positive number, numbers will be right-aligned.  If N is a
     negative number, numbers will be left-aligned.  By default, numbers
     are automatically aligned based on the input line's width (only
     with the default delimiter).

'--round=METHOD'
     When converting number representations, round the number according
     to METHOD, which can be 'up', 'down', 'from-zero' (the default),
     'towards-zero', 'nearest'.

'--suffix=SUFFIX'
     Add 'SUFFIX' to the output numbers, and accept optional 'SUFFIX' in
     input numbers.

'--to=UNIT'
     Auto-scales output numbers according to UNIT.  See _Units_ below.
     The default is no scaling, meaning all the digits of the number are
     printed.

'--to-unit=N'
     Specify the output unit size (instead of the default 1).  Use this
     option when the output numbers represent other units (e.g.  to
     represent '4,000,000' bytes in blocks of 1KB, use '--to=si
     --to-unit=1000').  Suffixes are handled as with '--from=auto'.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).  Note with
     '-z' the newline character is treated as a field separator.

26.2.2 Possible UNITs:
----------------------

The following are the possible UNIT options with '--from=UNITS' and
'--to=UNITS':

NONE
     No scaling is performed.  For input numbers, no suffixes are
     accepted, and any trailing characters following the number will
     trigger an error.  For output numbers, all digits of the numbers
     will be printed.

SI
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International System of Units
     (SI)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the following
     suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1000 will be
     rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'K'  =>  1000^1 = 10^3 (Kilo)
          'M'  =>  1000^2 = 10^6 (Mega)
          'G'  =>  1000^3 = 10^9 (Giga)
          'T'  =>  1000^4 = 10^{12} (Tera)
          'P'  =>  1000^5 = 10^{15} (Peta)
          'E'  =>  1000^6 = 10^{18} (Exa)
          'Z'  =>  1000^7 = 10^{21} (Zetta)
          'Y'  =>  1000^8 = 10^{24} (Yotta)

IEC
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International Electrotechnical
     Commission (IEC)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the
     following suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1024
     will be rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'K'  =>  1024^1 = 2^{10} (Kibi)
          'M'  =>  1024^2 = 2^{20} (Mebi)
          'G'  =>  1024^3 = 2^{30} (Gibi)
          'T'  =>  1024^4 = 2^{40} (Tebi)
          'P'  =>  1024^5 = 2^{50} (Pebi)
          'E'  =>  1024^6 = 2^{60} (Exbi)
          'Z'  =>  1024^7 = 2^{70} (Zebi)
          'Y'  =>  1024^8 = 2^{80} (Yobi)

     The 'iec' option uses a single letter suffix (e.g.  'G'), which is
     not fully standard, as the _iec_ standard recommends a two-letter
     symbol (e.g 'Gi') - but in practice, this method common.  Compare
     with the 'iec-i' option.

IEC-I
     Auto-scale numbers according to the _International Electrotechnical
     Commission (IEC)_ standard.  For input numbers, accept one of the
     following suffixes.  For output numbers, values larger than 1024
     will be rounded, and printed with one of the following suffixes:

          'Ki'  =>  1024^1 = 2^{10} (Kibi)
          'Mi'  =>  1024^2 = 2^{20} (Mebi)
          'Gi'  =>  1024^3 = 2^{30} (Gibi)
          'Ti'  =>  1024^4 = 2^{40} (Tebi)
          'Pi'  =>  1024^5 = 2^{50} (Pebi)
          'Ei'  =>  1024^6 = 2^{60} (Exbi)
          'Zi'  =>  1024^7 = 2^{70} (Zebi)
          'Yi'  =>  1024^8 = 2^{80} (Yobi)

     The 'iec-i' option uses a two-letter suffix symbol (e.g.  'Gi'), as
     the _iec_ standard recommends, but this is not always common in
     practice.  Compare with the 'iec' option.

AUTO
     'auto' can only be used with '--from'.  With this method, numbers
     with 'K','M','G','T','P','E','Z','Y' suffixes are interpreted as
     _SI_ values, and numbers with 'Ki',
     'Mi','Gi','Ti','Pi','Ei','Zi','Yi' suffixes are interpreted as
     _IEC_ values.

26.2.3 Examples of using 'numfmt'
---------------------------------

Converting a single number from/to _human_ representation:
     $ numfmt --to=si 500000
     500K

     $ numfmt --to=iec 500000
     489K

     $ numfmt --to=iec-i 500000
     489Ki

     $ numfmt --from=si 1M
     1000000

     $ numfmt --from=iec 1M
     1048576

     # with '--from=auto', M=Mega, Mi=Mebi
     $ numfmt --from=auto 1M
     1000000
     $ numfmt --from=auto 1Mi
     1048576

   Converting from 'SI' to 'IEC' scales (e.g.  when a harddisk capacity
is advertised as '1TB', while checking the drive's capacity gives lower
values):

     $ numfmt --from=si --to=iec 1T
     932G

   Converting a single field from an input file / piped input (these
contrived examples are for demonstration purposes only, as both 'ls' and
'df' support the '--human-readable' option to output sizes in
human-readable format):

     # Third field (file size) will be shown in SI representation
     $ ls -log | numfmt --field 3 --header --to=si | head -n4
     -rw-r--r--  1     94K Aug 23  2011 ABOUT-NLS
     -rw-r--r--  1    3.7K Jan  7 16:15 AUTHORS
     -rw-r--r--  1     36K Jun  1  2011 COPYING
     -rw-r--r--  1       0 Jan  7 15:15 ChangeLog

     # Second field (size) will be shown in IEC representation
     $ df --block-size=1 | numfmt --field 2 --header --to=iec | head -n4
     File system   1B-blocks        Used  Available Use% Mounted on
     rootfs             132G   104741408   26554036  80% /
     tmpfs              794M        7580     804960   1% /run/shm
     /dev/sdb1          694G   651424756   46074696  94% /home

   Output can be tweaked using '--padding' or '--format':

     # Pad to 10 characters, right-aligned
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding=10
           2.5K config.log
            108 config.status
           1.7K configure
             20 configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding=-10
     2.5K       config.log
     108        config.status
     1.7K       configure
     20         configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned, using 'format'
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --format="%10f"
           2.5K config.log
            108 config.status
           1.7K configure
             20 configure.ac

     # Pad to 10 characters, left-aligned, using 'format'
     $ du -s * | numfmt --to=si --padding="%-10f"
     2.5K       config.log
     108        config.status
     1.7K       configure
     20         configure.ac

   With locales that support grouping digits, using '--grouping' or
'--format' enables grouping.  In 'POSIX' locale, grouping is silently
ignored:

     $ LC_ALL=C numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2147483648

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2,147,483,648

     $ LC_ALL=ta_IN numfmt --from=iec --grouping 2G
     2,14,74,83,648

     $ LC_ALL=C ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     ==     2147483648==

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     ==  2,147,483,648==

     $ LC_ALL=en_US.utf8 ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'-15f==" 2G
     ==2,147,483,648  ==

     $ LC_ALL=ta_IN ./src/numfmt --from=iec --format="==%'15f==" 2G
     == 2,14,74,83,648==

File: coreutils.info,  Node: seq invocation,  Prev: numfmt invocation,  Up: Numeric operations

26.3 'seq': Print numeric sequences
===================================

'seq' prints a sequence of numbers to standard output.  Synopses:

     seq [OPTION]... LAST
     seq [OPTION]... FIRST LAST
     seq [OPTION]... FIRST INCREMENT LAST

   'seq' prints the numbers from FIRST to LAST by INCREMENT.  By
default, each number is printed on a separate line.  When INCREMENT is
not specified, it defaults to '1', even when FIRST is larger than LAST.
FIRST also defaults to '1'.  So 'seq 1' prints '1', but 'seq 0' and 'seq
10 5' produce no output.  The sequence of numbers ends when the sum of
the current number and INCREMENT would become greater than LAST, so 'seq
1 10 10' only produces '1'.  INCREMENT must not be '0'; use 'yes' to get
repeated output of a constant number.  FIRST, INCREMENT and LAST must
not be 'NaN'.  Floating-point numbers may be specified.  *Note Floating
point::.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands.

'-f FORMAT'
'--format=FORMAT'
     Print all numbers using FORMAT.  FORMAT must contain exactly one of
     the 'printf'-style floating point conversion specifications '%a',
     '%e', '%f', '%g', '%A', '%E', '%F', '%G'.  The '%' may be followed
     by zero or more flags taken from the set '-+#0 '', then an optional
     width containing one or more digits, then an optional precision
     consisting of a '.' followed by zero or more digits.  FORMAT may
     also contain any number of '%%' conversion specifications.  All
     conversion specifications have the same meaning as with 'printf'.

     The default format is derived from FIRST, STEP, and LAST.  If these
     all use a fixed point decimal representation, the default format is
     '%.Pf', where P is the minimum precision that can represent the
     output numbers exactly.  Otherwise, the default format is '%g'.

'-s STRING'
'--separator=STRING'
     Separate numbers with STRING; default is a newline.  The output
     always terminates with a newline.

'-w'
'--equal-width'
     Print all numbers with the same width, by padding with leading
     zeros.  FIRST, STEP, and LAST should all use a fixed point decimal
     representation.  (To have other kinds of padding, use '--format').

   You can get finer-grained control over output with '-f':

     $ seq -f '(%9.2E)' -9e5 1.1e6 1.3e6
     (-9.00E+05)
     ( 2.00E+05)
     ( 1.30E+06)

   If you want hexadecimal integer output, you can use 'printf' to
perform the conversion:

     $ printf '%x\n' $(seq 1048575 1024 1050623)
     fffff
     1003ff
     1007ff

   For very long lists of numbers, use xargs to avoid system limitations
on the length of an argument list:

     $ seq 1000000 | xargs printf '%x\n' | tail -n 3
     f423e
     f423f
     f4240

   To generate octal output, use the printf '%o' format instead of '%x'.

   On most systems, seq can produce whole-number output for values up to
at least 2^{53}.  Larger integers are approximated.  The details differ
depending on your floating-point implementation.  *Note Floating
point::.  A common case is that 'seq' works with integers through
2^{64}, and larger integers may not be numerically correct:

     $ seq 50000000000000000000 2 50000000000000000004
     50000000000000000000
     50000000000000000000
     50000000000000000004

   However, note that when limited to non-negative whole numbers, an
increment of 1 and no format-specifying option, seq can print
arbitrarily large numbers.

   Be careful when using 'seq' with outlandish values: otherwise you may
see surprising results, as 'seq' uses floating point internally.  For
example, on the x86 platform, where the internal representation uses a
64-bit fraction, the command:

     seq 1 0.0000000000000000001 1.0000000000000000009

   outputs 1.0000000000000000007 twice and skips 1.0000000000000000008.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: File permissions,  Next: File timestamps,  Prev: Numeric operations,  Up: Top

27 File permissions
*******************

Each file has a set of "file mode bits" that control the kinds of access
that users have to that file.  They can be represented either in
symbolic form or as an octal number.

* Menu:

* Mode Structure::              Structure of file mode bits.
* Symbolic Modes::              Mnemonic representation of file mode bits.
* Numeric Modes::               File mode bits as octal numbers.
* Operator Numeric Modes::      ANDing, ORing, and setting modes octally.
* Directory Setuid and Setgid:: Set-user-ID and set-group-ID on directories.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Mode Structure,  Next: Symbolic Modes,  Up: File permissions

27.1 Structure of File Mode Bits
================================

The file mode bits have two parts: the "file permission bits", which
control ordinary access to the file, and "special mode bits", which
affect only some files.

   There are three kinds of permissions that a user can have for a file:

  1. permission to read the file.  For directories, this means
     permission to list the contents of the directory.
  2. permission to write to (change) the file.  For directories, this
     means permission to create and remove files in the directory.
  3. permission to execute the file (run it as a program).  For
     directories, this means permission to access files in the
     directory.

   There are three categories of users who may have different
permissions to perform any of the above operations on a file:

  1. the file's owner;
  2. other users who are in the file's group;
  3. everyone else.

   Files are given an owner and group when they are created.  Usually
the owner is the current user and the group is the group of the
directory the file is in, but this varies with the operating system, the
file system the file is created on, and the way the file is created.
You can change the owner and group of a file by using the 'chown' and
'chgrp' commands.

   In addition to the three sets of three permissions listed above, the
file mode bits have three special components, which affect only
executable files (programs) and, on most systems, directories:

  1. Set the process's effective user ID to that of the file upon
     execution (called the "set-user-ID bit", or sometimes the "setuid
     bit").  For directories on a few systems, give files created in the
     directory the same owner as the directory, no matter who creates
     them, and set the set-user-ID bit of newly-created subdirectories.
  2. Set the process's effective group ID to that of the file upon
     execution (called the "set-group-ID bit", or sometimes the "setgid
     bit").  For directories on most systems, give files created in the
     directory the same group as the directory, no matter what group the
     user who creates them is in, and set the set-group-ID bit of
     newly-created subdirectories.
  3. Prevent unprivileged users from removing or renaming a file in a
     directory unless they own the file or the directory; this is called
     the "restricted deletion flag" for the directory, and is commonly
     found on world-writable directories like '/tmp'.

     For regular files on some older systems, save the program's text
     image on the swap device so it will load more quickly when run;
     this is called the "sticky bit".

   In addition to the file mode bits listed above, there may be file
attributes specific to the file system, e.g., access control lists
(ACLs), whether a file is compressed, whether a file can be modified
(immutability), and whether a file can be dumped.  These are usually set
using programs specific to the file system.  For example:

ext2
     On GNU and GNU/Linux the file attributes specific to the ext2 file
     system are set using 'chattr'.

FFS
     On FreeBSD the file flags specific to the FFS file system are set
     using 'chflags'.

   Even if a file's mode bits allow an operation on that file, that
operation may still fail, because:

   * the file-system-specific attributes or flags do not permit it; or

   * the file system is mounted as read-only.

   For example, if the immutable attribute is set on a file, it cannot
be modified, regardless of the fact that you may have just run 'chmod
a+w FILE'.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Symbolic Modes,  Next: Numeric Modes,  Prev: Mode Structure,  Up: File permissions

27.2 Symbolic Modes
===================

"Symbolic modes" represent changes to files' mode bits as operations on
single-character symbols.  They allow you to modify either all or
selected parts of files' mode bits, optionally based on their previous
values, and perhaps on the current 'umask' as well (*note Umask and
Protection::).

   The format of symbolic modes is:

     [ugoa...][-+=]PERMS...[,...]

where PERMS is either zero or more letters from the set 'rwxXst', or a
single letter from the set 'ugo'.

   The following sections describe the operators and other details of
symbolic modes.

* Menu:

* Setting Permissions::          Basic operations on permissions.
* Copying Permissions::          Copying existing permissions.
* Changing Special Mode Bits::   Special mode bits.
* Conditional Executability::    Conditionally affecting executability.
* Multiple Changes::             Making multiple changes.
* Umask and Protection::              The effect of the umask.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Setting Permissions,  Next: Copying Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.1 Setting Permissions
--------------------------

The basic symbolic operations on a file's permissions are adding,
removing, and setting the permission that certain users have to read,
write, and execute or search the file.  These operations have the
following format:

     USERS OPERATION PERMISSIONS

The spaces between the three parts above are shown for readability only;
symbolic modes cannot contain spaces.

   The USERS part tells which users' access to the file is changed.  It
consists of one or more of the following letters (or it can be empty;
*note Umask and Protection::, for a description of what happens then).
When more than one of these letters is given, the order that they are in
does not matter.

'u'
     the user who owns the file;
'g'
     other users who are in the file's group;
'o'
     all other users;
'a'
     all users; the same as 'ugo'.

   The OPERATION part tells how to change the affected users' access to
the file, and is one of the following symbols:

'+'
     to add the PERMISSIONS to whatever permissions the USERS already
     have for the file;
'-'
     to remove the PERMISSIONS from whatever permissions the USERS
     already have for the file;
'='
     to make the PERMISSIONS the only permissions that the USERS have
     for the file.

   The PERMISSIONS part tells what kind of access to the file should be
changed; it is normally zero or more of the following letters.  As with
the USERS part, the order does not matter when more than one letter is
given.  Omitting the PERMISSIONS part is useful only with the '='
operation, where it gives the specified USERS no access at all to the
file.

'r'
     the permission the USERS have to read the file;
'w'
     the permission the USERS have to write to the file;
'x'
     the permission the USERS have to execute the file, or search it if
     it is a directory.

   For example, to give everyone permission to read and write a regular
file, but not to execute it, use:

     a=rw

   To remove write permission for all users other than the file's owner,
use:

     go-w

The above command does not affect the access that the owner of the file
has to it, nor does it affect whether other users can read or execute
the file.

   To give everyone except a file's owner no permission to do anything
with that file, use the mode below.  Other users could still remove the
file, if they have write permission on the directory it is in.

     go=

Another way to specify the same thing is:

     og-rwx

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Copying Permissions,  Next: Changing Special Mode Bits,  Prev: Setting Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.2 Copying Existing Permissions
-----------------------------------

You can base a file's permissions on its existing permissions.  To do
this, instead of using a series of 'r', 'w', or 'x' letters after the
operator, you use the letter 'u', 'g', or 'o'.  For example, the mode

     o+g

adds the permissions for users who are in a file's group to the
permissions that other users have for the file.  Thus, if the file
started out as mode 664 ('rw-rw-r--'), the above mode would change it to
mode 666 ('rw-rw-rw-').  If the file had started out as mode 741
('rwxr----x'), the above mode would change it to mode 745 ('rwxr--r-x').
The '-' and '=' operations work analogously.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Changing Special Mode Bits,  Next: Conditional Executability,  Prev: Copying Permissions,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.3 Changing Special Mode Bits
---------------------------------

In addition to changing a file's read, write, and execute/search
permissions, you can change its special mode bits.  *Note Mode
Structure::, for a summary of these special mode bits.

   To change the file mode bits to set the user ID on execution, use 'u'
in the USERS part of the symbolic mode and 's' in the PERMISSIONS part.

   To change the file mode bits to set the group ID on execution, use
'g' in the USERS part of the symbolic mode and 's' in the PERMISSIONS
part.

   To set both user and group ID on execution, omit the USERS part of
the symbolic mode (or use 'a') and use 's' in the PERMISSIONS part.

   To change the file mode bits to set the restricted deletion flag or
sticky bit, omit the USERS part of the symbolic mode (or use 'a') and
use 't' in the PERMISSIONS part.

   For example, to set the set-user-ID mode bit of a program, you can
use the mode:

     u+s

   To remove both set-user-ID and set-group-ID mode bits from it, you
can use the mode:

     a-s

   To set the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit, you can use the
mode:

     +t

   The combination 'o+s' has no effect.  On GNU systems the combinations
'u+t' and 'g+t' have no effect, and 'o+t' acts like plain '+t'.

   The '=' operator is not very useful with special mode bits.  For
example, the mode:

     o=t

does set the restricted deletion flag or sticky bit, but it also removes
all read, write, and execute/search permissions that users not in the
file's group might have had for it.

   *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::, for additional rules concerning
set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits and directories.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Conditional Executability,  Next: Multiple Changes,  Prev: Changing Special Mode Bits,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.4 Conditional Executability
--------------------------------

There is one more special type of symbolic permission: if you use 'X'
instead of 'x', execute/search permission is affected only if the file
is a directory or already had execute permission.

   For example, this mode:

     a+X

gives all users permission to search directories, or to execute files if
anyone could execute them before.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Multiple Changes,  Next: Umask and Protection,  Prev: Conditional Executability,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.5 Making Multiple Changes
------------------------------

The format of symbolic modes is actually more complex than described
above (*note Setting Permissions::).  It provides two ways to make
multiple changes to files' mode bits.

   The first way is to specify multiple OPERATION and PERMISSIONS parts
after a USERS part in the symbolic mode.

   For example, the mode:

     og+rX-w

gives users other than the owner of the file read permission and, if it
is a directory or if someone already had execute permission to it, gives
them execute/search permission; and it also denies them write permission
to the file.  It does not affect the permission that the owner of the
file has for it.  The above mode is equivalent to the two modes:

     og+rX
     og-w

   The second way to make multiple changes is to specify more than one
simple symbolic mode, separated by commas.  For example, the mode:

     a+r,go-w

gives everyone permission to read the file and removes write permission
on it for all users except its owner.  Another example:

     u=rwx,g=rx,o=

sets all of the permission bits for the file explicitly.  (It gives
users who are not in the file's group no permission at all for it.)

   The two methods can be combined.  The mode:

     a+r,g+x-w

gives all users permission to read the file, and gives users who are in
the file's group permission to execute/search it as well, but not
permission to write to it.  The above mode could be written in several
different ways; another is:

     u+r,g+rx,o+r,g-w

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Umask and Protection,  Prev: Multiple Changes,  Up: Symbolic Modes

27.2.6 The Umask and Protection
-------------------------------

If the USERS part of a symbolic mode is omitted, it defaults to 'a'
(affect all users), except that any permissions that are _set_ in the
system variable 'umask' are _not affected_.  The value of 'umask' can be
set using the 'umask' command.  Its default value varies from system to
system.

   Omitting the USERS part of a symbolic mode is generally not useful
with operations other than '+'.  It is useful with '+' because it allows
you to use 'umask' as an easily customizable protection against giving
away more permission to files than you intended to.

   As an example, if 'umask' has the value 2, which removes write
permission for users who are not in the file's group, then the mode:

     +w

adds permission to write to the file to its owner and to other users who
are in the file's group, but _not_ to other users.  In contrast, the
mode:

     a+w

ignores 'umask', and _does_ give write permission for the file to all
users.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Numeric Modes,  Next: Operator Numeric Modes,  Prev: Symbolic Modes,  Up: File permissions

27.3 Numeric Modes
==================

As an alternative to giving a symbolic mode, you can give an octal (base
8) number that represents the mode.  This number is always interpreted
in octal; you do not have to add a leading '0', as you do in C. Mode
'0055' is the same as mode '55'.  (However, modes of five digits or
more, such as '00055', are sometimes special.  *Note Directory Setuid
and Setgid::.)

   A numeric mode is usually shorter than the corresponding symbolic
mode, but it is limited in that normally it cannot take into account the
previous file mode bits; it can only set them absolutely.  The
set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of directories are an exception to
this general limitation.  *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::.  Also,
operator numeric modes can take previous file mode bits into account.
*Note Operator Numeric Modes::.

   The permissions granted to the user, to other users in the file's
group, and to other users not in the file's group each require three
bits, which are represented as one octal digit.  The three special mode
bits also require one bit each, and they are as a group represented as
another octal digit.  Here is how the bits are arranged, starting with
the lowest valued bit:

     Value in  Corresponding
     Mode      Mode Bit

               Other users not in the file's group:
        1      Execute/search
        2      Write
        4      Read

               Other users in the file's group:
       10      Execute/search
       20      Write
       40      Read

               The file's owner:
      100      Execute/search
      200      Write
      400      Read

               Special mode bits:
     1000      Restricted deletion flag or sticky bit
     2000      Set group ID on execution
     4000      Set user ID on execution

   For example, numeric mode '4755' corresponds to symbolic mode
'u=rwxs,go=rx', and numeric mode '664' corresponds to symbolic mode
'ug=rw,o=r'.  Numeric mode '0' corresponds to symbolic mode 'a='.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Operator Numeric Modes,  Next: Directory Setuid and Setgid,  Prev: Numeric Modes,  Up: File permissions

27.4 Operator Numeric Modes
===========================

An operator numeric mode is a numeric mode that is prefixed by a '-',
'+', or '=' operator, which has the same interpretation as in symbolic
modes.  For example, '+440' enables read permission for the file's owner
and group, '-1' disables execute permission for other users, and '=600'
clears all permissions except for enabling read-write permissions for
the file's owner.  Operator numeric modes can be combined with symbolic
modes by separating them with a comma; for example, '=0,u+r' clears all
permissions except for enabling read permission for the file's owner.

   The commands 'chmod =755 DIR' and 'chmod 755 DIR' differ in that the
former clears the directory DIR's setuid and setgid bits, whereas the
latter preserves them.  *Note Directory Setuid and Setgid::.

   Operator numeric modes are a GNU extension.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Directory Setuid and Setgid,  Prev: Operator Numeric Modes,  Up: File permissions

27.5 Directories and the Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID Bits
==========================================================

On most systems, if a directory's set-group-ID bit is set, newly created
subfiles inherit the same group as the directory, and newly created
subdirectories inherit the set-group-ID bit of the parent directory.  On
a few systems, a directory's set-user-ID bit has a similar effect on the
ownership of new subfiles and the set-user-ID bits of new
subdirectories.  These mechanisms let users share files more easily, by
lessening the need to use 'chmod' or 'chown' to share new files.

   These convenience mechanisms rely on the set-user-ID and set-group-ID
bits of directories.  If commands like 'chmod' and 'mkdir' routinely
cleared these bits on directories, the mechanisms would be less
convenient and it would be harder to share files.  Therefore, a command
like 'chmod' does not affect the set-user-ID or set-group-ID bits of a
directory unless the user specifically mentions them in a symbolic mode,
or uses an operator numeric mode such as '=755', or sets them in a
numeric mode, or clears them in a numeric mode that has five or more
octal digits.  For example, on systems that support set-group-ID
inheritance:

     # These commands leave the set-user-ID and
     # set-group-ID bits of the subdirectories alone,
     # so that they retain their default values.
     mkdir A B C
     chmod 755 A
     chmod 0755 B
     chmod u=rwx,go=rx C
     mkdir -m 755 D
     mkdir -m 0755 E
     mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx F

   If you want to try to set these bits, you must mention them
explicitly in the symbolic or numeric modes, e.g.:

     # These commands try to set the set-user-ID
     # and set-group-ID bits of the subdirectories.
     mkdir G
     chmod 6755 G
     chmod +6000 G
     chmod u=rwx,go=rx,a+s G
     mkdir -m 6755 H
     mkdir -m +6000 I
     mkdir -m u=rwx,go=rx,a+s J

   If you want to try to clear these bits, you must mention them
explicitly in a symbolic mode, or use an operator numeric mode, or
specify a numeric mode with five or more octal digits, e.g.:

     # These commands try to clear the set-user-ID
     # and set-group-ID bits of the directory D.
     chmod a-s D
     chmod -6000 D
     chmod =755 D
     chmod 00755 D

   This behavior is a GNU extension.  Portable scripts should not rely
on requests to set or clear these bits on directories, as POSIX allows
implementations to ignore these requests.  The GNU behavior with numeric
modes of four or fewer digits is intended for scripts portable to
systems that preserve these bits; the behavior with numeric modes of
five or more digits is for scripts portable to systems that do not
preserve the bits.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: File timestamps,  Next: Date input formats,  Prev: File permissions,  Up: Top

28 File timestamps
******************

Standard POSIX files have three timestamps: the access timestamp (atime)
of the last read, the modification timestamp (mtime) of the last write,
and the status change timestamp (ctime) of the last change to the file's
meta-information.  Some file systems support a fourth time: the birth
timestamp (birthtime) of when the file was created; by definition,
birthtime never changes.

   One common example of a ctime change is when the permissions of a
file change.  Changing the permissions doesn't access the file, so atime
doesn't change, nor does it modify the file, so the mtime doesn't
change.  Yet, something about the file itself has changed, and this must
be noted somewhere.  This is the job of the ctime field.  This is
necessary, so that, for example, a backup program can make a fresh copy
of the file, including the new permissions value.  Another operation
that modifies a file's ctime without affecting the others is renaming.

   Naively, a file's atime, mtime, and ctime are set to the current time
whenever you read, write, or change the attributes of the file
respectively, and searching a directory counts as reading it.  A file's
atime and mtime can also be set directly, via the 'touch' command (*note
touch invocation::).  In practice, though, timestamps are not updated
quite that way.

   For efficiency reasons, many systems are lazy about updating atimes:
when a program accesses a file, they may delay updating the file's
atime, or may not update the file's atime if the file has been accessed
recently, or may not update the atime at all.  Similar laziness, though
typically not quite so extreme, applies to mtimes and ctimes.

   Some systems emulate timestamps instead of supporting them directly,
and these emulations may disagree with the naive interpretation.  For
example, a system may fake an atime or ctime by using the mtime.

   The determination of what time is "current" depends on the platform.
Platforms with network file systems often use different clocks for the
operating system and for file systems; because updates typically uses
file systems' clocks by default, clock skew can cause the resulting file
timestamps to appear to be in a program's "future" or "past".

   When the system updates a file timestamp to a desired time T (which
is either the current time, or a time specified via the 'touch'
command), there are several reasons the file's timestamp may be set to a
value that differs from T.  First, T may have a higher resolution than
supported.  Second, a file system may use different resolutions for
different types of times.  Third, file timestamps may use a different
resolution than operating system timestamps.  Fourth, the operating
system primitives used to update timestamps may employ yet a different
resolution.  For example, in theory a file system might use
10-microsecond resolution for access timestamp and 100-nanosecond
resolution for modification timestamp, and the operating system might
use nanosecond resolution for the current time and microsecond
resolution for the primitive that 'touch' uses to set a file's timestamp
to an arbitrary value.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Opening the software toolbox,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Date input formats,  Up: Top

30 Opening the Software Toolbox
*******************************

An earlier version of this chapter appeared in the 'What's GNU?'  column
of the June 1994 'Linux Journal'
(http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=2762).  It was written by
Arnold Robbins.

* Menu:

* Toolbox introduction::        Toolbox introduction
* I/O redirection::             I/O redirection
* The who command::             The 'who' command
* The cut command::             The 'cut' command
* The sort command::            The 'sort' command
* The uniq command::            The 'uniq' command
* Putting the tools together::  Putting the tools together

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Toolbox introduction,  Next: I/O redirection,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

Toolbox Introduction
====================

This month's column is only peripherally related to the GNU Project, in
that it describes a number of the GNU tools on your GNU/Linux system and
how they might be used.  What it's really about is the "Software Tools"
philosophy of program development and usage.

   The software tools philosophy was an important and integral concept
in the initial design and development of Unix (of which Linux and GNU
are essentially clones).  Unfortunately, in the modern day press of
Internetworking and flashy GUIs, it seems to have fallen by the wayside.
This is a shame, since it provides a powerful mental model for solving
many kinds of problems.

   Many people carry a Swiss Army knife around in their pants pockets
(or purse).  A Swiss Army knife is a handy tool to have: it has several
knife blades, a screwdriver, tweezers, toothpick, nail file, corkscrew,
and perhaps a number of other things on it.  For the everyday, small
miscellaneous jobs where you need a simple, general purpose tool, it's
just the thing.

   On the other hand, an experienced carpenter doesn't build a house
using a Swiss Army knife.  Instead, he has a toolbox chock full of
specialized tools--a saw, a hammer, a screwdriver, a plane, and so on.
And he knows exactly when and where to use each tool; you won't catch
him hammering nails with the handle of his screwdriver.

   The Unix developers at Bell Labs were all professional programmers
and trained computer scientists.  They had found that while a
one-size-fits-all program might appeal to a user because there's only
one program to use, in practice such programs are

  a. difficult to write,

  b. difficult to maintain and debug, and

  c. difficult to extend to meet new situations.

   Instead, they felt that programs should be specialized tools.  In
short, each program "should do one thing well." No more and no less.
Such programs are simpler to design, write, and get right--they only do
one thing.

   Furthermore, they found that with the right machinery for hooking
programs together, that the whole was greater than the sum of the parts.
By combining several special purpose programs, you could accomplish a
specific task that none of the programs was designed for, and accomplish
it much more quickly and easily than if you had to write a special
purpose program.  We will see some (classic) examples of this further on
in the column.  (An important additional point was that, if necessary,
take a detour and build any software tools you may need first, if you
don't already have something appropriate in the toolbox.)

File: coreutils.info,  Node: I/O redirection,  Next: The who command,  Prev: Toolbox introduction,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

I/O Redirection
===============

Hopefully, you are familiar with the basics of I/O redirection in the
shell, in particular the concepts of "standard input," "standard
output," and "standard error".  Briefly, "standard input" is a data
source, where data comes from.  A program should not need to either know
or care if the data source is a disk file, a keyboard, a magnetic tape,
or even a punched card reader.  Similarly, "standard output" is a data
sink, where data goes to.  The program should neither know nor care
where this might be.  Programs that only read their standard input, do
something to the data, and then send it on, are called "filters", by
analogy to filters in a water pipeline.

   With the Unix shell, it's very easy to set up data pipelines:

     program_to_create_data | filter1 | ... | filterN > final.pretty.data

   We start out by creating the raw data; each filter applies some
successive transformation to the data, until by the time it comes out of
the pipeline, it is in the desired form.

   This is fine and good for standard input and standard output.  Where
does the standard error come in to play?  Well, think about 'filter1' in
the pipeline above.  What happens if it encounters an error in the data
it sees?  If it writes an error message to standard output, it will just
disappear down the pipeline into 'filter2''s input, and the user will
probably never see it.  So programs need a place where they can send
error messages so that the user will notice them.  This is standard
error, and it is usually connected to your console or window, even if
you have redirected standard output of your program away from your
screen.

   For filter programs to work together, the format of the data has to
be agreed upon.  The most straightforward and easiest format to use is
simply lines of text.  Unix data files are generally just streams of
bytes, with lines delimited by the ASCII LF (Line Feed) character,
conventionally called a "newline" in the Unix literature.  (This is
''\n'' if you're a C programmer.)  This is the format used by all the
traditional filtering programs.  (Many earlier operating systems had
elaborate facilities and special purpose programs for managing binary
data.  Unix has always shied away from such things, under the philosophy
that it's easiest to simply be able to view and edit your data with a
text editor.)

   OK, enough introduction.  Let's take a look at some of the tools, and
then we'll see how to hook them together in interesting ways.  In the
following discussion, we will only present those command line options
that interest us.  As you should always do, double check your system
documentation for the full story.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: The who command,  Next: The cut command,  Prev: I/O redirection,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

The 'who' Command
=================

The first program is the 'who' command.  By itself, it generates a list
of the users who are currently logged in.  Although I'm writing this on
a single-user system, we'll pretend that several people are logged in:

     $ who
     -| arnold   console Jan 22 19:57
     -| miriam   ttyp0   Jan 23 14:19(:0.0)
     -| bill     ttyp1   Jan 21 09:32(:0.0)
     -| arnold   ttyp2   Jan 23 20:48(:0.0)

   Here, the '$' is the usual shell prompt, at which I typed 'who'.
There are three people logged in, and I am logged in twice.  On
traditional Unix systems, user names are never more than eight
characters long.  This little bit of trivia will be useful later.  The
output of 'who' is nice, but the data is not all that exciting.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: The cut command,  Next: The sort command,  Prev: The who command,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

The 'cut' Command
=================

The next program we'll look at is the 'cut' command.  This program cuts
out columns or fields of input data.  For example, we can tell it to
print just the login name and full name from the '/etc/passwd' file.
The '/etc/passwd' file has seven fields, separated by colons:

     arnold:xyzzy:2076:10:Arnold D. Robbins:/home/arnold:/bin/bash

   To get the first and fifth fields, we would use 'cut' like this:

     $ cut -d: -f1,5 /etc/passwd
     -| root:Operator
     ...
     -| arnold:Arnold D. Robbins
     -| miriam:Miriam A. Robbins
     ...

   With the '-c' option, 'cut' will cut out specific characters (i.e.,
columns) in the input lines.  This is useful for input data that has
fixed width fields, and does not have a field separator.  For example,
list the Monday dates for the current month:

     $ cal | cut -c 3-5
     -|Mo
     -|
     -|  6
     -| 13
     -| 20
     -| 27

File: coreutils.info,  Node: The sort command,  Next: The uniq command,  Prev: The cut command,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

The 'sort' Command
==================

Next we'll look at the 'sort' command.  This is one of the most powerful
commands on a Unix-style system; one that you will often find yourself
using when setting up fancy data plumbing.

   The 'sort' command reads and sorts each file named on the command
line.  It then merges the sorted data and writes it to standard output.
It will read standard input if no files are given on the command line
(thus making it into a filter).  The sort is based on the character
collating sequence or based on user-supplied ordering criteria.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: The uniq command,  Next: Putting the tools together,  Prev: The sort command,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

The 'uniq' Command
==================

Finally (at least for now), we'll look at the 'uniq' program.  When
sorting data, you will often end up with duplicate lines, lines that are
identical.  Usually, all you need is one instance of each line.  This is
where 'uniq' comes in.  The 'uniq' program reads its standard input.  It
prints only one copy of each repeated line.  It does have several
options.  Later on, we'll use the '-c' option, which prints each unique
line, preceded by a count of the number of times that line occurred in
the input.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Putting the tools together,  Prev: The uniq command,  Up: Opening the software toolbox

Putting the Tools Together
==========================

Now, let's suppose this is a large ISP server system with dozens of
users logged in.  The management wants the system administrator to write
a program that will generate a sorted list of logged in users.
Furthermore, even if a user is logged in multiple times, his or her name
should only show up in the output once.

   The administrator could sit down with the system documentation and
write a C program that did this.  It would take perhaps a couple of
hundred lines of code and about two hours to write it, test it, and
debug it.  However, knowing the software toolbox, the administrator can
instead start out by generating just a list of logged on users:

     $ who | cut -c1-8
     -| arnold
     -| miriam
     -| bill
     -| arnold

   Next, sort the list:

     $ who | cut -c1-8 | sort
     -| arnold
     -| arnold
     -| bill
     -| miriam

   Finally, run the sorted list through 'uniq', to weed out duplicates:

     $ who | cut -c1-8 | sort | uniq
     -| arnold
     -| bill
     -| miriam

   The 'sort' command actually has a '-u' option that does what 'uniq'
does.  However, 'uniq' has other uses for which one cannot substitute
'sort -u'.

   The administrator puts this pipeline into a shell script, and makes
it available for all the users on the system ('#' is the system
administrator, or 'root', prompt):

     # cat > /usr/local/bin/listusers
     who | cut -c1-8 | sort | uniq
     ^D
     # chmod +x /usr/local/bin/listusers

   There are four major points to note here.  First, with just four
programs, on one command line, the administrator was able to save about
two hours worth of work.  Furthermore, the shell pipeline is just about
as efficient as the C program would be, and it is much more efficient in
terms of programmer time.  People time is much more expensive than
computer time, and in our modern "there's never enough time to do
everything" society, saving two hours of programmer time is no mean
feat.

   Second, it is also important to emphasize that with the _combination_
of the tools, it is possible to do a special purpose job never imagined
by the authors of the individual programs.

   Third, it is also valuable to build up your pipeline in stages, as we
did here.  This allows you to view the data at each stage in the
pipeline, which helps you acquire the confidence that you are indeed
using these tools correctly.

   Finally, by bundling the pipeline in a shell script, other users can
use your command, without having to remember the fancy plumbing you set
up for them.  In terms of how you run them, shell scripts and compiled
programs are indistinguishable.

   After the previous warm-up exercise, we'll look at two additional,
more complicated pipelines.  For them, we need to introduce two more
tools.

   The first is the 'tr' command, which stands for "transliterate." The
'tr' command works on a character-by-character basis, changing
characters.  Normally it is used for things like mapping upper case to
lower case:

     $ echo ThIs ExAmPlE HaS MIXED case! | tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]'
     -| this example has mixed case!

   There are several options of interest:

'-c'
     work on the complement of the listed characters, i.e., operations
     apply to characters not in the given set

'-d'
     delete characters in the first set from the output

'-s'
     squeeze repeated characters in the output into just one character.

   We will be using all three options in a moment.

   The other command we'll look at is 'comm'.  The 'comm' command takes
two sorted input files as input data, and prints out the files' lines in
three columns.  The output columns are the data lines unique to the
first file, the data lines unique to the second file, and the data lines
that are common to both.  The '-1', '-2', and '-3' command line options
_omit_ the respective columns.  (This is non-intuitive and takes a
little getting used to.)  For example:

     $ cat f1
     -| 11111
     -| 22222
     -| 33333
     -| 44444
     $ cat f2
     -| 00000
     -| 22222
     -| 33333
     -| 55555
     $ comm f1 f2
     -|         00000
     -| 11111
     -|                 22222
     -|                 33333
     -| 44444
     -|         55555

   The file name '-' tells 'comm' to read standard input instead of a
regular file.

   Now we're ready to build a fancy pipeline.  The first application is
a word frequency counter.  This helps an author determine if he or she
is over-using certain words.

   The first step is to change the case of all the letters in our input
file to one case.  "The" and "the" are the same word when doing
counting.

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | ...

   The next step is to get rid of punctuation.  Quoted words and
unquoted words should be treated identically; it's easiest to just get
the punctuation out of the way.

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' | ...

   The second 'tr' command operates on the complement of the listed
characters, which are all the letters, the digits, the underscore, and
the blank.  The '\n' represents the newline character; it has to be left
alone.  (The ASCII tab character should also be included for good
measure in a production script.)

   At this point, we have data consisting of words separated by blank
space.  The words only contain alphanumeric characters (and the
underscore).  The next step is break the data apart so that we have one
word per line.  This makes the counting operation much easier, as we
will see shortly.

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' |
     > tr -s ' ' '\n' | ...

   This command turns blanks into newlines.  The '-s' option squeezes
multiple newline characters in the output into just one, removing blank
lines.  (The '>' is the shell's "secondary prompt." This is what the
shell prints when it notices you haven't finished typing in all of a
command.)

   We now have data consisting of one word per line, no punctuation, all
one case.  We're ready to count each word:

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' |
     > tr -s ' ' '\n' | sort | uniq -c | ...

   At this point, the data might look something like this:

          60 a
           2 able
           6 about
           1 above
           2 accomplish
           1 acquire
           1 actually
           2 additional

   The output is sorted by word, not by count!  What we want is the most
frequently used words first.  Fortunately, this is easy to accomplish,
with the help of two more 'sort' options:

'-n'
     do a numeric sort, not a textual one

'-r'
     reverse the order of the sort

   The final pipeline looks like this:

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' |
     > tr -s ' ' '\n' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n -r
     -|    156 the
     -|     60 a
     -|     58 to
     -|     51 of
     -|     51 and
     ...

   Whew!  That's a lot to digest.  Yet, the same principles apply.  With
six commands, on two lines (really one long one split for convenience),
we've created a program that does something interesting and useful, in
much less time than we could have written a C program to do the same
thing.

   A minor modification to the above pipeline can give us a simple
spelling checker!  To determine if you've spelled a word correctly, all
you have to do is look it up in a dictionary.  If it is not there, then
chances are that your spelling is incorrect.  So, we need a dictionary.
The conventional location for a dictionary is '/usr/dict/words'.  On my
GNU/Linux system,(1) this is a sorted, 45,402 word dictionary.

   Now, how to compare our file with the dictionary?  As before, we
generate a sorted list of words, one per line:

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' |
     > tr -s ' ' '\n' | sort -u | ...

   Now, all we need is a list of words that are _not_ in the dictionary.
Here is where the 'comm' command comes in.

     $ tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' < whats.gnu | tr -cd '[:alnum:]_ \n' |
     > tr -s ' ' '\n' | sort -u |
     > comm -23 - /usr/dict/words

   The '-2' and '-3' options eliminate lines that are only in the
dictionary (the second file), and lines that are in both files.  Lines
only in the first file (standard input, our stream of words), are words
that are not in the dictionary.  These are likely candidates for
spelling errors.  This pipeline was the first cut at a production
spelling checker on Unix.

   There are some other tools that deserve brief mention.

'grep'
     search files for text that matches a regular expression

'wc'
     count lines, words, characters

'tee'
     a T-fitting for data pipes, copies data to files and to standard
     output

'sed'
     the stream editor, an advanced tool

'awk'
     a data manipulation language, another advanced tool

   The software tools philosophy also espoused the following bit of
advice: "Let someone else do the hard part." This means, take something
that gives you most of what you need, and then massage it the rest of
the way until it's in the form that you want.

   To summarize:

  1. Each program should do one thing well.  No more, no less.

  2. Combining programs with appropriate plumbing leads to results where
     the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.  It also leads to
     novel uses of programs that the authors might never have imagined.

  3. Programs should never print extraneous header or trailer data,
     since these could get sent on down a pipeline.  (A point we didn't
     mention earlier.)

  4. Let someone else do the hard part.

  5. Know your toolbox!  Use each program appropriately.  If you don't
     have an appropriate tool, build one.

   All the programs discussed are available as described in GNU core
utilities (https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/coreutils.html).

   None of what I have presented in this column is new.  The Software
Tools philosophy was first introduced in the book 'Software Tools', by
Brian Kernighan and P.J. Plauger (Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-03669-X).
This book showed how to write and use software tools.  It was written in
1976, using a preprocessor for FORTRAN named 'ratfor' (RATional
FORtran).  At the time, C was not as ubiquitous as it is now; FORTRAN
was.  The last chapter presented a 'ratfor' to FORTRAN processor,
written in 'ratfor'.  'ratfor' looks an awful lot like C; if you know C,
you won't have any problem following the code.

   In 1981, the book was updated and made available as 'Software Tools
in Pascal' (Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-10342-7).  Both books are still
in print and are well worth reading if you're a programmer.  They
certainly made a major change in how I view programming.

   The programs in both books are available from Brian Kernighan's home
page (https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~bwk/).  For a number of years, there
was an active Software Tools Users Group, whose members had ported the
original 'ratfor' programs to essentially every computer system with a
FORTRAN compiler.  The popularity of the group waned in the middle 1980s
as Unix began to spread beyond universities.

   With the current proliferation of GNU code and other clones of Unix
programs, these programs now receive little attention; modern C versions
are much more efficient and do more than these programs do.
Nevertheless, as exposition of good programming style, and evangelism
for a still-valuable philosophy, these books are unparalleled, and I
recommend them highly.

   Acknowledgment: I would like to express my gratitude to Brian
Kernighan of Bell Labs, the original Software Toolsmith, for reviewing
this column.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Redhat Linux 6.1, for the November 2000 revision of this article.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Concept index,  Prev: Opening the software toolbox,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     <http://fsf.org/>

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.  We
     recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can
     be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept
     the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
     requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
     notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
     If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it
     is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may
     contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify
     any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed
     of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
     available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
     formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats
     suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
     Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
     been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by
     readers is not Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if
     used for any substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
     "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
     simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
     Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.
     Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
     edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
     the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and
     the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
     conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
     equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material on the
     covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as
     long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
     conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
     Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with
     each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
     network-using public has access to download using public-standard
     network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free
     of added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take
     reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
     copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
     remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
     year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or
     through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies,
     to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
     Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
     Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
     distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
     possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in
     the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
          versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
          History section of the Document).  You may use the same title
          as a previous version if the original publisher of that
          version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
          Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the
          Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
          publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add
          an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
          previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
          "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
          that was published at least four years before the Document
          itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers
          to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section
          all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
          in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
          equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate
     some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
     titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's
     license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any other
     section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of
     a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of
     the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage
     of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
     through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
     already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added
     by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on
     behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
     one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
     the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all
     of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents
     in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
     License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
     document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
     storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
     finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you
     under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not
     permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the
     same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/>.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the
     Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
     choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
     Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy can
     decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
their use in free software.

File: coreutils.info,  Node: Concept index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Index
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* +:                                     String expressions.  (line  53)
* + <1>:                                 Numeric expressions. (line  12)
* +PAGE_RANGE:                           pr invocation.       (line  39)
* -:                                     Numeric expressions. (line  12)
* - <1>:                                 env invocation.      (line  94)
* - and Unix rm:                         rm invocation.       (line 111)
* -, removing files beginning with:      rm invocation.       (line  99)
* --:                                    Common options.      (line  43)
* --across:                              pr invocation.       (line  62)
* --additional-suffix:                   split invocation.    (line 134)
* --address-radix:                       od invocation.       (line  36)
* --adjustment:                          nice invocation.     (line  51)
* --all:                                 unexpand invocation. (line  51)
* --all <1>:                             Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  13)
* --all <2>:                             df invocation.       (line  42)
* --all <3>:                             du invocation.       (line  32)
* --all <4>:                             stty invocation.     (line  26)
* --all <5>:                             who invocation.      (line  35)
* --all <6>:                             nproc invocation.    (line  20)
* --all <7>:                             uname invocation.    (line  30)
* --all-repeated:                        uniq invocation.     (line  69)
* --almost-all:                          Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  17)
* --apparent-size:                       du invocation.       (line  35)
* --append:                              tee invocation.      (line  27)
* --archive:                             cp invocation.       (line  63)
* --attributes-only:                     cp invocation.       (line  72)
* --author:                              What information is listed.
                                                              (line  10)
* --auto-reference:                      Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  45)
* --backup:                              Backup options.      (line  13)
* --backup <1>:                          cp invocation.       (line  79)
* --backup <2>:                          install invocation.  (line  41)
* --backup <3>:                          mv invocation.       (line  59)
* --backup <4>:                          ln invocation.       (line  82)
* --batch-size:                          sort invocation.     (line 262)
* --before:                              tac invocation.      (line  21)
* --binary:                              md5sum invocation.   (line  41)
* --block-size:                          Block size.          (line 121)
* --block-size <1>:                      df invocation.       (line  54)
* --block-size <2>:                      du invocation.       (line  52)
* --block-size=SIZE:                     Block size.          (line  12)
* --body-numbering:                      nl invocation.       (line  45)
* --boot:                                who invocation.      (line  39)
* --bourne-shell:                        dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* --break-file:                          Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line   8)
* --buffer-size:                         sort invocation.     (line 316)
* --bytes:                               fold invocation.     (line  23)
* --bytes <1>:                           head invocation.     (line  24)
* --bytes <2>:                           tail invocation.     (line  39)
* --bytes <3>:                           split invocation.    (line  41)
* --bytes <4>:                           wc invocation.       (line  43)
* --bytes <5>:                           cut invocation.      (line  26)
* --bytes <6>:                           du invocation.       (line  57)
* --c-shell:                             dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* --canonicalize:                        readlink invocation. (line  31)
* --canonicalize-existing:               readlink invocation. (line  38)
* --canonicalize-existing <1>:           realpath invocation. (line  22)
* --canonicalize-missing:                readlink invocation. (line  45)
* --canonicalize-missing <1>:            realpath invocation. (line  30)
* --changes:                             chown invocation.    (line  73)
* --changes <1>:                         chgrp invocation.    (line  24)
* --changes <2>:                         chmod invocation.    (line  39)
* --characters:                          cut invocation.      (line  34)
* --chars:                               wc invocation.       (line  47)
* --chdir:                               env invocation.      (line  99)
* --check:                               sort invocation.     (line  39)
* --check <1>:                           sort invocation.     (line  47)
* --check-chars:                         uniq invocation.     (line 133)
* --classify:                            General output formatting.
                                                              (line  46)
* --color:                               General output formatting.
                                                              (line  22)
* --columns:                             pr invocation.       (line  49)
* --compare:                             install invocation.  (line  46)
* --complement:                          cut invocation.      (line  86)
* --compute:                             runcon invocation.   (line  32)
* --context:                             What information is listed.
                                                              (line 255)
* --context <1>:                         cp invocation.       (line 378)
* --context <2>:                         install invocation.  (line 139)
* --context <3>:                         mv invocation.       (line 115)
* --context <4>:                         mkdir invocation.    (line  56)
* --context <5>:                         mkfifo invocation.   (line  28)
* --context <6>:                         mknod invocation.    (line  53)
* --context <7>:                         id invocation.       (line  51)
* --count:                               uniq invocation.     (line  55)
* --count <1>:                           who invocation.      (line  69)
* --count-links:                         du invocation.       (line 123)
* --crown-margin:                        fmt invocation.      (line  34)
* --csh:                                 dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* --data:                                sync invocation.     (line  32)
* --date:                                touch invocation.    (line  56)
* --date <1>:                            Options for date.    (line  11)
* --dead:                                who invocation.      (line  43)
* --debug:                               Options for date.    (line  25)
* --debug <1>:                           numfmt invocation.   (line  29)
* --decode:                              base64 invocation.   (line  30)
* --delimiter:                           cut invocation.      (line  66)
* --delimiter <1>:                       numfmt invocation.   (line  34)
* --delimiters:                          paste invocation.    (line  61)
* --dereference:                         Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  83)
* --dereference <1>:                     cp invocation.       (line 148)
* --dereference <2>:                     chown invocation.    (line 106)
* --dereference <3>:                     chgrp invocation.    (line  34)
* --dereference <4>:                     du invocation.       (line 117)
* --dereference <5>:                     stat invocation.     (line  22)
* --dereference <6>:                     chcon invocation.    (line  21)
* --dereference-args:                    du invocation.       (line  67)
* --dereference-command-line:            Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  36)
* --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir: Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  41)
* --dictionary-order:                    sort invocation.     (line  87)
* --digits:                              csplit invocation.   (line  79)
* --dir:                                 rm invocation.       (line  35)
* --directory:                           Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  28)
* --directory <1>:                       install invocation.  (line  67)
* --directory <2>:                       ln invocation.       (line  88)
* --directory <3>:                       mktemp invocation.   (line  85)
* --dired:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line  16)
* --double-space:                        pr invocation.       (line  74)
* --dry-run:                             mktemp invocation.   (line  97)
* --echo:                                shuf invocation.     (line  19)
* --elide-empty-files:                   split invocation.    (line 139)
* --elide-empty-files <1>:               csplit invocation.   (line  93)
* --endian:                              od invocation.       (line  51)
* --equal-width:                         seq invocation.      (line  49)
* --error:                               stdbuf invocation.   (line  34)
* --escape:                              Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  11)
* --exact:                               shred invocation.    (line 142)
* --exclude-from=FILE:                   du invocation.       (line 252)
* --exclude-type:                        df invocation.       (line 223)
* --exclude=PATTERN:                     du invocation.       (line 257)
* --expand-tabs:                         pr invocation.       (line  98)
* --field:                               numfmt invocation.   (line  38)
* --field-separator:                     sort invocation.     (line 332)
* --fields:                              cut invocation.      (line  43)
* --file:                                stty invocation.     (line  31)
* --file <1>:                            Options for date.    (line  30)
* --file-system:                         stat invocation.     (line  28)
* --file-system <1>:                     sync invocation.     (line  37)
* --file-type:                           General output formatting.
                                                              (line  57)
* --files0-from=FILE:                    wc invocation.       (line  64)
* --files0-from=FILE <1>:                sort invocation.     (line 218)
* --files0-from=FILE <2>:                du invocation.       (line  79)
* --filter:                              split invocation.    (line  62)
* --first-line-number:                   pr invocation.       (line 174)
* --flag-truncation:                     Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  71)
* --follow:                              tail invocation.     (line  55)
* --footer-numbering:                    nl invocation.       (line  70)
* --force:                               cp invocation.       (line 115)
* --force <1>:                           mv invocation.       (line  64)
* --force <2>:                           rm invocation.       (line  39)
* --force <3>:                           shred invocation.    (line 101)
* --force <4>:                           ln invocation.       (line  94)
* --foreground:                          timeout invocation.  (line  24)
* --form-feed:                           pr invocation.       (line 106)
* --format:                              od invocation.       (line  89)
* --format <1>:                          What information is listed.
                                                              (line 131)
* --format <2>:                          General output formatting.
                                                              (line  10)
* --format <3>:                          General output formatting.
                                                              (line  16)
* --format <4>:                          General output formatting.
                                                              (line 101)
* --format <5>:                          General output formatting.
                                                              (line 111)
* --format <6>:                          numfmt invocation.   (line  48)
* --format <7>:                          seq invocation.      (line  28)
* --format=FORMAT:                       stat invocation.     (line  34)
* --format=roff:                         Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line 100)
* --format=tex:                          Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line 118)
* --from:                                chown invocation.    (line  83)
* --from <1>:                            numfmt invocation.   (line  59)
* --from-unit:                           numfmt invocation.   (line  64)
* --full-time:                           What information is listed.
                                                              (line 100)
* --gap-size:                            Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  26)
* --general-numeric-sort:                sort invocation.     (line 105)
* --goal:                                fmt invocation.      (line  64)
* --group:                               uniq invocation.     (line 100)
* --group <1>:                           install invocation.  (line  73)
* --group <2>:                           id invocation.       (line  29)
* --group-directories-first:             Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  50)
* --grouping:                            numfmt invocation.   (line  70)
* --groups:                              id invocation.       (line  33)
* --groups <1>:                          chroot invocation.   (line  24)
* --hardware-platform:                   uname invocation.    (line  35)
* --head-count:                          shuf invocation.     (line  31)
* --header:                              pr invocation.       (line 111)
* --header <1>:                          General options in join.
                                                              (line  25)
* --header <2>:                          numfmt invocation.   (line  76)
* --header-numbering:                    nl invocation.       (line  74)
* --header=N:                            numfmt invocation.   (line  76)
* --heading:                             who invocation.      (line  47)
* --help:                                Common options.      (line  36)
* --hex-suffixes:                        split invocation.    (line 130)
* --hide-control-chars:                  Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  23)
* --hide=PATTERN:                        Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  57)
* --human-numeric-sort:                  sort invocation.     (line 126)
* --human-readable:                      Block size.          (line 121)
* --human-readable <1>:                  What information is listed.
                                                              (line 116)
* --human-readable <2>:                  df invocation.       (line  59)
* --human-readable <3>:                  du invocation.       (line  96)
* --hyperlink:                           General output formatting.
                                                              (line  61)
* --ignore:                              nproc invocation.    (line  26)
* --ignore-backups:                      Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  23)
* --ignore-case:                         sort invocation.     (line  94)
* --ignore-case <1>:                     uniq invocation.     (line  59)
* --ignore-case <2>:                     Charset selection in ptx.
                                                              (line  18)
* --ignore-case <3>:                     General options in join.
                                                              (line  35)
* --ignore-environment:                  env invocation.      (line  94)
* --ignore-fail-on-non-empty:            rmdir invocation.    (line  17)
* --ignore-file:                         Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  26)
* --ignore-garbage:                      base64 invocation.   (line  36)
* --ignore-interrupts:                   tee invocation.      (line  32)
* --ignore-leading-blanks:               sort invocation.     (line  79)
* --ignore-missing:                      md5sum invocation.   (line  75)
* --ignore-nonprinting:                  sort invocation.     (line 143)
* --ignore=PATTERN:                      Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  69)
* --indent:                              pr invocation.       (line 180)
* --indicator-style:                     General output formatting.
                                                              (line  46)
* --indicator-style <1>:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line  57)
* --indicator-style <2>:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line  70)
* --indicator-style <3>:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line 106)
* --initial:                             expand invocation.   (line  46)
* --inode:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line 123)
* --inodes:                              df invocation.       (line  69)
* --inodes <1>:                          du invocation.       (line 102)
* --input:                               stdbuf invocation.   (line  26)
* --input-range:                         shuf invocation.     (line  23)
* --interactive:                         cp invocation.       (line 138)
* --interactive <1>:                     mv invocation.       (line  70)
* --interactive <2>:                     rm invocation.       (line  54)
* --interactive <3>:                     ln invocation.       (line  98)
* --invalid:                             numfmt invocation.   (line  79)
* --io-blocks:                           truncate invocation. (line  26)
* --iso-8601[=TIMESPEC]:                 Options for date.    (line  38)
* --iterations=NUMBER:                   shred invocation.    (line 105)
* --join-blank-lines:                    nl invocation.       (line  82)
* --join-lines:                          pr invocation.       (line 124)
* --keep-files:                          csplit invocation.   (line  84)
* --kernel-name:                         uname invocation.    (line  66)
* --kernel-release:                      uname invocation.    (line  62)
* --kernel-version:                      uname invocation.    (line  77)
* --key:                                 sort invocation.     (line 231)
* --kibibytes:                           General output formatting.
                                                              (line  89)
* --kill-after:                          timeout invocation.  (line  41)
* --length:                              pr invocation.       (line 133)
* --length <1>:                          b2sum invocation.    (line  12)
* --line-bytes:                          split invocation.    (line  55)
* --line-increment:                      nl invocation.       (line  78)
* --lines:                               head invocation.     (line  39)
* --lines <1>:                           tail invocation.     (line 123)
* --lines <2>:                           split invocation.    (line  33)
* --lines <3>:                           wc invocation.       (line  55)
* --link:                                cp invocation.       (line 144)
* --literal:                             Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  17)
* --local:                               df invocation.       (line  80)
* --logical:                             ln invocation.       (line 102)
* --logical <1>:                         realpath invocation. (line  35)
* --logical <2>:                         pwd invocation.      (line  15)
* --login:                               who invocation.      (line  51)
* --lookup:                              who invocation.      (line  56)
* --machine:                             uname invocation.    (line  42)
* --macro-name:                          Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  94)
* --max-depth=DEPTH:                     du invocation.       (line  74)
* --max-line-length:                     wc invocation.       (line  59)
* --max-unchanged-stats:                 tail invocation.     (line 111)
* --merge:                               pr invocation.       (line 140)
* --merge <1>:                           sort invocation.     (line  53)
* --mesg:                                who invocation.      (line  94)
* --message:                             who invocation.      (line  94)
* --mode:                                install invocation.  (line  79)
* --mode <1>:                            mkdir invocation.    (line  19)
* --mode <2>:                            mkfifo invocation.   (line  21)
* --mode <3>:                            mknod invocation.    (line  47)
* --month-sort:                          sort invocation.     (line 150)
* --multiple:                            basename invocation. (line  32)
* --name:                                id invocation.       (line  37)
* --no-clobber:                          cp invocation.       (line 155)
* --no-clobber <1>:                      mv invocation.       (line  77)
* --no-create:                           touch invocation.    (line  52)
* --no-create <1>:                       truncate invocation. (line  22)
* --no-dereference:                      cp invocation.       (line 161)
* --no-dereference <1>:                  ln invocation.       (line 108)
* --no-dereference <2>:                  chown invocation.    (line 111)
* --no-dereference <3>:                  chgrp invocation.    (line  39)
* --no-dereference <4>:                  touch invocation.    (line  70)
* --no-dereference <5>:                  du invocation.       (line 133)
* --no-dereference <6>:                  chcon invocation.    (line  26)
* --no-file-warnings:                    pr invocation.       (line 187)
* --no-group:                            What information is listed.
                                                              (line 110)
* --no-newline:                          readlink invocation. (line  50)
* --no-preserve-root:                    rm invocation.       (line  86)
* --no-preserve-root <1>:                chown invocation.    (line 124)
* --no-preserve-root <2>:                chgrp invocation.    (line  52)
* --no-preserve-root <3>:                chmod invocation.    (line  54)
* --no-preserve-root <4>:                chcon invocation.    (line  43)
* --no-renumber:                         nl invocation.       (line 101)
* --no-symlinks:                         realpath invocation. (line  64)
* --no-sync:                             df invocation.       (line  84)
* --no-target-directory:                 Target directory.    (line  15)
* --no-target-directory <1>:             cp invocation.       (line 349)
* --no-target-directory <2>:             install invocation.  (line 130)
* --no-target-directory <3>:             mv invocation.       (line 110)
* --no-target-directory <4>:             ln invocation.       (line 175)
* --nodename:                            uname invocation.    (line  47)
* --null:                                du invocation.       (line  26)
* --null <1>:                            printenv invocation. (line  19)
* --null <2>:                            env invocation.      (line  82)
* --number:                              cat invocation.      (line  31)
* --number <1>:                          split invocation.    (line  78)
* --number-format:                       nl invocation.       (line  90)
* --number-lines:                        pr invocation.       (line 153)
* --number-nonblank:                     cat invocation.      (line  20)
* --number-separator:                    nl invocation.       (line 105)
* --number-width:                        nl invocation.       (line 115)
* --numeric-sort:                        sort invocation.     (line 160)
* --numeric-suffixes:                    split invocation.    (line 116)
* --numeric-uid-gid:                     What information is listed.
                                                              (line 222)
* --omit-header:                         pr invocation.       (line 210)
* --omit-pagination:                     pr invocation.       (line 220)
* --one-file-system:                     cp invocation.       (line 372)
* --one-file-system <1>:                 rm invocation.       (line  65)
* --one-file-system <2>:                 du invocation.       (line 263)
* --only-delimited:                      cut invocation.      (line  74)
* --only-file:                           Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  35)
* --operating-system:                    uname invocation.    (line  58)
* --output:                              sort invocation.     (line 288)
* --output <1>:                          shuf invocation.     (line  36)
* --output <2>:                          df invocation.       (line  91)
* --output <3>:                          stdbuf invocation.   (line  30)
* --output-delimiter:                    cut invocation.      (line  79)
* --output-duplicates:                   od invocation.       (line 149)
* --output-error:                        tee invocation.      (line  36)
* --output-tabs:                         pr invocation.       (line 117)
* --owner:                               install invocation.  (line  91)
* --padding:                             numfmt invocation.   (line  87)
* --pages=PAGE_RANGE:                    pr invocation.       (line  39)
* --page_width:                          pr invocation.       (line 239)
* --parallel:                            sort invocation.     (line 361)
* --parents:                             cp invocation.       (line 238)
* --parents <1>:                         mkdir invocation.    (line  34)
* --parents <2>:                         rmdir invocation.    (line  22)
* --physical:                            ln invocation.       (line 127)
* --physical <1>:                        realpath invocation. (line  40)
* --physical <2>:                        pwd invocation.      (line  22)
* --pid:                                 tail invocation.     (line 129)
* --portability:                         df invocation.       (line 148)
* --portability <1>:                     pathchk invocation.  (line  44)
* --prefix:                              csplit invocation.   (line  61)
* --preserve:                            cp invocation.       (line 168)
* --preserve-context:                    install invocation.  (line  96)
* --preserve-root:                       rm invocation.       (line  81)
* --preserve-root <1>:                   chown invocation.    (line 119)
* --preserve-root <2>:                   chgrp invocation.    (line  47)
* --preserve-root <3>:                   chmod invocation.    (line  49)
* --preserve-root <4>:                   chcon invocation.    (line  38)
* --preserve-status:                     timeout invocation.  (line  18)
* --preserve-timestamps:                 install invocation.  (line 103)
* --print-database:                      dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* --print-type:                          df invocation.       (line 200)
* --printf=FORMAT:                       stat invocation.     (line  43)
* --process:                             who invocation.      (line  65)
* --processor:                           uname invocation.    (line  51)
* --quiet:                               head invocation.     (line  46)
* --quiet <1>:                           tail invocation.     (line 151)
* --quiet <2>:                           csplit invocation.   (line 104)
* --quiet <3>:                           md5sum invocation.   (line  81)
* --quiet <4>:                           readlink invocation. (line  57)
* --quiet <5>:                           chown invocation.    (line  79)
* --quiet <6>:                           chgrp invocation.    (line  30)
* --quiet <7>:                           chmod invocation.    (line  45)
* --quiet <8>:                           mktemp invocation.   (line  92)
* --quiet <9>:                           realpath invocation. (line  46)
* --quiet <10>:                          tty invocation.      (line  18)
* --quote-name:                          Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  30)
* --quoting-style:                       Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  11)
* --quoting-style <1>:                   Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  17)
* --quoting-style <2>:                   Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  30)
* --quoting-style <3>:                   Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  34)
* --random-sort:                         sort invocation.     (line 189)
* --random-source:                       sort invocation.     (line 304)
* --random-source <1>:                   shuf invocation.     (line  42)
* --random-source <2>:                   shred invocation.    (line 111)
* --range:                               chcon invocation.    (line  77)
* --range <1>:                           runcon invocation.   (line  48)
* --read-bytes:                          od invocation.       (line  75)
* --real:                                id invocation.       (line  42)
* --recursive:                           Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  90)
* --recursive <1>:                       cp invocation.       (line 251)
* --recursive <2>:                       rm invocation.       (line  93)
* --recursive <3>:                       chown invocation.    (line 143)
* --recursive <4>:                       chgrp invocation.    (line  70)
* --recursive <5>:                       chmod invocation.    (line  69)
* --recursive <6>:                       chcon invocation.    (line  35)
* --reference:                           chown invocation.    (line 128)
* --reference <1>:                       chgrp invocation.    (line  56)
* --reference <2>:                       chmod invocation.    (line  62)
* --reference <3>:                       touch invocation.    (line  89)
* --reference <4>:                       truncate invocation. (line  30)
* --reference <5>:                       Options for date.    (line  65)
* --reference <6>:                       chcon invocation.    (line  30)
* --references:                          Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  48)
* --reflink[=WHEN]:                      cp invocation.       (line 264)
* --regex:                               tac invocation.      (line  26)
* --relative:                            ln invocation.       (line 136)
* --relative-base:                       realpath invocation. (line  54)
* --relative-base <1>:                   Realpath usage examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* --relative-to:                         realpath invocation. (line  49)
* --relative-to <1>:                     Realpath usage examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* --remove:                              shred invocation.    (line 122)
* --remove-destination:                  cp invocation.       (line 290)
* --remove=unlink:                       shred invocation.    (line 122)
* --remove=wipe:                         shred invocation.    (line 122)
* --remove=wipesync:                     shred invocation.    (line 122)
* --repeat:                              shuf invocation.     (line  47)
* --repeated:                            uniq invocation.     (line  63)
* --retry:                               tail invocation.     (line 154)
* --reverse:                             sort invocation.     (line 183)
* --reverse <1>:                         Sorting the output.  (line  27)
* --rfc-2822:                            Options for date.    (line  76)
* --rfc-3339=TIMESPEC:                   Options for date.    (line  85)
* --rfc-822:                             Options for date.    (line  76)
* --rfc-email:                           Options for date.    (line  70)
* --right-side-refs:                     Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  56)
* --role:                                chcon invocation.    (line  69)
* --role <1>:                            runcon invocation.   (line  40)
* --round:                               numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --round=down:                          numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --round=from-zero:                     numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --round=nearest:                       numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --round=towards-zero:                  numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --round=up:                            numfmt invocation.   (line  94)
* --runlevel:                            who invocation.      (line  74)
* --save:                                stty invocation.     (line  41)
* --section-delimiter:                   nl invocation.       (line  63)
* --sentence-regexp:                     Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  65)
* --sep-string:                          pr invocation.       (line 201)
* --separate-dirs:                       du invocation.       (line 138)
* --separator:                           tac invocation.      (line  30)
* --separator <1>:                       pr invocation.       (line 192)
* --separator <2>:                       split invocation.    (line 147)
* --separator <3>:                       seq invocation.      (line  44)
* --serial:                              paste invocation.    (line  52)
* --set:                                 Options for date.    (line 113)
* --sh:                                  dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* --show-all:                            cat invocation.      (line  16)
* --show-control-chars:                  pr invocation.       (line  68)
* --show-control-chars <1>:              Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  78)
* --show-ends:                           cat invocation.      (line  27)
* --show-nonprinting:                    cat invocation.      (line  51)
* --show-nonprinting <1>:                pr invocation.       (line 225)
* --show-tabs:                           cat invocation.      (line  44)
* --si:                                  Block size.          (line 121)
* --si <1>:                              What information is listed.
                                                              (line 247)
* --si <2>:                              df invocation.       (line 167)
* --si <3>:                              du invocation.       (line 145)
* --signal:                              timeout invocation.  (line  48)
* --silent:                              head invocation.     (line  46)
* --silent <1>:                          tail invocation.     (line 151)
* --silent <2>:                          csplit invocation.   (line 104)
* --silent <3>:                          readlink invocation. (line  57)
* --silent <4>:                          chown invocation.    (line  79)
* --silent <5>:                          chgrp invocation.    (line  30)
* --silent <6>:                          chmod invocation.    (line  45)
* --silent <7>:                          tty invocation.      (line  18)
* --size:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 232)
* --size <1>:                            truncate invocation. (line  34)
* --size=BYTES:                          shred invocation.    (line 116)
* --skip-bytes:                          od invocation.       (line  59)
* --skip-chars:                          uniq invocation.     (line  41)
* --skip-chdir:                          chroot invocation.   (line  37)
* --skip-fields:                         uniq invocation.     (line  31)
* --sleep-interval:                      tail invocation.     (line 171)
* --sort:                                sort invocation.     (line 105)
* --sort <1>:                            sort invocation.     (line 126)
* --sort <2>:                            sort invocation.     (line 150)
* --sort <3>:                            sort invocation.     (line 160)
* --sort <4>:                            sort invocation.     (line 189)
* --sort <5>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  32)
* --sort <6>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  36)
* --sort <7>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  51)
* --sort <8>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  58)
* --sort <9>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  65)
* --spaces:                              fold invocation.     (line  29)
* --sparse=WHEN:                         cp invocation.       (line 294)
* --split-only:                          fmt invocation.      (line  47)
* --squeeze-blank:                       cat invocation.      (line  36)
* --stable:                              sort invocation.     (line 309)
* --starting-line-number:                nl invocation.       (line 110)
* --status:                              md5sum invocation.   (line  89)
* --strict:                              md5sum invocation.   (line 122)
* --strings:                             od invocation.       (line  80)
* --strip:                               install invocation.  (line 113)
* --strip <1>:                           realpath invocation. (line  64)
* --strip-program:                       install invocation.  (line 116)
* --strip-trailing-slashes:              cp invocation.       (line 327)
* --strip-trailing-slashes <1>:          mv invocation.       (line  96)
* --suffix:                              Backup options.      (line  49)
* --suffix <1>:                          cp invocation.       (line 340)
* --suffix <2>:                          install invocation.  (line 120)
* --suffix <3>:                          mv invocation.       (line 101)
* --suffix <4>:                          ln invocation.       (line 166)
* --suffix <5>:                          basename invocation. (line  38)
* --suffix <6>:                          mktemp invocation.   (line 113)
* --suffix <7>:                          numfmt invocation.   (line  99)
* --suffix-format:                       csplit invocation.   (line  65)
* --suffix-length:                       split invocation.    (line 108)
* --summarize:                           du invocation.       (line 153)
* --suppress-matched:                    csplit invocation.   (line  87)
* --symbolic:                            ln invocation.       (line 160)
* --symbolic-link:                       cp invocation.       (line 332)
* --sync:                                df invocation.       (line 174)
* --sysv:                                sum invocation.      (line  31)
* --tabs:                                expand invocation.   (line  22)
* --tabs <1>:                            unexpand invocation. (line  24)
* --tabsize:                             General output formatting.
                                                              (line 115)
* --tag:                                 md5sum invocation.   (line  98)
* --tagged-paragraph:                    fmt invocation.      (line  40)
* --target-directory:                    Target directory.    (line  31)
* --target-directory <1>:                cp invocation.       (line 345)
* --target-directory <2>:                install invocation.  (line 125)
* --target-directory <3>:                mv invocation.       (line 106)
* --target-directory <4>:                ln invocation.       (line 171)
* --temporary-directory:                 sort invocation.     (line 353)
* --terse:                               stat invocation.     (line  54)
* --text:                                md5sum invocation.   (line 108)
* --threshold:                           du invocation.       (line 157)
* --time:                                Sorting the output.  (line  13)
* --time <1>:                            Sorting the output.  (line  43)
* --time <2>:                            touch invocation.    (line  48)
* --time <3>:                            touch invocation.    (line  85)
* --time <4>:                            du invocation.       (line 197)
* --time <5>:                            du invocation.       (line 204)
* --time <6>:                            du invocation.       (line 210)
* --time <7>:                            who invocation.      (line  82)
* --time-style:                          Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  24)
* --time-style <1>:                      du invocation.       (line 214)
* --tmpdir:                              mktemp invocation.   (line 105)
* --to:                                  numfmt invocation.   (line 103)
* --to-unit:                             numfmt invocation.   (line 108)
* --total:                               df invocation.       (line 180)
* --total <1>:                           du invocation.       (line  61)
* --traditional:                         od invocation.       (line 199)
* --type:                                df invocation.       (line 194)
* --type <1>:                            chcon invocation.    (line  73)
* --type <2>:                            runcon invocation.   (line  44)
* --unbuffered:                          split invocation.    (line 154)
* --uniform-spacing:                     fmt invocation.      (line  53)
* --unique:                              sort invocation.     (line 369)
* --unique <1>:                          uniq invocation.     (line 127)
* --universal:                           Options for date.    (line 119)
* --unset:                               env invocation.      (line  88)
* --update:                              cp invocation.       (line 354)
* --update <1>:                          mv invocation.       (line  83)
* --user:                                id invocation.       (line  47)
* --user <1>:                            chcon invocation.    (line  65)
* --user <2>:                            runcon invocation.   (line  36)
* --userspec:                            chroot invocation.   (line  30)
* --utc:                                 Options for date.    (line 119)
* --verbose:                             head invocation.     (line  50)
* --verbose <1>:                         tail invocation.     (line 182)
* --verbose <2>:                         split invocation.    (line 158)
* --verbose <3>:                         cp invocation.       (line 368)
* --verbose <4>:                         install invocation.  (line 135)
* --verbose <5>:                         mv invocation.       (line  93)
* --verbose <6>:                         rm invocation.       (line  97)
* --verbose <7>:                         shred invocation.    (line 137)
* --verbose <8>:                         ln invocation.       (line 180)
* --verbose <9>:                         mkdir invocation.    (line  51)
* --verbose <10>:                        readlink invocation. (line  61)
* --verbose <11>:                        rmdir invocation.    (line  31)
* --verbose <12>:                        chown invocation.    (line 135)
* --verbose <13>:                        chgrp invocation.    (line  62)
* --verbose <14>:                        chmod invocation.    (line  59)
* --verbose <15>:                        chcon invocation.    (line  61)
* --version:                             Common options.      (line  40)
* --version-sort:                        sort invocation.     (line 177)
* --warn:                                md5sum invocation.   (line 117)
* --width:                               od invocation.       (line 156)
* --width <1>:                           fmt invocation.      (line  59)
* --width <2>:                           pr invocation.       (line 229)
* --width <3>:                           fold invocation.     (line  35)
* --width <4>:                           Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  32)
* --width <5>:                           General output formatting.
                                                              (line 126)
* --word-regexp:                         Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line 105)
* --words:                               wc invocation.       (line  51)
* --wrap:                                base64 invocation.   (line  22)
* --writable:                            who invocation.      (line  94)
* --zero:                                shred invocation.    (line 153)
* --zero <1>:                            readlink invocation. (line  65)
* --zero <2>:                            basename invocation. (line  42)
* --zero <3>:                            dirname invocation.  (line  31)
* --zero <4>:                            realpath invocation. (line  71)
* --zero <5>:                            id invocation.       (line  58)
* --zero-terminated:                     head invocation.     (line  54)
* --zero-terminated <1>:                 tail invocation.     (line 186)
* --zero-terminated <2>:                 sort invocation.     (line 384)
* --zero-terminated <3>:                 shuf invocation.     (line  55)
* --zero-terminated <4>:                 uniq invocation.     (line 139)
* --zero-terminated <5>:                 comm invocation.     (line  88)
* --zero-terminated <6>:                 cut invocation.      (line  94)
* --zero-terminated <7>:                 paste invocation.    (line  72)
* --zero-terminated <8>:                 General options in join.
                                                              (line  93)
* --zero-terminated <9>:                 numfmt invocation.   (line 115)
* -0:                                    du invocation.       (line  26)
* -0 <1>:                                printenv invocation. (line  19)
* -0 <2>:                                env invocation.      (line  82)
* -1:                                    comm invocation.     (line  23)
* -1 <1>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  40)
* -1 <2>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line  10)
* -2:                                    comm invocation.     (line  23)
* -2 <1>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  43)
* -3:                                    comm invocation.     (line  23)
* -A:                                    cat invocation.      (line  16)
* -A <1>:                                od invocation.       (line  36)
* -a:                                    od invocation.       (line 168)
* -a <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line  62)
* -a <2>:                                split invocation.    (line 108)
* -A <2>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  45)
* -a <3>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  10)
* -a <4>:                                unexpand invocation. (line  51)
* -a <5>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  13)
* -A <3>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  17)
* -a <6>:                                cp invocation.       (line  63)
* -a <7>:                                touch invocation.    (line  48)
* -a <8>:                                df invocation.       (line  42)
* -a <9>:                                du invocation.       (line  32)
* -a <10>:                               Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  29)
* -a <11>:                               tee invocation.      (line  27)
* -a <12>:                               basename invocation. (line  32)
* -a <13>:                               stty invocation.     (line  26)
* -a <14>:                               who invocation.      (line  35)
* -a <15>:                               uname invocation.    (line  30)
* -b:                                    Backup options.      (line  13)
* -b <1>:                                cat invocation.      (line  20)
* -b <2>:                                tac invocation.      (line  21)
* -b <3>:                                nl invocation.       (line  45)
* -b <4>:                                od invocation.       (line 171)
* -b <5>:                                fold invocation.     (line  23)
* -b <6>:                                split invocation.    (line  41)
* -b <7>:                                csplit invocation.   (line  65)
* -b <8>:                                md5sum invocation.   (line  41)
* -b <9>:                                sort invocation.     (line  79)
* -b <10>:                               Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line   8)
* -b <11>:                               cut invocation.      (line  26)
* -B:                                    Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  23)
* -b <12>:                               Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  11)
* -b <13>:                               dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* -b <14>:                               cp invocation.       (line  79)
* -b <15>:                               install invocation.  (line  41)
* -b <16>:                               mv invocation.       (line  59)
* -b <17>:                               ln invocation.       (line  82)
* -B <1>:                                df invocation.       (line  54)
* -B <2>:                                du invocation.       (line  52)
* -b <18>:                               du invocation.       (line  57)
* -b <19>:                               File type tests.     (line  10)
* -b <20>:                               who invocation.      (line  39)
* -c:                                    od invocation.       (line 174)
* -c <1>:                                fmt invocation.      (line  34)
* -c <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line  68)
* -c <3>:                                head invocation.     (line  24)
* -c <4>:                                tail invocation.     (line  39)
* -C:                                    split invocation.    (line  55)
* -c <5>:                                wc invocation.       (line  43)
* -c <6>:                                sort invocation.     (line  39)
* -c <7>:                                sort invocation.     (line  47)
* -c <8>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  19)
* -c <9>:                                uniq invocation.     (line  55)
* -c <10>:                               cut invocation.      (line  34)
* -c <11>:                               Sorting the output.  (line  13)
* -C <1>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line  16)
* -c <12>:                               dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* -C <2>:                                install invocation.  (line  46)
* -c <13>:                               install invocation.  (line  57)
* -c <14>:                               chown invocation.    (line  73)
* -c <15>:                               chgrp invocation.    (line  24)
* -c <16>:                               chmod invocation.    (line  39)
* -c <17>:                               touch invocation.    (line  52)
* -c <18>:                               du invocation.       (line  61)
* -c <19>:                               stat invocation.     (line  34)
* -c <20>:                               truncate invocation. (line  22)
* -c <21>:                               File type tests.     (line  13)
* -c <22>:                               runcon invocation.   (line  32)
* -C <3>:                                env invocation.      (line  99)
* -COLUMN:                               pr invocation.       (line  49)
* -d:                                    nl invocation.       (line  63)
* -d <1>:                                od invocation.       (line 178)
* -d <2>:                                base64 invocation.   (line  30)
* -d <3>:                                pr invocation.       (line  74)
* -d <4>:                                split invocation.    (line 116)
* -d <5>:                                sort invocation.     (line  87)
* -d <6>:                                uniq invocation.     (line  63)
* -D:                                    uniq invocation.     (line  69)
* -d <7>:                                cut invocation.      (line  66)
* -d <8>:                                paste invocation.    (line  61)
* -d <9>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  28)
* -D <1>:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line  16)
* -d <10>:                               cp invocation.       (line 109)
* -D <2>:                                install invocation.  (line  60)
* -d <11>:                               install invocation.  (line  67)
* -d <12>:                               rm invocation.       (line  35)
* -d <13>:                               ln invocation.       (line  88)
* -d <14>:                               touch invocation.    (line  56)
* -D <3>:                                du invocation.       (line  67)
* -d <15>:                               File type tests.     (line  16)
* -d <16>:                               mktemp invocation.   (line  85)
* -d <17>:                               who invocation.      (line  43)
* -d <18>:                               Options for date.    (line  11)
* -d <19>:                               numfmt invocation.   (line  34)
* -d DEPTH:                              du invocation.       (line  74)
* -e:                                    cat invocation.      (line  23)
* -E:                                    cat invocation.      (line  27)
* -e <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line  98)
* -e <2>:                                split invocation.    (line 139)
* -e <3>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  21)
* -e <4>:                                readlink invocation. (line  38)
* -e <5>:                                echo invocation.     (line  25)
* -E <1>:                                echo invocation.     (line  61)
* -e <6>:                                File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line   9)
* -e <7>:                                realpath invocation. (line  22)
* -e <8>:                                stdbuf invocation.   (line  34)
* -ef:                                   File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  23)
* -eq:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -f:                                    nl invocation.       (line  70)
* -f <1>:                                od invocation.       (line 181)
* -F:                                    pr invocation.       (line 106)
* -f <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line 106)
* -f <3>:                                tail invocation.     (line  55)
* -F <1>:                                tail invocation.     (line 106)
* -f <4>:                                csplit invocation.   (line  61)
* -f <5>:                                sort invocation.     (line  94)
* -f <6>:                                uniq invocation.     (line  31)
* -f <7>:                                Charset selection in ptx.
                                                              (line  18)
* -F <2>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  71)
* -f <8>:                                cut invocation.      (line  43)
* -f <9>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  20)
* -F <3>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line  46)
* -f <10>:                               cp invocation.       (line 115)
* -f <11>:                               mv invocation.       (line  64)
* -f <12>:                               rm invocation.       (line  39)
* -f <13>:                               shred invocation.    (line 101)
* -F <4>:                                ln invocation.       (line  88)
* -f <14>:                               ln invocation.       (line  94)
* -f <15>:                               readlink invocation. (line  31)
* -f <16>:                               chown invocation.    (line  79)
* -f <17>:                               chgrp invocation.    (line  30)
* -f <18>:                               chmod invocation.    (line  45)
* -f <19>:                               touch invocation.    (line  66)
* -f <20>:                               stat invocation.     (line  28)
* -f <21>:                               File type tests.     (line  19)
* -F <5>:                                stty invocation.     (line  31)
* -f <22>:                               Options for date.    (line  30)
* -f <23>:                               seq invocation.      (line  28)
* -g:                                    fmt invocation.      (line  64)
* -g <1>:                                sort invocation.     (line 105)
* -g <2>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  26)
* -g <3>:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 105)
* -G:                                    What information is listed.
                                                              (line 110)
* -g <4>:                                install invocation.  (line  73)
* -g <5>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line   9)
* -G <1>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  31)
* -g <6>:                                stty invocation.     (line  41)
* -g <7>:                                id invocation.       (line  29)
* -G <2>:                                id invocation.       (line  33)
* -ge:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -gt:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -h:                                    Block size.          (line 121)
* -H:                                    Traversing symlinks. (line  18)
* -h <1>:                                nl invocation.       (line  74)
* -h <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line 111)
* -h <3>:                                sort invocation.     (line 126)
* -H <1>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  36)
* -h <4>:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 116)
* -H <2>:                                cp invocation.       (line 131)
* -h <5>:                                chown invocation.    (line 111)
* -H <3>:                                chown invocation.    (line 146)
* -h <6>:                                chgrp invocation.    (line  39)
* -H <4>:                                chgrp invocation.    (line  74)
* -h <7>:                                touch invocation.    (line  70)
* -h <8>:                                df invocation.       (line  59)
* -H <5>:                                df invocation.       (line  65)
* -H <6>:                                du invocation.       (line  92)
* -h <9>:                                du invocation.       (line  96)
* -h <10>:                               File type tests.     (line  23)
* -H <7>:                                who invocation.      (line  47)
* -h <11>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  26)
* -H <8>:                                chcon invocation.    (line  47)
* -i:                                    nl invocation.       (line  78)
* -i <1>:                                od invocation.       (line 184)
* -i <2>:                                base64 invocation.   (line  36)
* -i <3>:                                pr invocation.       (line 117)
* -i <4>:                                sort invocation.     (line 143)
* -i <5>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  23)
* -i <6>:                                uniq invocation.     (line  59)
* -i <7>:                                Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  26)
* -i <8>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  35)
* -i <9>:                                expand invocation.   (line  46)
* -I:                                    Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  69)
* -i <10>:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line 123)
* -i <11>:                               cp invocation.       (line 138)
* -i <12>:                               mv invocation.       (line  70)
* -i <13>:                               rm invocation.       (line  43)
* -I <1>:                                rm invocation.       (line  48)
* -i <14>:                               ln invocation.       (line  98)
* -i <15>:                               df invocation.       (line  69)
* -i <16>:                               tee invocation.      (line  32)
* -i <17>:                               uname invocation.    (line  35)
* -i <18>:                               env invocation.      (line  94)
* -i <19>:                               stdbuf invocation.   (line  26)
* -I[TIMESPEC]:                          Options for date.    (line  38)
* -j:                                    od invocation.       (line  59)
* -J:                                    pr invocation.       (line 124)
* -k:                                    Block size.          (line 121)
* -k <1>:                                csplit invocation.   (line  84)
* -k <2>:                                sort invocation.     (line 231)
* -k <3>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line  89)
* -k <4>:                                df invocation.       (line  74)
* -k <5>:                                du invocation.       (line 111)
* -k <6>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  12)
* -k <7>:                                timeout invocation.  (line  41)
* -L:                                    Traversing symlinks. (line  22)
* -l:                                    nl invocation.       (line  82)
* -l <1>:                                od invocation.       (line 187)
* -l <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line 133)
* -l <3>:                                split invocation.    (line  33)
* -l <4>:                                wc invocation.       (line  55)
* -L <1>:                                wc invocation.       (line  59)
* -l <5>:                                b2sum invocation.    (line  12)
* -L <2>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  83)
* -l <6>:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 131)
* -l <7>:                                cp invocation.       (line 144)
* -L <3>:                                cp invocation.       (line 148)
* -L <4>:                                ln invocation.       (line 102)
* -L <5>:                                chown invocation.    (line 151)
* -L <6>:                                chgrp invocation.    (line  79)
* -l <8>:                                df invocation.       (line  80)
* -L <7>:                                du invocation.       (line 117)
* -l <9>:                                du invocation.       (line 123)
* -L <8>:                                stat invocation.     (line  22)
* -L <9>:                                File type tests.     (line  23)
* -L <10>:                               realpath invocation. (line  35)
* -L <11>:                               pwd invocation.      (line  15)
* -l <10>:                               who invocation.      (line  51)
* -L <12>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  52)
* -l <11>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  77)
* -l <12>:                               runcon invocation.   (line  48)
* -le:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -lt:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -m:                                    pr invocation.       (line 140)
* -m <1>:                                wc invocation.       (line  47)
* -m <2>:                                sort invocation.     (line  53)
* -M:                                    sort invocation.     (line 150)
* -M <1>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  94)
* -m <3>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line 101)
* -m <4>:                                install invocation.  (line  79)
* -m <5>:                                mkdir invocation.    (line  19)
* -m <6>:                                mkfifo invocation.   (line  21)
* -m <7>:                                mknod invocation.    (line  47)
* -m <8>:                                readlink invocation. (line  45)
* -m <9>:                                touch invocation.    (line  85)
* -m <10>:                               du invocation.       (line 127)
* -m <11>:                               realpath invocation. (line  30)
* -m <12>:                               who invocation.      (line  61)
* -m <13>:                               uname invocation.    (line  42)
* -n:                                    cat invocation.      (line  31)
* -n <1>:                                nl invocation.       (line  90)
* -N:                                    od invocation.       (line  75)
* -n <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line 153)
* -N <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line 174)
* -n <3>:                                head invocation.     (line  39)
* -n <4>:                                tail invocation.     (line 123)
* -n <5>:                                split invocation.    (line  78)
* -n <6>:                                csplit invocation.   (line  79)
* -n <7>:                                sort invocation.     (line 160)
* -n <8>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  31)
* -n <9>:                                cut invocation.      (line  70)
* -n <10>:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line 222)
* -N <2>:                                Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  17)
* -n <11>:                               cp invocation.       (line 155)
* -n <12>:                               mv invocation.       (line  77)
* -n <13>:                               ln invocation.       (line 108)
* -n <14>:                               readlink invocation. (line  50)
* -n <15>:                               echo invocation.     (line  22)
* -n <16>:                               String tests.        (line  19)
* -n <17>:                               id invocation.       (line  37)
* -n <18>:                               uname invocation.    (line  47)
* -n <19>:                               nice invocation.     (line  51)
* -n NUMBER:                             shred invocation.    (line 105)
* -ne:                                   Numeric tests.       (line  17)
* -nt:                                   File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  15)
* -o:                                    od invocation.       (line 190)
* -o <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line 180)
* -o <2>:                                sort invocation.     (line 288)
* -o <3>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  36)
* -o <4>:                                Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  35)
* -O:                                    Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line 100)
* -o <5>:                                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 226)
* -o <6>:                                install invocation.  (line  91)
* -o <7>:                                truncate invocation. (line  26)
* -O <1>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  28)
* -o <8>:                                Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  33)
* -o <9>:                                uname invocation.    (line  58)
* -o <10>:                               stdbuf invocation.   (line  30)
* -ot:                                   File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  19)
* -P:                                    Traversing symlinks. (line  26)
* -p:                                    nl invocation.       (line 101)
* -p <1>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line 106)
* -p <2>:                                dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* -P <1>:                                cp invocation.       (line 161)
* -p <3>:                                cp invocation.       (line 168)
* -p <4>:                                install invocation.  (line 103)
* -P <2>:                                ln invocation.       (line 127)
* -p <5>:                                mkdir invocation.    (line  34)
* -p <6>:                                rmdir invocation.    (line  22)
* -P <3>:                                chown invocation.    (line 155)
* -P <4>:                                chgrp invocation.    (line  83)
* -P <5>:                                df invocation.       (line 148)
* -P <6>:                                du invocation.       (line 133)
* -p <7>:                                File type tests.     (line  28)
* -p <8>:                                tee invocation.      (line  36)
* -p <9>:                                pathchk invocation.  (line  27)
* -P <7>:                                pathchk invocation.  (line  40)
* -p <10>:                               mktemp invocation.   (line 105)
* -P <8>:                                realpath invocation. (line  40)
* -P <9>:                                pwd invocation.      (line  22)
* -p <11>:                               who invocation.      (line  65)
* -p <12>:                               uname invocation.    (line  51)
* -P <10>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  56)
* -q:                                    head invocation.     (line  46)
* -q <1>:                                tail invocation.     (line 151)
* -q <2>:                                csplit invocation.   (line 104)
* -q <3>:                                Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  23)
* -Q:                                    Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  30)
* -q <4>:                                readlink invocation. (line  57)
* -q <5>:                                mktemp invocation.   (line  92)
* -q <6>:                                realpath invocation. (line  46)
* -q <7>:                                who invocation.      (line  69)
* -r:                                    tac invocation.      (line  26)
* -r <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line 187)
* -r <2>:                                sum invocation.      (line  25)
* -r <3>:                                sort invocation.     (line 183)
* -R:                                    sort invocation.     (line 189)
* -r <4>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  47)
* -r <5>:                                Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  48)
* -R <1>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  56)
* -R <2>:                                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  90)
* -r <6>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  27)
* -R <3>:                                cp invocation.       (line 251)
* -r <7>:                                cp invocation.       (line 251)
* -r <8>:                                rm invocation.       (line  93)
* -R <4>:                                rm invocation.       (line  93)
* -r <9>:                                ln invocation.       (line 136)
* -R <5>:                                chown invocation.    (line 143)
* -R <6>:                                chgrp invocation.    (line  70)
* -R <7>:                                chmod invocation.    (line  69)
* -r <10>:                               touch invocation.    (line  89)
* -r <11>:                               truncate invocation. (line  30)
* -r <12>:                               Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  15)
* -r <13>:                               id invocation.       (line  42)
* -r <14>:                               who invocation.      (line  74)
* -r <15>:                               Options for date.    (line  65)
* -R <8>:                                Options for date.    (line  70)
* -r <16>:                               uname invocation.    (line  62)
* -R <9>:                                chcon invocation.    (line  35)
* -r <17>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  69)
* -r <18>:                               runcon invocation.   (line  40)
* -S:                                    Backup options.      (line  49)
* -s:                                    cat invocation.      (line  36)
* -s <1>:                                tac invocation.      (line  30)
* -s <2>:                                nl invocation.       (line 105)
* -S <1>:                                od invocation.       (line  80)
* -s <3>:                                od invocation.       (line 193)
* -s <4>:                                fmt invocation.      (line  47)
* -s <5>:                                pr invocation.       (line 192)
* -S <2>:                                pr invocation.       (line 201)
* -s <6>:                                fold invocation.     (line  29)
* -s <7>:                                tail invocation.     (line 171)
* -s <8>:                                csplit invocation.   (line 104)
* -s <9>:                                sum invocation.      (line  31)
* -s <10>:                               sort invocation.     (line 309)
* -S <3>:                                sort invocation.     (line 316)
* -s <11>:                               uniq invocation.     (line  41)
* -S <4>:                                Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line  65)
* -s <12>:                               cut invocation.      (line  74)
* -s <13>:                               paste invocation.    (line  52)
* -s <14>:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line 232)
* -S <5>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  32)
* -s <15>:                               cp invocation.       (line 332)
* -S <6>:                                cp invocation.       (line 340)
* -s <16>:                               install invocation.  (line 113)
* -S <7>:                                install invocation.  (line 120)
* -S <8>:                                mv invocation.       (line 101)
* -s <17>:                               ln invocation.       (line 160)
* -S <9>:                                ln invocation.       (line 166)
* -s <18>:                               readlink invocation. (line  57)
* -S <10>:                               du invocation.       (line 138)
* -s <19>:                               du invocation.       (line 153)
* -s <20>:                               truncate invocation. (line  34)
* -S <11>:                               File type tests.     (line  31)
* -s <21>:                               File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  12)
* -s <22>:                               basename invocation. (line  38)
* -s <23>:                               realpath invocation. (line  64)
* -s <24>:                               tty invocation.      (line  18)
* -s <25>:                               who invocation.      (line  78)
* -s <26>:                               Options for date.    (line 113)
* -s <27>:                               uname invocation.    (line  66)
* -s <28>:                               timeout invocation.  (line  48)
* -s <29>:                               seq invocation.      (line  44)
* -s BYTES:                              shred invocation.    (line 116)
* -t:                                    cat invocation.      (line  40)
* -T:                                    cat invocation.      (line  44)
* -t <1>:                                od invocation.       (line  89)
* -t <2>:                                fmt invocation.      (line  40)
* -t <3>:                                pr invocation.       (line 210)
* -T <1>:                                pr invocation.       (line 220)
* -t <4>:                                split invocation.    (line 147)
* -t <5>:                                md5sum invocation.   (line 108)
* -t <6>:                                sort invocation.     (line 332)
* -T <2>:                                sort invocation.     (line 353)
* -T <3>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line 118)
* -t <7>:                                expand invocation.   (line  22)
* -t <8>:                                unexpand invocation. (line  24)
* -t <9>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  36)
* -T <4>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line 115)
* -t <10>:                               cp invocation.       (line 345)
* -T <5>:                                cp invocation.       (line 349)
* -t <11>:                               install invocation.  (line 125)
* -T <6>:                                install invocation.  (line 130)
* -t <12>:                               mv invocation.       (line 106)
* -T <7>:                                mv invocation.       (line 110)
* -t <13>:                               ln invocation.       (line 171)
* -T <8>:                                ln invocation.       (line 175)
* -t <14>:                               df invocation.       (line 194)
* -T <9>:                                df invocation.       (line 200)
* -t <15>:                               du invocation.       (line 157)
* -t <16>:                               stat invocation.     (line  54)
* -t <17>:                               File type tests.     (line  34)
* -t <18>:                               mktemp invocation.   (line 121)
* -t <19>:                               who invocation.      (line  82)
* -T <10>:                               who invocation.      (line  94)
* -t <20>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  73)
* -t <21>:                               runcon invocation.   (line  44)
* -u:                                    cat invocation.      (line  47)
* -u <1>:                                fmt invocation.      (line  53)
* -u <2>:                                split invocation.    (line 154)
* -u <3>:                                sort invocation.     (line 369)
* -u <4>:                                uniq invocation.     (line 127)
* -u <5>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  43)
* -U:                                    Sorting the output.  (line  51)
* -u <6>:                                cp invocation.       (line 354)
* -u <7>:                                mv invocation.       (line  83)
* -u <8>:                                shred invocation.    (line 122)
* -u <9>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  18)
* -u <10>:                               mktemp invocation.   (line  97)
* -u <11>:                               id invocation.       (line  47)
* -u <12>:                               who invocation.      (line  85)
* -u <13>:                               Options for date.    (line 119)
* -u <14>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  65)
* -u <15>:                               runcon invocation.   (line  36)
* -u <16>:                               env invocation.      (line  88)
* -v:                                    cat invocation.      (line  51)
* -v <1>:                                nl invocation.       (line 110)
* -v <2>:                                od invocation.       (line 149)
* -v <3>:                                pr invocation.       (line 225)
* -v <4>:                                head invocation.     (line  50)
* -v <5>:                                tail invocation.     (line 182)
* -V:                                    sort invocation.     (line 177)
* -v <6>:                                Sorting the output.  (line  58)
* -v <7>:                                cp invocation.       (line 368)
* -v <8>:                                install invocation.  (line 135)
* -v <9>:                                mv invocation.       (line  93)
* -v <10>:                               rm invocation.       (line  97)
* -v <11>:                               shred invocation.    (line 137)
* -v <12>:                               ln invocation.       (line 180)
* -v <13>:                               mkdir invocation.    (line  51)
* -v <14>:                               readlink invocation. (line  61)
* -v <15>:                               rmdir invocation.    (line  31)
* -v <16>:                               chown invocation.    (line 135)
* -v <17>:                               chgrp invocation.    (line  62)
* -v <18>:                               chmod invocation.    (line  59)
* -v <19>:                               uname invocation.    (line  77)
* -v <20>:                               chcon invocation.    (line  61)
* -w:                                    nl invocation.       (line 115)
* -w <1>:                                od invocation.       (line 156)
* -w <2>:                                base64 invocation.   (line  22)
* -w <3>:                                fmt invocation.      (line  59)
* -w <4>:                                pr invocation.       (line 229)
* -W:                                    pr invocation.       (line 239)
* -w <5>:                                fold invocation.     (line  35)
* -w <6>:                                wc invocation.       (line  51)
* -w <7>:                                md5sum invocation.   (line 117)
* -w <8>:                                uniq invocation.     (line 133)
* -W <1>:                                Input processing in ptx.
                                                              (line 105)
* -w <9>:                                Output formatting in ptx.
                                                              (line  32)
* -w <10>:                               General output formatting.
                                                              (line 126)
* -w <11>:                               Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  21)
* -w <12>:                               who invocation.      (line  94)
* -w <13>:                               seq invocation.      (line  49)
* -WIDTH:                                fmt invocation.      (line  59)
* -x:                                    od invocation.       (line 196)
* -x <1>:                                split invocation.    (line 130)
* -X:                                    Sorting the output.  (line  65)
* -x <2>:                                General output formatting.
                                                              (line 111)
* -x <3>:                                cp invocation.       (line 372)
* -x <4>:                                shred invocation.    (line 142)
* -x <5>:                                df invocation.       (line 223)
* -x <6>:                                du invocation.       (line 263)
* -x <7>:                                Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  24)
* -X FILE:                               du invocation.       (line 252)
* -z:                                    head invocation.     (line  54)
* -z <1>:                                tail invocation.     (line 186)
* -z <2>:                                csplit invocation.   (line  93)
* -z <3>:                                sort invocation.     (line 384)
* -z <4>:                                shuf invocation.     (line  55)
* -z <5>:                                uniq invocation.     (line 139)
* -z <6>:                                comm invocation.     (line  88)
* -z <7>:                                cut invocation.      (line  94)
* -z <8>:                                paste invocation.    (line  72)
* -z <9>:                                General options in join.
                                                              (line  93)
* -Z:                                    What information is listed.
                                                              (line 255)
* -Z <1>:                                cp invocation.       (line 378)
* -Z <2>:                                install invocation.  (line 139)
* -Z <3>:                                mv invocation.       (line 115)
* -z <10>:                               shred invocation.    (line 153)
* -Z <4>:                                mkdir invocation.    (line  56)
* -Z <5>:                                mkfifo invocation.   (line  28)
* -Z <6>:                                mknod invocation.    (line  53)
* -z <11>:                               readlink invocation. (line  65)
* -z <12>:                               String tests.        (line  15)
* -z <13>:                               basename invocation. (line  42)
* -z <14>:                               dirname invocation.  (line  31)
* -z <15>:                               realpath invocation. (line  71)
* -Z <7>:                                id invocation.       (line  51)
* -z <16>:                               id invocation.       (line  58)
* -z <17>:                               numfmt invocation.   (line 115)
* /:                                     Numeric expressions. (line  16)
* 128-bit checksum:                      md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* 16-bit checksum:                       sum invocation.      (line   6)
* 160-bit checksum:                      sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* 224-bit checksum:                      sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* 256-bit checksum:                      sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* 384-bit checksum:                      sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* 512-bit checksum:                      b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* 512-bit checksum <1>:                  sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* <:                                     Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* <=:                                    Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* =:                                     Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* = <1>:                                 String tests.        (line  22)
* ==:                                    Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* == <1>:                                String tests.        (line  25)
* >:                                     Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* >=:                                    Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* \( regexp operator:                    String expressions.  (line  24)
* \+ regexp operator:                    String expressions.  (line  28)
* \? regexp operator:                    String expressions.  (line  28)
* \c:                                    printf invocation.   (line  28)
* \OOO:                                  printf invocation.   (line  67)
* \uhhhh:                                printf invocation.   (line  74)
* \Uhhhhhhhh:                            printf invocation.   (line  74)
* \xHH:                                  printf invocation.   (line  67)
* \| regexp operator:                    String expressions.  (line  28)
* _POSIX2_VERSION:                       Standards conformance.
                                                              (line  20)
* _POSIX2_VERSION <1>:                   tail invocation.     (line 201)
* _POSIX2_VERSION <2>:                   sort invocation.     (line 416)
* _POSIX2_VERSION <3>:                   uniq invocation.     (line  46)
* _POSIX2_VERSION <4>:                   touch invocation.    (line 107)
* |:                                     Relations for expr.  (line  11)
* abbreviations for months:              Calendar date items. (line  38)
* access permission tests:               Access permission tests.
                                                              (line   6)
* access permissions, changing:          chmod invocation.    (line   6)
* access time, changing:                 touch invocation.    (line  48)
* access timestamp:                      dd invocation.       (line 261)
* access timestamp, printing or sorting files by: Sorting the output.
                                                              (line  43)
* access timestamp, show the most recent: du invocation.      (line 210)
* across columns:                        pr invocation.       (line  62)
* across, listing files:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line 111)
* adding permissions:                    Setting Permissions. (line  35)
* addition:                              Numeric expressions. (line  12)
* ago in date strings:                   Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  23)
* all lines, grouping:                   uniq invocation.     (line 100)
* all repeated lines, outputting:        uniq invocation.     (line  69)
* alnum:                                 Character sets.      (line  88)
* alpha:                                 Character sets.      (line  90)
* alternate ebcdic, converting to:       dd invocation.       (line 103)
* always color option:                   General output formatting.
                                                              (line  26)
* always hyperlink option:               General output formatting.
                                                              (line  65)
* always interactive option:             rm invocation.       (line  59)
* am i:                                  who invocation.      (line  21)
* am in date strings:                    Time of day items.   (line  21)
* and operator:                          Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  29)
* and operator <1>:                      Relations for expr.  (line  17)
* append:                                dd invocation.       (line 192)
* appending to the output file:          dd invocation.       (line 192)
* appropriate privileges:                install invocation.  (line  91)
* appropriate privileges <1>:            Setting the time.    (line   6)
* appropriate privileges <2>:            hostname invocation. (line   6)
* appropriate privileges <3>:            nice invocation.     (line   6)
* arbitrary date strings, debugging:     Options for date.    (line  25)
* arbitrary date strings, parsing:       Options for date.    (line  11)
* arbitrary text, displaying:            echo invocation.     (line   6)
* arch:                                  arch invocation.     (line   6)
* arithmetic tests:                      Numeric tests.       (line   6)
* ASCII dump of files:                   od invocation.       (line   6)
* ascii, converting to:                  dd invocation.       (line  92)
* atime:                                 File timestamps.     (line   6)
* atime, changing:                       touch invocation.    (line  48)
* atime, printing or sorting files by:   Sorting the output.  (line  43)
* atime, show the most recent:           du invocation.       (line 210)
* attributes, file:                      Changing file attributes.
                                                              (line   6)
* authors of parse_datetime:             Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* auto color option:                     General output formatting.
                                                              (line  25)
* auto hyperlink option:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line  64)
* b for block special file:              mknod invocation.    (line  31)
* b2sum:                                 b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* background jobs, stopping at terminal write: Local.         (line  41)
* backslash escapes:                     Character sets.      (line  14)
* backslash escapes <1>:                 echo invocation.     (line  25)
* backslash escapes <2>:                 echo invocation.     (line  61)
* backslash sequences for file names:    Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  11)
* backup files, ignoring:                Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  23)
* backup options:                        Backup options.      (line   6)
* backup suffix:                         Backup options.      (line  49)
* backups, making:                       Backup options.      (line  13)
* backups, making <1>:                   cp invocation.       (line  79)
* backups, making <2>:                   install invocation.  (line  41)
* backups, making <3>:                   mv invocation.       (line  59)
* backups, making <4>:                   ln invocation.       (line  82)
* backups, making only:                  cp invocation.       (line  51)
* base32:                                base32 invocation.   (line   6)
* base32 encoding:                       base32 invocation.   (line   6)
* base64:                                base64 invocation.   (line   6)
* Base64 decoding:                       base64 invocation.   (line  30)
* base64 encoding:                       base64 invocation.   (line   6)
* basename:                              basename invocation. (line   6)
* baud rate, setting:                    Special.             (line  52)
* beeping at input buffer full:          Input.               (line  59)
* beginning of time:                     Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line  32)
* beginning of time, for POSIX:          Seconds since the Epoch.
                                                              (line  13)
* Bellovin, Steven M.:                   Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* Berets, Jim:                           Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* Berry, K.:                             Introduction.        (line  29)
* Berry, K. <1>:                         Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line  19)
* binary:                                dd invocation.       (line 279)
* binary I/O:                            dd invocation.       (line 279)
* binary input files:                    md5sum invocation.   (line  41)
* bind mount:                            rm invocation.       (line  69)
* bind mount <1>:                        stat invocation.     (line 176)
* birthtime:                             File timestamps.     (line   6)
* BLAKE2:                                b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* BLAKE2 hash length:                    b2sum invocation.    (line  12)
* blank:                                 Character sets.      (line  92)
* blank lines, numbering:                nl invocation.       (line  82)
* blanks, ignoring leading:              sort invocation.     (line  79)
* block (space-padding):                 dd invocation.       (line 113)
* block size:                            Block size.          (line   6)
* block size <1>:                        dd invocation.       (line  34)
* block size of conversion:              dd invocation.       (line  41)
* block size of input:                   dd invocation.       (line  26)
* block size of output:                  dd invocation.       (line  30)
* block special check:                   File type tests.     (line  10)
* block special files:                   mknod invocation.    (line  11)
* block special files, creating:         mknod invocation.    (line   6)
* BLOCKSIZE:                             Block size.          (line  12)
* BLOCK_SIZE:                            Block size.          (line  12)
* body, numbering:                       nl invocation.       (line  17)
* Bourne shell syntax for color setup:   dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* breaks, cause interrupts:              Input.               (line  12)
* breaks, ignoring:                      Input.               (line   9)
* brkint:                                Input.               (line  12)
* bs:                                    dd invocation.       (line  34)
* BSD output:                            md5sum invocation.   (line  98)
* BSD sum:                               sum invocation.      (line  25)
* BSD tail:                              tail invocation.     (line  26)
* BSD touch compatibility:               touch invocation.    (line  66)
* bsN:                                   Output.              (line  55)
* btrfs file system type:                df invocation.       (line 211)
* bugs, reporting:                       Introduction.        (line  12)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with: mknod invocation.  (line  20)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <1>: stat invocation.
                                                              (line  15)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <2>: echo invocation.
                                                              (line  11)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <3>: printf invocation.
                                                              (line  16)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <4>: test invocation.
                                                              (line  28)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <5>: pwd invocation.
                                                              (line  30)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <6>: nice invocation.
                                                              (line  38)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <7>: kill invocation.
                                                              (line  13)
* built-in shell commands, conflicts with <8>: sleep invocation.
                                                              (line  31)
* byte count:                            wc invocation.       (line   6)
* byte-swapping:                         od invocation.       (line  51)
* byte-swapping <1>:                     dd invocation.       (line 144)
* c for character special file:          mknod invocation.    (line  34)
* C shell syntax for color setup:        dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* C-s/C-q flow control:                  Input.               (line  40)
* calendar date item:                    Calendar date items. (line   6)
* calling combined multi-call program:   Multi-call invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* canonical file name:                   readlink invocation. (line   6)
* canonical file name <1>:               realpath invocation. (line   6)
* canonicalize a file name:              readlink invocation. (line   6)
* canonicalize a file name <1>:          realpath invocation. (line   6)
* case folding:                          sort invocation.     (line  94)
* case translation:                      Local.               (line  36)
* case, ignored in dates:                General date syntax. (line  60)
* cat:                                   cat invocation.      (line   6)
* cbreak:                                Combination.         (line  52)
* cbs:                                   dd invocation.       (line  41)
* CD-ROM file system type:               df invocation.       (line 215)
* cdfs file system type:                 df invocation.       (line 215)
* cdtrdsr:                               Control.             (line  44)
* change or print terminal settings:     stty invocation.     (line   6)
* change SELinux context:                chcon invocation.    (line   6)
* changed files, verbosely describing:   chgrp invocation.    (line  24)
* changed owners, verbosely describing:  chown invocation.    (line  73)
* changing access permissions:           chmod invocation.    (line   6)
* changing file attributes:              Changing file attributes.
                                                              (line   6)
* changing file ownership:               chown invocation.    (line   6)
* changing file timestamps:              touch invocation.    (line   6)
* changing group ownership:              chown invocation.    (line   6)
* changing group ownership <1>:          chgrp invocation.    (line   6)
* changing security context:             chcon invocation.    (line   6)
* changing special mode bits:            Changing Special Mode Bits.
                                                              (line   6)
* character classes:                     Character sets.      (line  74)
* character count:                       wc invocation.       (line   6)
* character size:                        Control.             (line  24)
* character special check:               File type tests.     (line  13)
* character special files:               mknod invocation.    (line  11)
* character special files, creating:     mknod invocation.    (line   6)
* characters, special:                   Characters.          (line   6)
* chcon:                                 chcon invocation.    (line   6)
* check file types:                      test invocation.     (line   6)
* checking for sortedness:               sort invocation.     (line  39)
* checking for sortedness <1>:           sort invocation.     (line  47)
* checksum, 128-bit:                     md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* checksum, 16-bit:                      sum invocation.      (line   6)
* checksum, 160-bit:                     sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* checksum, 224-bit:                     sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* checksum, 256-bit:                     sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* checksum, 384-bit:                     sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* checksum, 512-bit:                     b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* checksum, 512-bit <1>:                 sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* chgrp:                                 chgrp invocation.    (line   6)
* chmod:                                 chmod invocation.    (line   6)
* chown:                                 chown invocation.    (line   6)
* chroot:                                chroot invocation.   (line   6)
* cio:                                   dd invocation.       (line 200)
* cksum:                                 cksum invocation.    (line   6)
* clocal:                                Control.             (line  38)
* clock skew:                            Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  11)
* clock skew <1>:                        File timestamps.     (line  39)
* clone:                                 cp invocation.       (line 264)
* cmspar:                                Control.             (line  16)
* cntrl:                                 Character sets.      (line  94)
* color database, printing:              dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* color setup:                           dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* color, distinguishing file types with: General output formatting.
                                                              (line  22)
* cols:                                  Special.             (line  27)
* column to wrap data after:             base64 invocation.   (line  22)
* COLUMNS:                               General output formatting.
                                                              (line 126)
* COLUMNS <1>:                           Special.             (line  39)
* columns:                               Special.             (line  27)
* combination settings:                  Combination.         (line   6)
* combined:                              Multi-call invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* combined date and time of day item:    Combined date and time of day items.
                                                              (line   6)
* comm:                                  comm invocation.     (line   6)
* command-line operands to shuffle:      shuf invocation.     (line  19)
* commands for controlling processes:    Process control.     (line   6)
* commands for delaying:                 Delaying.            (line   6)
* commands for exit status:              Conditions.          (line   6)
* commands for file name manipulation:   File name manipulation.
                                                              (line   6)
* commands for invoking other commands:  Modified command invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* commands for printing text:            Printing text.       (line   6)
* commands for printing the working context: Working context. (line   6)
* commands for printing user information: User information.   (line   6)
* commands for redirection:              Redirection.         (line   6)
* commands for SELinux context:          SELinux context.     (line   6)
* commands for system context:           System context.      (line   6)
* commas, outputting between files:      General output formatting.
                                                              (line 101)
* comments, in dates:                    General date syntax. (line  60)
* common field, joining on:              join invocation.     (line   6)
* common lines:                          comm invocation.     (line  18)
* common options:                        Common options.      (line   6)
* compare values:                        test invocation.     (line   6)
* comparing sorted files:                comm invocation.     (line   6)
* comparison operators:                  Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* concatenate and write files:           cat invocation.      (line   6)
* concurrent I/O:                        dd invocation.       (line 200)
* conditional executability:             Conditional Executability.
                                                              (line   6)
* conditions:                            Conditions.          (line   6)
* conflicts with shell built-ins:        mknod invocation.    (line  20)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <1>:    stat invocation.     (line  15)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <2>:    echo invocation.     (line  11)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <3>:    printf invocation.   (line  16)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <4>:    test invocation.     (line  28)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <5>:    pwd invocation.      (line  30)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <6>:    nice invocation.     (line  38)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <7>:    kill invocation.     (line  13)
* conflicts with shell built-ins <8>:    sleep invocation.    (line  31)
* connectives, logical:                  Connectives for test.
                                                              (line   6)
* connectives, logical <1>:              Relations for expr.  (line   6)
* constant parity:                       Control.             (line  16)
* context splitting:                     csplit invocation.   (line   6)
* context, system:                       System context.      (line   6)
* control characters, using ^C:          Local.               (line  51)
* control settings:                      Control.             (line   6)
* controlling terminal:                  dd invocation.       (line 267)
* conv:                                  dd invocation.       (line  86)
* conversion block size:                 dd invocation.       (line  41)
* conversion specifiers, date:           Date conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* conversion specifiers, literal:        Literal conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* conversion specifiers, time:           Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* converting tabs to spaces:             expand invocation.   (line   6)
* converting while copying a file:       dd invocation.       (line   6)
* cooked:                                Combination.         (line  37)
* Coordinated Universal Time:            Options for date.    (line 119)
* copy on write:                         cp invocation.       (line 264)
* copying directories recursively:       cp invocation.       (line  96)
* copying directories recursively <1>:   cp invocation.       (line 251)
* copying existing permissions:          Copying Permissions. (line   6)
* copying files:                         cat invocation.      (line   6)
* copying files and directories:         cp invocation.       (line   6)
* copying files and setting attributes:  install invocation.  (line   6)
* core utilities:                        Top.                 (line  18)
* count:                                 dd invocation.       (line  56)
* count_bytes:                           dd invocation.       (line 297)
* COW:                                   cp invocation.       (line 264)
* cp:                                    cp invocation.       (line   6)
* crashes and corruption:                sync invocation.     (line  17)
* CRC checksum:                          cksum invocation.    (line   6)
* cread:                                 Control.             (line  35)
* creating directories:                  mkdir invocation.    (line   6)
* creating FIFOs (named pipes):          mkfifo invocation.   (line   6)
* creating links (hard only):            link invocation.     (line   6)
* creating links (hard or soft):         ln invocation.       (line   6)
* creating output file, avoiding:        dd invocation.       (line 161)
* creating output file, requiring:       dd invocation.       (line 157)
* crN:                                   Output.              (line  45)
* crown margin:                          fmt invocation.      (line  34)
* crt:                                   Combination.         (line  75)
* crterase:                              Local.               (line  22)
* crtkill:                               Local.               (line  56)
* crtscts:                               Control.             (line  41)
* csh syntax for color setup:            dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  40)
* csN:                                   Control.             (line  24)
* csplit:                                csplit invocation.   (line   6)
* cstopb:                                Control.             (line  32)
* ctime:                                 File timestamps.     (line   6)
* ctime, printing or sorting by:         Sorting the output.  (line  13)
* ctime, show the most recent:           du invocation.       (line 204)
* ctlecho:                               Local.               (line  51)
* current working directory, printing:   pwd invocation.      (line   6)
* cut:                                   cut invocation.      (line   6)
* cyclic redundancy check:               cksum invocation.    (line   6)
* data, erasing:                         shred invocation.    (line   6)
* database for color setup, printing:    dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* date:                                  date invocation.     (line   6)
* date and time of day format, ISO 8601: Combined date and time of day items.
                                                              (line   6)
* date conversion specifiers:            Date conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* date format, ISO 8601:                 Calendar date items. (line  30)
* date input formats:                    Date input formats.  (line   6)
* date options:                          Options for date.    (line   6)
* date strings, debugging:               Options for date.    (line  25)
* date strings, parsing:                 Options for date.    (line  11)
* day in date strings:                   Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* day in date strings <1>:               Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  29)
* day of week item:                      Day of week items.   (line   6)
* dd:                                    dd invocation.       (line   6)
* ddrescue:                              dd invocation.       (line 346)
* debugging date strings:                Options for date.    (line  25)
* dec:                                   Combination.         (line  78)
* decctlq:                               Combination.         (line  63)
* Decode base64 data:                    base64 invocation.   (line  30)
* delay for a specified time:            sleep invocation.    (line   6)
* delaying commands:                     Delaying.            (line   6)
* deleting characters:                   Squeezing and deleting.
                                                              (line   6)
* dereferencing symbolic links:          ln invocation.       (line  42)
* descriptor follow option:              tail invocation.     (line  55)
* destination directory:                 Target directory.    (line  15)
* destination directory <1>:             Target directory.    (line  31)
* destination directory <2>:             cp invocation.       (line 345)
* destination directory <3>:             cp invocation.       (line 349)
* destination directory <4>:             install invocation.  (line 125)
* destination directory <5>:             install invocation.  (line 130)
* destination directory <6>:             mv invocation.       (line 106)
* destination directory <7>:             mv invocation.       (line 110)
* destination directory <8>:             ln invocation.       (line 171)
* destination directory <9>:             ln invocation.       (line 175)
* destinations, multiple output:         tee invocation.      (line   6)
* device file, disk:                     df invocation.       (line  30)
* df:                                    df invocation.       (line   6)
* DF_BLOCK_SIZE:                         Block size.          (line  12)
* diagnostic:                            chcon invocation.    (line  61)
* dictionary order:                      sort invocation.     (line  87)
* differing lines:                       comm invocation.     (line  18)
* digit:                                 Character sets.      (line  96)
* dir:                                   dir invocation.      (line   6)
* dircolors:                             dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* direct:                                dd invocation.       (line 206)
* direct I/O:                            dd invocation.       (line 206)
* directories, copying:                  cp invocation.       (line   6)
* directories, copying recursively:      cp invocation.       (line  96)
* directories, copying recursively <1>:  cp invocation.       (line 251)
* directories, creating:                 mkdir invocation.    (line   6)
* directories, creating with given attributes: install invocation.
                                                              (line  67)
* directories, removing:                 rm invocation.       (line  35)
* directories, removing (recursively):   rm invocation.       (line  93)
* directories, removing empty:           rmdir invocation.    (line   6)
* directory:                             dd invocation.       (line 214)
* directory check:                       File type tests.     (line  16)
* directory components, printing:        dirname invocation.  (line   6)
* directory deletion, ignoring failures: rmdir invocation.    (line  17)
* directory deletion, reporting:         rmdir invocation.    (line  31)
* directory I/O:                         dd invocation.       (line 214)
* directory listing:                     ls invocation.       (line   6)
* directory listing, brief:              dir invocation.      (line   6)
* directory listing, recursive:          Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  90)
* directory listing, verbose:            vdir invocation.     (line   6)
* directory order, listing by:           Sorting the output.  (line  20)
* directory, creating temporary:         mktemp invocation.   (line   6)
* directory, stripping from file names:  basename invocation. (line   6)
* dired Emacs mode support:              What information is listed.
                                                              (line  16)
* dirname:                               dirname invocation.  (line   6)
* disabling special characters:          Characters.          (line  12)
* disambiguating group names and IDs:    Disambiguating names and IDs.
                                                              (line   6)
* discard:                               Characters.          (line  39)
* discarding file cache:                 dd invocation.       (line 231)
* disk allocation:                       What information is listed.
                                                              (line 232)
* disk device file:                      df invocation.       (line  30)
* disk usage:                            Disk usage.          (line   6)
* disk usage by file system:             df invocation.       (line   6)
* disk usage for files:                  du invocation.       (line   6)
* disks, failing:                        dd invocation.       (line 346)
* displacement of dates:                 Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line   6)
* displaying text:                       echo invocation.     (line   6)
* displaying value of a symbolic link:   readlink invocation. (line   6)
* division:                              Numeric expressions. (line  16)
* do nothing, successfully:              true invocation.     (line   6)
* do nothing, unsuccessfully:            false invocation.    (line   6)
* DOS file system:                       df invocation.       (line 219)
* double spacing:                        pr invocation.       (line  74)
* down columns:                          pr invocation.       (line  49)
* drain:                                 Special.             (line  30)
* dsusp:                                 Characters.          (line  57)
* dsync:                                 dd invocation.       (line 220)
* DTR/DSR flow control:                  Control.             (line  44)
* du:                                    du invocation.       (line   6)
* DU_BLOCK_SIZE:                         Block size.          (line  12)
* DVD file system type:                  df invocation.       (line 215)
* ebcdic, converting to:                 dd invocation.       (line  98)
* echo:                                  echo invocation.     (line   6)
* echo <1>:                              Local.               (line  18)
* echoctl:                               Local.               (line  51)
* echoe:                                 Local.               (line  22)
* echok:                                 Local.               (line  26)
* echoke:                                Local.               (line  56)
* echonl:                                Local.               (line  29)
* echoprt:                               Local.               (line  46)
* effective user and group IDs, printing: id invocation.      (line   6)
* effective user ID, printing:           whoami invocation.   (line   6)
* Eggert, Paul:                          Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* eight-bit characters:                  Control.             (line  24)
* eight-bit characters <1>:              Combination.         (line  55)
* eight-bit input:                       Input.               (line  25)
* ek:                                    Combination.         (line  22)
* empty files, creating:                 touch invocation.    (line  11)
* empty lines, numbering:                nl invocation.       (line  82)
* endianness:                            od invocation.       (line  51)
* entire files, output of:               Output of entire files.
                                                              (line   6)
* env:                                   env invocation.      (line   6)
* environment variables, printing:       printenv invocation. (line   6)
* environment, printing:                 env invocation.      (line  45)
* environment, running a program in a modified: env invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* eof:                                   Characters.          (line  30)
* eol:                                   Characters.          (line  33)
* eol2:                                  Characters.          (line  36)
* epoch, for POSIX:                      Seconds since the Epoch.
                                                              (line  13)
* epoch, seconds since:                  Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line  32)
* equal string check:                    String tests.        (line  22)
* equal string check <1>:                String tests.        (line  25)
* equivalence classes:                   Character sets.      (line 113)
* erase:                                 Characters.          (line  24)
* erasing data:                          shred invocation.    (line   6)
* error messages, omitting:              chown invocation.    (line  79)
* error messages, omitting <1>:          chgrp invocation.    (line  30)
* error messages, omitting <2>:          chmod invocation.    (line  45)
* evaluation of expressions:             expr invocation.     (line   6)
* even parity:                           Control.             (line  13)
* evenp:                                 Combination.         (line   9)
* exabyte, definition of:                Block size.          (line 106)
* examples of date:                      Examples of date.    (line   6)
* examples of expr:                      Examples of expr.    (line   6)
* exbibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line 109)
* excl:                                  dd invocation.       (line 157)
* excluding files from du:               du invocation.       (line 252)
* excluding files from du <1>:           du invocation.       (line 257)
* executable file check:                 Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  24)
* executables and file type, marking:    General output formatting.
                                                              (line  46)
* execute/search permission:             Mode Structure.      (line  16)
* execute/search permission, symbolic:   Setting Permissions. (line  56)
* existence-of-file check:               File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line   9)
* existing backup method:                Backup options.      (line  39)
* exit status commands:                  Conditions.          (line   6)
* exit status of chroot:                 chroot invocation.   (line  78)
* exit status of env:                    env invocation.      (line 112)
* exit status of expr:                   expr invocation.     (line  43)
* exit status of false:                  false invocation.    (line   6)
* exit status of ls:                     ls invocation.       (line  29)
* exit status of mktemp:                 mktemp invocation.   (line 128)
* exit status of nice:                   nice invocation.     (line  63)
* exit status of nohup:                  nohup invocation.    (line  48)
* exit status of pathchk:                pathchk invocation.  (line  47)
* exit status of printenv:               printenv invocation. (line  23)
* exit status of realpath:               realpath invocation. (line  75)
* exit status of runcon:                 runcon invocation.   (line  50)
* exit status of sort:                   sort invocation.     (line  58)
* exit status of stdbuf:                 stdbuf invocation.   (line  69)
* exit status of test:                   test invocation.     (line  41)
* exit status of timeout:                timeout invocation.  (line  61)
* exit status of true:                   true invocation.     (line   6)
* exit status of tty:                    tty invocation.      (line  20)
* expand:                                expand invocation.   (line   6)
* expr:                                  expr invocation.     (line   6)
* expression evaluation:                 test invocation.     (line   6)
* expression evaluation <1>:             expr invocation.     (line   6)
* expressions, numeric:                  Numeric expressions. (line   6)
* expressions, string:                   String expressions.  (line   6)
* ext2 file system type:                 df invocation.       (line 211)
* ext3 file system type:                 df invocation.       (line 211)
* ext4 file system type:                 df invocation.       (line 211)
* extended attributes, xattr:            install invocation.  (line  34)
* extended attributes, xattr <1>:        mv invocation.       (line  33)
* extension, sorting files by:           Sorting the output.  (line  65)
* extproc:                               Local.               (line  61)
* factor:                                factor invocation.   (line   6)
* failure exit status:                   false invocation.    (line   6)
* false:                                 false invocation.    (line   6)
* fat file system file:                  df invocation.       (line 219)
* fdatasync:                             dd invocation.       (line 173)
* ffN:                                   Output.              (line  63)
* field separator character:             sort invocation.     (line 332)
* fields, padding numeric:               Padding and other flags.
                                                              (line   6)
* FIFOs, creating:                       mkfifo invocation.   (line   6)
* file attributes, changing:             Changing file attributes.
                                                              (line   6)
* file characteristic tests:             File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line   6)
* file contents, dumping unambiguously:  od invocation.       (line   6)
* file information, preserving:          cp invocation.       (line 234)
* file information, preserving, extended attributes, xattr: cp invocation.
                                                              (line 168)
* file mode bits, numeric:               Numeric Modes.       (line   6)
* file name manipulation:                File name manipulation.
                                                              (line   6)
* file names, canonicalization:          realpath invocation. (line   6)
* file names, checking validity and portability: pathchk invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* file names, creating temporary:        mktemp invocation.   (line   6)
* file names, stripping directory and suffix: basename invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* file offset radix:                     od invocation.       (line  36)
* file ownership, changing:              chown invocation.    (line   6)
* file sizes:                            du invocation.       (line  52)
* file space usage:                      du invocation.       (line   6)
* file status:                           stat invocation.     (line   6)
* file system disk usage:                df invocation.       (line   6)
* file system sizes:                     df invocation.       (line  54)
* file system space, retrieving current data more slowly: df invocation.
                                                              (line 174)
* file system space, retrieving old data more quickly: df invocation.
                                                              (line  84)
* file system status:                    stat invocation.     (line   6)
* file system types, limiting output to certain: df invocation.
                                                              (line  80)
* file system types, limiting output to certain <1>: df invocation.
                                                              (line 194)
* file system types, printing:           df invocation.       (line 200)
* file systems:                          stat invocation.     (line  28)
* file systems and hard links:           ln invocation.       (line   6)
* file systems, omitting copying to different: cp invocation. (line 372)
* file timestamp resolution:             File timestamps.     (line  45)
* file timestamps, changing:             touch invocation.    (line   6)
* file type and executables, marking:    General output formatting.
                                                              (line  46)
* file type tests:                       File type tests.     (line   6)
* file type, marking:                    General output formatting.
                                                              (line  57)
* file type, marking <1>:                General output formatting.
                                                              (line 106)
* file types:                            Special file types.  (line   9)
* file types, special:                   Special file types.  (line   6)
* file utilities:                        Top.                 (line  18)
* files beginning with -, removing:      rm invocation.       (line  99)
* files, copying:                        cp invocation.       (line   6)
* files, creating:                       truncate invocation. (line  11)
* fingerprint, 128-bit:                  md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* fingerprint, 160-bit:                  sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* fingerprint, 224-bit:                  sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* fingerprint, 256-bit:                  sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* fingerprint, 384-bit:                  sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* fingerprint, 512-bit:                  b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* fingerprint, 512-bit <1>:              sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* first in date strings:                 General date syntax. (line  22)
* first part of files, outputting:       head invocation.     (line   6)
* fixed-length records, converting to variable-length: dd invocation.
                                                              (line  41)
* floating point:                        Floating point.      (line   6)
* flow control, hardware:                Control.             (line  41)
* flow control, hardware <1>:            Control.             (line  44)
* flow control, software:                Input.               (line  45)
* flush:                                 Characters.          (line  39)
* flushing, disabling:                   Local.               (line  32)
* flusho:                                Local.               (line  67)
* fmt:                                   fmt invocation.      (line   6)
* fold:                                  fold invocation.     (line   6)
* folding long input lines:              fold invocation.     (line   6)
* footers, numbering:                    nl invocation.       (line  17)
* force deletion:                        shred invocation.    (line 101)
* formatting file contents:              Formatting file contents.
                                                              (line   6)
* formatting of numbers in seq:          seq invocation.      (line  28)
* formatting times:                      pr invocation.       (line  78)
* formatting times <1>:                  date invocation.     (line  20)
* fortnight in date strings:             Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* fsync:                                 dd invocation.       (line 177)
* fullblock:                             dd invocation.       (line 287)
* general date syntax:                   General date syntax. (line   6)
* general numeric sort:                  sort invocation.     (line 105)
* gibibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  94)
* gigabyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  91)
* giving away permissions:               Umask and Protection.
                                                              (line  12)
* GMT:                                   Options for date.    (line 119)
* grand total of disk size, usage and available space: df invocation.
                                                              (line 180)
* grand total of disk space:             du invocation.       (line  61)
* graph:                                 Character sets.      (line  98)
* Greenwich Mean Time:                   Options for date.    (line 119)
* group IDs, disambiguating:             Disambiguating names and IDs.
                                                              (line   6)
* group names, disambiguating:           Disambiguating names and IDs.
                                                              (line   6)
* group owner, default:                  Mode Structure.      (line  27)
* group ownership of installed files, setting: install invocation.
                                                              (line  73)
* group ownership, changing:             chown invocation.    (line   6)
* group ownership, changing <1>:         chgrp invocation.    (line   6)
* group, permissions for:                Setting Permissions. (line  25)
* groups:                                groups invocation.   (line   6)
* growing files:                         tail invocation.     (line  55)
* hangups, immunity to:                  nohup invocation.    (line   6)
* hard link check:                       File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  23)
* hard link, defined:                    ln invocation.       (line  32)
* hard links:                            dd invocation.       (line 276)
* hard links to directories:             ln invocation.       (line  88)
* hard links to symbolic links:          ln invocation.       (line 182)
* hard links, counting in du:            du invocation.       (line 123)
* hard links, creating:                  link invocation.     (line   6)
* hard links, creating <1>:              ln invocation.       (line   6)
* hard links, preserving:                cp invocation.       (line 109)
* hardware class:                        uname invocation.    (line  42)
* hardware flow control:                 Control.             (line  41)
* hardware flow control <1>:             Control.             (line  44)
* hardware platform:                     uname invocation.    (line  35)
* hardware type:                         uname invocation.    (line  42)
* hat notation for control characters:   Local.               (line  51)
* head:                                  head invocation.     (line   6)
* head of output:                        shuf invocation.     (line  31)
* headers, numbering:                    nl invocation.       (line  17)
* help, online:                          Common options.      (line  36)
* hex dump of files:                     od invocation.       (line   6)
* holes, copying files with:             cp invocation.       (line 294)
* holes, creating files with:            truncate invocation. (line  13)
* horizontal, listing files:             General output formatting.
                                                              (line 111)
* host processor type:                   uname invocation.    (line  51)
* hostid:                                hostid invocation.   (line   6)
* hostname:                              hostname invocation. (line   6)
* hostname <1>:                          uname invocation.    (line  47)
* hour in date strings:                  Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* human numeric sort:                    sort invocation.     (line 126)
* human-readable output:                 Block size.          (line  42)
* human-readable output <1>:             What information is listed.
                                                              (line 116)
* human-readable output <2>:             df invocation.       (line  59)
* human-readable output <3>:             du invocation.       (line  96)
* hup[cl]:                               Control.             (line  28)
* hurd, author, printing:                What information is listed.
                                                              (line  10)
* hyperlink, linking to files:           General output formatting.
                                                              (line  61)
* ibs:                                   dd invocation.       (line  26)
* icanon:                                Local.               (line  11)
* icrnl:                                 Input.               (line  34)
* id:                                    id invocation.       (line   6)
* idle time:                             who invocation.      (line  85)
* IEEE floating point:                   Floating point.      (line   6)
* iexten:                                Local.               (line  15)
* if:                                    dd invocation.       (line  18)
* iflag:                                 dd invocation.       (line 181)
* ignbrk:                                Input.               (line   9)
* igncr:                                 Input.               (line  31)
* ignore file systems:                   df invocation.       (line  42)
* Ignore garbage in base64 stream:       base64 invocation.   (line  36)
* ignoring case:                         sort invocation.     (line  94)
* ignpar:                                Input.               (line  15)
* imaxbel:                               Input.               (line  59)
* immunity to hangups:                   nohup invocation.    (line   6)
* implementation, hardware:              uname invocation.    (line  35)
* indenting lines:                       pr invocation.       (line 180)
* index:                                 String expressions.  (line  45)
* information, about current users:      who invocation.      (line   6)
* initial part of files, outputting:     head invocation.     (line   6)
* initial tabs, converting:              expand invocation.   (line  46)
* inlcr:                                 Input.               (line  28)
* inode number, printing:                What information is listed.
                                                              (line 123)
* inode usage:                           df invocation.       (line  69)
* inode usage, dereferencing in du:      du invocation.       (line 102)
* inode, and hard links:                 ln invocation.       (line  32)
* inodes, written buffered:              sync invocation.     (line  11)
* inpck:                                 Input.               (line  22)
* input block size:                      dd invocation.       (line  26)
* input encoding, UTF-8:                 Input.               (line  37)
* input range to shuffle:                shuf invocation.     (line  23)
* input settings:                        Input.               (line   6)
* input tabs:                            pr invocation.       (line  98)
* install:                               install invocation.  (line   6)
* intr:                                  Characters.          (line  18)
* invocation of commands, modified:      Modified command invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* isig:                                  Local.               (line   7)
* ISO 8601 date and time of day format:  Combined date and time of day items.
                                                              (line   6)
* ISO 8601 date format:                  Calendar date items. (line  30)
* ISO/IEC 10646:                         printf invocation.   (line  74)
* ISO9660 file system type:              df invocation.       (line 215)
* iso9660 file system type:              df invocation.       (line 215)
* ispeed:                                Special.             (line  16)
* istrip:                                Input.               (line  25)
* items in date strings:                 General date syntax. (line   6)
* iterations, selecting the number of:   shred invocation.    (line 105)
* iuclc:                                 Input.               (line  50)
* iutf8:                                 Input.               (line  37)
* ixany:                                 Input.               (line  55)
* ixoff:                                 Input.               (line  45)
* ixon:                                  Input.               (line  40)
* join:                                  join invocation.     (line   6)
* kernel name:                           uname invocation.    (line  66)
* kernel release:                        uname invocation.    (line  62)
* kernel version:                        uname invocation.    (line  77)
* kibibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  82)
* kibibytes for file sizes:              du invocation.       (line 111)
* kibibytes for file system sizes:       df invocation.       (line  74)
* kill:                                  kill invocation.     (line   6)
* kill <1>:                              Characters.          (line  27)
* kilobyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  78)
* Knuth, Donald E.:                      fmt invocation.      (line  19)
* language, in dates:                    General date syntax. (line  36)
* language, in dates <1>:                General date syntax. (line  40)
* last DAY:                              Day of week items.   (line  15)
* last DAY <1>:                          Options for date.    (line  11)
* last in date strings:                  General date syntax. (line  22)
* last modified dates, displaying in du: du invocation.       (line 197)
* last part of files, outputting:        tail invocation.     (line   6)
* lcase:                                 Combination.         (line  71)
* LCASE:                                 Combination.         (line  71)
* lcase, converting to:                  dd invocation.       (line 124)
* lchown:                                chown invocation.    (line 106)
* lchown <1>:                            chown invocation.    (line 111)
* lchown <2>:                            chgrp invocation.    (line  34)
* lchown <3>:                            chgrp invocation.    (line  39)
* LC_ALL:                                sort invocation.     (line  23)
* LC_ALL <1>:                            ls invocation.       (line  17)
* LC_COLLATE:                            sort invocation.     (line  23)
* LC_COLLATE <1>:                        uniq invocation.     (line  21)
* LC_COLLATE <2>:                        comm invocation.     (line  12)
* LC_COLLATE <3>:                        Sorting files for join.
                                                              (line  16)
* LC_COLLATE <4>:                        Relations for expr.  (line  22)
* LC_CTYPE:                              sort invocation.     (line  79)
* LC_CTYPE <1>:                          sort invocation.     (line  87)
* LC_CTYPE <2>:                          sort invocation.     (line  94)
* LC_CTYPE <3>:                          sort invocation.     (line 143)
* LC_CTYPE <4>:                          printf invocation.   (line  74)
* LC_MESSAGES:                           pr invocation.       (line  13)
* LC_NUMERIC:                            Block size.          (line  57)
* LC_NUMERIC <1>:                        Floating point.      (line  17)
* LC_NUMERIC <2>:                        sort invocation.     (line 105)
* LC_NUMERIC <3>:                        sort invocation.     (line 126)
* LC_NUMERIC <4>:                        sort invocation.     (line 160)
* LC_NUMERIC <5>:                        printf invocation.   (line  61)
* LC_TIME:                               pr invocation.       (line  85)
* LC_TIME <1>:                           sort invocation.     (line 150)
* LC_TIME <2>:                           Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  28)
* LC_TIME <3>:                           Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  73)
* LC_TIME <4>:                           Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  97)
* LC_TIME <5>:                           du invocation.       (line 219)
* LC_TIME <6>:                           date invocation.     (line  11)
* leading directories, creating missing: install invocation.  (line  67)
* leading directory components, stripping: basename invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* leap seconds:                          touch invocation.    (line  99)
* leap seconds <1>:                      Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line  32)
* leap seconds <2>:                      Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line  36)
* leap seconds <3>:                      Options for date.    (line 119)
* leap seconds <4>:                      Examples of date.    (line 104)
* leap seconds <5>:                      General date syntax. (line  65)
* leap seconds <6>:                      Time of day items.   (line  14)
* leap seconds <7>:                      Seconds since the Epoch.
                                                              (line  26)
* left margin:                           pr invocation.       (line 180)
* length:                                String expressions.  (line  50)
* limiting output of du:                 du invocation.       (line  74)
* line:                                  Special.             (line  46)
* line buffered:                         stdbuf invocation.   (line   6)
* line count:                            wc invocation.       (line   6)
* line numbering:                        nl invocation.       (line   6)
* line separator character:              split invocation.    (line 147)
* line settings of terminal:             stty invocation.     (line   6)
* line-breaking:                         fmt invocation.      (line  19)
* line-by-line comparison:               comm invocation.     (line   6)
* LINES:                                 Special.             (line  39)
* link:                                  link invocation.     (line   6)
* links, creating:                       link invocation.     (line   6)
* links, creating <1>:                   ln invocation.       (line   6)
* Linux file system types:               df invocation.       (line 211)
* literal conversion specifiers:         Literal conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* litout:                                Combination.         (line  59)
* ln:                                    ln invocation.       (line   6)
* ln format for nl:                      nl invocation.       (line  93)
* lnext:                                 Characters.          (line  66)
* local file system types:               df invocation.       (line 211)
* local settings:                        Local.               (line   6)
* logging out and continuing to run:     nohup invocation.    (line   6)
* logical and operator:                  Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  29)
* logical and operator <1>:              Relations for expr.  (line  17)
* logical connectives:                   Connectives for test.
                                                              (line   6)
* logical connectives <1>:               Relations for expr.  (line   6)
* logical or operator:                   Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  33)
* logical or operator <1>:               Relations for expr.  (line  11)
* logical pages, numbering on:           nl invocation.       (line  12)
* login name, printing:                  logname invocation.  (line   6)
* login sessions, printing users with:   users invocation.    (line   6)
* login time:                            who invocation.      (line  11)
* logname:                               logname invocation.  (line   6)
* long ls format:                        What information is listed.
                                                              (line 131)
* lower:                                 Character sets.      (line 100)
* lowercase, translating to output:      Output.              (line  12)
* ls:                                    ls invocation.       (line   6)
* LS_BLOCK_SIZE:                         Block size.          (line  12)
* LS_COLORS:                             General output formatting.
                                                              (line  31)
* LS_COLORS <1>:                         dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  23)
* lutimes:                               touch invocation.    (line  70)
* machine type:                          uname invocation.    (line  42)
* machine-readable stty output:          stty invocation.     (line  41)
* MacKenzie, D.:                         Introduction.        (line  29)
* MacKenzie, David:                      Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* Makefiles, installing programs in:     install invocation.  (line  29)
* manipulating files:                    Basic operations.    (line   6)
* manipulation of file names:            File name manipulation.
                                                              (line   6)
* mark parity:                           Control.             (line  16)
* match:                                 String expressions.  (line  36)
* matching patterns:                     String expressions.  (line  11)
* MD5:                                   md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* md5sum:                                md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* mebibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  89)
* mebibytes for file sizes:              du invocation.       (line 127)
* megabyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  86)
* merging files:                         paste invocation.    (line   6)
* merging files in parallel:             pr invocation.       (line   6)
* merging sorted files:                  sort invocation.     (line  53)
* message status:                        who invocation.      (line  94)
* message-digest, 128-bit:               md5sum invocation.   (line   6)
* message-digest, 160-bit:               sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* message-digest, 224-bit:               sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* message-digest, 256-bit:               sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* message-digest, 384-bit:               sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* message-digest, 512-bit:               b2sum invocation.    (line   6)
* message-digest, 512-bit <1>:           sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* Meyering, J.:                          Introduction.        (line  29)
* Meyering, Jim:                         Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* midnight in date strings:              Time of day items.   (line  21)
* min:                                   Special.             (line   7)
* minute in date strings:                Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* minutes, time zone correction by:      Time of day items.   (line  29)
* mkdir:                                 mkdir invocation.    (line   6)
* mkfifo:                                mkfifo invocation.   (line   6)
* mknod:                                 mknod invocation.    (line   6)
* mktemp:                                mktemp invocation.   (line   6)
* modem control:                         Control.             (line  38)
* modes and umask:                       Umask and Protection.
                                                              (line   6)
* modes of created directories, setting: mkdir invocation.    (line  19)
* modes of created FIFOs, setting:       mkfifo invocation.   (line  21)
* modification timestamp, sorting files by: Sorting the output.
                                                              (line  36)
* modified command invocation:           Modified command invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* modified environment, running a program in a: env invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* modify time, changing:                 touch invocation.    (line  85)
* month in date strings:                 Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* month names in date strings:           Calendar date items. (line  38)
* months, sorting by:                    sort invocation.     (line 150)
* months, written-out:                   General date syntax. (line  32)
* MS-DOS file system:                    df invocation.       (line 219)
* MS-Windows file system:                df invocation.       (line 219)
* mtime:                                 File timestamps.     (line   6)
* mtime, changing:                       touch invocation.    (line  85)
* multicall:                             Multi-call invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* multicolumn output, generating:        pr invocation.       (line   6)
* multiple changes to permissions:       Multiple Changes.    (line   6)
* multiplication:                        Numeric expressions. (line  16)
* multipliers after numbers:             dd invocation.       (line 321)
* multithreaded sort:                    sort invocation.     (line 361)
* mv:                                    mv invocation.       (line   6)
* name follow option:                    tail invocation.     (line  55)
* name of kernel:                        uname invocation.    (line  66)
* named pipe check:                      File type tests.     (line  28)
* named pipes, creating:                 mkfifo invocation.   (line   6)
* network node name:                     uname invocation.    (line  47)
* never interactive option:              rm invocation.       (line  56)
* newer files, copying only:             cp invocation.       (line 354)
* newer files, moving only:              mv invocation.       (line  83)
* newer-than file check:                 File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  15)
* newline echoing after kill:            Local.               (line  26)
* newline, echoing:                      Local.               (line  29)
* newline, translating to crlf:          Output.              (line  19)
* newline, translating to return:        Input.               (line  28)
* next DAY:                              Day of week items.   (line  15)
* next DAY <1>:                          Options for date.    (line  11)
* next in date strings:                  General date syntax. (line  22)
* NFS file system type:                  df invocation.       (line 206)
* NFS mounts from BSD to HP-UX:          What information is listed.
                                                              (line 240)
* NFS mounts from BSD to HP-UX <1>:      du invocation.       (line 266)
* nice:                                  nice invocation.     (line   6)
* niceness:                              nice invocation.     (line   6)
* nl:                                    nl invocation.       (line   6)
* nl <1>:                                Combination.         (line  18)
* nlN:                                   Output.              (line  39)
* no dereference:                        chcon invocation.    (line  26)
* no-op:                                 true invocation.     (line   6)
* noatime:                               dd invocation.       (line 261)
* nocache:                               dd invocation.       (line 231)
* nocreat:                               dd invocation.       (line 161)
* noctty:                                dd invocation.       (line 267)
* node name:                             uname invocation.    (line  47)
* noerror:                               dd invocation.       (line 170)
* noflsh:                                Local.               (line  32)
* nofollow:                              dd invocation.       (line 273)
* nohup:                                 nohup invocation.    (line   6)
* nohup.out:                             nohup invocation.    (line   6)
* nohup.out <1>:                         nohup invocation.    (line  20)
* nolinks:                               dd invocation.       (line 276)
* non-directories, copying as special files: cp invocation.   (line  96)
* non-directories, copying as special files <1>: cp invocation.
                                                              (line 251)
* non-directory suffix, stripping:       dirname invocation.  (line   6)
* nonblock:                              dd invocation.       (line 258)
* nonblocking I/O:                       dd invocation.       (line 258)
* nonblocking stty setting:              Special.             (line  30)
* none backup method:                    Backup options.      (line  31)
* none color option:                     General output formatting.
                                                              (line  24)
* none dd status=:                       dd invocation.       (line  72)
* none hyperlink option:                 General output formatting.
                                                              (line  63)
* none, sorting option for ls:           Sorting the output.  (line  51)
* nonempty file check:                   File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  12)
* nonprinting characters, ignoring:      sort invocation.     (line 143)
* nonzero-length string check:           String tests.        (line  19)
* noon in date strings:                  Time of day items.   (line  21)
* not-equal string check:                String tests.        (line  28)
* notrunc:                               dd invocation.       (line 167)
* now in date strings:                   Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  33)
* noxfer dd status=:                     dd invocation.       (line  76)
* NO_NEW_PRIVS:                          runcon invocation.   (line  22)
* nproc:                                 nproc invocation.    (line   6)
* NTFS file system:                      df invocation.       (line 219)
* ntfs file system file:                 df invocation.       (line 219)
* number of inputs to merge, nmerge:     sort invocation.     (line 262)
* numbered backup method:                Backup options.      (line  35)
* numbering lines:                       nl invocation.       (line   6)
* numbers, written-out:                  General date syntax. (line  22)
* numeric expressions:                   Numeric expressions. (line   6)
* numeric field padding:                 Padding and other flags.
                                                              (line   6)
* numeric modes:                         Numeric Modes.       (line   6)
* numeric operations:                    Numeric operations.  (line   6)
* numeric sequences:                     seq invocation.      (line   6)
* numeric sort:                          sort invocation.     (line 160)
* numeric tests:                         Numeric tests.       (line   6)
* numeric uid and gid:                   What information is listed.
                                                              (line 222)
* numeric user and group IDs:            What information is listed.
                                                              (line 222)
* numfmt:                                numfmt invocation.   (line   6)
* obs:                                   dd invocation.       (line  30)
* ocrnl:                                 Output.              (line  16)
* octal dump of files:                   od invocation.       (line   6)
* octal numbers for file modes:          Numeric Modes.       (line   6)
* od:                                    od invocation.       (line   6)
* odd parity:                            Control.             (line  13)
* oddp:                                  Combination.         (line  14)
* of:                                    dd invocation.       (line  21)
* ofdel:                                 Output.              (line  34)
* ofill:                                 Output.              (line  30)
* oflag:                                 dd invocation.       (line 185)
* olcuc:                                 Output.              (line  12)
* older-than file check:                 File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  19)
* once interactive option:               rm invocation.       (line  57)
* one file system, restricting du to:    du invocation.       (line 263)
* one file system, restricting rm to:    rm invocation.       (line  65)
* one-line output format:                df invocation.       (line 148)
* onlcr:                                 Output.              (line  19)
* onlret:                                Output.              (line  27)
* onocr:                                 Output.              (line  23)
* operating on characters:               Operating on characters.
                                                              (line   6)
* operating on sorted files:             Operating on sorted files.
                                                              (line   6)
* operating system name:                 uname invocation.    (line  58)
* opost:                                 Output.              (line   9)
* option delimiter:                      Common options.      (line  43)
* options for date:                      Options for date.    (line   6)
* or operator:                           Connectives for test.
                                                              (line  33)
* or operator <1>:                       Relations for expr.  (line  11)
* ordinal numbers:                       General date syntax. (line  22)
* ospeed:                                Special.             (line  19)
* other permissions:                     Setting Permissions. (line  27)
* output block size:                     dd invocation.       (line  30)
* output file name prefix:               split invocation.    (line  15)
* output file name prefix <1>:           csplit invocation.   (line  61)
* output file name suffix:               csplit invocation.   (line  65)
* output format:                         stat invocation.     (line  34)
* output format <1>:                     stat invocation.     (line  43)
* output format, portable:               df invocation.       (line 148)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines:      readlink invocation. (line  65)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <1>:  du invocation.       (line  26)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <2>:  basename invocation. (line  42)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <3>:  dirname invocation.  (line  31)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <4>:  realpath invocation. (line  71)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <5>:  printenv invocation. (line  19)
* output NUL-byte-terminated lines <6>:  env invocation.      (line  82)
* output of entire files:                Output of entire files.
                                                              (line   6)
* output of parts of files:              Output of parts of files.
                                                              (line   6)
* output settings:                       Output.              (line   6)
* output tabs:                           pr invocation.       (line 117)
* overwriting of input, allowed:         sort invocation.     (line 288)
* overwriting of input, allowed <1>:     shuf invocation.     (line  36)
* owned by effective group ID check:     Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  31)
* owned by effective user ID check:      Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  28)
* owner of file, permissions for:        Setting Permissions. (line  23)
* owner, default:                        Mode Structure.      (line  27)
* ownership of installed files, setting: install invocation.  (line  91)
* p for FIFO file:                       mknod invocation.    (line  28)
* pad character:                         Output.              (line  34)
* pad instead of timing for delaying:    Output.              (line  30)
* padding of numeric fields:             Padding and other flags.
                                                              (line   6)
* paragraphs, reformatting:              fmt invocation.      (line   6)
* parenb:                                Control.             (line   9)
* parent directories and cp:             cp invocation.       (line 238)
* parent directories, creating:          mkdir invocation.    (line  34)
* parent directories, creating missing:  install invocation.  (line  67)
* parent directories, removing:          rmdir invocation.    (line  22)
* parentheses for grouping:              expr invocation.     (line  31)
* parity:                                Combination.         (line  10)
* parity errors, marking:                Input.               (line  18)
* parity, ignoring:                      Input.               (line  15)
* parmrk:                                Input.               (line  18)
* parodd:                                Control.             (line  13)
* parse_datetime:                        Date input formats.  (line   6)
* parsing date strings:                  Options for date.    (line  11)
* parts of files, output of:             Output of parts of files.
                                                              (line   6)
* pass8:                                 Combination.         (line  55)
* paste:                                 paste invocation.    (line   6)
* Paterson, R.:                          Introduction.        (line  29)
* PATH:                                  env invocation.      (line  23)
* pathchk:                               pathchk invocation.  (line   6)
* pattern matching:                      String expressions.  (line  11)
* pebibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line 104)
* permission tests:                      Access permission tests.
                                                              (line   6)
* permissions of installed files, setting: install invocation.
                                                              (line  79)
* permissions, changing access:          chmod invocation.    (line   6)
* permissions, copying existing:         Copying Permissions. (line   6)
* permissions, for changing file timestamps: touch invocation.
                                                              (line  21)
* permissions, output by ls:             What information is listed.
                                                              (line 179)
* petabyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line 101)
* phone directory order:                 sort invocation.     (line  87)
* pieces, splitting a file into:         split invocation.    (line   6)
* Pinard, F.:                            Introduction.        (line  29)
* Pinard, F. <1>:                        Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line  19)
* pipe fitting:                          tee invocation.      (line   6)
* Plass, Michael F.:                     fmt invocation.      (line  19)
* platform, hardware:                    uname invocation.    (line  35)
* pm in date strings:                    Time of day items.   (line  21)
* portable file names, checking for:     pathchk invocation.  (line   6)
* portable output format:                df invocation.       (line 148)
* POSIX:                                 Introduction.        (line  11)
* POSIX output format:                   df invocation.       (line 148)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT:                       Common options.      (line  11)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <1>:                   Standards conformance.
                                                              (line   6)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <2>:                   pr invocation.       (line  85)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <3>:                   sort invocation.     (line 299)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <4>:                   sort invocation.     (line 416)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <5>:                   dd invocation.       (line 390)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <6>:                   echo invocation.     (line  65)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <7>:                   printf invocation.   (line  53)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT <8>:                   id invocation.       (line  15)
* POSIXLY_CORRECT, and block size:       Block size.          (line  12)
* pr:                                    pr invocation.       (line   6)
* prime factors:                         factor invocation.   (line   6)
* print:                                 Character sets.      (line 102)
* print machine hardware name:           arch invocation.     (line   6)
* print name of current directory:       pwd invocation.      (line   6)
* print system information:              uname invocation.    (line   6)
* print terminal file name:              tty invocation.      (line   6)
* Print the number of processors:        nproc invocation.    (line   6)
* printenv:                              printenv invocation. (line   6)
* printf:                                printf invocation.   (line   6)
* printing all or some environment variables: printenv invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* printing color database:               dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  45)
* printing current user information:     who invocation.      (line   6)
* printing current usernames:            users invocation.    (line   6)
* printing groups a user is in:          groups invocation.   (line   6)
* printing real and effective user and group IDs: id invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* printing text:                         echo invocation.     (line   6)
* printing text, commands for:           Printing text.       (line   6)
* printing the current time:             date invocation.     (line   6)
* printing the effective user ID:        whoami invocation.   (line   6)
* printing the host identifier:          hostid invocation.   (line   6)
* printing the hostname:                 hostname invocation. (line   6)
* printing the system uptime and load:   uptime invocation.   (line   6)
* printing user's login name:            logname invocation.  (line   6)
* printing, preparing files for:         pr invocation.       (line   6)
* process zero-terminated items:         head invocation.     (line  54)
* process zero-terminated items <1>:     tail invocation.     (line 186)
* process zero-terminated items <2>:     sort invocation.     (line 384)
* process zero-terminated items <3>:     shuf invocation.     (line  55)
* process zero-terminated items <4>:     uniq invocation.     (line 139)
* process zero-terminated items <5>:     comm invocation.     (line  88)
* process zero-terminated items <6>:     cut invocation.      (line  94)
* process zero-terminated items <7>:     paste invocation.    (line  72)
* process zero-terminated items <8>:     General options in join.
                                                              (line  93)
* process zero-terminated items <9>:     numfmt invocation.   (line 115)
* processes, commands for controlling:   Process control.     (line   6)
* progress dd status=:                   dd invocation.       (line  80)
* prompting, and ln:                     ln invocation.       (line  98)
* prompting, and mv:                     mv invocation.       (line  37)
* prompting, and rm:                     rm invocation.       (line  11)
* prompts, forcing:                      mv invocation.       (line  70)
* prompts, omitting:                     mv invocation.       (line  64)
* prompts, omitting <1>:                 mv invocation.       (line  77)
* prterase:                              Local.               (line  46)
* ptx:                                   ptx invocation.      (line   6)
* punct:                                 Character sets.      (line 104)
* pure numbers in date strings:          Pure numbers in date strings.
                                                              (line   6)
* pwd:                                   pwd invocation.      (line   6)
* quit:                                  Characters.          (line  21)
* quoting style:                         Formatting the file names.
                                                              (line  34)
* radix for file offsets:                od invocation.       (line  36)
* random seed:                           Random sources.      (line  31)
* random sort:                           sort invocation.     (line 189)
* random source for shredding:           shred invocation.    (line 111)
* random source for shuffling:           shuf invocation.     (line  42)
* random source for sorting:             sort invocation.     (line 304)
* random sources:                        Random sources.      (line   6)
* ranges:                                Character sets.      (line  44)
* raw:                                   Combination.         (line  43)
* read errors, ignoring:                 dd invocation.       (line 170)
* read from stdin and write to stdout and files: tee invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* read permission:                       Mode Structure.      (line  12)
* read permission, symbolic:             Setting Permissions. (line  52)
* read system call, and holes:           cp invocation.       (line 294)
* readable file check:                   Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  15)
* readlink:                              readlink invocation. (line   6)
* real user and group IDs, printing:     id invocation.       (line   6)
* realpath:                              realpath invocation. (line   6)
* realpath <1>:                          realpath invocation. (line   6)
* realpath <2>:                          realpath invocation. (line   6)
* realpath <3>:                          readlink invocation. (line   6)
* record separator character:            split invocation.    (line 147)
* recursive directory listing:           Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  90)
* recursively changing access permissions: chmod invocation.  (line  69)
* recursively changing file ownership:   chown invocation.    (line 143)
* recursively changing group ownership:  chgrp invocation.    (line  70)
* recursively copying directories:       cp invocation.       (line  96)
* recursively copying directories <1>:   cp invocation.       (line 251)
* redirection:                           Redirection.         (line   6)
* reference file:                        chcon invocation.    (line  30)
* reformatting paragraph text:           fmt invocation.      (line   6)
* regular expression matching:           String expressions.  (line  11)
* regular file check:                    File type tests.     (line  19)
* relations, numeric or string:          Relations for expr.  (line   6)
* relative items in date strings:        Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line   6)
* release of kernel:                     uname invocation.    (line  62)
* relpath:                               realpath invocation. (line  49)
* remainder:                             Numeric expressions. (line  16)
* remote hostname:                       who invocation.      (line  11)
* removing characters:                   Squeezing and deleting.
                                                              (line   6)
* removing empty directories:            rmdir invocation.    (line   6)
* removing files after shredding:        shred invocation.    (line 122)
* removing files or directories:         rm invocation.       (line   6)
* removing files or directories (via the unlink syscall): unlink invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* removing permissions:                  Setting Permissions. (line  38)
* repeat output values:                  shuf invocation.     (line  47)
* repeated characters:                   Character sets.      (line  66)
* repeated lines, outputting:            uniq invocation.     (line  63)
* repeated output of a string:           yes invocation.      (line   6)
* restricted deletion flag:              Mode Structure.      (line  49)
* restricted security context:           runcon invocation.   (line  22)
* return, ignoring:                      Input.               (line  31)
* return, translating to newline:        Input.               (line  34)
* return, translating to newline <1>:    Output.              (line  16)
* reverse sorting:                       sort invocation.     (line 183)
* reverse sorting <1>:                   Sorting the output.  (line  27)
* reversing files:                       tac invocation.      (line   6)
* rm:                                    rm invocation.       (line   6)
* rmdir:                                 rmdir invocation.    (line   6)
* rn format for nl:                      nl invocation.       (line  95)
* root as default owner:                 install invocation.  (line  91)
* root directory, allow recursive destruction: rm invocation. (line  86)
* root directory, allow recursive modification: chown invocation.
                                                              (line 124)
* root directory, allow recursive modification <1>: chgrp invocation.
                                                              (line  52)
* root directory, allow recursive modification <2>: chmod invocation.
                                                              (line  54)
* root directory, disallow recursive destruction: rm invocation.
                                                              (line  81)
* root directory, disallow recursive modification: chown invocation.
                                                              (line 119)
* root directory, disallow recursive modification <1>: chgrp invocation.
                                                              (line  47)
* root directory, disallow recursive modification <2>: chmod invocation.
                                                              (line  49)
* root directory, running a program in a specified: chroot invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* rows:                                  Special.             (line  22)
* rprnt:                                 Characters.          (line  60)
* RTS/CTS flow control:                  Control.             (line  41)
* run commands with bounded time:        timeout invocation.  (line   6)
* run with security context:             runcon invocation.   (line   6)
* runcon:                                runcon invocation.   (line   6)
* running a program in a modified environment: env invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* running a program in a specified root directory: chroot invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* rz format for nl:                      nl invocation.       (line  97)
* Salz, Rich:                            Authors of parse_datetime.
                                                              (line   6)
* same file check:                       File characteristic tests.
                                                              (line  23)
* sane:                                  Combination.         (line  26)
* scheduling, affecting:                 nice invocation.     (line   6)
* screen columns:                        fold invocation.     (line  14)
* seconds since the epoch:               Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line  32)
* section delimiters of pages:           nl invocation.       (line  63)
* security context:                      What information is listed.
                                                              (line 255)
* security context <1>:                  cp invocation.       (line 378)
* security context <2>:                  install invocation.  (line  96)
* security context <3>:                  install invocation.  (line 139)
* security context <4>:                  mv invocation.       (line 115)
* security context <5>:                  mkdir invocation.    (line  56)
* security context <6>:                  mkfifo invocation.   (line  28)
* security context <7>:                  mknod invocation.    (line  53)
* security context <8>:                  id invocation.       (line  51)
* seek:                                  dd invocation.       (line  51)
* seek_bytes:                            dd invocation.       (line 309)
* self-backups:                          cp invocation.       (line  51)
* SELinux:                               What information is listed.
                                                              (line 255)
* SELinux <1>:                           install invocation.  (line  96)
* SELinux <2>:                           id invocation.       (line  51)
* SELinux context:                       SELinux context.     (line   6)
* SELinux, context:                      SELinux context.     (line   6)
* SELinux, restoring security context:   mv invocation.       (line 115)
* SELinux, setting/restoring security context: cp invocation. (line 378)
* SELinux, setting/restoring security context <1>: install invocation.
                                                              (line 139)
* SELinux, setting/restoring security context <2>: mkdir invocation.
                                                              (line  56)
* SELinux, setting/restoring security context <3>: mkfifo invocation.
                                                              (line  28)
* SELinux, setting/restoring security context <4>: mknod invocation.
                                                              (line  53)
* send a signal to processes:            kill invocation.     (line   6)
* sentences and line-breaking:           fmt invocation.      (line  19)
* separator for numbers in seq:          seq invocation.      (line  44)
* seq:                                   seq invocation.      (line   6)
* sequence of numbers:                   seq invocation.      (line   6)
* set-group-ID:                          Mode Structure.      (line  43)
* set-group-ID check:                    Access permission tests.
                                                              (line   9)
* set-user-ID:                           Mode Structure.      (line  38)
* set-user-ID check:                     Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  18)
* setgid:                                Mode Structure.      (line  43)
* setting permissions:                   Setting Permissions. (line  41)
* setting the hostname:                  hostname invocation. (line   6)
* setting the time:                      Setting the time.    (line   6)
* setuid:                                Mode Structure.      (line  38)
* setup for color:                       dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* sh syntax for color setup:             dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  34)
* SHA-1:                                 sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* SHA-2:                                 sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* sha1sum:                               sha1sum invocation.  (line   6)
* sha224sum:                             sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* sha256sum:                             sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* sha384sum:                             sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* sha512sum:                             sha2 utilities.      (line   6)
* SHELL environment variable, and color: General output formatting.
                                                              (line  31)
* SHELL environment variable, and color <1>: dircolors invocation.
                                                              (line  23)
* shell utilities:                       Top.                 (line  18)
* shred:                                 shred invocation.    (line   6)
* shuf:                                  shuf invocation.     (line   6)
* shuffling files:                       shuf invocation.     (line   6)
* SI output:                             Block size.          (line  42)
* SI output <1>:                         What information is listed.
                                                              (line 247)
* SI output <2>:                         df invocation.       (line 167)
* SI output <3>:                         du invocation.       (line 145)
* signals, specifying:                   Signal specifications.
                                                              (line   6)
* simple backup method:                  Backup options.      (line  44)
* SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX:                  Backup options.      (line  49)
* single-column output of files:         General output formatting.
                                                              (line  10)
* size:                                  Special.             (line  39)
* size for main memory sorting:          sort invocation.     (line 316)
* size of file to shred:                 shred invocation.    (line 116)
* size of files, reporting:              What information is listed.
                                                              (line 232)
* size of files, sorting files by:       Sorting the output.  (line  32)
* skip:                                  dd invocation.       (line  46)
* skip_bytes:                            dd invocation.       (line 303)
* sleep:                                 sleep invocation.    (line   6)
* socket check:                          File type tests.     (line  31)
* software flow control:                 Input.               (line  45)
* sort:                                  sort invocation.     (line   6)
* sort field:                            sort invocation.     (line 231)
* sort stability:                        sort invocation.     (line  12)
* sort stability <1>:                    sort invocation.     (line 309)
* sort's last-resort comparison:         sort invocation.     (line  12)
* sort's last-resort comparison <1>:     sort invocation.     (line 309)
* sorted files, operations on:           Operating on sorted files.
                                                              (line   6)
* sorting files:                         sort invocation.     (line   6)
* sorting ls output:                     Sorting the output.  (line   6)
* space:                                 Character sets.      (line 106)
* space parity:                          Control.             (line  16)
* sparse:                                dd invocation.       (line 132)
* sparse files, copying:                 cp invocation.       (line 294)
* sparse files, creating:                truncate invocation. (line  13)
* special characters:                    Characters.          (line   6)
* special file types:                    Special file types.  (line   6)
* special file types <1>:                Special file types.  (line   9)
* special files:                         mknod invocation.    (line  11)
* special settings:                      Special.             (line   6)
* specifying sets of characters:         Character sets.      (line   6)
* speed:                                 Special.             (line  49)
* split:                                 split invocation.    (line   6)
* splitting a file into pieces:          split invocation.    (line   6)
* splitting a file into pieces by context: csplit invocation. (line   6)
* squeezing blank lines:                 cat invocation.      (line  36)
* squeezing empty lines:                 cat invocation.      (line  36)
* squeezing repeat characters:           Squeezing and deleting.
                                                              (line   6)
* Stallman, R.:                          Introduction.        (line  29)
* standard input:                        Common options.      (line  47)
* standard output:                       Common options.      (line  47)
* standard streams, buffering:           stdbuf invocation.   (line   6)
* start:                                 Characters.          (line  48)
* stat:                                  stat invocation.     (line   6)
* status:                                dd invocation.       (line  66)
* status <1>:                            Characters.          (line  45)
* status time, printing or sorting by:   Sorting the output.  (line  13)
* status time, show the most recent:     du invocation.       (line 204)
* stdbuf:                                stdbuf invocation.   (line   6)
* stick parity:                          Control.             (line  16)
* sticky:                                Mode Structure.      (line  49)
* sticky bit check:                      Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  12)
* stop:                                  Characters.          (line  51)
* stop bits:                             Control.             (line  32)
* strftime and date:                     date invocation.     (line  20)
* string constants, outputting:          od invocation.       (line  80)
* string expressions:                    String expressions.  (line   6)
* string tests:                          String tests.        (line   6)
* strip directory and suffix from file names: basename invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* stripping non-directory suffix:        dirname invocation.  (line   6)
* stripping symbol table information:    install invocation.  (line 113)
* stripping trailing slashes:            cp invocation.       (line 327)
* stripping trailing slashes <1>:        mv invocation.       (line  96)
* stty:                                  stty invocation.     (line   6)
* substr:                                String expressions.  (line  40)
* subtracting permissions:               Setting Permissions. (line  38)
* subtraction:                           Numeric expressions. (line  12)
* successful exit:                       true invocation.     (line   6)
* suffix, stripping from file names:     basename invocation. (line   6)
* sum:                                   sum invocation.      (line   6)
* summarizing files:                     Summarizing files.   (line   6)
* superblock, writing:                   sync invocation.     (line  11)
* supplementary groups, printing:        groups invocation.   (line   6)
* susp:                                  Characters.          (line  54)
* swab (byte-swapping):                  dd invocation.       (line 144)
* swap space, saving text image in:      Mode Structure.      (line  49)
* swtch:                                 Characters.          (line  42)
* symbol table information, stripping:   install invocation.  (line 113)
* symbol table information, stripping, program: install invocation.
                                                              (line 116)
* symbolic (soft) links, creating:       ln invocation.       (line   6)
* symbolic link check:                   File type tests.     (line  23)
* symbolic link to directory, controlling traversal of: Traversing symlinks.
                                                              (line   6)
* symbolic link to directory, never traverse: Traversing symlinks.
                                                              (line  26)
* symbolic link to directory, never traverse <1>: chown invocation.
                                                              (line 155)
* symbolic link to directory, never traverse <2>: chgrp invocation.
                                                              (line  83)
* symbolic link to directory, never traverse <3>: chcon invocation.
                                                              (line  56)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse each that is encountered: Traversing symlinks.
                                                              (line  22)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse each that is encountered <1>: chown invocation.
                                                              (line 151)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse each that is encountered <2>: chgrp invocation.
                                                              (line  79)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse each that is encountered <3>: chcon invocation.
                                                              (line  52)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse if on the command line: Traversing symlinks.
                                                              (line  18)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse if on the command line <1>: chown invocation.
                                                              (line 146)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse if on the command line <2>: chgrp invocation.
                                                              (line  74)
* symbolic link to directory, traverse if on the command line <3>: chcon invocation.
                                                              (line  47)
* symbolic link, defined:                ln invocation.       (line  42)
* symbolic links and ln:                 ln invocation.       (line 182)
* symbolic links and pwd:                pwd invocation.      (line  26)
* symbolic links, changing group:        chgrp invocation.    (line  39)
* symbolic links, changing owner:        chown invocation.    (line  83)
* symbolic links, changing owner <1>:    chown invocation.    (line 106)
* symbolic links, changing owner <2>:    chown invocation.    (line 111)
* symbolic links, changing owner <3>:    chgrp invocation.    (line  34)
* symbolic links, changing time:         touch invocation.    (line  70)
* symbolic links, copying:               cp invocation.       (line 109)
* symbolic links, copying <1>:           cp invocation.       (line 161)
* symbolic links, copying with:          cp invocation.       (line 332)
* symbolic links, dereferencing:         Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  36)
* symbolic links, dereferencing <1>:     Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  41)
* symbolic links, dereferencing <2>:     Which files are listed.
                                                              (line  83)
* symbolic links, dereferencing in du:   du invocation.       (line 117)
* symbolic links, dereferencing in du <1>: du invocation.     (line 133)
* symbolic links, dereferencing in stat: stat invocation.     (line  22)
* symbolic links, following:             dd invocation.       (line 273)
* symbolic links, permissions of:        chmod invocation.    (line  10)
* symbolic modes:                        Symbolic Modes.      (line   6)
* symlinks, resolution:                  realpath invocation. (line   6)
* sync:                                  sync invocation.     (line   6)
* sync <1>:                              dd invocation.       (line 228)
* sync (padding with ASCII NULs):        dd invocation.       (line 149)
* Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage: sync invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* synchronize disk and memory:           sync invocation.     (line   6)
* synchronized data and metadata I/O:    dd invocation.       (line 228)
* synchronized data and metadata writes, before finishing: dd invocation.
                                                              (line 177)
* synchronized data reads:               dd invocation.       (line 220)
* synchronized data writes, before finishing: dd invocation.  (line 173)
* system context:                        System context.      (line   6)
* system information, printing:          arch invocation.     (line   6)
* system information, printing <1>:      nproc invocation.    (line   6)
* system information, printing <2>:      uname invocation.    (line   6)
* system name, printing:                 hostname invocation. (line   6)
* System V sum:                          sum invocation.      (line  31)
* tab stops, setting:                    expand invocation.   (line  22)
* tabN:                                  Output.              (line  51)
* tabs:                                  Combination.         (line  66)
* tabs to spaces, converting:            expand invocation.   (line   6)
* tac:                                   tac invocation.      (line   6)
* tagged paragraphs:                     fmt invocation.      (line  40)
* tail:                                  tail invocation.     (line   6)
* tandem:                                Input.               (line  45)
* target directory:                      Target directory.    (line   6)
* target directory <1>:                  Target directory.    (line  15)
* target directory <2>:                  Target directory.    (line  31)
* target directory <3>:                  cp invocation.       (line 345)
* target directory <4>:                  cp invocation.       (line 349)
* target directory <5>:                  install invocation.  (line 125)
* target directory <6>:                  install invocation.  (line 130)
* target directory <7>:                  mv invocation.       (line 106)
* target directory <8>:                  mv invocation.       (line 110)
* target directory <9>:                  ln invocation.       (line 171)
* target directory <10>:                 ln invocation.       (line 175)
* tebibyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  99)
* tee:                                   tee invocation.      (line   6)
* telephone directory order:             sort invocation.     (line  87)
* temporary directory:                   sort invocation.     (line 353)
* temporary files and directories:       mktemp invocation.   (line   6)
* terabyte, definition of:               Block size.          (line  96)
* terminal check:                        File type tests.     (line  34)
* terminal file name, printing:          tty invocation.      (line   6)
* terminal lines, currently used:        who invocation.      (line  11)
* terminal settings:                     stty invocation.     (line   6)
* terminal, using color iff:             General output formatting.
                                                              (line  25)
* terminal, using hyperlink iff:         General output formatting.
                                                              (line  64)
* terse output:                          stat invocation.     (line  54)
* test:                                  test invocation.     (line   6)
* text:                                  dd invocation.       (line 283)
* text I/O:                              dd invocation.       (line 283)
* text image, saving in swap space:      Mode Structure.      (line  49)
* text input files:                      md5sum invocation.   (line 108)
* text utilities:                        Top.                 (line  18)
* text, displaying:                      echo invocation.     (line   6)
* text, reformatting:                    fmt invocation.      (line   6)
* this in date strings:                  Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  33)
* time:                                  touch invocation.    (line  56)
* time <1>:                              Special.             (line  11)
* time conversion specifiers:            Time conversion specifiers.
                                                              (line   6)
* time formats:                          pr invocation.       (line  78)
* time formats <1>:                      date invocation.     (line  20)
* time limit:                            timeout invocation.  (line   6)
* time of day item:                      Time of day items.   (line   6)
* time setting:                          Setting the time.    (line   6)
* time style:                            Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  24)
* time style <1>:                        du invocation.       (line 214)
* time units:                            timeout invocation.  (line  52)
* time units <1>:                        sleep invocation.    (line  11)
* time zone correction:                  Time of day items.   (line  29)
* time zone item:                        General date syntax. (line  40)
* time zone item <1>:                    Time zone items.     (line   6)
* time, printing or setting:             date invocation.     (line   6)
* timeout:                               timeout invocation.  (line   6)
* timestamps of installed files, preserving: install invocation.
                                                              (line 103)
* timestamps, changing file:             touch invocation.    (line   6)
* TIME_STYLE:                            Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line 103)
* TIME_STYLE <1>:                        du invocation.       (line 242)
* TMPDIR:                                sort invocation.     (line  64)
* TMPDIR <1>:                            sort invocation.     (line 353)
* today in date strings:                 Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  33)
* tomorrow:                              Options for date.    (line  11)
* tomorrow in date strings:              Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  29)
* topological sort:                      tsort invocation.    (line   6)
* tostop:                                Local.               (line  41)
* total counts:                          wc invocation.       (line  12)
* touch:                                 touch invocation.    (line   6)
* tr:                                    tr invocation.       (line   6)
* trailing slashes:                      Trailing slashes.    (line   6)
* translating characters:                Translating.         (line   6)
* true:                                  true invocation.     (line   6)
* truncate:                              truncate invocation. (line   6)
* truncating output file, avoiding:      dd invocation.       (line 167)
* truncating, file sizes:                truncate invocation. (line   6)
* tsort:                                 tsort invocation.    (line   6)
* tty:                                   tty invocation.      (line   6)
* two-way parity:                        Control.             (line   9)
* type size:                             od invocation.       (line 121)
* TZ:                                    pr invocation.       (line  91)
* TZ <1>:                                Formatting file timestamps.
                                                              (line  17)
* TZ <2>:                                touch invocation.    (line  35)
* TZ <3>:                                stat invocation.     (line 197)
* TZ <4>:                                who invocation.      (line  26)
* TZ <5>:                                date invocation.     (line  16)
* TZ <6>:                                Options for date.    (line 119)
* TZ <7>:                                Specifying time zone rules.
                                                              (line   6)
* u, and disabling special characters:   Characters.          (line  12)
* ucase, converting to:                  dd invocation.       (line 127)
* umask and modes:                       Umask and Protection.
                                                              (line   6)
* uname:                                 uname invocation.    (line   6)
* unblock:                               dd invocation.       (line 118)
* unexpand:                              unexpand invocation. (line   6)
* Unicode:                               printf invocation.   (line  74)
* uniq:                                  uniq invocation.     (line   6)
* unique lines, outputting:              uniq invocation.     (line 127)
* uniquify files:                        uniq invocation.     (line   6)
* uniquifying output:                    sort invocation.     (line 369)
* Universal Time:                        Options for date.    (line 119)
* unlink:                                unlink invocation.   (line   6)
* unprintable characters, ignoring:      sort invocation.     (line 143)
* unsorted directory listing:            Sorting the output.  (line  20)
* upper:                                 Character sets.      (line 108)
* uppercase, translating to lowercase:   Input.               (line  50)
* uptime:                                uptime invocation.   (line   6)
* use time, changing:                    touch invocation.    (line  48)
* use time, printing or sorting files by: Sorting the output. (line  13)
* use time, printing or sorting files by <1>: Sorting the output.
                                                              (line  43)
* use time, show the most recent:        du invocation.       (line 204)
* user IDs, disambiguating:              Disambiguating names and IDs.
                                                              (line   6)
* user information, commands for:        User information.    (line   6)
* user name, printing:                   logname invocation.  (line   6)
* user names, disambiguating:            Disambiguating names and IDs.
                                                              (line   6)
* usernames, printing current:           users invocation.    (line   6)
* users:                                 users invocation.    (line   6)
* UTC:                                   Options for date.    (line 119)
* utmp:                                  logname invocation.  (line   6)
* utmp <1>:                              users invocation.    (line  14)
* utmp <2>:                              who invocation.      (line  15)
* valid file names, checking for:        pathchk invocation.  (line   6)
* variable-length records, converting to fixed-length: dd invocation.
                                                              (line  41)
* vdir:                                  vdir invocation.     (line   6)
* verbose ls format:                     What information is listed.
                                                              (line 131)
* verifying MD5 checksums:               md5sum invocation.   (line  75)
* verifying MD5 checksums <1>:           md5sum invocation.   (line  81)
* verifying MD5 checksums <2>:           md5sum invocation.   (line  89)
* verifying MD5 checksums <3>:           md5sum invocation.   (line 117)
* verifying MD5 checksums <4>:           md5sum invocation.   (line 122)
* version number sort:                   sort invocation.     (line 177)
* version number, finding:               Common options.      (line  40)
* version of kernel:                     uname invocation.    (line  77)
* version, sorting option for ls:        Sorting the output.  (line  58)
* version-control Emacs variable:        Backup options.      (line  24)
* VERSION_CONTROL:                       Backup options.      (line  13)
* VERSION_CONTROL <1>:                   cp invocation.       (line  79)
* VERSION_CONTROL <2>:                   install invocation.  (line  41)
* VERSION_CONTROL <3>:                   mv invocation.       (line  59)
* VERSION_CONTROL <4>:                   ln invocation.       (line  82)
* vertical sorted files in columns:      General output formatting.
                                                              (line  16)
* vtN:                                   Output.              (line  59)
* wc:                                    wc invocation.       (line   6)
* week in date strings:                  Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* werase:                                Characters.          (line  63)
* who:                                   who invocation.      (line   6)
* who am i:                              who invocation.      (line  21)
* whoami:                                whoami invocation.   (line   6)
* word count:                            wc invocation.       (line   6)
* working context:                       Working context.     (line   6)
* working directory, printing:           pwd invocation.      (line   6)
* wrap data:                             base64 invocation.   (line  22)
* wrapping long input lines:             fold invocation.     (line   6)
* writable file check:                   Access permission tests.
                                                              (line  21)
* write permission:                      Mode Structure.      (line  14)
* write permission, symbolic:            Setting Permissions. (line  54)
* write, allowed:                        who invocation.      (line  94)
* wtmp:                                  users invocation.    (line  14)
* wtmp <1>:                              who invocation.      (line  15)
* xcase:                                 Local.               (line  36)
* xdigit:                                Character sets.      (line 110)
* xfs file system type:                  df invocation.       (line 211)
* XON/XOFF flow control:                 Input.               (line  40)
* year in date strings:                  Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  15)
* yes:                                   yes invocation.      (line   6)
* yesterday:                             Options for date.    (line  11)
* yesterday in date strings:             Relative items in date strings.
                                                              (line  29)
* yottabyte, definition of:              Block size.          (line 116)
* Youmans, B.:                           Introduction.        (line  29)
* zero-length string check:              String tests.        (line  15)
* zettabyte, definition of:              Block size.          (line 111)



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