uniq - phpMan

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File: coreutils.info,  Node: uniq invocation,  Next: comm invocation,  Prev: shuf invocation,  Up: Operating on sorted files

7.3 'uniq': Uniquify files
==========================

'uniq' writes the unique lines in the given 'input', or standard input
if nothing is given or for an INPUT name of '-'.  Synopsis:

     uniq [OPTION]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

   By default, 'uniq' prints its input lines, except that it discards
all but the first of adjacent repeated lines, so that no output lines
are repeated.  Optionally, it can instead discard lines that are not
repeated, or all repeated lines.

   The input need not be sorted, but repeated input lines are detected
only if they are adjacent.  If you want to discard non-adjacent
duplicate lines, perhaps you want to use 'sort -u'.  *Note sort
invocation::.

   Comparisons honor the rules specified by the 'LC_COLLATE' locale
category.

   If no OUTPUT file is specified, 'uniq' writes to standard output.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

'-f N'
'--skip-fields=N'
     Skip N fields on each line before checking for uniqueness.  Use a
     null string for comparison if a line has fewer than N fields.
     Fields are sequences of non-space non-tab characters that are
     separated from each other by at least one space or tab.

     For compatibility 'uniq' supports a traditional option syntax '-N'.
     New scripts should use '-f N' instead.

'-s N'
'--skip-chars=N'
     Skip N characters before checking for uniqueness.  Use a null
     string for comparison if a line has fewer than N characters.  If
     you use both the field and character skipping options, fields are
     skipped over first.

     On systems not conforming to POSIX 1003.1-2001, 'uniq' supports a
     traditional option syntax '+N'.  Although this traditional behavior
     can be controlled with the '_POSIX2_VERSION' environment variable
     (*note Standards conformance::), portable scripts should avoid
     commands whose behavior depends on this variable.  For example, use
     'uniq ./+10' or 'uniq -s 10' rather than the ambiguous 'uniq +10'.

'-c'
'--count'
     Print the number of times each line occurred along with the line.

'-i'
'--ignore-case'
     Ignore differences in case when comparing lines.

'-d'
'--repeated'
     Discard lines that are not repeated.  When used by itself, this
     option causes 'uniq' to print the first copy of each repeated line,
     and nothing else.

'-D'
'--all-repeated[=DELIMIT-METHOD]'
     Do not discard the second and subsequent repeated input lines, but
     discard lines that are not repeated.  This option is useful mainly
     in conjunction with other options e.g., to ignore case or to
     compare only selected fields.  The optional DELIMIT-METHOD,
     supported with the long form option, specifies how to delimit
     groups of repeated lines, and must be one of the following:

     'none'
          Do not delimit groups of repeated lines.  This is equivalent
          to '--all-repeated' ('-D').

     'prepend'
          Output a newline before each group of repeated lines.  With
          '--zero-terminated' ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL)
          instead of a newline as the delimiter.

     'separate'
          Separate groups of repeated lines with a single newline.  This
          is the same as using 'prepend', except that no delimiter is
          inserted before the first group, and hence may be better
          suited for output direct to users.  With '--zero-terminated'
          ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL) instead of a newline as
          the delimiter.

     Note that when groups are delimited and the input stream contains
     blank lines, then the output is ambiguous.  To avoid that, filter
     the input through 'tr -s '\n'' to remove blank lines.

     This is a GNU extension.

'--group[=DELIMIT-METHOD]'
     Output all lines, and delimit each unique group.  With
     '--zero-terminated' ('-z'), use a zero byte (ASCII NUL) instead of
     a newline as the delimiter.  The optional DELIMIT-METHOD specifies
     how to delimit groups, and must be one of the following:

     'separate'
          Separate unique groups with a single delimiter.  This is the
          default delimiting method if none is specified, and better
          suited for output direct to users.

     'prepend'
          Output a delimiter before each group of unique items.

     'append'
          Output a delimiter after each group of unique items.

     'both'
          Output a delimiter around each group of unique items.

     Note that when groups are delimited and the input stream contains
     blank lines, then the output is ambiguous.  To avoid that, filter
     the input through 'tr -s '\n'' to remove blank lines.

     This is a GNU extension.

'-u'
'--unique'
     Discard the last line that would be output for a repeated input
     group.  When used by itself, this option causes 'uniq' to print
     unique lines, and nothing else.

'-w N'
'--check-chars=N'
     Compare at most N characters on each line (after skipping any
     specified fields and characters).  By default the entire rest of
     the lines are compared.

'-z'
'--zero-terminated'
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in
     conjunction with 'perl -0' or 'find -print0' and 'xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).  Note with
     '-z' the newline character is treated as a field separator.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.


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