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Using the GnuPG Version 1.4
***************************

This is the 'The GNU Privacy Guard Manual' (1.4.22, 22 April 2016).

   Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
     published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the
     License, or (at your option) any later version.  The text of the
     license can be found in the section entitled "Copying".

This manual documents how to use the standalone version of GNU Privacy
Guard.

* Menu:

* Invoking GPG::        Using the classic GPG protocol.
* Specify a User ID::   How to Specify a User Id.

* Copying::             GNU General Public License says
                        how you can copy and share GnuPG
* Option Index::        Index to command line options.
* Index::	        Index of concepts and symbol names.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Invoking GPG,  Next: Specify a User ID,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Invoking GPG
**************

'gpg' is the OpenPGP only version of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It
is a tool to provide digital encryption and signing services using the
OpenPGP standard.  'gpg' features complete key management and all bells
and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

   This is the standalone version of 'gpg'.  For desktop use you should
consider using 'gpg2' from the GnuPG-2 package (1).

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to 'gpg''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* GPG Commands::            List of all commands.
* GPG Options::             List of all options.
* GPG Configuration::       Configuration files.
* GPG Examples::            Some usage examples.

Developer information:
* Unattended Usage of GPG:: Using 'gpg' from other programs.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the name 'gpg'

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Commands,  Next: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

1.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

   'gpg' may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a
reasonable action depending on the type of file it is given as input (an
encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified, a file
containing keys is listed).

   Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon
as a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
the special option '--'.

* Menu:

* General GPG Commands::        Commands not specific to the functionality.
* Operational GPG Commands::    Commands to select the type of operation.
* OpenPGP Key Management::      How to manage your keys.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: General GPG Commands,  Next: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

1.1.1 Commands not specific to the function
-------------------------------------------

'--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

'--help'
'-h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

'--warranty'
     Print warranty information.

'--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Operational GPG Commands,  Next: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: General GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

1.1.2 Commands to select the type of operation
----------------------------------------------

'--sign'
'-s'
     Make a signature.  This command may be combined with '--encrypt'
     (for a signed and encrypted message), '--symmetric' (for a signed
     and symmetrically encrypted message), or '--encrypt' and
     '--symmetric' together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
     via a secret key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing
     is chosen by default or can be set with the '--local-user' and
     '--default-key' options.

'--clearsign'
     Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signature
     is readable without any special software.  OpenPGP software is only
     needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures may modify
     end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and are not
     intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for signing is
     chosen by default or can be set with the '--local-user' and
     '--default-key' options.

'--detach-sign'
'-b'
     Make a detached signature.

'--encrypt'
'-e'
     Encrypt data.  This option may be combined with '--sign' (for a
     signed and encrypted message), '--symmetric' (for a message that
     may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase), or '--sign' and
     '--symmetric' together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
     via a secret key or a passphrase).

'--symmetric'
'-c'
     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase.  The default
     symmetric cipher used is AES128, but may be chosen with the
     '--cipher-algo' option.  This option may be combined with '--sign'
     (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), '--encrypt'
     (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a
     passphrase), or '--sign' and '--encrypt' together (for a signed
     message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

'--store'
     Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

'--decrypt'
'-d'
     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is
     specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
     '--output').  If the decrypted file is signed, the signature is
     also verified.  This command differs from the default operation, as
     it never writes to the filename which is included in the file and
     it rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted message.

'--verify'
     Assume that the first argument is a signed file and verify it
     without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
     packet is read from STDIN. If only a one argument is given, it is
     expected to be a complete signature.

     With more than 1 argument, the first should be a detached signature
     and the remaining files make up the the signed data.  To read the
     signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.  For
     security reasons a detached signature cannot read the signed
     material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

     Note: If the option '--batch' is not used, 'gpg' may assume that a
     single argument is a file with a detached signature and it will try
     to find a matching data file by stripping certain suffixes.  Using
     this historical feature to verify a detached signature is strongly
     discouraged; always specify the data file too.

     Note: When verifying a cleartext signature, 'gpg' verifies only
     what makes up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
     outside of the cleartext signature or header lines following
     directly the dash marker line.  The option '--output' may be used
     to write out the actual signed data; but there are other pitfalls
     with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext
     signatures in favor of detached signatures.

'--multifile'
     This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for
     processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
     filename on a separate line.  This allows for many files to be
     processed at once.  '--multifile' may currently be used along with
     '--verify', '--encrypt', and '--decrypt'.  Note that '--multifile
     --verify' may not be used with detached signatures.

'--verify-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --verify'.

'--encrypt-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --encrypt'.

'--decrypt-files'
     Identical to '--multifile --decrypt'.

'--list-keys'
'-k'
'--list-public-keys'
     List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given on
     the command line.

     '-k' is slightly different from '--list-keys' in that it allows
     only for one argument and takes the second argument as the keyring
     to search.  This is for command line compatibility with PGP 2 and
     has been removed in 'gpg2'.

     Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other programs
     as it is likely to change as GnuPG changes.  See '--with-colons'
     for a machine-parseable key listing command that is appropriate for
     use in scripts and other programs.

'--list-secret-keys'
'-K'
     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given on
     the command line.  A '#' after the letters 'sec' means that the
     secret key is not usable (for example, if it was created via
     '--export-secret-subkeys').

'--list-sigs'
     Same as '--list-keys', but the signatures are listed too.

     For each signature listed, there are several flags in between the
     "sig" tag and keyid.  These flags give additional information about
     each signature.  From left to right, they are the numbers 1-3 for
     certificate check level (see '--ask-cert-level'), "L" for a local
     or non-exportable signature (see '--lsign-key'), "R" for a
     nonRevocable signature (see the '--edit-key' command "nrsign"), "P"
     for a signature that contains a policy URL (see
     '--cert-policy-url'), "N" for a signature that contains a notation
     (see '--cert-notation'), "X" for an eXpired signature (see
     '--ask-cert-expire'), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above
     to indicate trust signature levels (see the '--edit-key' command
     "tsign").

'--check-sigs'
     Same as '--list-sigs', but the signatures are verified.  Note that
     for performance reasons the revocation status of a signing key is
     not shown.

     The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
     following the "sig" tag (and thus before the flags described above
     for '--list-sigs').  A "!"  indicates that the signature has been
     successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a "%" is
     used if an error occurred while checking the signature (e.g.  a non
     supported algorithm).

'--fingerprint'
     List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their
     fingerprints.  This is the same output as '--list-keys' but with
     the additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May also be
     combined with '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs'.  If this command is
     given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.

'--list-packets'
     List only the sequence of packets.  This is mainly useful for
     debugging.

'--card-edit'
     Present a menu to work with a smartcard.  The subcommand "help"
     provides an overview on available commands.  For a detailed
     description, please see the Card HOWTO at
     https://gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

'--card-status'
     Show the content of the smart card.

'--change-pin'
     Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard.  This
     functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with the
     '--card-edit' command.

'--delete-key name'
     Remove key from the public keyring.  In batch mode either '--yes'
     is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint.  This is a
     safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

'--delete-secret-key name'
     Remove key from the secret keyring.  In batch mode the key must be
     specified by fingerprint.

'--delete-secret-and-public-key name'
     Same as '--delete-key', but if a secret key exists, it will be
     removed first.  In batch mode the key must be specified by
     fingerprint.

'--export'
     Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and
     those registered via option '--keyring'), or if at least one name
     is given, those of the given name.  The exported keys are written
     to STDOUT or to the file given with option '--output'.  Use
     together with '--armor' to mail those keys.

'--send-keys key IDs'
     Similar to '--export' but sends the keys to a keyserver.
     Fingerprints may be used instead of key IDs.  Option '--keyserver'
     must be used to give the name of this keyserver.  Don't send your
     complete keyring to a keyserver -- select only those keys which are
     new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, 'gpg' does
     nothing.

'--export-secret-keys'
'--export-secret-subkeys'
     Same as '--export', but exports the secret keys instead.  The
     exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the file given with
     option '--output'.  This command is often used along with the
     option '--armor' to allow easy printing of the key for paper
     backup; however the external tool 'paperkey' does a better job for
     creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can be
     a security risk if the exported keys are send over an insecure
     channel.

     The second form of the command has the special property to render
     the secret part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU extension
     to OpenPGP and other implementations can not be expected to
     successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is to generated a
     full key with an additional signing subkey on a dedicated machine
     and then using this command to export the key without the primary
     key to the main machine.

     See the option '--simple-sk-checksum' if you want to import an
     exported secret key into ancient OpenPGP implementations.

'--import'
'--fast-import'
     Import/merge keys.  This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
     fast version is currently just a synonym.

     There are a few other options which control how this command works.
     Most notable here is the '--import-options merge-only' option which
     does not insert new keys but does only the merging of new
     signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

'--recv-keys key IDs'
     Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver.  Option
     '--keyserver' must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

'--refresh-keys'
     Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the
     local keyring.  This is useful for updating a key with the latest
     signatures, user IDs, etc.  Calling this with no arguments will
     refresh the entire keyring.  Option '--keyserver' must be used to
     give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
     preferred keyservers set (see '--keyserver-options
     honor-keyserver-url').

'--search-keys names'
     Search the keyserver for the given names.  Multiple names given
     here will be joined together to create the search string for the
     keyserver.  Option '--keyserver' must be used to give the name of
     this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search methods
     allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID"
     below.  Note that different keyserver types support different
     search methods.  Currently only LDAP supports them all.

'--fetch-keys URIs'
     Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs.  Note that different
     installations of GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP, FTP,
     LDAP, etc.)

'--update-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance.  This command iterates over all keys
     and builds the Web of Trust.  This is an interactive command
     because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
     The user has to give an estimation of how far she trusts the owner
     of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys.  GnuPG
     only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned
     to a key.  Using the '--edit-key' menu, the assigned value can be
     changed at any time.

'--check-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance without user interaction.  From time
     to time the trust database must be updated so that expired keys or
     signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust can be
     tracked.  Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this is required and
     do it automatically unless '--no-auto-check-trustdb' is set.  This
     command can be used to force a trust database check at any time.
     The processing is identical to that of '--update-trustdb' but it
     skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

     For use with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
     '--batch' in which case the trust database check is done only if a
     check is needed.  To force a run even in batch mode add the option
     '--yes'.

'--export-ownertrust'
     Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
     purposes as these values are the only ones which can't be
     re-created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
            gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

'--import-ownertrust'
     Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in 'files' (or
     STDIN if not given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case
     of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent backup of
     the ownertrust values (e.g.  in the file 'otrust.txt', you may
     re-create the trustdb using these commands:
            cd ~/.gnupg
            rm trustdb.gpg
            gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

'--rebuild-keydb-caches'
     When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
     used to create signature caches in the keyring.  It might be handy
     in other situations too.

'--print-md algo'
'--print-mds'
     Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
     STDIN. With the second form (or a deprecated "*" as algo) digests
     for all available algorithms are printed.

'--gen-random 0|1|2 count'
     Emit COUNT random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2.  If
     COUNT is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes
     will be emitted.  If used with '--armor' the output will be base64
     encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know what you
     are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

'--gen-prime mode bits'
     Use the source, Luke :-).  The output format is still subject to
     change.

'--enarmor'
'--dearmor'
     Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII armor.
     This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very
     useful.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

1.1.3 How to manage your keys
-----------------------------

This section explains the main commands for key management

'--gen-key'
     Generate a new key pair using the current default parameters.  This
     is the standard command to create a new key.

     There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
     mode.  See the the manual section "Unattended key generation" on
     how to use this.

'--gen-revoke name'
     Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To revoke
     a subkey or a signature, use the '--edit' command.

'--desig-revoke name'
     Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key.  This
     allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
     someone else's key.

'--edit-key'
     Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key management
     related tasks.  It expects the specification of a key on the
     command line.

     uid 'n'
          Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index
          'n'.  Use '*' to select all and '0' to deselect all.

     key 'n'
          Toggle selection of subkey with index 'n'.  Use '*' to select
          all and '0' to deselect all.

     sign
          Make a signature on key of user 'name' If the key is not yet
          signed by the default user (or the users given with -u), the
          program displays the information of the key again, together
          with its fingerprint and asks whether it should be signed.
          This question is repeated for all users specified with -u.

     lsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-exportable
          and will therefore never be used by others.  This may be used
          to make keys valid only in the local environment.

     nrsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revocable
          and can therefore never be revoked.

     tsign
          Make a trust signature.  This is a signature that combines the
          notions of certification (like a regular signature), and trust
          (like the "trust" command).  It is generally only useful in
          distinct communities or groups.

     Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for
     non-revocable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed
     to "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

     delsig
          Delete a signature.  Note that it is not possible to retract a
          signature, once it has been send to the public (i.e.  to a
          keyserver).  In that case you better use 'revsig'.

     revsig
          Revoke a signature.  For every signature which has been
          generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
          revocation certificate should be generated.

     check
          Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

     adduid
          Create an additional user ID.

     addphoto
          Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG
          file that will be embedded into the user ID. Note that a very
          large JPEG will make for a very large key.  Also note that
          some programs will display your JPEG unchanged (GnuPG), and
          some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

     showphoto
          Display the selected photographic user ID.

     deluid
          Delete a user ID or photographic user ID. Note that it is not
          possible to retract a user id, once it has been send to the
          public (i.e.  to a keyserver).  In that case you better use
          'revuid'.

     revuid
          Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

     primary
          Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes the
          primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
          timestamp of all affected self-signatures one second ahead.
          Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes it primary
          over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
          primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

     keyserver
          Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).  This
          allows other users to know where you prefer they get your key
          from.  See '--keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url' for more
          on how this works.  Setting a value of "none" removes an
          existing preferred keyserver.

     notation
          Set a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).  See
          '--cert-notation' for more on how this works.  Setting a value
          of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation prefixed
          with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and setting a
          notation name (without the =value) prefixed with a minus sign
          removes all notations with that name.

     pref
          List preferences from the selected user ID. This shows the
          actual preferences, without including any implied preferences.

     showpref
          More verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID.
          This shows the preferences in effect by including the implied
          preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and Uncompressed
          (compression) if they are not already included in the
          preference list.  In addition, the preferred keyserver and
          signature notations (if any) are shown.

     setpref 'string'
          Set the list of user ID preferences to 'string' for all (or
          just the selected) user IDs.  Calling setpref with no
          arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
          built-in or set via '--default-preference-list'), and calling
          setpref with "none" as the argument sets an empty preference
          list.  Use 'gpg --version' to get a list of available
          algorithms.  Note that while you can change the preferences on
          an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does not select
          keys via attribute user IDs so these preferences will not be
          used by GnuPG.

          When setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in
          the order which you'd like to see them used by someone else
          when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't include
          3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.  Note that
          there are many factors that go into choosing an algorithm (for
          example, your key may not be the only recipient), and so the
          remote OpenPGP application being used to send to you may or
          may not follow your exact chosen order for a given message.
          It will, however, only choose an algorithm that is present on
          the preference list of every recipient key.  See also the
          INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

     addkey
          Add a subkey to this key.

     addcardkey
          Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

     keytocard
          Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key if no
          subkey has been selected) to a smartcard.  The secret key in
          the keyring will be replaced by a stub if the key could be
          stored successfully on the card and you use the save command
          later.  Only certain key types may be transferred to the card.
          A sub menu allows you to select on what card to store the key.
          Note that it is not possible to get that key back from the
          card - if the card gets broken your secret key will be lost
          unless you have a backup somewhere.

     bkuptocard 'file'
          Restore the given file to a card.  This command may be used to
          restore a backup key (as generated during card initialization)
          to a new card.  In almost all cases this will be the
          encryption key.  You should use this command only with the
          corresponding public key and make sure that the file given as
          argument is indeed the backup to restore.  You should then
          select 2 to restore as encryption key.  You will first be
          asked to enter the passphrase of the backup key and then for
          the Admin PIN of the card.

     delkey
          Remove a subkey (secondart key).  Note that it is not possible
          to retract a subkey, once it has been send to the public (i.e.
          to a keyserver).  In that case you better use 'revkey'.

     revkey
          Revoke a subkey.

     expire
          Change the key or subkey expiration time.  If a subkey is
          selected, the expiration time of this subkey will be changed.
          With no selection, the key expiration of the primary key is
          changed.

     trust
          Change the owner trust value for the key.  This updates the
          trust-db immediately and no save is required.

     disable
     enable
          Disable or enable an entire key.  A disabled key can not
          normally be used for encryption.

     addrevoker
          Add a designated revoker to the key.  This takes one optional
          argument: "sensitive".  If a designated revoker is marked as
          sensitive, it will not be exported by default (see
          export-options).

     passwd
          Change the passphrase of the secret key.

     toggle
          Toggle between public and secret key listing.

     clean
          Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any
          user ID that is no longer usable (e.g.  revoked, or expired).
          Then, remove any signatures that are not usable by the trust
          calculations.  Specifically, this removes any signature that
          does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a later
          signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by keys
          that are not present on the keyring.

     minimize
          Make the key as small as possible.  This removes all
          signatures from each user ID except for the most recent
          self-signature.

     cross-certify
          Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that may
          not currently have them.  Cross-certification signatures
          protect against a subtle attack against signing subkeys.  See
          '--require-cross-certification'.  All new keys generated have
          this signature by default, so this option is only useful to
          bring older keys up to date.

     save
          Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

     quit
          Quit the program without updating the key rings.

     The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all user
     ids.  The primary user id is indicated by a dot, and selected keys
     or user ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The trust value is
     displayed with the primary key: the first is the assigned owner
     trust and the second is the calculated trust value.  Letters are
     used for the values:

     -
          No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

     e
          Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

     q
          Not enough information for calculation.

     n
          Never trust this key.

     m
          Marginally trusted.

     f
          Fully trusted.

     u
          Ultimately trusted.

'--sign-key name'
     Signs a public key with your secret key.  This is a shortcut
     version of the subcommand "sign" from '--edit'.

'--lsign-key name'
     Signs a public key with your secret key but marks it as
     non-exportable.  This is a shortcut version of the subcommand
     "lsign" from '--edit-key'.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Options,  Next: GPG Configuration,  Prev: GPG Commands,  Up: Invoking GPG

1.2 Option Summary
==================

'gpg' features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
change the default configuration.

* Menu:

* GPG Configuration Options::   How to change the configuration.
* GPG Key related Options::     Key related options.
* GPG Input and Output::        Input and Output.
* OpenPGP Options::             OpenPGP protocol specific options.
* Compliance Options::          Compliance options.
* GPG Esoteric Options::        Doing things one usually don't want to do.
* Deprecated Options::          Deprecated options.

   Long options can be put in an options file (default
"~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short option names will not work - for example,
"armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a" is not.  Do
not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any
required arguments.  Lines with a hash ('#') as the first
non-white-space character are ignored.  Commands may be put in this file
too, but that is not generally useful as the command will execute
automatically with every execution of gpg.

   Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special option
'--'.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Configuration Options,  Next: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.1 How to change the configuration
-------------------------------------

These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found
in the option file.

'--default-key NAME'
     Use NAME as the default key to sign with.  If this option is not
     used, the default key is the first key found in the secret keyring.
     Note that '-u' or '--local-user' overrides this option.

'--default-recipient NAME'
     Use NAME as default recipient if option '--recipient' is not used
     and don't ask if this is a valid one.  NAME must be non-empty.

'--default-recipient-self'
     Use the default key as default recipient if option '--recipient' is
     not used and don't ask if this is a valid one.  The default key is
     the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
     '--default-key'.

'--no-default-recipient'
     Reset '--default-recipient' and '--default-recipient-self'.

'-v, --verbose'
     Give more information during processing.  If used twice, the input
     data is listed in detail.

'--no-verbose'
     Reset verbose level to 0.

'-q, --quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

'--batch'
'--no-batch'
     Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
     '--no-batch' disables this option.  This option is commonly used
     for unattended operations.

     WARNING: Unattended operation bears a higher risk of being exposed
     to security attacks.  In particular any unattended use of GnuPG
     which involves the use of secret keys should take care not to
     provide an decryption oracle.  There are several standard
     pre-cautions against being used as an oracle.  For example never
     return detailed error messages or any diagnostics printed by your
     software to the remote site.  Consult with an expert in case of
     doubt.

     Note that even with a filename given on the command line, gpg might
     still need to read from STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that
     the input is a detached signature and no data file has been
     specified).  Thus if you do not want to feed data via STDIN, you
     should connect STDIN to '/dev/null'.

'--no-tty'
     Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
     This option is needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes prints
     warnings to the TTY even if '--batch' is used.

'--yes'
     Assume "yes" on most questions.

'--no'
     Assume "no" on most questions.

'--list-options parameters'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when listing keys and signatures (that is, '--list-keys',
     '--list-sigs', '--list-public-keys', '--list-secret-keys', and the
     '--edit-key' functions).  Options can be prepended with a 'no-'
     (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options
     are:

     show-photos
          Causes '--list-keys', '--list-sigs', '--list-public-keys', and
          '--list-secret-keys' to display any photo IDs attached to the
          key.  Defaults to no.  See also '--photo-viewer'.  Does not
          work with '--with-colons': see '--attribute-fd' for the
          appropriate way to get photo data for scripts and other
          frontends.

     show-usage
          Show usage information for keys and subkeys in the standard
          key listing.  This is a list of letters indicating the allowed
          usage for a key ('E'=encryption, 'S'=signing,
          'C'=certification, 'A'=authentication).  Defaults to no.

     show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs'
          listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-notations
     show-std-notations
     show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs' listings.  Defaults to
          no.

     show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the '--list-sigs' or
          '--check-sigs' listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key
          listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings.  Defaults
          to no.

     show-unusable-subkeys
          Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings.  Defaults to
          no.

     show-keyring
          Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show
          which keyring a given key resides on.  Defaults to no.

     show-sig-expire
          Show signature expiration dates (if any) during '--list-sigs'
          or '--check-sigs' listings.  Defaults to no.

     show-sig-subpackets
          Include signature subpackets in the key listing.  This option
          can take an optional argument list of the subpackets to list.
          If no argument is passed, list all subpackets.  Defaults to
          no.  This option is only meaningful when using '--with-colons'
          along with '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs'.

'--verify-options parameters'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when verifying signatures.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-'
     to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

     show-photos
          Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
          signature.  Defaults to no.  See also '--photo-viewer'.

     show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the signature being verified.  Defaults to
          no.

     show-notations
     show-std-notations
     show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the signature being verified.  Defaults to IETF standard.

     show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
          verified.  Defaults to no.

     show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of the user IDs on the key
          that issued the signature.  Defaults to no.

     show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature
          verification.  Defaults to no.

     show-primary-uid-only
          Show only the primary user ID during signature verification.
          That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are not shown
          with the signature verification status.

     pka-lookups
          Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses.  Note that PKA
          is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose
          information on when and what signatures are verified or to
          whom data is encrypted.  This is similar to the "web bug"
          described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

     pka-trust-increase
          Raise the trust in a signature to full if the signature passes
          PKA validation.  This option is only meaningful if pka-lookups
          is set.

'--enable-large-rsa'
'--disable-large-rsa'
     With -gen-key and -batch, enable the creation of larger RSA secret
     keys than is generally recommended (up to 8192 bits).  These large
     keys are more expensive to use, and their signatures and
     certifications are also larger.

'--enable-dsa2'
'--disable-dsa2'
     Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to
     1024 bit.  This is also the default with '--openpgp'.  Note that
     older versions of GnuPG also required this flag to allow the
     generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

'--photo-viewer string'
     This is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
     "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the photo.  "%I"
     does the same, except the file will not be deleted once the viewer
     exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the long key
     ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the extension of the
     image type (e.g.  "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of the image (e.g.
     "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of
     the image being viewed (e.g.  "f"), "%V" for the calculated
     validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for a base32 encoded hash
     of the user ID, and "%%" for an actual percent sign.  If neither %i
     or %I are present, then the photo will be supplied to the viewer on
     standard input.

     The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID 0x%k'
     STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not secure, then
     executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

'--exec-path string'
     Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and
     keyserver helpers.  If not provided, keyserver helpers use the
     compiled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the $PATH
     environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value is
     ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

'--keyring file'
     Add 'file' to the current list of keyrings.  If 'file' begins with
     a tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory.  If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if '--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

     Note that this adds a keyring to the current list.  If the intent
     is to use the specified keyring alone, use '--keyring' along with
     '--no-default-keyring'.

'--secret-keyring file'
     Same as '--keyring' but for the secret keyrings.

'--primary-keyring file'
     Designate 'file' as the primary public keyring.  This means that
     newly imported keys (via '--import' or keyserver '--recv-from')
     will go to this keyring.

'--trustdb-name file'
     Use 'file' instead of the default trustdb.  If 'file' begins with a
     tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory.  If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if '--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

'--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR.  If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable 'GNUPGHOME'
     or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

     On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
     application.  In this case only this command line option is
     considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

     To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create an
     empty file name 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the tool
     'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is than that
     directory; or, if 'gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly below a
     directory named 'bin', its parent directory.  You also need to make
     sure that the following directories exist and are writable:
     'ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and 'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for
     internal cache files.

'--pcsc-driver file'
     Use 'file' to access the smartcard reader.  The current default is
     'libpcsclite.so.1' for GLIBC based systems,
     '/System/Library/Frameworks/PCSC.framework/PCSC' for MAC OS X,
     'winscard.dll' for Windows and 'libpcsclite.so' for other systems.

'--disable-ccid'
     Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers.  This
     allows falling back to one of the other drivers even if the
     internal CCID driver can handle the reader.  Note, that CCID
     support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

'--reader-port number_or_string'
     This option may be used to specify the port of the card terminal.
     A value of 0 refers to the first serial device; add 32768 to access
     USB devices.  The default is 32768 (first USB device).  PC/SC or
     CCID readers might need a string here; run the program in verbose
     mode to get a list of available readers.  The default is then the
     first reader found.

'--display-charset name'
     Set the name of the native character set.  This is used to convert
     some informational strings like user IDs to the proper UTF-8
     encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the character set
     of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not recode
     user-supplied data.  If this option is not used, the default
     character set is determined from the current locale.  A verbosity
     level of 3 shows the chosen set.  Valid values for 'name' are:

     iso-8859-1
          This is the Latin 1 set.

     iso-8859-2
          The Latin 2 set.

     iso-8859-15
          This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

     koi8-r
          The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

     utf-8
          Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native
          UTF-8 encoding.

'--utf8-strings'
'--no-utf8-strings'
     Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF8 strings.  The
     default ('--no-utf8-strings') is to assume that arguments are
     encoded in the character set as specified by '--display-charset'.
     These options affect all following arguments.  Both options may be
     used multiple times.

'--options file'
     Read options from 'file' and do not try to read them from the
     default options file in the homedir (see '--homedir').  This option
     is ignored if used in an options file.

'--no-options'
     Shortcut for '--options /dev/null'.  This option is detected before
     an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
     prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.

'-z n'
'--compress-level n'
'--bzip2-compress-level n'
     Set compression level to 'n' for the ZIP and ZLIB compression
     algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level of
     zlib (normally 6).  '--bzip2-compress-level' sets the compression
     level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6 as
     well).  This is a different option from '--compress-level' since
     BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory for each additional
     compression level.  '-z' sets both.  A value of 0 for 'n' disables
     compression.

'--bzip2-decompress-lowmem'
     Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
     This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
     also runs at half the speed.  This is useful under extreme low
     memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed at a
     high '--bzip2-compress-level'.

'--mangle-dos-filenames'
'--no-mangle-dos-filenames'
     Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one
     dot.  '--mangle-dos-filenames' causes GnuPG to replace (rather than
     add to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this problem.
     This option is off by default and has no effect on non-Windows
     platforms.

'--ask-cert-level'
'--no-ask-cert-level'
     When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level.  If
     this option is not specified, the certification level used is set
     via '--default-cert-level'.  See '--default-cert-level' for
     information on the specific levels and how they are used.
     '--no-ask-cert-level' disables this option.  This option defaults
     to no.

'--default-cert-level n'
     The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

     0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you
     verified the key.

     1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
     own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all.  This
     is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key of a
     pseudonymous user.

     2 means you did casual verification of the key.  For example, this
     could mean that you verified the key fingerprint and checked the
     user ID on the key against a photo ID.

     3 means you did extensive verification of the key.  For example,
     this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
     owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
     hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
     the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
     key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the
     email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

     Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
     that: examples.  In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
     "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

     This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

'--min-cert-level'
     When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a
     certification level below this as invalid.  Defaults to 2, which
     disregards level 1 signatures.  Note that level 0 "no particular
     claim" signatures are always accepted.

'--trusted-key long key ID'
     Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte
     key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.  This
     option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys (or one
     of them) online but still want to be able to check the validity of
     a given recipient's or signator's key.

'--trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto'
     Set what trust model GnuPG should follow.  The models are:

     pgp
          This is the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as
          used in PGP 5.x and later.  This is the default trust model
          when creating a new trust database.

     classic
          This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

     direct
          Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated
          via the Web of Trust.

     always
          Skip key validation and assume that used keys are always fully
          valid.  You generally won't use this unless you are using some
          external validation scheme.  This option also suppresses the
          "[uncertain]" tag printed with signature checks when there is
          no evidence that the user ID is bound to the key.  Note that
          this trust model still does not allow the use of expired,
          revoked, or disabled keys.

     auto
          Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
          trust database says.  This is the default model if such a
          database already exists.

'--auto-key-locate parameters'
'--no-auto-key-locate'
     GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
     this option.  This happens when encrypting to an email address (in
     the "user AT example.com" form), and there are no user AT example.com
     keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number of the
     following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

     cert
          Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

     pka
          Locate a key using DNS PKA.

     ldap
          Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question for
          any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate
          the key using the PGP Universal method of checking
          'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

     keyserver
          Locate a key using whatever keyserver is defined using the
          '--keyserver' option.

     keyserver-URL
          In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the '--keyserver'
          option may be used here to query that particular keyserver.

     local
          Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
          allows the user to select the order a local key lookup is
          done.  Thus using '--auto-key-locate local' is identical to
          '--no-auto-key-locate'.

     nodefault
          This flag disables the standard local key lookup, done before
          any of the mechanisms defined by the '--auto-key-locate' are
          tried.  The position of this mechanism in the list does not
          matter.  It is not required if 'local' is also used.

     clear
          Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
          mechanisms given in a config file.

'--keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong'
     Select how to display key IDs.  "short" is the traditional
     8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less
     convenient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include
     an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.  Note
     that this option is ignored if the option -with-colons is used.

'--keyserver name'
     Use 'name' as your keyserver.  This is the server that
     '--recv-keys', '--send-keys', and '--search-keys' will communicate
     with to receive keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on.
     The format of the 'name' is a URI:
     'scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme is the type of
     keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap"
     for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the Graff email keyserver.
     Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may have other
     keyserver types available as well.  Keyserver schemes are
     case-insensitive.  After the keyserver name, optional keyserver
     configuration options may be provided.  These are the same as the
     global '--keyserver-options' from below, but apply only to this
     particular keyserver.

     Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally
     no need to send keys to more than one server.  The keyserver
     'hkp://keys.gnupg.net' uses round robin DNS to give a different
     keyserver each time you use it.

'--keyserver-options name=value1 '
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     the keyserver.  Options can be prefixed with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  Valid import-options or export-options may be
     used here as well to apply to importing ('--recv-key') or exporting
     ('--send-key') a key from a keyserver.  While not all options are
     available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

     include-revoked
          When searching for a key with '--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as revoked.  Note that not
          all keyservers differentiate between revoked and unrevoked
          keys, and for such keyservers this option is meaningless.
          Note also that most keyservers do not have cryptographic
          verification of key revocations, and so turning this option
          off may result in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked as
          revoked.

     include-disabled
          When searching for a key with '--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note that this
          option is not used with HKP keyservers.

     auto-key-retrieve
          This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from a
          keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are not
          on the local keyring.

          Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior
          possible.  Keyserver operators can see which keys you request,
          so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key (which
          you naturally will not have on your local keyring), the
          operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you
          verified the signature.

     honor-keyserver-url
          When using '--refresh-keys', if the key in question has a
          preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to
          refresh the key from.  In addition, if auto-key-retrieve is
          set, and the signature being verified has a preferred
          keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the
          key from.  Defaults to yes.

     honor-pka-record
          If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being verified
          has a PKA record, then use the PKA information to fetch the
          key.  Defaults to yes.

     include-subkeys
          When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets.
          Note that this option is not used with HKP keyservers, as they
          do not support retrieving keys by subkey id.

     use-temp-files
          On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with the
          keyserver helper program via pipes, which is the most
          efficient method.  This option forces GnuPG to use temporary
          files to communicate.  On some platforms (such as Win32 and
          RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

     keep-temp-files
          If using 'use-temp-files', do not delete the temp files after
          using them.  This option is useful to learn the keyserver
          communication protocol by reading the temporary files.

     verbose
          Tell the keyserver helper program to be more verbose.  This
          option can be repeated multiple times to increase the
          verbosity level.

     timeout
          Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try
          and perform a keyserver action before giving up.  Note that
          performing multiple actions at the same time uses this timeout
          value per action.  For example, when retrieving multiple keys
          via '--recv-keys', the timeout applies separately to each key
          retrieval, and not to the '--recv-keys' command as a whole.
          Defaults to 30 seconds.

     http-proxy='value'
          Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
          overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

     max-cert-size
          When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept keys up to
          this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

     debug
          Turn on debug output in the keyserver helper program.  Note
          that the details of debug output depends on which keyserver
          helper program is being used, and in turn, on any libraries
          that the keyserver helper program uses internally (libcurl,
          openldap, etc).

     check-cert
          Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one (for
          hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

     ca-cert-file
          Provide a certificate store to override the system default.
          Only necessary if check-cert is enabled, and the keyserver is
          using a certificate that is not present in a system default
          certificate list.

          Note that depending on the SSL library that the keyserver
          helper is built with, this may actually be a directory or a
          file.

'--completes-needed n'
     Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 1).

'--marginals-needed n'
     Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 3)

'--max-cert-depth n'
     Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

'--simple-sk-checksum'
     Secret keys are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
     This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP specification
     but GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against certain
     attacks.  Old applications don't understand this new format, so
     this option may be used to switch back to the old behaviour.  Using
     this option bears a security risk.  Note that using this option
     only takes effect when the secret key is encrypted - the simplest
     way to make this happen is to change the passphrase on the key
     (even changing it to the same value is acceptable).

'--no-sig-cache'
     Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
     gives a much better performance in key listings.  However, if you
     suspect that your public keyring is not save against write
     modifications, you can use this option to disable the caching.  It
     probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind of
     damage can be done if someone else has write access to your public
     keyring.

'--no-sig-create-check'
     This options is obsolete.  It has no function.

'--auto-check-trustdb'
'--no-auto-check-trustdb'
     If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has to
     be updated, it automatically runs the '--check-trustdb' command
     internally.  This may be a time consuming process.
     '--no-auto-check-trustdb' disables this option.

'--use-agent'
'--no-use-agent'
     Try to use the GnuPG-Agent.  With this option, GnuPG first tries to
     connect to the agent before it asks for a passphrase.
     '--no-use-agent' disables this option.  Note, that the tool
     'gpg-preset-passphrase', which comes with GnuPG-2, cannot be used
     to preset a passphrase for this version of GnuPG.

'--gpg-agent-info'
     Override the value of the environment variable 'GPG_AGENT_INFO'.
     This is only used when '--use-agent' has been given.  Given that
     this option is not anymore used by 'gpg2', it should be avoided if
     possible.

'--lock-once'
     Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
     release the lock until the process terminates.

'--lock-multiple'
     Release the locks every time a lock is no longer needed.  Use this
     to override a previous '--lock-once' from a config file.

'--lock-never'
     Disable locking entirely.  This option should be used only in very
     special environments, where it can be assured that only one process
     is accessing those files.  A bootable floppy with a stand-alone
     encryption system will probably use this.  Improper usage of this
     option may lead to data and key corruption.

'--exit-on-status-write-error'
     This option will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately
     terminate the process.  That should in fact be the default but it
     never worked this way and thus we need an option to enable this, so
     that the change won't break applications which close their end of a
     status fd connected pipe too early.  Using this option along with
     '--enable-progress-filter' may be used to cleanly cancel long
     running gpg operations.

'--limit-card-insert-tries n'
     With 'n' greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
     smartcard gets limited to N-1.  Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't at
     all ask to insert a card if none has been inserted at startup.
     This option is useful in the configuration file in case an
     application does not know about the smartcard support and waits ad
     infinitum for an inserted card.

'--no-random-seed-file'
     GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over
     invocations.  This makes random generation faster; however
     sometimes write operations are not desired.  This option can be
     used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

'--no-greeting'
     Suppress the initial copyright message.

'--no-secmem-warning'
     Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

'--no-permission-warning'
     Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory
     ('--homedir') permissions.  Note that the permission checks that
     GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
     they simply warn about certain common permission problems.  Do not
     assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is secure.

     Note that the warning for unsafe '--homedir' permissions cannot be
     suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker to
     place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
     suppress warnings about itself.  The '--homedir' permissions
     warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

'--no-mdc-warning'
     Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

'--require-secmem'
'--no-require-secmem'
     Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory.  Defaults to no
     (i.e.  run, but give a warning).

'--require-cross-certification'
'--no-require-cross-certification'
     When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
     cross certification "back signature" on the subkey is present and
     valid.  This protects against a subtle attack against subkeys that
     can sign.  Defaults to '--require-cross-certification' for 'gpg'.

'--expert'
'--no-expert'
     Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
     signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially
     incompatible things like generating unusual key types.  This also
     disables certain warning messages about potentially incompatible
     actions.  As the name implies, this option is for experts only.  If
     you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows you
     to do, leave this off.  '--no-expert' disables this option.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Key related Options,  Next: GPG Input and Output,  Prev: GPG Configuration Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.2 Key related options
-------------------------

'--recipient NAME'
'-r'
     Encrypt for user id NAME.  If this option or '--hidden-recipient'
     is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless
     '--default-recipient' is given.

'--hidden-recipient NAME'
'-R'
     Encrypt for user ID NAME, but hide the key ID of this user's key.
     This option helps to hide the receiver of the message and is a
     limited countermeasure against traffic analysis.  If this option or
     '--recipient' is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user ID unless
     '--default-recipient' is given.

'--encrypt-to name'
     Same as '--recipient' but this one is intended for use in the
     options file and may be used with your own user-id as an
     "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of '--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

'--hidden-encrypt-to name'
     Same as '--hidden-recipient' but this one is intended for use in
     the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hidden
     "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of '--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

'--no-encrypt-to'
     Disable the use of all '--encrypt-to' and '--hidden-encrypt-to'
     keys.

'--group name=value1 '
     Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email
     programs.  Any time the group name is a recipient ('-r' or
     '--recipient'), it will be expanded to the values specified.
     Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into a
     single group.

     The values are 'key IDs' or fingerprints, but any key description
     is accepted.  Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
     as two different values.  Note also there is only one level of
     expansion -- you cannot make an group that points to another group.
     When used from the command line, it may be necessary to quote the
     argument to this option to prevent the shell from treating it as
     multiple arguments.

'--ungroup name'
     Remove a given entry from the '--group' list.

'--no-groups'
     Remove all entries from the '--group' list.

'--local-user NAME'
'-u'
     Use NAME as the key to sign with.  Note that this option overrides
     '--default-key'.

'--try-all-secrets'
     Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all
     secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key.  This option
     forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients (created by
     using '--throw-keyids' or '--hidden-recipient') and might come
     handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Input and Output,  Next: OpenPGP Options,  Prev: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.3 Input and Output
----------------------

'--armor'
'-a'
     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary
     OpenPGP format.

'--no-armor'
     Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

'--output FILE'
'-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE.

'--max-output n'
     This option sets a limit on the number of bytes that will be
     generated when processing a file.  Since OpenPGP supports various
     levels of compression, it is possible that the plaintext of a given
     message may be significantly larger than the original OpenPGP
     message.  While GnuPG works properly with such messages, there is
     often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be generated
     before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.  Defaults to
     0, which means "no limit".

'--import-options parameters'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     importing keys.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  The options are:

     import-local-sigs
          Allow importing key signatures marked as "local".  This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

     keep-ownertrust
          Normally possible still existing ownertrust values of a key
          are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
          desirable so that a formerly deleted key does not
          automatically gain an ownertrust values merely due to import.
          On the other hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import a
          trusted set of keys again but keeping already assigned
          ownertrust values.  This can be achieved by using this option.

     repair-pks-subkey-bug
          During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS
          keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with
          multiple subkeys.  Note that this cannot completely repair the
          damaged key as some crucial data is removed by the keyserver,
          but it does at least give you back one subkey.  Defaults to no
          for regular '--import' and to yes for keyserver '--recv-keys'.

     merge-only
          During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not
          allow any new keys to be imported.  Defaults to no.

     import-clean
          After import, compact (remove all signatures except the
          self-signature) any user IDs from the new key that are not
          usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key that are
          not usable.  This includes signatures that were issued by keys
          that are not present on the keyring.  This option is the same
          as running the '--edit-key' command "clean" after import.
          Defaults to no.

     import-minimal
          Import the smallest key possible.  This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

'--export-options parameters'
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     exporting keys.  Options can be prepended with a 'no-' to give the
     opposite meaning.  The options are:

     export-local-sigs
          Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local".  This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

     export-attributes
          Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.  This
          is useful to export keys if they are going to be used by an
          OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute user IDs.
          Defaults to yes.

     export-sensitive-revkeys
          Include designated revoker information that was marked as
          "sensitive".  Defaults to no.

     export-reset-subkey-passwd
          When using the '--export-secret-subkeys' command, this option
          resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to empty.
          This is useful when the exported subkey is to be used on an
          unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't necessarily make
          sense.  Defaults to no.

     export-clean
          Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key being
          exported if the user IDs are not usable.  Also, do not export
          any signatures that are not usable.  This includes signatures
          that were issued by keys that are not present on the keyring.
          This option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "clean" before export except that the local copy of the key is
          not modified.  Defaults to no.

     export-minimal
          Export the smallest key possible.  This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the '--edit-key' command
          "minimize" before export except that the local copy of the key
          is not modified.  Defaults to no.

'--with-colons'
     Print key listings delimited by colons.  Note that the output will
     be encoded in UTF-8 regardless of any '--display-charset' setting.
     This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts and other
     programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The details of this
     format are documented in the file 'doc/DETAILS', which is included
     in the GnuPG source distribution.

'--fixed-list-mode'
     Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in '--with-colon'
     listing mode and print all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.

'--with-fingerprint'
     Same as the command '--fingerprint' but changes only the format of
     the output and may be used together with another command.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: OpenPGP Options,  Next: Compliance Options,  Prev: GPG Input and Output,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.4 OpenPGP protocol specific options.
----------------------------------------

'-t, --textmode'
'--no-textmode'
     Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical
     text form with standard "CRLF" line endings.  This also sets the
     necessary flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted or
     signed data is text and may need its line endings converted back to
     whatever the local system uses.  This option is useful when
     communicating between two platforms that have different line ending
     conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
     '--no-textmode' disables this option, and is the default.

     If '-t' (but not '--textmode') is used together with armoring and
     signing, this enables clearsigned messages.  This kludge is needed
     for command-line compatibility with command-line versions of PGP;
     normally you would use '--sign' or '--clearsign' to select the type
     of the signature.

'--force-v3-sigs'
'--no-force-v3-sigs'
     OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4 signatures
     but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures on key
     material.  This option forces v3 signatures for signatures on data.
     Note that this option implies '--no-ask-sig-expire', and unsets
     '--sig-policy-url', '--sig-notation', and '--sig-keyserver-url', as
     these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.
     '--no-force-v3-sigs' disables this option.  Defaults to no.

'--force-v4-certs'
'--no-force-v4-certs'
     Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys.  This option also
     changes the default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
     SHA-1.  '--no-force-v4-certs' disables this option.

'--force-mdc'
     Force the use of encryption with a modification detection code.
     This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a blocksize
     greater than 64 bits), or if all of the recipient keys indicate MDC
     support in their feature flags.

'--disable-mdc'
     Disable the use of the modification detection code.  Note that by
     using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
     message modification attack.

'--personal-cipher-preferences string'
     Set the list of personal cipher preferences to 'string'.  Use 'gpg
     --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use 'none' to
     set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override
     the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG will
     only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The
     most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used for the
     '--symmetric' encryption command.

'--personal-digest-preferences string'
     Set the list of personal digest preferences to 'string'.  Use 'gpg
     --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use 'none' to
     set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override
     the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG will
     only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The
     most highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is also used when
     signing without encryption (e.g.  '--clearsign' or '--sign').

'--personal-compress-preferences string'
     Set the list of personal compression preferences to 'string'.  Use
     'gpg --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use
     'none' to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely
     override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
     GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
     The most highly ranked compression algorithm in this list is also
     used when there are no recipient keys to consider (e.g.
     '--symmetric').

'--s2k-cipher-algo name'
     Use 'name' as the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
     The default cipher is AES128.  This cipher is also used for
     conventional encryption if '--personal-cipher-preferences' and
     '--cipher-algo' is not given.

'--s2k-digest-algo name'
     Use 'name' as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
     The default algorithm is SHA-1.

'--s2k-mode n'
     Selects how passphrases are mangled.  If 'n' is 0 a plain
     passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a salt
     to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole process
     a number of times (see -s2k-count).  Unless '--rfc1991' is used,
     this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

'--s2k-count n'
     Specify how many times the passphrase mangling is repeated.  This
     value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.  The default
     is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note that not all values in the
     1024-65011712 range are legal and if an illegal value is selected,
     GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This option is
     only meaningful if '--s2k-mode' is 3.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Compliance Options,  Next: GPG Esoteric Options,  Prev: OpenPGP Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.5 Compliance options
------------------------

These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only one of these
options may be active at a time.  Note that the default setting of this
is nearly always the correct one.  See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

'--gnupg'
     Use standard GnuPG behavior.  This is essentially OpenPGP behavior
     (see '--openpgp'), but with some additional workarounds for common
     compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This is the
     default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may be useful
     to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

'--openpgp'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
     behavior.  Use this option to reset all previous options like
     '--s2k-*', '--cipher-algo', '--digest-algo' and '--compress-algo'
     to OpenPGP compliant values.  All PGP workarounds are disabled.

'--rfc4880'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
     behavior.  Note that this is currently the same thing as
     '--openpgp'.

'--rfc2440'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
     behavior.

'--rfc1991'
     Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.  This option is
     deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.

'--pgp2'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and warn
     if an action is taken (e.g.  encrypting to a non-RSA key) that will
     create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to handle.  Note
     that 'PGP 2.x' here means 'MIT PGP 2.6.2'.  There are other
     versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is a good common
     baseline.

     This option implies '--rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
     --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --allow-weak-digest-algos
     --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP'.  It also
     disables '--textmode' when encrypting.

     This option is deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.  The reason
     for dropping PGP-2 support is that the PGP 2 format is not anymore
     considered safe (for example due to the use of the broken MD5
     algorithm).  Note that the decryption of PGP-2 created messages
     will continue to work.

'--pgp6'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible.  This
     restricts you to the ciphers IDEA (if the IDEA plugin is
     installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
     and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
     -throw-keyids, and making signatures with signing subkeys as PGP 6
     does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

     This option implies '--disable-mdc --escape-from-lines
     --force-v3-sigs'.

'--pgp7'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible.  This is
     identical to '--pgp6' except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
     list of allowable ciphers is expanded to add AES128, AES192,
     AES256, and TWOFISH.

'--pgp8'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible.  PGP 8 is
     a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions of PGP,
     so all this does is disable '--throw-keyids' and set
     '--escape-from-lines'.  All algorithms are allowed except for the
     SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Esoteric Options,  Next: Deprecated Options,  Prev: Compliance Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.6 Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.
--------------------------------------------------

'-n'
'--dry-run'
     Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

'--list-only'
     Changes the behaviour of some commands.  This is like '--dry-run'
     but different in some cases.  The semantic of this command may be
     extended in the future.  Currently it only skips the actual
     decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of the
     encryption keys.

'-i'
'--interactive'
     Prompt before overwriting any files.

'--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

     'none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.
     'basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.
     'guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get.  A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program.  They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

'--debug FLAGS'
     Set debugging flags.  All flags are or-ed and FLAGS may be given in
     C syntax (e.g.  0x0042).

'--debug-all'
     Set all useful debugging flags.

'--debug-ccid-driver'
     Enable debug output from the included CCID driver for smartcards.
     Note that this option is only available on some system.

'--enable-progress-filter'
     Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs.  This option allows
     frontends to display a progress indicator while gpg is processing
     larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

'--status-fd n'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor 'n'.  See the
     file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

'--status-file file'
     Same as '--status-fd', except the status data is written to file
     'file'.

'--logger-fd n'
     Write log output to file descriptor 'n' and not to STDERR.

'--log-file file'
'--logger-file file'
     Same as '--logger-fd', except the logger data is written to file
     'file'.  Note that '--log-file' is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

'--attribute-fd n'
     Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor 'n'.  This is
     most useful for use with '--status-fd', since the status messages
     are needed to separate out the various subpackets from the stream
     delivered to the file descriptor.

'--attribute-file file'
     Same as '--attribute-fd', except the attribute data is written to
     file 'file'.

'--comment string'
'--no-comments'
     Use 'string' as a comment string in clear text signatures and ASCII
     armored messages or keys (see '--armor').  The default behavior is
     not to use a comment string.  '--comment' may be repeated multiple
     times to get multiple comment strings.  '--no-comments' removes all
     comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single comment
     below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail programs wrapping
     such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all other header lines,
     are not protected by the signature.

'--emit-version'
'--no-emit-version'
     Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.  If
     given once only the name of the program and the major number is
     emitted, given twice the minor is also emitted, given triple the
     micro is added, and given quad an operating system identification
     is also emitted.  '--no-emit-version' (default) disables the
     version line.

'--sig-notation name=value'
'--cert-notation name=value'
'-N, --set-notation name=value'
     Put the name value pair into the signature as notation data.
     'name' must consist only of printable characters or spaces, and
     must contain a '@' character in the form keyname AT domain.com
     (substituting the appropriate keyname and domain name, of course).
     This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation
     namespace.  The '--expert' flag overrides the '@' check.  'value'
     may be any printable string; it will be encoded in UTF8, so you
     should check that your '--display-charset' is set correctly.  If
     you prefix 'name' with an exclamation mark (!), the notation data
     will be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).  '--sig-notation'
     sets a notation for data signatures.  '--cert-notation' sets a
     notation for key signatures (certifications).  '--set-notation'
     sets both.

     There are special codes that may be used in notation names.  "%k"
     will be expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K" into
     the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fingerprint
     of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the key making the
     signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key making the
     signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key making the
     signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint of
     the primary key of the key making the signature, "%c" into the
     signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%" results in a
     single "%".  %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful when making a key
     signature (certification), and %c is only meaningful when using the
     OpenPGP smartcard.

'--sig-policy-url string'
'--cert-policy-url string'
'--set-policy-url string'
     Use 'string' as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).  If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL packet
     will be flagged as critical.  '--sig-policy-url' sets a policy url
     for data signatures.  '--cert-policy-url' sets a policy url for key
     signatures (certifications).  '--set-policy-url' sets both.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

'--sig-keyserver-url string'
     Use 'string' as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures.  If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL
     packet will be flagged as critical.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

'--set-filename string'
     Use 'string' as the filename which is stored inside messages.  This
     overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename of the
     file being encrypted.

'--for-your-eyes-only'
'--no-for-your-eyes-only'
     Set the 'for your eyes only' flag in the message.  This causes
     GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the '--output' option is
     given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed
     Tempest-resistant font to display the message.  This option
     overrides '--set-filename'.  '--no-for-your-eyes-only' disables
     this option.

'--use-embedded-filename'
'--no-use-embedded-filename'
     Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data.  This can
     be a dangerous option as it enables overwriting files.  Defaults to
     no.

'--cipher-algo name'
     Use 'name' as cipher algorithm.  Running the program with the
     command '--version' yields a list of supported algorithms.  If this
     is not used the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
     stored with the key.  In general, you do not want to use this
     option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     '--personal-cipher-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

'--digest-algo name'
     Use 'name' as the message digest algorithm.  Running the program
     with the command '--version' yields a list of supported algorithms.
     In general, you do not want to use this option as it allows you to
     violate the OpenPGP standard.  '--personal-digest-preferences' is
     the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

'--compress-algo name'
     Use compression algorithm 'name'.  "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB
     compression.  "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by
     PGP. "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme that can compress
     some things better than zip or zlib, but at the cost of more memory
     used during compression and decompression.  "uncompressed" or
     "none" disables compression.  If this option is not used, the
     default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to see
     which algorithms the recipient supports.  If all else fails, ZIP is
     used for maximum compatibility.

     ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the
     compression window size is not limited to 8k.  BZIP2 may give even
     better compression results than that, but will use a significantly
     larger amount of memory while compressing and decompressing.  This
     may be significant in low memory situations.  Note, however, that
     PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression.  Using any
     algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the message unreadable
     with PGP. In general, you do not want to use this option as it
     allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     '--personal-compress-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

'--cert-digest-algo name'
     Use 'name' as the message digest algorithm used when signing a key.
     Running the program with the command '--version' yields a list of
     supported algorithms.  Be aware that if you choose an algorithm
     that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations do not, then
     some users will not be able to use the key signatures you make, or
     quite possibly your entire key.

'--disable-cipher-algo name'
     Never allow the use of 'name' as cipher algorithm.  The given name
     will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get
     disabled.

'--disable-pubkey-algo name'
     Never allow the use of 'name' as public key algorithm.  The given
     name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
     still get disabled.

'--throw-keyids'
'--no-throw-keyids'
     Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages.  This
     helps to hide the receivers of the message and is a limited
     countermeasure against traffic analysis.(1)  On the receiving side,
     it may slow down the decryption process because all available
     secret keys must be tried.  '--no-throw-keyids' disables this
     option.  This option is essentially the same as using
     '--hidden-recipient' for all recipients.

'--not-dash-escaped'
     This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
     they can be used for patch files.  You should not send such an
     armored file via email because all spaces and line endings are
     hashed too.  You can not use this option for data which has 5
     dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.  A
     special armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
     signature option.

'--escape-from-lines'
'--no-escape-from-lines'
     Because some mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From "
     it is good to handle such lines in a special way when creating
     cleartext signatures to prevent the mail system from breaking the
     signature.  Note that all other PGP versions do it this way too.
     Enabled by default.  '--no-escape-from-lines' disables this option.

'--passphrase-repeat n'
     Specify how many times 'gpg' will request a new passphrase be
     repeated.  This is useful for helping memorize a passphrase.
     Defaults to 1 repetition.

'--passphrase-fd n'
     Read the passphrase from file descriptor 'n'.  Only the first line
     will be read from file descriptor 'n'.  If you use 0 for 'n', the
     passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if only
     one passphrase is supplied.

'--passphrase-file file'
     Read the passphrase from file 'file'.  Only the first line will be
     read from file 'file'.  This can only be used if only one
     passphrase is supplied.  Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
     is of questionable security if other users can read this file.
     Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

'--passphrase string'
     Use 'string' as the passphrase.  This can only be used if only one
     passphrase is supplied.  Obviously, this is of very questionable
     security on a multi-user system.  Don't use this option if you can
     avoid it.

'--command-fd n'
     This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
     If this option is enabled, user input on questions is not expected
     from the TTY but from the given file descriptor.  It should be used
     together with '--status-fd'.  See the file doc/DETAILS in the
     source distribution for details on how to use it.

'--command-file file'
     Same as '--command-fd', except the commands are read out of file
     'file'

'--allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
'--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
     Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not
     self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user ID
     is trivial to forge.  '--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid' disables.

'--allow-freeform-uid'
     Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
     new one.  This option should only be used in very special
     environments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
     user IDs.

'--ignore-time-conflict'
     GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and
     signatures have plausible values.  However, sometimes a signature
     seems to be older than the key due to clock problems.  This option
     makes these checks just a warning.  See also '--ignore-valid-from'
     for timestamp issues on subkeys.

'--ignore-valid-from'
     GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the
     future.  This option allows the use of such keys and thus exhibits
     the pre-1.0.7 behaviour.  You should not use this option unless
     there is some clock problem.  See also '--ignore-time-conflict' for
     timestamp issues with signatures.

'--ignore-crc-error'
     The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
     against transmission errors.  Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
     somewhere on the transmission channel but the actual content (which
     is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still okay.  This
     option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

'--ignore-mdc-error'
     This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a
     warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt, but
     it is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the corrupt
     message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection failure may also
     mean that the message was tampered with intentionally by an
     attacker.

'--allow-weak-digest-algos'
     Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms are normally
     rejected with an "invalid digest algorithm" message.  This option
     allows the verification of signatures made with such weak
     algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
     default.  See also '--weak-digest' to reject other digest
     algorithms.

'--weak-digest name'
     Treat the specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made over
     weak digests algorithms are normally rejected.  This option can be
     supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should be considered
     weak.  See also '--allow-weak-digest-algos' to disable rejection of
     weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and does not need to
     be listed explicitly.

'--no-default-keyring'
     Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings.  Note that
     GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use this
     option and do not provide alternate keyrings via '--keyring' or
     '--secret-keyring', then GnuPG will still use the default public or
     secret keyrings.

'--skip-verify'
     Skip the signature verification step.  This may be used to make the
     decryption faster if the signature verification is not needed.

'--with-key-data'
     Print key listings delimited by colons (like '--with-colons') and
     print the public key data.

'--fast-list-mode'
     Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
     achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some applications don't need
     the user ID and the trust information given in the listings.  By
     using this options they can get a faster listing.  The exact
     behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you are
     missing some information, don't use this option.

'--no-literal'
     This is not for normal use.  Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

'--set-filesize'
     This is not for normal use.  Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

'--show-session-key'
     Display the session key used for one message.  See
     '--override-session-key' for the counterpart of this option.

     We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
     have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal the
     content of one specific message without compromising all messages
     ever encrypted for one secret key.  DON'T USE IT UNLESS YOU ARE
     REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

'--override-session-key string'
     Don't use the public key but the session key 'string'.  The format
     of this string is the same as the one printed by
     '--show-session-key'.  This option is normally not used but comes
     handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content of an
     encrypted message; using this option you can do this without
     handing out the secret key.

'--ask-sig-expire'
'--no-ask-sig-expire'
     When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
     this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     '--default-sig-expire' is used.  '--no-ask-sig-expire' disables
     this option.

'--default-sig-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for signature expiration.  Valid
     values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d
     (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for years) (for
     example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years), or an
     absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

'--ask-cert-expire'
'--no-ask-cert-expire'
     When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
     this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     '--default-cert-expire' is used.  '--no-ask-cert-expire' disables
     this option.

'--default-cert-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
     Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
     letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
     years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years),
     or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

'--allow-secret-key-import'
     This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

'--allow-multiple-messages'
'--no-allow-multiple-messages'
     Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a single
     file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not prepared to
     deal with multiple messages being processed together, so this
     option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior to 1.4.7
     always allowed multiple messages.

     Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary
     workaround!

'--enable-special-filenames'
     This options enables a mode in which filenames of the form '-&n',
     where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file
     descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

'--no-expensive-trust-checks'
     Experimental use only.

'--preserve-permissions'
     Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user
     read/write only.  Use this option only if you really know what you
     are doing.

'--default-preference-list string'
     Set the list of default preferences to 'string'.  This preference
     list is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in
     the edit menu.

'--default-keyserver-url name'
     Set the default keyserver URL to 'name'.  This keyserver will be
     used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
     key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

'--list-config'
     Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
     option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to perform
     tasks, and is thus not generally useful.  See the file
     'doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of which
     configuration items may be listed.  '--list-config' is only usable
     with '--with-colons' set.

'--gpgconf-list'
     This command is similar to '--list-config' but in general only
     internally used by the 'gpgconf' tool.

'--gpgconf-test'
     This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the
     configuration file and returns with failure if the configuration
     file would prevent 'gpg' from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
     a syntax check on the configuration file.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Using a little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt
the message can check whether one of the other recipients is the one he
suspects.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Deprecated Options,  Prev: GPG Esoteric Options,  Up: GPG Options

1.2.7 Deprecated options
------------------------

'--load-extension name'
     Load an extension module.  If 'name' does not contain a slash it is
     searched for in the directory configured when GnuPG was built
     (generally "/usr/local/lib/gnupg").  Extensions are not generally
     useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.

'--show-photos'
'--no-show-photos'
     Causes '--list-keys', '--list-sigs', '--list-public-keys',
     '--list-secret-keys', and verifying a signature to also display the
     photo ID attached to the key, if any.  See also '--photo-viewer'.
     These options are deprecated.  Use '--list-options
     [no-]show-photos' and/or '--verify-options [no-]show-photos'
     instead.

'--show-keyring'
     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which
     keyring a given key resides on.  This option is deprecated: use
     '--list-options [no-]show-keyring' instead.

'--ctapi-driver file'
     Use 'file' to access the smartcard reader.  The current default is
     'libtowitoko.so'.  Note that the use of this interface is
     deprecated; it may be removed in future releases.

'--always-trust'
     Identical to '--trust-model always'.  This option is deprecated.

'--show-notation'
'--no-show-notation'
     Show signature notations in the '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs'
     listings as well as when verifying a signature with a notation in
     it.  These options are deprecated.  Use '--list-options
     [no-]show-notation' and/or '--verify-options [no-]show-notation'
     instead.

'--show-policy-url'
'--no-show-policy-url'
     Show policy URLs in the '--list-sigs' or '--check-sigs' listings as
     well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL in it.  These
     options are deprecated.  Use '--list-options [no-]show-policy-url'
     and/or '--verify-options [no-]show-policy-url' instead.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Configuration,  Next: GPG Examples,  Prev: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

1.3 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
'gpg''s operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
directory (*note option --homedir::).

'gpg.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by 'gpg' on startup.
     It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
     not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This default
     name may be changed on the command line (*note gpg-option
     --options::).  You should backup this file.

   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.

   For internal purposes 'gpg' creates and maintains a few other files;
They all live in in the current home directory (*note option
--homedir::).  Only the 'gpg' may modify these files.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg'
     The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the public keyring.

'~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'
'~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock'
     A public keyring and its lock file used by GnuPG versions >= 2.  It
     is ignored by GnuPG 1.x

'~/.gnupg/secring.gpg'
     The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

'~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg'
     The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
     better to backup the ownertrust values (*note option
     --export-ownertrust::).

'~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the trust database.

'~/.gnupg/random_seed'
     A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

'~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the secret keyring.

'~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/'
     This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation
     certificates.  The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP fingerprint
     of the respective key.  It is suggested to backup those
     certificates and if the primary private key is not stored on the
     disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can
     access theses files is able to revoke the corresponding key.  You
     may want to print them out.  You should backup all files in this
     directory and take care to keep this backup closed away.

'/usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel'
     The skeleton options file.

'/usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/'
     Default location for extensions.

   Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

HOME
     Used to locate the default home directory.

GNUPGHOME
     If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

GPG_AGENT_INFO
     Used to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when
     '--use-agent' is set.

     The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first is the
     path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-agent
     and the protocol version which should be set to 1.  When starting
     the gpg-agent as described in its documentation, this variable is
     set to the correct value.  The option '--gpg-agent-info' can be
     used to override it.

PINENTRY_USER_DATA
     This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
     convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

COLUMNS
LINES
     Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

LANGUAGE
     Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
     override the language selection done through the Registry.  If used
     and set to a valid and available language name (LANGID), the file
     with the translation is loaded from

     'GPGDIR/gnupg.nls/LANGID.mo'.  Here GPGDIR is the directory out of
     which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
     Registry is tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
     system is used.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: GPG Examples,  Next: Unattended Usage of GPG,  Prev: GPG Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPG

1.4 Examples
============

gpg -se -r 'Bob' 'file'
     sign and encrypt for user Bob

gpg -clearsign 'file'
     make a clear text signature

gpg -sb 'file'
     make a detached signature

gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb 'file'
     make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

gpg -list-keys 'user_ID'
     show keys

gpg -fingerprint 'user_ID'
     show fingerprint

gpg -verify 'pgpfile'
gpg -verify 'sigfile'
     Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data.  The
     second form is used for detached signatures, where 'sigfile' is the
     detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and are the
     signed data; if this is not given, the name of the file holding the
     signed data is constructed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or
     ".sig") of 'sigfile' or by asking the user for the filename.

RETURN VALUE
************

The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
********

Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
protect your secret key.  This passphrase is the weakest part of the
whole system.  Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
are very easy to write and so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
directory very well.

   Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),
it is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

   If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the
program knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line
or use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS
********************************************

GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP
standard.  In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of
the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2
compression algorithms.  It is important to be aware that not all
OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing
their use via the '--cipher-algo', '--digest-algo',
'--cert-digest-algo', or '--compress-algo' options in GnuPG, it is
possible to create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that
cannot be read by the intended recipient.

   There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and
each supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.
For example, until recently, no (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
BLOWFISH cipher algorithm.  A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
read by a PGP user.  By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP
preferences system that will always do the right thing and create
messages that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP
program they use.  Only override this safe default if you really know
what you are doing.

   If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the
preferences on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far
better off using the '--pgp6', '--pgp7', or '--pgp8' options.  These
options are safe as they do not force any particular algorithms in
violation of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a
"PGP-safe" list.

BUGS
****

On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root).  This
is necessary to lock memory pages.  Locking memory pages prevents the
operating system from writing memory pages (which may contain
passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk.  If you get no warning
message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking
without being root.  The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
memory is allocated.

   Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
"suspend to disk" (also known as "safe sleep" or "hibernate").  This
writes all memory to disk before going into a low power or even powered
off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to protect
the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may be
recoverable from it later.

   Before you report a bug you should first search the mailing list
archives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has
already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Unattended Usage of GPG,  Prev: GPG Examples,  Up: Invoking GPG

1.5 Unattended Usage
====================

'gpg' is often used as a backend engine by other software.  To help with
this a machine interface has been defined to have an unambiguous way to
do this.  The options '--status-fd' and '--batch' are almost always
required for this.

* Menu:

* Unattended GPG key generation::  Unattended key generation

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Unattended GPG key generation,  Up: Unattended Usage of GPG

1.5.1 Unattended key generation
-------------------------------

The command '--gen-key' may be used along with the option '--batch' for
unattended key generation.  The parameters are either read from stdin or
given as a file on the command line.  The format of the parameter file
is as follows:

   * Text only, line length is limited to about 1000 characters.
   * UTF-8 encoding must be used to specify non-ASCII characters.
   * Empty lines are ignored.
   * Leading and trailing while space is ignored.
   * A hash sign as the first non white space character indicates a
     comment line.
   * Control statements are indicated by a leading percent sign, the
     arguments are separated by white space from the keyword.
   * Parameters are specified by a keyword, followed by a colon.
     Arguments are separated by white space.
   * The first parameter must be 'Key-Type'; control statements may be
     placed anywhere.
   * The order of the parameters does not matter except for 'Key-Type'
     which must be the first parameter.  The parameters are only used
     for the generated keyblock (primary and subkeys); parameters from
     previous sets are not used.  Some syntactically checks may be
     performed.
   * Key generation takes place when either the end of the parameter
     file is reached, the next 'Key-Type' parameter is encountered or at
     the control statement '%commit' is encountered.

Control statements:

%echo TEXT
     Print TEXT as diagnostic.

%dry-run
     Suppress actual key generation (useful for syntax checking).

%commit
     Perform the key generation.  Note that an implicit commit is done
     at the next Key-Type parameter.

%pubring FILENAME
%secring FILENAME
     Do not write the key to the default or commandline given keyring
     but to FILENAME.  This must be given before the first commit to
     take place, duplicate specification of the same filename is
     ignored, the last filename before a commit is used.  The filename
     is used until a new filename is used (at commit points) and all
     keys are written to that file.  If a new filename is given, this
     file is created (and overwrites an existing one).  For GnuPG
     versions prior to 2.1, both control statements must be given.  For
     GnuPG 2.1 and later '%secring' is a no-op.

%ask-passphrase
%no-ask-passphrase
     Enable (or disable) a mode where the command 'passphrase' is
     ignored and instead the usual passphrase dialog is used.  This does
     not make sense for batch key generation; however the unattended key
     generation feature is also used by GUIs and this feature
     relinquishes the GUI from implementing its own passphrase entry
     code.  These are global control statements and affect all future
     key genrations.

%no-protection
     Since GnuPG version 2.1 it is not anymore possible to specify a
     passphrase for unattended key generation.  The passphrase command
     is simply ignored and '%ask-passpharse' is thus implicitly enabled.
     Using this option allows the creation of keys without any
     passphrase protection.  This option is mainly intended for
     regression tests.

%transient-key
     If given the keys are created using a faster and a somewhat less
     secure random number generator.  This option may be used for keys
     which are only used for a short time and do not require full
     cryptographic strength.  It takes only effect if used together with
     the control statement '%no-protection'.

General Parameters:

Key-Type: ALGO
     Starts a new parameter block by giving the type of the primary key.
     The algorithm must be capable of signing.  This is a required
     parameter.  ALGO may either be an OpenPGP algorithm number or a
     string with the algorithm name.  The special value 'default' may be
     used for ALGO to create the default key type; in this case a
     'Key-Usage' shall not be given and 'default' also be used for
     'Subkey-Type'.

Key-Length: NBITS
     The requested length of the generated key in bits.  The default is
     returned by running the command 'gpg2 --gpgconf-list'.

Key-Grip: HEXSTRING
     This is optional and used to generate a CSR or certificate for an
     already existing key.  Key-Length will be ignored when given.

Key-Usage: USAGE-LIST
     Space or comma delimited list of key usages.  Allowed values are
     'encrypt', 'sign', and 'auth'.  This is used to generate the key
     flags.  Please make sure that the algorithm is capable of this
     usage.  Note that OpenPGP requires that all primary keys are
     capable of certification, so no matter what usage is given here,
     the 'cert' flag will be on.  If no 'Key-Usage' is specified and the
     'Key-Type' is not 'default', all allowed usages for that particular
     algorithm are used; if it is not given but 'default' is used the
     usage will be 'sign'.

Subkey-Type: ALGO
     This generates a secondary key (subkey).  Currently only one subkey
     can be handled.  See also 'Key-Type' above.

Subkey-Length: NBITS
     Length of the secondary key (subkey) in bits.  The default is
     returned by running the command 'gpg2 --gpgconf-list'".

Subkey-Usage: USAGE-LIST
     Key usage lists for a subkey; similar to 'Key-Usage'.

Passphrase: STRING
     If you want to specify a passphrase for the secret key, enter it
     here.	 Default is not to use any passphrase.

Name-Real: NAME
Name-Comment: COMMENT
Name-Email: EMAIL
     The three parts of a user name.  Remember to use UTF-8 encoding
     here.  If you don't give any of them, no user ID is created.

Expire-Date: ISO-DATE|(NUMBER[d|w|m|y])
     Set the expiration date for the key (and the subkey).  It may
     either be entered in ISO date format (e.g.  "20000815T145012") or
     as number of days, weeks, month or years after the creation date.
     The special notation "seconds=N" is also allowed to specify a
     number of seconds since creation.  Without a letter days are
     assumed.  Note that there is no check done on the overflow of the
     type used by OpenPGP for timestamps.  Thus you better make sure
     that the given value make sense.  Although OpenPGP works with time
     intervals, GnuPG uses an absolute value internally and thus the
     last year we can represent is 2105.

Creation-Date: ISO-DATE
     Set the creation date of the key as stored in the key information
     and which is also part of the fingerprint calculation.  Either a
     date like "1986-04-26" or a full timestamp like "19860426T042640"
     may be used.  The time is considered to be UTC. The special
     notation "seconds=N" may be used to directly specify a the number
     of seconds since Epoch (Unix time).  If it is not given the current
     time is used.

Preferences: STRING
     Set the cipher, hash, and compression preference values for this
     key.  This expects the same type of string as the sub-command
     'setpref' in the '--edit-key' menu.

Revoker: ALGO:FPR [sensitive]
     Add a designated revoker to the generated key.  Algo is the public
     key algorithm of the designated revoker (i.e.  RSA=1, DSA=17, etc.)
     FPR is the fingerprint of the designated revoker.  The optional
     'sensitive' flag marks the designated revoker as sensitive
     information.  Only v4 keys may be designated revokers.

Keyserver: STRING
     This is an optional parameter that specifies the preferred
     keyserver URL for the key.

Handle: STRING
     This is an optional parameter only used with the status lines
     KEY_CREATED and KEY_NOT_CREATED. STRING may be up to 100 characters
     and should not contain spaces.  It is useful for batch key
     generation to associate a key parameter block with a status line.

Here is an example on how to create a key:
     $ cat >foo <<EOF
          %echo Generating a basic OpenPGP key
          Key-Type: DSA
          Key-Length: 1024
          Subkey-Type: ELG-E
          Subkey-Length: 1024
          Name-Real: Joe Tester
          Name-Comment: with stupid passphrase
          Name-Email: joe AT foo.bar
          Expire-Date: 0
          Passphrase: abc
          %pubring foo.pub
          %secring foo.sec
          # Do a commit here, so that we can later print "done" :-)
          %commit
          %echo done
     EOF
     $ gpg2 --batch --gen-key foo
      [...]
     $ gpg2 --no-default-keyring --secret-keyring ./foo.sec \
            --keyring ./foo.pub --list-secret-keys
     /home/wk/work/gnupg-stable/scratch/foo.sec
     ------------------------------------------
     sec  1024D/915A878D 2000-03-09 Joe Tester (with stupid passphrase) <joe AT foo.bar>
     ssb  1024g/8F70E2C0 2000-03-09

If you want to create a key with the default algorithms you would use
these parameters:
          %echo Generating a default key
          Key-Type: default
          Subkey-Type: default
          Name-Real: Joe Tester
          Name-Comment: with stupid passphrase
          Name-Email: joe AT foo.bar
          Expire-Date: 0
          Passphrase: abc
          %pubring foo.pub
          %secring foo.sec
          # Do a commit here, so that we can later print "done" :-)
          %commit
          %echo done

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Specify a User ID,  Next: Copying,  Prev: Invoking GPG,  Up: Top

2 How to Specify a User Id
**************************

There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG. Some of them are
only valid for 'gpg' others are only good for 'gpgsm'.  Here is the
entire list of ways to specify a key:

   * By key Id.  This format is deduced from the length of the string
     and its content or '0x' prefix.  The key Id of an X.509 certificate
     are the low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids
     is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
     should be used.

     When using 'gpg' an exclamation mark (!)  may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
     form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol.  You can see the
     long key ID using the option '--with-colons'.

          234567C4
          0F34E556E
          01347A56A
          0xAB123456

          234AABBCC34567C4
          0F323456784E56EAB
          01AB3FED1347A5612
          0x234AABBCC34567C4

   * By fingerprint.  This format is deduced from the length of the
     string and its content or the '0x' prefix.  Note, that only the 20
     byte version fingerprint is available with 'gpgsm' (i.e.  the SHA-1
     hash of the certificate).

     When using 'gpg' an exclamation mark (!)  may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The best way to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This
     avoids any ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

          1234343434343434C434343434343434
          123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
          0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
          0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

     'gpgsm' also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits
     because this is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509
     fingerprints.  'gpg' also allows the use of the space separated
     SHA-1 fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

   * By exact match on OpenPGP user ID. This is denoted by a leading
     equal sign.  It does not make sense for X.509 certificates.

          =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By exact match on an email address.  This is indicated by enclosing
     the email address in the usual way with left and right angles.

          <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By word match.  All words must match exactly (not case sensitive)
     but can appear in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.
     Words are any sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all
     characters with bit 7 set.

          +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

   * By exact match on the subject's DN. This is indicated by a leading
     slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.
     Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm -list-keys"
     because that one as been reordered and modified for better
     readability; use -with-colons to print the raw (but standard
     escaped) RFC-2253 string

          /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on the issuer's DN. This is indicated by a leading
     hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then directly followed
     by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
     Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

          #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN. This is indicated
     by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
     serial number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN
     of the issuer.  See note above.

          #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By keygrip This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex
     digits of a keygrip.  'gpgsm' prints the keygrip when using the
     command '--dump-cert'.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

          &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

   * By substring match.  This is the default mode but applications may
     want to explicitly indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.
     Match is not case sensitive.

          Heine
          *Heine

   Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was
used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is
not anymore used and there should be no conflict when used with X.509
stuff.

   Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
possible to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't
have to do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta
data.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Copying,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Specify a User ID,  Up: Top

GNU General Public License
**************************

                        Version 3, 29 June 2007

     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>

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     If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
     must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
     additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
     where to find the applicable terms.

     Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in
     the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
     the above requirements apply either way.

  8. Termination.

     You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
     provided under this License.  Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
     modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights
     under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the
     third paragraph of section 11).

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
     finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you
     under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not
     permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses
     for the same material under section 10.

  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

     You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
     run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
     occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer
     transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require
     acceptance.  However, nothing other than this License grants you
     permission to propagate or modify any covered work.  These actions
     infringe copyright if you do not accept this License.  Therefore,
     by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your
     acceptance of this License to do so.

  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

     Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
     receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
     propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not
     responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this
     License.

     An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
     organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
     organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a
     covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
     transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
     licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or
     could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession
     of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in
     interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable
     efforts.

     You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
     rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you
     may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise
     of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate
     litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit)
     alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using,
     selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion
     of it.

  11. Patents.

     A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
     License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.
     The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor
     version".

     A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
     owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
     hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner,
     permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its
     contributor version, but do not include claims that would be
     infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the
     contributor version.  For purposes of this definition, "control"
     includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner
     consistent with the requirements of this License.

     Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
     royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential
     patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and
     otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor
     version.

     In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any
     express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to
     enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a
     patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement).  To "grant"
     such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or
     commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

     If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent
     license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available
     for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this
     License, through a publicly available network server or other
     readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the
     Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive
     yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular
     work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements
     of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream
     recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge
     that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work
     in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a
     country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
     country that you have reason to believe are valid.

     If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
     arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
     covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
     receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate,
     modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the
     patent license you grant is automatically extended to all
     recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

     A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
     the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
     conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that
     are specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a
     covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third
     party that is in the business of distributing software, under which
     you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your
     activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party
     grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work
     from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with
     copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from
     those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific
     products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you
     entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted,
     prior to 28 March 2007.

     Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
     any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
     otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

     If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement
     or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they
     do not excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you
     cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your
     obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations,
     then as a consequence you may not convey it at all.  For example,
     if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for
     further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the
     only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would
     be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
     permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
     under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a
     single combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms
     of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the
     covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero
     General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through
     a network will apply to the combination as such.

  14. Revised Versions of this License.

     The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such
     new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but
     may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU
     General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free
     Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version
     number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any
     version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

     If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
     versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

     Later license versions may give you additional or different
     permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
     author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
     later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

     THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
     APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
     COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS"
     WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
     INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
     MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE
     RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
     SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
     NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  16. Limitation of Liability.

     IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES
     AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
     DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
     CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
     THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA
     BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
     PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
     PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
     THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

     If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
     above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
     reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely
     approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in
     connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of
     liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice
like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
     type 'show w'.  This is free software, and you are
     welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions;
     type 'show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands 'show w' and 'show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would
use an "about box".

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

   The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.  But first,
please read <http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Index,  Prev: Copying,  Up: Top

Option Index
************


* Menu:

* allow-freeform-uid:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 304)
* allow-multiple-messages:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 436)
* allow-non-selfsigned-uid:              GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 299)
* allow-secret-key-import:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 432)
* allow-weak-digest-algos:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 339)
* always-trust:                          Deprecated Options.  (line  32)
* armor:                                 GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line   8)
* ask-cert-expire:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 419)
* ask-cert-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 359)
* ask-sig-expire:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 405)
* attribute-fd:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  79)
* attribute-file:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  85)
* auto-check-trustdb:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 652)
* auto-key-locate:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 439)
* batch:                                 GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  39)
* bzip2-compress-level:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 333)
* bzip2-decompress-lowmem:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 343)
* card-edit:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 165)
* card-status:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 171)
* cert-digest-algo:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 218)
* cert-notation:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 111)
* cert-policy-url:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 141)
* change-pin:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 174)
* check-sigs:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 142)
* check-trustdb:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 277)
* cipher-algo:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 179)
* clearsign:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* command-fd:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 287)
* command-file:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 294)
* comment:                               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  90)
* compliant-needed:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 617)
* compress-algo:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 195)
* compress-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 333)
* ctapi-driver:                          Deprecated Options.  (line  27)
* dearmor:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 331)
* debug:                                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  47)
* debug-all:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  51)
* debug-ccid-driver:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  54)
* debug-level:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  22)
* decrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  52)
* decrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 100)
* default-cert-expire:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 425)
* default-cert-level:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 367)
* default-key:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  10)
* default-keyserver-url:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 464)
* default-preference-list:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 459)
* default-recipient:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  15)
* default-recipient-self:                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* default-sig-expire:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 411)
* delete-key:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 179)
* delete-secret-and-public-key:          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 188)
* delete-secret-key:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 184)
* desig-revoke:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  21)
* detach-sign:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  27)
* digest-algo:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 188)
* disable-ccid:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 274)
* disable-cipher-algo:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 226)
* disable-dsa2:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 190)
* disable-large-rsa:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 183)
* disable-mdc:                           OpenPGP Options.     (line  46)
* disable-pubkey-algo:                   GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 231)
* display-charset:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* display-charset:iso-8859-1:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 297)
* display-charset:iso-8859-15:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 303)
* display-charset:iso-8859-2:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 300)
* display-charset:koi8-r:                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 306)
* display-charset:utf-8:                 GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 309)
* dry-run:                               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* dump-options:                          General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  19)
* edit-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  26)
* emit-version:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 101)
* enable-dsa2:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 190)
* enable-large-rsa:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 183)
* enable-progress-filter:                GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  58)
* enable-special-filenames:              GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 446)
* enarmor:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 331)
* encrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  31)
* encrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  97)
* encrypt-to:                            GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  21)
* escape-from-lines:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 256)
* exec-path:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 214)
* exit-on-status-write-error:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 687)
* expert:                                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 745)
* export:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 193)
* export-options:                        GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  75)
* export-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 292)
* export-secret-keys:                    Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 209)
* export-secret-subkeys:                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 209)
* fast-list-mode:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 370)
* fetch-keys:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 262)
* fingerprint:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 154)
* fixed-list-mode:                       GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 126)
* for-your-eyes-only:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 165)
* force-mdc:                             OpenPGP Options.     (line  40)
* force-v3-sigs:                         OpenPGP Options.     (line  25)
* force-v4-certs:                        OpenPGP Options.     (line  35)
* gen-key:                               OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line   9)
* gen-prime:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 326)
* gen-random:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 319)
* gen-revoke:                            OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  17)
* gnupg:                                 Compliance Options.  (line  12)
* gpg-agent-info:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 666)
* gpgconf-list:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 477)
* gpgconf-test:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 481)
* group:                                 GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  41)
* help:                                  General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  12)
* hidden-encrypt-to:                     GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  29)
* hidden-recipient:                      GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* homedir:                               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 247)
* ignore-crc-error:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 324)
* ignore-mdc-error:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 331)
* ignore-time-conflict:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 310)
* ignore-valid-from:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 317)
* import:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 231)
* import-options:                        GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  29)
* import-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 298)
* interactive:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* keyedit:addcardkey:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 162)
* keyedit:addkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 159)
* keyedit:addphoto:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  81)
* keyedit:addrevoker:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 210)
* keyedit:adduid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  78)
* keyedit:bkuptocard:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 176)
* keyedit:check:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  75)
* keyedit:clean:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 222)
* keyedit:cross-certify:                 OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 236)
* keyedit:delkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 187)
* keyedit:delsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  65)
* keyedit:deluid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  91)
* keyedit:disable:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 206)
* keyedit:enable:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 206)
* keyedit:expire:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 195)
* keyedit:key:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  35)
* keyedit:keyserver:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 108)
* keyedit:keytocard:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 165)
* keyedit:lsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  46)
* keyedit:minimize:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 231)
* keyedit:notation:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 115)
* keyedit:nrsign:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  51)
* keyedit:passwd:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 216)
* keyedit:pref:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 123)
* keyedit:primary:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 100)
* keyedit:quit:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 247)
* keyedit:revkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 192)
* keyedit:revsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  70)
* keyedit:revuid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  97)
* keyedit:save:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 244)
* keyedit:setpref:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 135)
* keyedit:showphoto:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  88)
* keyedit:showpref:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 127)
* keyedit:sign:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  39)
* keyedit:toggle:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 219)
* keyedit:trust:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 201)
* keyedit:tsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  55)
* keyedit:uid:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  31)
* keyid-format:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 482)
* keyring:                               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 221)
* keyserver:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 489)
* keyserver-options:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 509)
* limit-card-insert-tries:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 696)
* list-config:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 469)
* list-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 105)
* list-only:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  11)
* list-options:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  70)
* list-options:show-keyring:             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 119)
* list-options:show-keyserver-urls:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 103)
* list-options:show-notations:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  98)
* list-options:show-photos:              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  78)
* list-options:show-policy-urls:         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  92)
* list-options:show-sig-expire:          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 123)
* list-options:show-sig-subpackets:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 127)
* list-options:show-std-notations:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  98)
* list-options:show-uid-validity:        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 107)
* list-options:show-unusable-subkeys:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 115)
* list-options:show-unusable-uids:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 111)
* list-options:show-usage:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  86)
* list-options:show-user-notations:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  98)
* list-packets:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 161)
* list-secret-keys:                      Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 120)
* list-sigs:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 126)
* load-extension:                        Deprecated Options.  (line   7)
* local-user:                            GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  63)
* lock-multiple:                         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 676)
* lock-never:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 680)
* lock-once:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 672)
* log-file:                              GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  75)
* logger-fd:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  71)
* lsign-key:                             OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 282)
* mangle-dos-filenames:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 351)
* marginals-needed:                      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 621)
* max-cert-depth:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 625)
* max-output:                            GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  19)
* min-cert-level:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 396)
* multifile:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  86)
* no:                                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  67)
* no-armor:                              GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  12)
* no-batch:                              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  39)
* no-default-keyring:                    GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 355)
* no-default-recipient:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  25)
* no-encrypt-to:                         GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  37)
* no-expensive-trust-checks:             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 451)
* no-greeting:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 710)
* no-groups:                             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  59)
* no-literal:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 378)
* no-mangle-dos-filenames:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 351)
* no-mdc-warning:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 729)
* no-options:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 326)
* no-random-seed-file:                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 704)
* no-secmem-warning:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 713)
* no-sig-cache:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 639)
* no-sig-create-check:                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 648)
* no-tty:                                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  59)
* no-verbose:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  32)
* not-dash-escaped:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 246)
* openpgp:                               Compliance Options.  (line  19)
* options:                               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 321)
* output:                                GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  16)
* override-session-key:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 396)
* passphrase:                            GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 281)
* passphrase-fd:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 268)
* passphrase-file:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 274)
* passphrase-repeat:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 263)
* pcsc-driver:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 268)
* permission-warning:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 716)
* personal-cipher-preferences:           OpenPGP Options.     (line  51)
* personal-compress-preferences:         OpenPGP Options.     (line  69)
* personal-digest-preferences:           OpenPGP Options.     (line  60)
* pgp2:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  38)
* pgp6:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  57)
* pgp7:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  68)
* pgp8:                                  Compliance Options.  (line  74)
* photo-viewer:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 196)
* preserve-permissions:                  GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 454)
* primary-keyring:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 235)
* print-md:                              Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 314)
* quiet:                                 GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  35)
* reader-port:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 280)
* rebuild-keydb-caches:                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 308)
* recipient:                             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* recv-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 240)
* refresh-keys:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 244)
* require-cross-certification:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 738)
* require-secmem:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 733)
* rfc1991:                               Compliance Options.  (line  34)
* rfc2440:                               Compliance Options.  (line  30)
* rfc4880:                               Compliance Options.  (line  25)
* s2k-cipher-algo:                       OpenPGP Options.     (line  79)
* s2k-count:                             OpenPGP Options.     (line  96)
* s2k-digest-algo:                       OpenPGP Options.     (line  85)
* s2k-mode:                              OpenPGP Options.     (line  89)
* search-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 253)
* secret-keyring:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 232)
* send-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 200)
* set-filename:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 159)
* set-filesize:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 382)
* set-notation:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 111)
* set-policy-url:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 141)
* show-keyring:                          Deprecated Options.  (line  22)
* show-notation:                         Deprecated Options.  (line  36)
* show-photos:                           Deprecated Options.  (line  14)
* show-policy-url:                       Deprecated Options.  (line  44)
* show-session-key:                      GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 386)
* sig-keyserver-url:                     GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 151)
* sig-notation:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 111)
* sig-policy-url:                        GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 141)
* sign:                                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   8)
* sign-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 278)
* simple-sk-checksum:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 628)
* skip-verify:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 362)
* status-fd:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  63)
* status-file:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  67)
* store:                                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  48)
* symmetric:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  39)
* textmode:                              OpenPGP Options.     (line   8)
* throw-keyids:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 237)
* trust-mode:always:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 424)
* trust-mode:auto:                       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 433)
* trust-mode:classic:                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 417)
* trust-mode:direct:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 420)
* trust-mode:pgp:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 412)
* trust-model:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 409)
* trustdb-name:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 240)
* trusted-key:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 402)
* try-all-secrets:                       GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  67)
* ungroup:                               GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  56)
* update-trustdb:                        Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 267)
* use-agent:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 659)
* use-embedded-filename:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 174)
* utf8-strings:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 314)
* verbose:                               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  28)
* verify:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  60)
* verify-files:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  94)
* verify-options:                        GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 134)
* verify-options:pka-lookups:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 170)
* verify-options:pka-trust-increase:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 177)
* verify-options:show-keyserver-urls:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 153)
* verify-options:show-notations:         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 149)
* verify-options:show-photos:            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 139)
* verify-options:show-policy-urls:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 143)
* verify-options:show-primary-uid-only:  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 165)
* verify-options:show-std-notations:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 149)
* verify-options:show-uid-validity:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 157)
* verify-options:show-unusable-uids:     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 161)
* verify-options:show-user-notations:    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 149)
* version:                               General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* warranty:                              General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  16)
* weak-digest:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 347)
* with-colons:                           GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 118)
* with-fingerprint:                      GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 130)
* with-key-data:                         GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 366)
* yes:                                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  64)

File: gnupg1.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Index
*****


* Menu:

* command options:                       Invoking GPG.         (line  6)
* GPG command options:                   Invoking GPG.         (line  6)
* gpg.conf:                              GPG Configuration.    (line 11)
* options, GPG command:                  Invoking GPG.         (line  6)



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